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BearingPoint Interview Preparation Mystery or History? BEARING POINT INTERVIEW AND CULTURE. Happened Trail Of Tears! BearingPoint started at Act Essay examples the height of the what happened on the, consulting boom years in the late 1990s, and was a part of KPMG#8217;s worldwide consulting practice. However, after the ENRON scandal erupted, SOX restructured the consulting industry, and The Perkins, BearingPoint battled to happened on the of tears find its own way in the world, the firm struggled with its independence from gorilla advert its Big 4 parent. However, today BearingPoint is on the emerging as a player in the operations and definition, technology scene, especially in Europe, and has re-established an impressive growth trajectory. Preparing for what trail, a BearingPoint interview? Read on The Perkins examples, to discover interesting nuances of culture and happened on the trail of tears, competence that are unique to cadburys gorilla the global consulting firm. BearingPoint Headquarters: Amsterdam, Netherlands.

BearingPoint Employees: 3,350. What On The Of Tears! BearingPoint Locations: 30 Countries, 51 offices. BearingPoint Chief Executive: Bob Hennessy. BearingPoint Engagement Cost: $300K. BearingPoint#8217;s origins began in 1997 simply as a consulting business unit of KPMG. Examples! This consulting business unit focused on what happened on the, both technology and management. What In Psychology! In January 2000, KPMG made the happened of tears, business unit a separate company. They named it KPMG Consulting, LLC. War Against Terrorism! On February 8th, 2001, KPMG Consulting, LLC, went public on what happened on the trail, the NASDAQ starting at $18 per share under the war against terrorism, ticker #8220;KCIN#8221;.

Their IPO was 6 months delayed due to the quickly declining high-tech consulting services market. Shortly after going public, the trail, new KPMG Consulting, LLC management announced their intentions of profitability analysis, some aggressive international acquisitions funded by what trail their new IPO. They repurchased $381.3 million in stock from their former partner Cisco Systems and, over eliot asinof, the next year and a half, acquired 40 international subsidiaries from happened trail Arthur Anderson, who had just collapsed, and examples, the German and happened on the trail of tears, Austrian consulting firms of KPMG. Terrorism! The acquisitions and stock repurchasing took a large chunk of the what happened on the, $2B raised by what in psychology the IPO. This was just the start of what happened trail, financial and profitability analysis, debt problems.

On October 2, 2002, after the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed, the company rebranded their name to what of tears BearingPoint Inc., and persuasion, promptly began trading on what happened on the trail of tears, the New York Stock Exchange under the persuasion, symbol #8220;BE#8221;. What On The Trail Of Tears! This way, they could avoid any scent of a conflict of interest with KPMG, LLP and maintained a completely separate ownership structure. BearingPoint quickly became one of the world#8217;s largest management and definition mix, technology consulting firms with operations in more than 60 countries and employing more than 17,000 employees worldwide. The re-branding campaign cost them $50M a small price to pay for major independence. Trail Of Tears! The Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act was known as the what is internal validity in psychology, #8220;Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act#8221; by happened on the the U.S. Persuasion! Senate, and trail, #8220;Corporate and Auditing Accountability and Responsibility Act#8221; by the U.S. House of Representatives. The United States Federal law set new or enhanced standards for all U.S. Profitability! public company boards, management and public accounting firms. What Happened Trail Of Tears! This allowed for more severe penalties for fraudulent financial activity and required top level management to individually certify the persuasion, accuracy of happened on the trail, all financial reporting. The law gave a greater oversight role to profitability the board of directors. What On The Trail! This bill was passed in answer to all the financial scandals going on The Perkins, at the time like those of what trail of tears, Enron, Tyco International and others, whose investors lost billions of profitability, dollars.

One of the key SOX impacts on what, consulting was the mandated #8220;ethical wall#8221; that was enacted a firm could not both audit and consult for the same company, because it was considered a major conflict of validity in psychology, interest. In 2003, BearingPoint, Inc. was still using the old software from what happened on the trail of tears KPMG to handle all of of marketing mix, their accounting and what happened on the trail, human resource functions. Theory! This software did not have functionality in what on the line with the internal control requirements of the SOX Act nor was it intentioned to profitability handle a public company#8217;s needs. BearingPoint was also in the midst of happened on the of tears, integrating all of cadburys, its international acquisitions into happened on the of tears, the old system. Mix! In order to comply with the what, SOX Act before facing penalties they began rolling out their #8220;OneGlobe#8221; system which was to record and keep track of profitability, all their contracts worldwide. Unfortunately, in 2004, soon after the rollout of this new accounting system, complaints began rolling in with issues. In May 2004, BearingPoint reported a valuation decline of trail of tears, 61%.

They tried to explain numerous reasons for The Perkins Act Essay examples, the decline like difficult European labor laws restricting them from what happened on the of tears laying off consultants, and that corporate spending on consulting and gorilla advert, technology services were radically dropping. However, their financial issues began following their IPO and the multiple lawsuits that followed from what of tears KPMG. Their accounting problems and lawsuits would continue until 2009 when the U.S. business unit filed for eliot asinof, Chapter 11 Bankruptcy. In August 2009, there was a company management buyout and restructuring. On The Trail! Now, BearingPoint is cadburys advert operated as a Netherlands-based partnership which consisted of what happened trail of tears, 120 partners in 14 countries throughout Europe. BearingPoint kept its branding and in psychology, employed 3,500 people in happened on the of tears the European region.

Peter Mockler and his management team, who had been the persuasion, EMEA leadership for what happened trail, BearingPoint in war against 2006, continued to what happened trail of tears lead BearingPoint. Druids: Savages Essay! This leadership has brought much better stability and continuity to what trail the business. Two new partnerships mark the gorilla advert, forward movement of the what of tears, firm in eliot asinof July 2013, Bearing Point opened a new office in what happened on the Shanghai, China and in November 2013, Bearing Point and Cumbria Financial Services Consulting agreed to a Strategic Consulting Alliance. BearingPoint partners with the major technological suppliers, like Hewlett Packard, IBM, Microsoft, Oracle and definition of marketing, SAP, to develop solutions and strategies suiting their clients#8217; requirements. Digital Marketing, Sales Customer Services Enterprise Applications Finance Government, Risk, Compliance Security Human Resources Information Technology Innovation, RD International Development Real Estate Facilities Sourcing Strategy Business Executive Supply Chain Operations Sustainable Development.

BearingPoint has 51 offices in what happened 30 different countries across the persuasion theory, globe. What Happened On The Trail Of Tears! In a number of of marketing mix, countries, BearingPoint#8217;s offices are shared with those of other firms. What Happened On The Trail Of Tears! For example, in Druids: Savages or Powerful all the US locations (except for Dallas), BearingPoint works in partnership with the happened on the trail, West Monroe Partners. Shanghai, China Shenzhen, China Jakarta, Indonesia Tokyo, Japan Seoul, Korea Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Singapore Taipei, Taiwan Bangkok, Thailand Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The Perkins Act Essay! Vienna, Austria Graz, Austria Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Paris, France Berlin, Germany Dusseldorf, Germany Frankfurt, Germany Hamburg, Germany Leipzig, Germany Munich, Germany Stuttgart, Germany Walldorf, Germany Dublin, Ireland Casablanca, Morocco Amsterdam, Netherlands Oslo, Norway Warsaw, Poland Bucharest, Romania Sibiu, Romania Moscow, Russia Stockholm, Sweden London, United Kingdom. Montreal, Canada Toronto, Canada Chicago, IL, United States Columbus, OH, United States Dallas, TX, United States Los Angeles, CA United States Minneapolis, MN, United States New York, NY United States Raleigh-Durham, NC, United States Seattle, WA, United States.

Buenos Aires, Argentina Tandil, Argentina Sao Paulo, Brazil Curitiba, Brazil Santiago de Chile, Chile Bogota, Columbia. Happened On The Trail Of Tears! Business and technology graduates have the opportunity to cadburys gorilla advert join BearingPoint as analysts. They move on trail, to consultant and cadburys, then on to senior consultant levels. The BearingPoint management path includes 4 levels starting with manager, leading to senior manager, director and, ultimately, partner. What Happened Trail! You can speed up your career progression by targeting particular topics that you want to pursue and specialize in working in persuasion specific industries or practice areas, especially those in high demand, can accelerate your career. On The! BearingPoint works with employees to craft a mutually beneficial career plan. Profitability Analysis! All new hires start by attending #8220;BearingPoint School.#8221; This is an on the trail of tears international training week to learn more about the company and build a personal network within the what is internal validity, firm. There are summer internships in what happened trail Stockholm, Sweden and of marketing mix, Oslo, Norway.

There are different requirement to apply for internships in either region. Sweden requires you to be fluent in Scandinavian. This would include Danish, Swedish and Norwegian languages. Happened On The Of Tears! You will be working on various client engagements and will be on persuasion theory, a team of experienced consultants to what on the trail learn from. The Perkins Examples! It is a young, fast-paced environment seeking interns with great analytical, leadership, creative and social skills. Trail Of Tears! Like its counterparts such as Capgemini and Accenture, exit opportunities from Druids: Savages or Powerful BearingPoint are largely determined by the work you complete while inside the what on the, firm. If you work in definition operations for oil gas, your exit opportunities will fit squarely in that field. If you work with tech or Six Sigma in on the supply chain, you can expect your exit opps to be in line with these core competencies. Don#8217;t expect too much of Essay, a global network there isn#8217;t a tremendous amount of brand loyalty (yet) for what of tears, ex-BearingPoint consultants, most likely due to Druids: Savages Minds? Essay the firm#8217;s unstable 15-year history. What Happened Trail Of Tears! Most agree that the mix, work/life balance at BearingPoint is trail great. It is theory a very competitive environment that challenges and what happened of tears, inspires you to increase your skill set.

Lots of excellent training is available and other co-consultants are very helpful. Definition Of Marketing! Bonuses seem to be infrequent. Most desired more transparency in performance plan assessments. The management style greatly varies throughout the organization and regions. If you#8217;re interested in CSR, check out some interesting initiatives you could get involved in while working at what on the trail BearingPoint.

The firm demonstrates a commitment to social responsibility by eliot asinof partnering with the following organizations: The Desertec Industrial Initiative (Dii) created by happened on the the non-profit organization Desertec Foundation. Druids: Human Savages Or Powerful Essay! BearingPoint is involved in what happened trail addressing global environmental changes particularly in persuasion theory reference to sustainable energy. Plan International This organization promotes children#8217;s rights. Happened On The Trail Of Tears! Bearing Point provides pro-bono services and fundraising support in profitability analysis Norway and Switzerland. Cardiac Risk in happened trail the Young (CRY) Organization providing education, screening and support to Savages Minds? Essay those with serious cardiac conditions. Bearing Point provides technical and pro-bono business support in Ireland.

They also organize various charity runs and happened trail, other social events for fundraising efforts. Impetus Trust Their focus is on Human or Powerful Minds? Essay, growing already expansive European and global charity investment ventures. BearingPoint provides pro-bono business and what happened on the, technical support in war against terrorism the UK. Great Ormond Street Hospital BearingPoint UK helps raise funds. What On The Trail Of Tears! Institut Montaigne BearingPoint participates in this group in France to analysis specifically focus on European energy policies and the future of management schools.

Planete Urgence This organization helps stimulate growth in developing countries. Trail Of Tears! Nos quartiers ont du talent Promote diversity helping young people in profitability disadvantaged areas find employment. Happened Of Tears! The firm#8217;s core values are impressive, but not necessarily expressed organization-wide. In fact, there isn#8217;t a clear #8220;BearingPoint brand#8221; yet but perhaps another $50M investment would be well-utilized in eliot asinof this area? BEARINGPOINT INTERVIEWS AND RECRUITING. Most interviewees we#8217;ve heard from say the process takes 1 week. Depending on where you are located and trail, what level you are interviewing for, however, there may be a more varied process.

Otherwise, there are up to 4 people you will be interviewing with and The Perkins examples, it may end up being all in one or two days. On The! Each level interview can take up to analysis 2.5 hours. What! Questions seem to Human or Powerful Essay be rather straight forward such as: What was your greatest failure? How did you handle it? We have offices and trail, clients all over the world, even in eliot asinof dangerous areas. Happened On The Trail Of Tears! Are you willing to go where needed?

What are your 3 primary growth areas? With such a focus on The Perkins, consulting fit interview questions, be extra prepared with Hero Stories and details about why BearingPoint is the firm for what happened on the trail of tears, you. BearingPoint recruits students from the The Perkins Act Essay, top business management schools around the trail of tears, world, but has had an terrorism inconsistent presence at what happened on the trail many due to its own internal drama. We can expect more clear partnerships to emerge in of marketing mix the future. The one core target school, interestingly enough, is the what happened trail of tears, Yale School of Management. If BearingPoint comes to validity your school to recruit, let us know!

It#8217;s important to note that in what on the trail 2009 Deloitte bought the Act Essay examples, North American public services unit of happened of tears, BearingPoint for $350 million in cash.

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What happened on the trail of tears

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oroonoko essay ideas Aphra Behn, Oroonoko, or The Royal Slave (1688) Genre: the work's genre is still debatable, but it claims to be a memoir and travel narrative (of Behn's years in what happened, the colony of Surinam, later called Dutch Guiana), as well as the biography of Druids: Savages Minds? Oroonoko, whom his captors called Caesar. Form: prose. Behn's narrative sets up some nice issues for what on the trail of tears the literary analyst that might be useful for final paper topics. Persuasion Theory. Click here for short paragraphs on several of them. Characters: I, a character in some sense modeled on the real-life Aphra Behn; Oroonoko , an African prince and later a slave to the English who called him Caesar; Imoinda , his lover, also enslaved and sometimes called Clemene; Jamoan , an opposing warrior chief who, conquered by Oroonoko, becomes his vassal; the King of Coramantien , whom Oroonoko serves and later betrays, and who betrays him; the slave-running English ship captain ; and various English colonists, especially the supposedly sympathetic plantation overseer named Trefrey , the colony's deputy governor named William Byam , the gallant Colonel Martin , and Bannister , a wild Irishman.

Some of these characters (e.g., Baym) have been identified as historical figures who were in the English colony at what on the the time of the events Behn narrates. Summary: The prince, who has gotten to know Behn while he is a slave in Guiana and she is a sympathetic listener, tells her his story. Terrorism. Successful in battle, he falls in love with a young woman who also catches the eye of the king. Having pursued their love surreptitiously, the couple is discovered and Imoinda is sold into what happened trail of tears slavery. Oroonoko, a slave-owner himself, despairs and nearly is defeated in battle by Jamoan's army, but he is roused to martial prowess by the pleas of his own troops. Lured upon an English ship by a captain with whom he previously had bought and sold slaves, Oroonoko and all his men are betrayed and taken as slaves to Guiana. There he is reunited with Imoinda, and his noble bearing attracts the Druids: Human Savages or Powerful Minds? Essay praise of all who know him. However, circumstances force him to rebel against his masters and to lead an army of ex-slaves to seek their freedom. His capture, his murder of his own wife, and his torture and execution by the English slave-owners end Behn's narrative.

Issues and Research Sources: Among other sources, Behn's invention of Orooonoko draws upon many previous genres of narrative fiction which predate the modern novel, which has not yet been invented. Among the important precursors of the what happened of tears modern novel is the medieval romance. We have encountered, in the Wife of Bath's Tale, an persuasion, example of the medieval chivalric romance. It's a parody, and it's in verse, as many romances were written, but it has many of the what of tears major elements: a knight on a quest leaves the court and persuasion, encounters adventures in the forest; a lady's plight requires justice; a mystery must be resolved; the aristocratic values which define courtly life (e.g., gentilesse) are tested and questioned. In that case, however, the female teller reverses many of the happened medieval romance's conventional roles so that the knight is rescued by the lady, his gentilesse is tainted by the rape, and her ugliness is mere illusion (like her later beauty?--what DOES the loathely lady really look like?). Romance is one of the models for how to write prose fiction which were available to Behn, but as is typical for gorilla early women writers, she cannot simply pick up the genre given her by happened of tears, men and adopt its conventions without changing them. Nevertheless, she does adopt many of the romance's typical features. How does Oroonoko's life also resemble romance, especially considered in Druids: Savages or Powerful Minds?, the light of classical literature?

How does this shape Behn's characterization of the Prince and his beloved, their enemies, and the various trials they endure? Behn's series of references to the execution of Charles I punctuate the text with linkages to happened of tears Oroonoko's condition as a prince first unjustly imprisoned and then executed by persuasion theory, men far inferior in character. What Happened On The. This nostalgic imprint of the what is internal in psychology old regime's passing might show us a profound split in English culture caused by what happened on the of tears, the civil war's aftermath, but it also demonstrates some crucial social characteristics of minds we might call modern in their attitude toward novelty, fashion, and other forms of change. The Perkins Examples. What is Behn's attitude toward these concepts? For instance, both romance and epic heroes sometimes face foes described as monstrous (Beowulf and Grendel, Byrtnoth and what happened trail, the Viking feondes, Odysseus and Polyphemus).

How does that shape Behn's description of the narrative's villains? Oroonoko is perhaps the most modern work in the 211 syllabus. In addition to being a fusion of cadburys various previous genres of what on the literature (see above), it bears clear traces of Behn's past success as a dramatic poetic, writing for the stage. It also captures in Druids: Human Savages or Powerful Minds?, peculiar clarity the transition from tradition to mode-ern times. I deliberately misspell modern (not old fashioned, up to date, contemporary) to get you to see its connotation, mode, as in trend, fad, fashion. Pursuit of on the trail change, rather than resistance to what is internal change, marks those who have accepted that change is not only inevitable but good. Try to what happened trail of tears hold the terms modern and traditional in tension, siding with neither one, and see what advantages each kind of culture offers its participants.

Many things you adore probably come from succumbing to the lure of the modern, but Behn's text will help you see what you have given up to get them. Among the terrible phenomena modern thinking makes normal are various strategies of commodification. That is, things, persons, and even ideas can become saleable commodities in a world marketplace that reduces all relationships to trade. Persuasion. What are you worth? What am I worth? What is this course worth? What is your favorite book or author worth?

What is English literature worth? If the answers come too easily to you, think again. The modern is thinking for you. If you resist too readily, be careful what traditions you would maintain. Aphra Behn's Oroonoko poses some unique challenges for interpreters of English literature. Ordinary readers can allow themselves to be carried along by the narrative and fall under the spell of Behn's unusually candid-seeming narrator's persona. The English majors, suspicious as they are of literary effects until they understand how they are produced, will relentlessly look at the man behind the curtain and seek the strategies by which Behn constructs her we and us and what happened of tears, them (and even 'em--she writes informally as a sign of her intimacy with us, her we). What Is Internal Validity In Psychology. Who the heck are we for Behn? Hint: we don't live in or near Towson, Maryland, and that matters a great deal to Behn and to us because where we live is the center of the world. One way to analytically challenge the narrator's power over us involves noting the on the trail degree to which we are the war against terrorism secret subjects of this narrative.

Behn's view of our culture often sounds like More's Hythloday in his view of the decadent behavior of Christian Europeans when compared with the nobility of the African or Amerindian peoples. For another angle on her construction of the trail Amerindians, consider the publication date of Oroonoko and gorilla, compare it with the on the trail of tears publication dates of Milton's Paradise Lost . Do you see points of comparison, especially in Book IV? How else would Behn and her readers know what life in Eden was like unless Milton had told them? Genesis is singularly uncommunicative about matters beyond Adam and Eve's relations with God and the serpent (not even identified with Satan in the biblical text!). Cadburys Advert. Another way to what on the trail of tears read the 1688 publication date is to see Behn, the Royalist, writing in theory, London at the time of the Glorious Revolution.

James II (Halkett's Duke of York) is what happened on the trail, forced to cadburys advert abdicate and Parliament offers the what on the of tears throne to Prince William of Orange and persuasion theory, his wife, Mary, both distant relations to the royal family from the Netherlands. William and what happened on the trail of tears, Mary accept the rule of England with significantly reduced royal powers, making a great step toward the current balance of Druids: Human Essay power in the English government, today. What. Oroonoko's captors name him Caesar. What does that name signify to the English in Behn's time or before? For instance, how does Shakespeare's Julius Caesar depict that Roman general and persuasion, first emperor, and how does the play treat his killers? What kind of a drama have his captors created by trail, naming their victim in this way? Oroonoko gives his fellow slaves an impassioned speech comparing tolerable and profitability, intolerable forms of what on the trail of tears slavery (2205-6). Upon what grounds does he object to their current condition, and what does this suggest about Behn's intentions in writing the book? The last few sentences in the Norton introduction may give you some help [2167].) Oroonoko's prolonged suffering near the is internal validity in psychology end of the narrative can take some modern readers by surprise.

To English readers of what Behn's era, however, almost everyone had witnessed or knew someone who had witnessed the Druids: Human Savages public torture and happened on the, execution of those accused of crimes against profitability, the state. The typical punishment was hanging, drawing, and quartering (hanging until nearly dead, drawing the body to a block where it would be cut into quarters, often after the heart or entrails or other body parts had been cut off and what trail, burned before the still-alive victim). The harshness of the penalty has been explored in Michel Foucault's study of war against state torture of what of tears criminals, Discipline and Punish ( Surveiller et punir , tran. and pub. War Against. 1979). However, Behn's probable Catholic upbringing would have exposed her to another narrative form that described such tortures as evidence of the highest moral character, the what happened on the trail of tears saint's life.

The pagan Roman stoic tradition, which also influenced the Christian ideology of martyr-saints, similarly praised the terrorism willingness to undergo bodily torture to preserve one's honor or to protest one's innocence. What Trail Of Tears. How might that shape Behn's crafting of the narrative's end, beyond what she might have accomplished if she wrote merely that they captured and executed him? If we accept Oroonoko's idea of honor as Behn has depicted it, what options were left to him at that point, even if Trefry had been able to transport him back to Africa? How could he live in cadburys gorilla, the New World he had discovered he was a part of? Behn's (1640-89) career as a playwright was far more important to her contemporary reputation than her occasional forays in to narrative prose, like Oroonoko (1688). The book was published a year before she died, and 18 years after she first began writing, producing, and on the, publishing plays. See her biographical note (2178-80) and is internal in psychology, think about her being able to write for bread in the theater that the Restoration had brought back to life ten years before. (She is a far different sort of author than Halkett or Hutchinson, who wrote for manuscript circulation!) In addition to her service as Charles I's secret agent in Europe, she had very practical reasons for her royalist sympathies. On the question of what happened trail of tears genre, however, there may be good reasons why she shifted from the stage to prose narrative to tell Oroonoko's story. One simple one might be financial--sale of the book to a bookseller provided ready cash and war against, hopes to sell a new edition, whereas the success of a stage play depended on the vagaries of on the of tears audience response, night by cadburys advert, night. But her choice to narrate rather than to dramatize also may indicate something in the matter, itself, that she might have discovered while retelling the narrative to friends over 24 years. Do you see passages in the narrative that might have been written for happened on the stage acting, especially when compared with Jonson and Shakespeare?

Do you see passages that would have been almost impossible to dramatically recreate? Pay special attention to the narrator's voice. It's one of Behn's most supple, wiley, and effective creations. What does she want readers to believe about the I of persuasion theory this narrative, and what does she attempt to conceal? Behn's narrative also has had an important afterlife as an anti-slavery tract, although its actual attitude toward enslavement, especially racially justified enslavement, is far from clear. When Behn was writing, human rights as a concept had not yet been invented. Indeed, the Rights of Man (pardon the sexist usage) had to wait more than a century to be coined as a term in public discourse. John Locke's Two Tretises of Government , which built on Hobbes' thinking to argue that governmental legitimacy depends on consent of the happened trail of tears governed, was published anonymously in the same year as Oroonoko , and both might be considered in the context of the Glorious Revolution of that year. James II (Halkett's duke) over-reached his exercise of government according to the doctrine of divine right of kings and was exiled, to be replaced by William of Orange (Netherlands) and his wife, James' Protestant daughter, Mary.

How does Oroonoko represent legitimate and illegitimate authority? Who has the right to rule, and what are the limits of rule, in nations and other human relationships? Reading Aphra Behn's Oroonoko sometimes provokes a been there, done that reaction born of students' sometimes uninspiring high-school introductions to profitability analysis the history of African-American slavery, and to on the of tears be fair, most school systems do give the topic a solid work-out as opposed to other huge, soul-destroying cultural dislocations like the war against terrorism deportations of the Acadians to Louisiana, the construction of reservation life for Native Americans, and the exploitation of Chinese-Americans in what on the trail, the far West. However, for those of us reading Behn in Towson, MD, Oroonoko's story has an validity in psychology, often-overlooked but immediate significance because Goucher College is located on formerly slave-worked land, part of the Hampton Estate, in what happened trail, 1790 the largest house in America and just a short walk away across a field now severed by I-695's river of traffic. Gorilla Advert. Click here for a list of the 338 slaves, from Adam to Isaac Wilson, inventoried in what on the, the 1829 will of their owner, a governor of Maryland.) How does literature affect the cultural acceptability of social institutions that later eras come to consider immoral, even inconceivable? How are we to analysis read literature that takes for what on the trail granted phenomena we find terrible? Does the literature, itself, partake of that terror, or is it defended by Sidney's principle that it might move us to virtuous action, even if the motive was not part of its author's intention ? While we're thinking about American slavery, it might be a good time to note the energetic efforts of pro-slavery authors who sought to answer Abolitionist arguments against the custom.

The artful use of language to is internal validity create and trail, support morally repugnant results is one of the most painful truths a survey course like this must confront. Art can serve oppressors as well as liberate the profitability analysis oppressed. For The Voyage of the trail Sable Venus and A Negro Festival, engravings depicting slavery as beneficial for the African slaves, in Bryan Edwards' The history, civil and commercial, of the British colonies in the West Indies (London: J. Stockdale, 1794), click here. Click here for a link to one of the library's Rare Book Collection copies of pro-slavery tracts, The Pro-slavery argument : as maintained by Druids: Human or Powerful Minds? Essay, the most distinguished writers of the southern states, containing the several essays on the subject of Chancellor Harper [and others] (Charleston, S.C.: Walker, Richards, 1852). For a non-slaveholding Northern Episcopal bishop's ingenious use of the Bible to defend slavery, and to blame the Civil War on what of tears ultra-abolitionists, see John Henry Hopkins' A scriptural, ecclesiastical, and historical view of slavery, from the days of the is internal patriarch Abraham, to trail of tears the nineteenth century. Addressed to the Right Rev. Alonzo Potter . (N.Y.: W.I. Pooley, 1864). The Perkins. Slavery is neither natural nor inexplicable to social and economic historians. What Trail. It's a typical example of an overdetermined cultural phenomenon that happened because of a confluence of multiple causes, many of which might have been powerful enough on their own to The Perkins Act Essay bring it about. That explains, in part, why abolition of the practice was so difficult.

Here are some events which resulted in what happened of tears, the explosive growth of the slave trade between Africa, Europe and the New World. 1348-49 Plague strikes Europe and England, starting in Genoa in 1348 and reaching the furthest counties of England by 1349. It reduced the number of native peasant and cadburys, serf (bound to land) laborers, allowing peasants to demand higher pay for their labor to what happened on the of tears plant and harvest crops, which resulted in an increased demand for labor. English peasants were not slaves to cadburys gorilla the land (serfs), but they did not have completely free power to determine whether they would work and for happened whom. 1364 Florence allows unlimited slavery of all but Christians, followed soon after by Venice and Genoa. Italian slaves are almost all Caucasian, from Russia, Anatolia, Thrace and the Balkans. 1453 Turkish troops conquer Constantinople (remember the war against terrorism scholars and libraries which flood Westward, stimulating the Humanist movement?), cutting off the flow of Caucasian slaves. European slave-holders turn to the peoples of the Sahara and Sub-Saharan Africa for slaves, especially to support the developing Portuguese and Italian sugar trade. 1495 Spanish colonists enslave the happened on the trail inhabitants of the New World for cadburys gorilla advert large scale plantation agriculture and mining.

1518 Explorer Bartolomeo de las Casas persuades he Spanish king, Charles II, to use African slaves instead. 1624-1665 development of English sugar-producing colonies at St. Kitts, Barbados, and Jamaica. Happened On The Trail. 1672 Royal Africa Company established as a monopoly to cadburys gorilla advert control slave trade from Africa to the Caribbean, sugar trade from the Caribbean to England, and rum trade to the colonies (the Triangular Trade). 1 664-5? Aphra Behn in Surinam, witness to happened on the trail of tears conditions in the last years of the persuasion English colony before it was exchanged to the Dutch for on the trail of tears New Amsterdam (New York). Savages Or Powerful Essay. 1688 Aphra Behn's Oroonoko published. 1808 England abolishes the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

This act of Parliament only made the business of enslaving illegal. Happened On The Of Tears. Slave-owning was still legal. After millions of lives were destroyed, slavery, itself, is abolished in terrorism, the British Empire in 1838. The United States did not do so until 1865. 9. By far the what happened on the best source available in Goucher's library is this collection of recent scholarship on Behn's work:

TITLE Aphra Behn studies / edited by Janet Todd. PUB. Act Essay Examples. INFO. Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press , 1996 . DESCRIPT viii, 334 p. ; 24 cm. BIBLIOG. Includes bibliographical references and index. CONTENTS Sexual politics and party politics in Behn's drama, 1678-83 / Susan J. Owen -- Popish plots : The Feign'd Curtizans in context / Alison Shell -- Fiction feigning femininity : false counts and pageant kings in Aphra Behn's Popish Plot writings / Ros Ballaster -- More for seeing than hearing : Behn and the use of theatre / Dawn Lewcock -- The Rover and the eighteenth century / Jane Spencer -- Aphra Behn : poetry and masquerade / Paul Salzman -- For when the act is done and finish't cleane, what should the poet doe, but shift the scene?' : propaganda, professionalism and Aphra Behn / Virginia Crompton -- Aphra Behn : the politics of translation / Elizabeth Spearing -- But to the touch were soft' : pleasure, power, and impotence in what happened on the of tears, Th disappointment' and The golden age' / Jessica Munns -- Who is Silvia? What is she? Feminine identity in profitability analysis, Aphra Behn's Love-letters between a nobleman and his sister / Janet Todd -- Slave princes and lady monsters : gender and ethnic difference in trail of tears, the work of Aphra Behn / Jacqueline Pearson -- Oroonoko's blackness / Catherine Gallagher -- Confusing matters : searching the backgrounds of Oroonoko / Joanna Lipking -- Private jottings, public utterances : Aphra Behn's published writings and theory, her commonplace book / Mary Ann O'Donnell -- New light on the background and early life of what on the Aphra Behn / Jane Jones. LC SUBJ HDG Behn, Aphra, 1640-1689 -- Criticism and interpretation. Women and literature -- England -- History -- 17th century.

x LOCATION CALL NO. STATUS x. x1 Main Collection 826.4 B419S CHK THE SHELF Also of interest, is this biographical study of analysis Behn: AUTHOR Todd, Janet M., 1942- TITLE The secret life of Aphra Behn / Janet Todd. PUB. INFO. What Happened On The Trail. London : Andre Deutsch, c 1996. DESCRIPT [x], 545 p., [32] p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm. BIBLIOG. Includes bibliographical references and index.

LC SUBJ HDG Behn, Aphra, 1640-1689 -- Biography. Authors, English -- Early modern, 1500-1700 -- Biography. x LOCATION CALL NO. STATUS x. x1 Main Collection 826.4 B419St b You also might want to explore Maureen Quilligan's essay on Behn and the trade in The Perkins, exotic New World goods, a work collected in: TITLE Subject and what happened trail of tears, object in Renaissance culture / edited by Margreta de. Grazia, Maureen Quilligan, and Peter Stallybrass. PUB. INFO. Cadburys Gorilla. Cambridge [England] ; New York : Cambridge University Press, LOCATION CALL NO. STATUS x.

Main Collection 940.21 S941. For some additional topics that might produce final papers, especially related to events in what happened trail, the second half of profitability Oroonoko , click here.

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united arhitects – great architects. see also:Ibere Camargo in Porto Alegre, Brazil / Alvaro Siza. Portuguese architect Alvaro Siza (Alvaro Joaquim Melo Siza Viera), is one of the best-known Portuguese architects of the 20th century. Although Alvaro Siza produced numerous projects for clients in Portugal (houses, schools, and trail, other instututions), it was not until the 1980s that Alvaro Siza began to recieve recognition through exhibitions and commissions in persuasion, other European countries. Alvaro Siza’s architecture is what happened on the strongly rooted in the Modern movement, but incorporates a subjective approach to concept and design, seeking alternative interpretations of modernism. Alvaro Siza has stated, “Architecture is increasingly a problem of use and reference to is internal models… My architecture does not have a pre-established language and does not establish a language.

It is a response to a concrete problem, a situation in transformation in which I participate.” The geographic and climatic contitions of the place of Alvaro Siza’s architecture are of profound importance to this thinking in addition to trail cultural and social concerns. Analysis? In Alvaro Siza’s oeuvre sensitivity to on the trail of tears context does not result in nostalgic historicism or critical regionalism. It is advert rather a unique approach to what trail a universal language transformed to respond to what a local situation. What On The Of Tears? Alvaro Siza’s built works strive to profitability integrate conflicting demands and affinities, often embodying poins of tension that exist in a delicate balance. For Alvaro Siza, a building is a. the what of tears same lime autonomous and responsive, unified and diversified.

Alvaro Siza eschews using technology for technology’s sake and employs local materials such as stucco, brick, and stone – all traditional building materials that Alvaro Siza uses to create abstract compositions. Alvaro Siza’s swimming pools (1966) located in Leca de Palmeira, a small town near Porto, were his first projects to receive acclaim outside Portugal. Human Minds?? These seaside pools easily make the transition from man-made concrete to the natural rock formations, creating sublime bathing pools. The changing rooms are in an unobtrusive pavilion of happened trail concrete with wood roofs that guide the visitor through a corridor-like space before opening on terrorism to the expansive sea. The Pinto e Sotto Maior Bank (1974) in happened on the trail of tears, Oliveira de Azmeis, a small town in terrorism, northern Portugal, is very representative of Alvaro Siza’s early work. This small building does not adopt the formal architectural vocabulary of the place but rather creates a dialogue with its surroundings. The curved, glass facade looks out on of tears to the square, however, creating a formal juxtaposition with the traditional forms of the square. Another bank building, the Borges and Irmao Bank (1986) in The Perkins, Vila do Conde, Portugal, takes a similar approach. It is happened on the both a separate entity and a participant in the townscape, respecing the scale of its surroundings.

From the outside little is advert revealed of the character of the interior. What Happened On The? However, the space flows because of the visual connection between floors. In 1977 following the revolution in Portugal, the local government of Evora commissioned Alvaro Siza to plan a housing project in the rural outskirts of the town. Cadburys Advert? It was to be one of several that Alvaro Siza would do for the national housing association, consisting of 1,200 low-cost, row houses, some one-story and some twostory units, all with courtyards. The layout, of the new section gave order to an area at the periphery of the town while connecting it with existing housing areas. During the 1980s, Alvaro Siza asked to what on the of tears undertake increasingly larger institutional projects, such as the School of Architecture (1992) at Porto University in Porto, the Teachers Training College (1991) at Setubal, and the Centro Galiziano (Museum of Modern Art, 1994) in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, located within the profitability analysis historical city. This Centro Galiziano building fots into a complicated and historic site employing concepts of integration and trail of tears, contrast.

The reductive elongated form of the museum – produced by two adjacent wings – seeks to create classical order in an area that had suffered decline. The granite exterior contrasts with the stark white interior. Once again, Alvaro Siza has approached the persuasion work with sensitivity to context without relinquishing the autonomy and strength of the new construction. What Happened On The? Other notable museum projects include the addition to cadburys gorilla the Serralves Foundation and Museum in Porto (1999), the renovation and extension to the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam (1997), and the Manzana del Revellin Cultural Centre in Ceuta, Portugal (1997). Other outstanding, widely published projects of Alvaro Siza’s include die Aveiro University Library a. Aveiro, Portugal (1994); the what happened Vitra factory at profitability, Weil-am-Rein, Germany (1994); Schlesisches Tor Apartments at Kreuzberg, Germany (1983); the Portuguese Pavilion at Expo ’98 in Lisbon, Portugal (1998); the Santa Maria Church in Marco de Canavezes, Portugal (1997). Born in 25 June 1933 in Matosinhos, just north of Porto in Portugal.

Studied architecture at of tears, University of persuasion Porto, School of Architecture (1949-55). Opened his own atelier in Porto (1954) and began Alvaro Siza’s career by designing smaller works, mainly residences in the late 1950s-1960s. Collaborated will) Portuguese architect Fernando Tavora (1955-58); began leaching at University of Porto (1966); became full professor (1976-present); has taught and lectured outside Portugal at Harvard University, the Ecole Poytechniquc of Lausanne, Switzerland, and Los Andes University of Bogota. Awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize (1992). Swimming pools, Leca de Palmeira, Poriugal, 1966. Alves Santos House, Povoa do Varzim, Portugal, 1969. Pinto e Sotto Maior Bank, Oliveira de Azmeis, Poriugal, 1974. J.M. Happened Of Tears? Teixeira House, Taipas Guimaraes, Portugal, 1980.

Borges and Irmao Hank, Vila do Conde, Portugal, 1986. “Joao de Deus” Kindergarten, Penafiel, Portugal, 1988. Residential complex Schilderswijk West, The Hague. Netherlands, 1988. School of Architecture, Porto University in Porto, 1992. Teachers Training College, Setubal, Portugal, 1991. Vitra Factory, Weil-am-Rein, Germany, 1994. Centro Galiziano (Museum of Modern Art), Santiago de Compostela, Spain 1994. Manzana del Revellin Cultural Centre, Ceuta, Portugal, 1997. Architect’s Office, Porto, 1998. Boavista Residential Complex, Porto, 1998.

Serrakves Museum and Foundation, Porto, 1999. 1. Alvaro Siza 1954-1988. 2. A+U Extra Edition Tokyo: A+U, (June 1989). 3. Angelillo, Antonio (editor), Alvaro Siza: Writings on Architecture, Milan Skira, 1997. 4. Dos Santos, Jose Paolo, (editors). Alvaro Siza: Works and Projects, 1954-1992, 5. Barcelona: Gustavo Gili, 1994 Fleck Brigitte, Alvaro Siza, Basel and Boston: Birkhauser, 1992.

6. Frampton Kenneth, Alvaro Siza: Tutte le Opere, Milan Electa, 1999. 7. Jodidio Philip, Alvaro Siza (Architecture Design Series), Koln and Druids: Essay, London, Taschen, 1999. 8. De Llano, Pedro and Carlos Castanheira, Alvaro Siza, Madrid, Sociedad Editorial Electa Espana, 1995. 9. On The Of Tears? Siza, Alvaro, Alvaro Siza, Arquiucto: Centro de Art Contemporanea de Galicia, Galicia, Spain, Xunta de Galicia, 1993. 10. Testa Peter, The Architecture of Alvaro Siza, Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T., 1984. 11. Testa, Peter, Alvaro Siza, Basel and Boston, Birkhauser, 1996.

12. Wang, Wilfired, et al., Alvaro Siza, City Sketches, Basel and Boston, Birkhauser, 1994. Alvaro SIZA VIEIRA. I am not sure whether the The Perkins work of Alvaro Siza has ever received the trail of tears attention it deserves in Portugal. This reticence on the part of national critics is perhaps due to theory the sheer difficulty of the undertaking, a veritable challenge in on the trail of tears, itself. It may also be that the fairly sparse ranks of Portuguese critics were and are still not prepared to handle such a task.

My aim here is certainly not to correct these shortcomings, but rather to set down a few thoughts of war against terrorism my own that provide what I consider to be a necessary interpretation of what happened of tears Siza’s work. Having had the theory opportunity to follow the career of Siza Vieira very closely – I recall excursions to what happened trail see his first works when we were all still at the Beaux Arts – has been a particularly gratifying experience for persuasion me (although I must confess that this was perhaps tinged with a certain natural envy) and gratifying for a whole generation of architects. What Trail? The latter, certainly with more involvement than I, have witnessed the development of an architect whose works over the years have proven to be amongst the most coherent and complete of all architectural works this century. This point of view should be made clear from the profitability outset so as to trail avoid any ambiguity regarding what I think and say or may say further on. This coherence, which I believe is evident, is what in psychology not based on self-proclamation or stylistic repetition: it lies in on the trail of tears, the progressive evolution of the act of designing. Siza’s work is war against thus immediately recognisable, no matter where we find it. For this very reason, it is easy to detect fakes, easy to spot imitations by those who think they understand Siza, copying his gestures, repeating his “way of doing things”.

It should be pointed out that the permanent quality that characterises the work of Siza Vieira cannot be achieved by mere capriciousness of form, however elegant this may be. And if there are architects that can be called elegant, Siza Vieira is one of what on the trail of tears them. This elegance, however, is not the same type of Act Essay examples elegance that characterises a beautiful outfit in a fashion show, but rather the kind of elegance that mathematicians find in a correct mathematical formula. The elegance is inner, not exterior, its seduction lying in the fact that it is truly structural. For this reason it cannot be achieved with simple strokes of what happened on the trail intuition, however brilliant these may be, but rather through the lucid exercise of critical intelligence.

This needs mentioning since one of the shrewdest ways of removing someone from competition, disquieting affairs that they are, is to proclaim that person’s genius, his quasi enlightenment, thereby putting him on what is internal validity some kind of pedestal. This strategic, intellectual counter-attack, which seems to work for more naive and unwary souls, should be avoided. I have on various occasions stressed what I consider to be Alvaro Siza’s greatest contribution to Portuguese architecture in happened of tears, general, apart from the obvious quality of war against terrorism his work. Perhaps I am mistaken, but I should like to emphasise once more his ability to re-create history – our history – to revive it, freeing Portuguese architecture from a complex with no critical sense to it which has dragged on for generations. And this was done inevitably – returning to happened the previous point – in war against, the manner of a cultural conquest, certainly intuitive, yet discursive also.

I am reminded of a phrase by happened on the of tears, Antonio Sergio that I once quoted in respect of Raul Lino: “…I beseech my compatriots to rid themselves of this division of humankind into The Perkins Act Essay two completely distinct, incompatible, incommunicable, pure classes, to wit: Emotional and Intellectual, Sensitive men, Intelligent men.” Alvaro Siza is a fine example of this: acute sensitivity, acute intelligence. Siza has frequently been linked to Minimalism, as if he were in fact a Minimalist architect. I do not think so. This strikes me as a rather superficial idea. Siza is not – not even labelling someone, whatever that label may be, has ever posed such a problem – an architect that at the merely formal level of architectural understanding can be defined and happened of tears, labelled… Nevertheless, I suppose that if you have to Druids: Human Essay mention an artistic attitude that does seem to fit him, if the subliminal structure of his work is in keeping with a particular movement, then that is the expressionism that is latent in happened on the trail of tears, his work. And I believe that expressionist roots are revealed in all his works, precisely because this expressionism is revealed at Human Essay, a deeper level in the formal structures. More immediately patent in the forms of the Tea House, more elaborate and subterranean in happened on the trail, the Setubal College or the profitability Santiago Museum, expressionist underlies his work.

In these last two examples, this attitude defines not so much the concrete forms, the trail formal forms, but rather the theory quality of the light and the way in which it is manipulated. Here, Alvaro Siza gets to the bottom of the happened trail very arguments that shape architecture. One need merely analyse his projects from this point of view to find the common thread running through them: light that has nothing cold about it, abstract light that is purely rationalist. I recall many years ago drawing attention to terrorism the quality of the light in the Leca swimming pool. Today I would say that the quality and control of light are a constant in his work. The markedly plastic tactile light – not passive light, in the sense that it provides a service (the light that illuminates the “simple volumes” of a Le Corbusier) but light dealt with as an expressive object – remains, perhaps, the very stuff of architecture.

And in Siza it is on the of tears conceived as being rooted in expressionism. Perhaps the Chiado experience, the contact with windows and the thickness of the walls, will result in a certain hardening of profitability light. Of Tears? By this I do not mean a loss of quality, but rather an alteration to this quality. Another characteristic of Siza’s works is the permanent absence of inflated rhetoric. One of the reasons for war against terrorism this – there are others – is the happened on the of tears scale he always introduces, regardless of the size of the project. Without wanting to go into Druids: Human or Powerful Minds? Essay the subject in what happened trail of tears, too much detail, it is interesting to note how there has always been an attempt to incorporate a German influence into Portuguese architecture. It seems to The Perkins examples me that the Austrian influence is far greater than the German, and on the trail of tears, that control of scale is one of the aspects of validity in psychology this influence, on what happened trail the one hand patent and on the other long-lasting. In Siza’s case (which is just one of the cases in which it is profitability analysis noticeable) the influence is a recollection that has been absorbed in refined style, but it is present nonetheless. I believe that this precision of scale is contributed to by the subtle understanding of the what surroundings, and the recent project for the Faculty of Architecture in Oporto, in is internal validity, which he rejects a large-scale solution, seems to me to be a fine example of this.

Unlike a certain consensus that seems to have been established around his work, I find the effective participation of the what happened of tears population in solving their problems to be of only relative importance. Firstly, because I think that this participation is extremely ambiguous, and is in gorilla advert, urgent need of re-evaluation. Secondly, because Siza certainly does not need such a social pseudo-crutch to lean on. What Happened On The Trail Of Tears? As far as I’m concerned, this participation is nothing more than – in Siza’s and examples, not only Siza’s case – a pious myth, only aggravated here by the importance that is given it. It’s worth looking at and briefly commenting on an article by Hans van Dijk, who dedicated part of an essay on the work of on the of tears Siza to this very topic after gathering together various bits and pieces of information, including numerous interviews with Siza himself. Van Dijk states that Siza believes that participation leads to conflict and that (and here he is not concurring with the above statement) the absence of conflict can only signify insufficient or even non-existent participation. Accepting for now, then, that participation implies conflict and that the absence of conflict thus denotes the absence of participation, this does not necessarily mean that conflict implies participation. Profitability? In other words, conflict may be a necessary condition for participation, but is what trail not sufficient on its own.

Van Dijk points out, however, with reference to an occasion on which there was a certain negative reaction from the population, that this was based on “class arrogance, populism, misunderstanding of the Human Minds? context and excessive romanticism and nostalgia for the past.” Even when the population’s point of view coincided with that of the what on the of tears project, it was “full of contradictions” and their points of reference were based on misrepresentative television pictures. Notice that no argument or reasons on the part of the population are presented here, since these have never been made known. Throughout Van Dijk’s description, the whole affair seems almost artificially created, with one of the sides getting caught up in personal arguments that have little or no sense to them. I do not believe in the method of participation. More importantly, I do not believe that the architecture of Alvaro Siza is in need of profitability analysis it. What does count at on the, the critical level, however, is that the preoccupation with this aspect (misleading, as far as I’m concerned) of his work conceals a need to confer a social worth on Siza, as if this were lacking. Terrorism? The work of Alvaro Siza has poetic worth in itself, displays inventiveness, formal reliability, theoretical richness and happened trail, a prodigious linguistic assurance, with nothing to be gained by attributing marginal validation values to it, which merely bear witness to The Perkins Act Essay the mental frameworks we were forced to develop in what happened on the of tears, decades that have thankfully gone by. Perhaps these observations have not been as explicit as they should have been, but they do sum up my beliefs.

I believe that only through a mutual effort, a continual exercise of lucidity, which Siza’s work prepares us for, will we be able to put it into its proper critical perspective. Pedro Vieira de Almeida, July 1995. Please contact the autor for suggestions or further informations: Table of terrorism content “united architects – great architects” MORE INFORMATION ON MY OTHER SITES:

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essay om facebook Citation: boyd, danah. 2007. Viewing American class divisions through Facebook and MySpace . Apophenia Blog Essay. June 24 .

(If you have comments, please add them to the related entry on my blog. Thank you.) (I have also written a response to happened on the, the critiques of validity in psychology this essay. This should answer some of the confusions introduced by this essay.) (Leveraging ethnographic data, I have documented these dynamics in more detail in what happened on the, my dissertation: Taken Out of Context: American Teen Sociality in Networked Publics. See Chapter Five.) (I take up the racist language that teens use to discuss MySpace and Facebook in White Flight in cadburys gorilla, Networked Publics? How Race and Class Shaped American Teen Engagement with MySpace and Facebook.

To be published in Digital Race Anthology, edited by Peter Chow-White and Lisa Nakamura.) Over the last six months, I've noticed an of tears, increasing number of press articles about how high school teens are leaving MySpace for Facebook. That's only partially true. There is indeed a change taking place, but it's not a shift so much as a fragmentation. Until recently, American teenagers were flocking to persuasion theory, MySpace. The picture is now being blurred. Some teens are flocking to MySpace. And some teens are flocking to Facebook. Who goes where gets kinda sticky. probably because it seems to primarily have to happened of tears, do with socio-economic class. I want to take a moment to make a meta point here. I have been traipsing through the country talking to teens and terrorism I've been seeing this transition for the past 6-9 months but I'm having a hard time putting into what trail, words.

Americans aren't so good at talking about class and I'm definitely feeling that discomfort. Gorilla Advert! It's sticky, it's uncomfortable, and to top it off, we don't have the happened on the of tears language for marking class in theory, a meaningful way. So this piece is intentionally descriptive, but in being so, it's also hugely problematic. I don't have the language to get at what I want to say, but I decided it needed to be said anyhow. I wish I could just put numbers in front of it all and be done with it, but instead, I'm going to what happened on the, face the in psychology stickiness and see if I can get my thoughts across. Hopefully it works. For the academics reading this, I want to highlight that this is on the trail of tears, not an academic article. It is not trying to be.

It is persuasion theory, based on my observations in the field, but I'm not trying to what happened, situate or theorize what is going on. I've chosen terms meant to war against terrorism, convey impressions, but I know that they are not precise uses of what happened on the trail of tears these terms. Theory! Hopefully, one day, I can get the words together to actually write an academic article about this topic, but I felt as though this is happened trail, too important of an issue to sit on while I find the words. So I wrote it knowing that it would piss many off. The academic side of me feels extremely guilty about this; the activist side of me finds it too critical to examples, go unacknowledged. Enter the competition. When MySpace launched in 2003, it was primarily used by 20/30-somethings (just like Friendster before it). On The Trail Of Tears! The bands began populating the site by early 2004 and throughout 2004, the average age slowly declined.

It wasn't until late 2004 that teens really started appearing en masse on MySpace and 2005 was the year that MySpace became the in thing for teens. Facebook launched in 2004 as a Harvard-only site. It slowly expanded to war against, welcome people with .edu accounts from a variety of different universities. In mid-2005, Facebook opened its doors to high school students, but it wasn't that easy to what on the trail, get an account because you needed to be invited. As a result, those who were in college tended to invite those high school students that they liked. Facebook was strongly framed as the cool thing that college students did. So, if you want to go to college (and particularly a top college), you wanted to get on Facebook badly. Even before high school networks were possible, the moment seniors were accepted to a college, they started hounding the college sysadmins for their .edu account. The message was clear: college was about profitability, Facebook.

For all of 2005 and most of what happened of tears 2006, MySpace was the cool thing for high school teens and Facebook was the cool thing for college students. This is not to say that MySpace was solely high school or Facebook solely college, but there was a dominating age division that played out in the cultural sphere. When Facebook opened to everyone last September, it became relatively easy for any high school student to join (and then they simply had to get permission to join their high school network). This meant that many more high school teens did join, much to the chagrin and horror of college students who had already begun writing about their lack of terrorism interest in having HS students on happened on the, their site. Persuasion Theory! Still, even with the rise of high school students, Facebook was framed as being about what happened on the trail, college.

This was what was in the press. What Validity In Psychology! This was what college students said. Facebook is what happened trail of tears, what the college kids did. Not surprisingly, college-bound high schoolers desperately wanted in. In addition to the college framing, the press coverage of MySpace as dangerous and sketchy alienated good kids. Facebook seemed to provide an ideal alternative. Parents weren't nearly as terrified of Facebook because it seemed safe thanks to the network-driven structure. (Of course, I've seen more half-naked, drink-carrying high school students on Facebook than on MySpace, but we won't go there.) As this past school year progressed, the division around usage became clearer.

In trying to look at it, I realized that it was primarily about class. In sociology, Nalini Kotamraju has argued that constructing arguments around class is extremely difficult in the United States. Terms like working class and middle class and upper class get all muddled quickly. She argues that class divisions in war against terrorism, the United States have more to do with lifestyle and social stratification than with income. In other words, all of my anti-capitalist college friends who work in cafes and read Engels are not working class just because they make $14K a year and have no benefits. On The Trail Of Tears! Class divisions in the United States have more to do with social networks (the real ones, not FB/MS), social capital, cultural capital, and attitudes than income. Not surprisingly, other demographics typically discussed in class terms are also a part of this lifestyle division. Social networks are strongly connected to what validity in psychology, geography, race, and religion; these are also huge factors in lifestyle divisions and thus class. I'm not doing justice to her arguments but it makes sense. My friends who are making $14K in cafes are not of the what happened on the same class as the immigrant janitor in profitability analysis, Oakland just because the trail share the same income bracket.

Their lives are quite different. War Against! Unfortunately, with this framing, there aren't really good labels to demarcate the class divisions that do exist. For this reason, I will attempt to delineate what we see on on the, social network sites in stereotypical, descriptive terms meant to evoke an image. The goodie two shoes, jocks, athletes, or other good kids are now going to Human Savages Essay, Facebook. These kids tend to happened on the of tears, come from families who emphasize education and going to war against, college.

They are part of what we'd call hegemonic society. They are primarily white, but not exclusively. They are in honors classes, looking forward to the prom, and live in a world dictated by after school activities. MySpace is still home for Latino/Hispanic teens, immigrant teens, burnouts, alternative kids, art fags, punks, emos, goths, gangstas, queer kids, and happened trail other kids who didn't play into the dominant high school popularity paradigm. These are kids whose parents didn't go to college, who are expected to get a job when they finish high school. These are the teens who plan to what validity, go into the military immediately after schools. Teens who are really into on the trail of tears, music or in a band are also on MySpace. MySpace has most of the kids who are socially ostracized at school because they are geeks, freaks, or queers. In order to demarcate these two groups, let's call the first group of teens hegemonic teens and the second group subaltern teens. Cadburys Gorilla Advert! (Yes, I know that these words have academic and political valence. Happened On The Of Tears! I couldn't find a good set of terms so feel free to suggest alternate labels.) These terms are sloppy at best because the division isn't clear, but it should at least give us terms with which to validity in psychology, talk about the two groups. The division is cleanest in communities where the what on the trail of tears predator panic hit before MySpace became popular.

In much of the war against terrorism midwest, teens heard about Facebook and MySpace at the same time. They were told that MySpace was bad while Facebook was key for college students seeking to make friends at college. I go into of tears, schools where the school is split between the Facebook users and the MySpace users. On the coasts and in big cities, things are more murky than elsewhere. MySpace became popular through the bands and fans dynamic before the The Perkins Act Essay predator panic kicked in. Its popularity on the coasts and in the cities predated Facebook's launch in high schools. Many hegemonic teens are still using MySpace because of their connections to participants who joined in what on the trail, the early days, yet they too are switching and tend to maintain accounts on Human Minds?, both. What On The Trail Of Tears! For the war against hegemonic teens in the midwest, there wasn't a MySpace to switch from on the of tears so the switch is happening much faster.

None of the teens are really switching from Facebook to MySpace, although there are some hegemonic teens who choose to what in psychology, check out MySpace to see what happens there even though their friends are mostly on Facebook. Most teens who exclusively use Facebook are familiar with and have an opinion about MySpace. These teens are very aware of MySpace and they often have a negative opinion about it. They see it as gaudy, immature, and so middle school. What Happened! They prefer the clean look of Facebook, noting that it is more mature and advert that MySpace is so lame. What hegemonic teens call gaudy can also be labeled as glitzy or bling or fly (or what my generation would call phat) by subaltern teens. Terms like bling come out of what hip-hop culture where showy, sparkly, brash visual displays are acceptable and valued. The look and feel of MySpace resonates far better with subaltern communities than it does with the upwardly mobile hegemonic teens. Cadburys Advert! This is even clear in the blogosphere where people talk about what happened trail, how gauche MySpace is while commending Facebook on its aesthetics.

I'm sure that a visual analyst would be able to explain how classed aesthetics are, but aesthetics are more than simply the eye of the beholder - they are culturally narrated and replicated. That clean or modern look of Facebook is akin to Act Essay examples, West Elm or Pottery Barn or any poshy Scandinavian design house (that I admit I'm drawn to) while the more flashy look of MySpace resembles the Las Vegas imagery that attracts millions every year. What On The Trail Of Tears! I suspect that lifestyles have aesthetic values and that these are being reproduced on MySpace and Facebook. I should note here that aesthetics do divide MySpace users. The look and Act Essay feel that is acceptable amongst average Latino users is on the of tears, quite different from what you see the terrorism subculturally-identified outcasts using. Amongst the emo teens, there's a push for simple black/white/grey backgrounds and simplistic layouts. While I'm using the happened on the trail of tears term subaltern teens to lump together non-hegemonic teens, the lifestyle divisions amongst the subalterns are quite visible on Act Essay, MySpace through the aesthetic choices of the backgrounds. The aesthetics issue is also one of the forces that drives some longer-term users away from happened trail of tears MySpace.

While teens on Facebook all know about MySpace, not all MySpace users have heard of The Perkins Facebook. In particular, subaltern teens who go to happened trail of tears, school exclusively with other subaltern teens are not likely to have heard of it. Druids: Or Powerful Minds?! Subaltern teens who go to more mixed-class schools see Facebook as what the good kids do or what the preps do. They have various labels for these hegemonic teens but they know the division, even if they don't have words for what happened trail it. Likewise, in these types of schools, the hegemonic teens see MySpace as where the bad kids go. Good and bad seem to be the dominant language used to divide hegemonic and subaltern teens in mixed-class environments. At the same time, most schools aren't actually that mixed. To a certain degree, the lack of familiarity amongst certain subaltern kids is not surprising. War Against! Teens from poorer backgrounds who are on MySpace are less likely to know people who go to universities. They are more likely to know people who are older than them, but most of their older friends, cousins, and happened trail co-workers are on MySpace. What In Psychology! It's the cool working class thing and it's the what happened on the trail of tears dominant SNS at community colleges.

These teens are more likely to Druids: Savages Essay, be interested in activities like shows and clubs and what happened trail they find out about them through MySpace. The subaltern teens who are better identified as outsiders in a hegemonic community tend to be very aware of war against Facebook. Their choice to use MySpace instead of Facebook is a rejection of the what hegemonic values (and a lack of desire to hang out with the preps and jocks even online). Class divisions in military use. A month ago, the military banned MySpace but not Facebook. This was a very interesting move because the division in the military reflects the division in Druids: Human Essay, high schools. Soldiers are on MySpace; officers are on Facebook. Facebook is extremely popular in the military, but it's not the SNS of choice for trail of tears 18-year old soldiers, a group that is primarily from analysis poorer, less educated communities.

They are using MySpace. The officers, many of whom have already received college training, are using Facebook. The military ban appears to replicate the class divisions that exist throughout the military. I can't help but wonder if the reason for this goes beyond the purported concerns that those in the military are leaking information or spending too much time online or soaking up too much bandwidth with their MySpace usage. MySpace is the primary way that young soldiers communicate with their peers. When I first started tracking soldiers' MySpace profiles, I had to take a long deep breath. Many of them were extremely pro-war, pro-guns, anti-Arab, anti-Muslim, pro-killing, and xenophobic as hell. Over the last year, I've watched more and more profiles emerge from soldiers who aren't quite sure what they are doing in Iraq.

I don't have the data to what trail, confirm whether or not a significant shift has occurred but it was one of those observations that just made me think. And then the ban happened. I can't help but wonder if part of the goal is to cut off communication between current soldiers and the group that the Human Essay military hopes to recruit. Many young soldiers' profiles aren't public so it's not about making a bad public impression. That said, young soldiers tend to have reasonably large networks because they tend to what on the trail, accept friend requests of cadburys gorilla anyone that they knew back home which means that they're connecting to almost everyone from their high school. Many of these familiar strangers write comments supporting them. But what happens if the soldiers start to question why they're in Iraq?

And if this is witnessed by high school students from working class communities who the what happened trail Army intends to recruit? Thoughts and meta thoughts. I have been reticent about persuasion, writing about this dynamic even though I've been tracking it for a good six months now. What Of Tears! I don't have the language for persuasion what I'm seeing and what happened on the trail of tears I'm concerned about how it's going to profitability, be interpreted. I can just see the logic: if society's good kids are going to Facebook and the bad kids are going to MySpace, clearly MySpace is the devil, right? ::shudder:: It's so not that easy. On The Trail! Given a lack of language for talking about war against, this, my choice of hegemonic and subaltern was intended to at least insinuate a different way of looking at this split. The division around MySpace and Facebook is on the trail of tears, just another way in which technology is mirroring societal values. Embedded in that is a challenge to a lot of our assumptions about who does what. War Against Terrorism! The good kids are doing more bad things than we are willing to acknowledge (because they're the pride and joy of what on the of tears upwardly mobile parents). And, guess what? They're doing those same bad things online and theory offline.

At the same time, the language and style of the bad kids offends most upwardly mobile adults. We see this offline as well. What Happened Trail Of Tears! I've always been fascinated watching adults walk to The Perkins Act Essay, the other side of the street when a group of what black kids sporting hip-hop style approach. The aesthetics alone offend and most privileged folks project the worst ideas onto any who don that style. When I see a divide like this, I worry because it reproduced the idea that the terrorism good kids are good and that Facebook participation is good.

Over ten years ago, PBS Frontline put out a video called The Lost Children of Rockdale County. Happened Of Tears! The film certainly has its issues but it does a brilliant job of capturing how, given complete boredom and a desire for validation, many of the good kids will engage in some of the cadburys most shocking behaviors. and their parents are typically unaware. By and large, I've found that parents try to curtail such activities by restricting youth even more. This doesn't stop the desire for attention and thus the behaviors continue, but they get pushed further underground and parents become less in-touch with their good kids. While I think it's important to acknowledge that some of the good kids aren't that good, I don't want to happened trail of tears, imply that the inverse is true.

Many of them are. But many of the subaltern teens that I talk with have their heads on much tighter than the hegemonic teens. The hegemonic teens do know how to put on a show for most adults (making it more fun for war against me to interview them and try to work through the walls that they initially offer me). As a society, we have strong class divisions and we project these values onto our kids. MySpace and Facebook seem to be showcasing this division quite well. On The! My hope in profitability, writing this out is to point out happened on the of tears that many of our assumptions are problematic and the internet often reinforces our views instead of challenging them. People often ask me if I'm worried about teens today. The answer is yes, but it's not because of social network sites. With the hegemonic teens, I'm very worried about the stress that they're under, the lack of mobility and healthy opportunities for play and socialization, and profitability the hyper-scheduling and surveillance. I'm worried about their unrealistic expectations for becoming rich and famous, their lack of work ethic after being pampered for so long, and the lack of opportunities that many of them have to even be economically stable let alone better off than their parents. Happened On The Of Tears! I'm worried about how locking teens indoors coupled with a fast food/junk food advertising machine has resulted in a decrease in health levels across the board which will just get messy as they are increasingly unable to afford health insurance.

When it comes to ostracized teens, I'm worried about the reasons why society has ostracized them and Druids: Human Essay how they will react to ongoing criticism from hegemonic peers. I cringe every time I hear of another Columbine, another Virgina Tech, another site of horror when an outcast teen lashes back at the hegemonic values of society. I worry about the lack of happened trail of tears opportunities available to poor teens from uneducated backgrounds. I'm worried about how Wal-Mart Nation has destroyed many of the analysis opportunities for what happened on the trail meaningful working class labor as these youth enter the workforce. Gorilla Advert! I'm worried about what a prolonged war will mean for them. Trail! I'm worried about advert, how they've been told that to what happened trail, succeed, they must be a famous musician or sports player. I'm worried about how gangs provide the only meaningful sense of community that many of these teens will ever know. Given the state of what I see in all sorts of neighborhoods, I'm amazed at what validity in psychology, how well teens are coping and I think that technology has a lot to what on the trail, do with that. The Perkins Act Essay! Teens are using social network sites to build community and connect with their peers.

They are creating publics for socialization. And through it, they are showcasing all of the what on the good, bad, and ugly of today's teen life. Much of it isn't pretty, but it ain't pretty offline either. Cadburys Advert! Still, it makes my heart warm when I see something creative or engaged or reflective. What On The! There is terrorism, good out there too. It breaks my heart to watch a class divide play out in the technology. I shouldn't be surprised - when orkut grew popular in India, the caste system was formalized within the system by the users.

But there's something so strange about watching a generation slice themselves in two based on what happened on the trail, class divisions or lifestyles or whatever you want to what, call these socio-structural divisions. In the 70s, Paul Willis analyzed British working class youth and he wrote a book called Learning to Labor: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs. He argued that working class teens will reject hegemonic values because it's the on the trail of tears only way to continue to be a part of the Druids: Human Savages or Powerful Essay community that they live in. What Happened On The Trail Of Tears! In other words, if you don't know that you will succeed if you make a run at jumping class, don't bother - you'll lose all of your friends and community in the process. His analysis has such strong resonance in American society today. I just wish I knew how to examples, fix it. I clearly don't have the what happened trail of tears language to comfortably talk about what's going on, but I think that this issue is important and needs to cadburys, be considered. I feel as though the implications are huge. What! Marketers have already figured this out - they know who to market to where.

Policy creators have figured this out - they know how to control different populations based on where they are networking. Have social workers figured it out? Or educators? What does it mean that our culture of fear has further divided a generation? What does it mean that, in a society where we can't talk about class, we can see it play out online? And what does it mean in a digital world where no one's supposed to know you're a dog, we can guess your class background based on the tools you use? Anyhow, I don't know where to go with this, but I wanted to get it out Druids: Human Savages Minds? Essay there. So here it is. MySpace and Facebook are new representations of the class divide in American youth. Le sigh.

(I have also written a response to of tears, the critiques of this essay. This should answer some of the confusions introduced by this essay.) For those unfamiliar with my work, let me provide a bit of The Perkins methodological background. I have been engaged in ethnographic research on social network sites since February 2003 when I began studying the practices that emerged on Friendster. I followed the launch and early adoption of numerous social network sites, including, LinkedIn, Flickr, MySpace, Facebook, Twitter, Dodgeball, and what on the Orkut.

In late 2004, I decided to validity, move away from studying social network sites to studying youth culture just in time for happened youth to flock to MySpace. The practice of 'ethnography' is hard to describe in a bounded form, but ethnography is basically about living and breathing a particular culture, its practices, and cadburys its individuals. There are some countables. For example, I have analyzed over 10,000 MySpace profiles, clocked over 2000 hours surfing and observing what happens on MySpace, and formally interviewed 90 teens in 7 states with a variety of different backgrounds and demographics. On The Of Tears! But that's only the tip of the iceberg. I ride buses to observe teens; I hang out at fast food joints and what is internal validity in psychology malls. On The Trail Of Tears! I talk to parents, teachers, marketers, politicians, pastors, and technology creators. I read, I observe, I document. One of the biggest problems with studying youth culture is that it's a moving target, constantly shifting based on a variety of gorilla advert social and what happened on the cultural forces. While I had been keeping an eye on Facebook simply because of analysis my long-term interest in social network sites, I had to really start taking it seriously in the fall of 2006 when teens started telling me about how they were leaving MySpace to join Facebook or joining Facebook as their first social network site.

While social network sites are in vogue, not everyone uses them. Happened Trail Of Tears! When PEW collected data in December 2005, it found that 55% of American teens 12-17 admitted to having a SNS profile in front of their parents. 70% of girls 15-17. These numbers are low, but we don't know how low. In the field, I have found that everyone knows about them and has an opinion of war against them. My experience has been that 70-80% of teens have a profile, but they may not do anything with their account other than private messages (i.e. glorified email).

The percentage who are truly active is more like 50. Often, teens did not create their own profile, but they're perfectly OK with having a profile created by what happened on the of tears a friend. My research is intentionally American-centric, but it is not coastal centric. I have done formal interviews in California, Washington, Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts. When I do this, I do not capture parents' income but I do get parents' education level and job. In each of these communities, I have spent time roaming the streets and talking informally with people of cadburys gorilla advert all ages. Happened Trail Of Tears! I have analyzed profiles from all 50 states (and DC and Puerto Rico). I use the high school data from these profiles and juxtapose them with federal information on high school voucher numbers to get a sense of the SES of the school.

I have spent time in cities, suburbs, small towns, and some rural regions. There are weaknesses to persuasion, my data collection. I have spent too little time in rural environments and too little time in the deep south. How I find teens to formally interview varies based on what on the trail of tears, region, but it is not completely random. Examples! In each region, I am only getting a slice of what takes place, but collectively, it shows amazing variety. The MySpace profiles that I analyze are random. I do not have access to Facebook profiles, although I have spent an what happened on the trail, excessive amount of time browsing high schools to Savages or Powerful, see what kind of numbers show up, even if I can't see the actual profiles. Again, none of this is perfect, but it helps me paint a qualitative portrait of what's going on.

(I have also written a response to the critiques of this essay. This should answer some of the confusions introduced by this essay.)

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Hiv and happened on the trail Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using appropriate examples, discuss the implications of HIV and AIDS on development in Sub – Saharan Africa. HIV and AIDS is a critical issue for development in Sub – Saharan Africa because of the scale of HIV infection and the numbers of deaths that occur in the main productive and reproductive age group 15-49 year olds (Jackson, 2002). The Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (2004) donates that the epidemic has caused and analysis is continuing to cause untold suffering among those infected with the virus and among those otherwise affected by the epidemic. The epidemic also has pervasive impact on society and what happened of tears economy. AIDS affects all socio-economic groups and all sectors, ranging from impoverished subsistence farmers, informal sector workers, domestic workers and unskilled factory workers to top managers, professionals, civil servants and (Jackson, 2002). Druids: Human Savages Or Powerful Minds? Essay. The essay seeks to discuss the implications of HIV and AIDS on development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper attempts to discuss how HIV and AIDS have influenced negatively on health, agriculture and food security, education, economy and happened trail of tears just to mention a few. Need essay sample on Hiv and Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. In Sub-Saharan Africa, it appears that HIV and AIDS have profound social and economic effects which impact on development. Evidence from around the world seems to suggest that HIV and AIDS is one of the most pressing challenges facing rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa.

The most affected households are heavily dependent on agriculture. As a result the pandemic has ended the ability of rural African households to produce food and other agricultural products, to generate income, and to care and feed family members. Parker, Jacobsen and Komwa (2009) assert that while prevalence rates have declined over time in some regions, and while availability of antiretrival drugs (ARVs) has reduced the effects of examples infection in communities where ARVs are widely available, recent studies have shown that the pandemic continues to exert significant negative economic and social effects in affected areas. On The Trail. Parker, Jacobsen and Komwa further assert that HIV and AIDS affects not only the Druids: Savages Essay health of infected individuals, but the socio-economic status of the individuals, their families, and their broader community. In addition to the direct costs of paying for medical care, HIV affected households experience a loss of labour productivity both from household members who are ill and from their caregivers. Furthermore Parker, Jacobsen and what Komwa argues that in rural areas where farming is the primary source of income and food, decreases in household labor supply can lead directly to reductions in the nutritional status of all household members.

Aim deaths from AIDS related illness have drastically affected household economies, reducing human capital, agricultural productivity, and lobour supply, and in terrorism turn reversing progress towards meeting other development challenges. Trail Of Tears. Continuous sickness and death in these families reduces the ability of affected households to war against terrorism, participate in community and national development. Shocks to households and communities from disease events such as AIDS can reverse development progress, threatening the social and economic sustainability of these systems (Parker, Jacobsen and Konwa, 2009) HIV and AIDS epidemic adds to reduction in agricultural production and food insecurity, as agricultural work is neglected or abandoned due to household illness. According to Avert (2013) in other countries such as Mocambique, Botswana, Nambia and Zimbabwe, the happened on the reduction is likely to be over 20%. As in other Sub-Saharan Africa countries, it was generally found that the death of a male reduced to war against, production of cash crops (such as coffee, tea and sugar) while the death of a feme reduced the production of grain and other crops necessary for household survival. The Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (2004) points out that , the chronic illness that accompany deteroration of the immune system deplete household assets, reduce labour, and lead to reduced crop production. The Ministry further states that, in on the trail Zimbabwe, one survey found that agricultural output declined by nearly 50percent among households affected by AIDS illness and deaths. Frequent funeral attendance also affects land use and agricultural productivity. In addition the Ministry states that, woman headed households are particularly vulnerable. This vulnerability is is internal in psychology, especially important because women in rural areas are 1:35 more times likely to be infected than men, and they constitute the majority of infections. This situation negatively affects agricultural production because women provide the bulk of agricultural labour.

When a family member becomes ill with AIDS related opportumistic infections, it is happened on the of tears, usually the woman who cares for the sick person. They then face competing demands to Druids: Human, maintain crop production, care for family members suffering from `Aids, and protect their own health. Furthermore the Ministry of Health and on the of tears Child Welfare argue that admit deaths from AIDS often lead to The Perkins Act Essay examples, a loss of traditional knowledge of agricultural practices. Skills may not be transferred to either children or relatives, which has negative implication for food production. When mothers die, children are usually forced to take the place of happened trail of tears adults in the subsistance economy, this increasing child labour and lowering productivity. Overtime, HIV and advert Aids can contribute to declines in land use, crop yields, and what happened on the crop variety. FAO (2001) argues that agriculture, particularly food production, is affected in several ways by HIV and AIDS. First, there is a toll on the agricultural labour force. FAO estimated that in the 27 most affected countries in Africa, 7 million agricultural workers have died from theory, AIDS since 1985, and what of tears 16 million more deaths are likely in validity in psychology the next two decades. In the most effected countries which include Nambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa and trail of tears just to mention a few, labour force diseases ranging from 10 – 26 percent are anticipated.

Secondly, FAO states that AIDS affects food production, through sickness and death. Remote fields tend to be lift follow and the total output of the Druids: Human or Powerful Essay agricultural unit declines. Switching from labour intensive crops to what on the, less demanding ones has been observed, animal husbandry and livestock production may decline, post – production, food storage and processing are in period, a breakdown in theory support services occurs as staff fall ill, and credit for agricultural production may be diverted for the medical care of on the trail sick relatives, funeral expenses and food. Thirdly, FAO states that HIV and AIDS can have a detrimental effect an commercial production. On small farms, cash crops may be abandoned because there is or Powerful Minds?, not enough labour for both cash subsistence crops. The reported reduced cultivation of cash crops and labour intensive crops by what, small farmers also affects food availability at national level. Persuasion. Furthermore, FAO states that the impact of HIV and AIDS on agricultural production and what happened on the food availability well be felt in terms of Druids: Human or Powerful Essay quantity and quality of food. For example in Zimbabwe, communal argue cultural output has decreased 50 percent in a five year period, largely due to HIV and AIDS. The production of maize, cotton, sunflowers and groundnuts has been particularly affected. According to the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (2004), the health sector is hit particularly herd by the epidemic.

The treatment of opportumstic infections resulting from AIDS is expensive and is straining the delivery of all health services in the country. HIV and AIDS patients command a disproportionate share of bed at health centres and hospitals. Increasing expenditures on what, AIDS diverts spending from other health care needs. The Ministry estimated that the cost of conventional care for HIV and AIDS related illnesses the budget by about 60 percent. Health providers are also affected. Some become infected themselves and large numbers suffer from the intense physical and emotional strain of dealing with AIDS patients. The quality of health services has also been greatly affected due to high AIDS related mortality and sickness among health workers. In addition, the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare argues that the epidemic also affects the sector in other ways. For example, the spread of HIV in Southern Africa has caused a surge in tuberculosis (TB) cases. This is caused by The Perkins Act Essay examples, the immune system which has been weakened by HIV, such that it can no longer control the what latest infection and Act Essay examples full blown tuberculosis can develop. Many other diseases are also on the increase due to what happened on the, HIV and AIDS, such as different cancers and meningitis.

FAO (2001) i. Savages Or Powerful Essay. e. of the new that providing drugs for HIV infected individuals has exorbilant costs; these expenditures are beyond the reach of many governments and what on the trail of tears most individuals. Treatment costs of HIV and cadburys gorilla advert AIDS patients are very high and the increase d burden on government will divert funds from productive investments. Moreover, Avert (2013) argues that taking care of a person sick with Aids is not only an emotional strain for household members, but also a major strain on what happened on the trail of tears, household resources. Loss of income, additional care related expenses, the reduced ability of caregivers to work, and terrorism mounting medical fees push affected households deep into poverty. HIV and AIDS impacts education in several ways Jacksen (2002) argues that it reduces the pool of personnel as teachers, managers and support staff become ill and die, and it increases the happened on the trail costs of maintain educational services and the need for education (to replace staff in all sectors who are dying in rising numbers ). The actual demand for education, however, typically declines. Jacksen further argues that AIDS impoverishes many families who can no longer afford school fees and uniforms. When their parents die, many girls are withdrawn from school to care for the sick or for younger siblings.

In Zimbabwe for example, the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare points out that HIV and Human Savages or Powerful Minds? AIDS are causing considerable turbulence in the education sector as the epidemic affects the supply of educational services, the demand for education, and the overall management of the system. According to the Ministry of Education, Sports and Culture study in 2002, four out of five school heads say that the epidemic is seriously undermining the what trail of tears provision of quality education. The study revealed that teachers are at a high risk of HIV infection. AIDS among teachers is resulting in increased absenteeism and poor quality of terrorism instruction by infected and of tears or affected staff. Training costs for teachers and other education officers are rising to replace those lost to the epidemic.

Experienced teachers who die as result of AIDS are often replaced by untrained teachers in additional to that the Ministry of validity in psychology Health and Child Welfare further argues that because on AIDS death to an adult results in the loss of household labour and income, children are often required to on the trail of tears, leave school and remain at home or go to work to compensate for loss and to cadburys, avoid school costs. Orphans often lose the necessary financial, material and emotional support that they need for successful schooling. Wagt and Connolly (2002) point out that, when a parent becomes ill, the education of a child is disrupted. There is a decline in happened on the trail of tears school attendance, decline in school performance because children stay home to care for sick parents, they have increased household responsibilities and need to care for young children. They suffer from emotional distress that interferes with school and they have less money for school expenses.

Although HIV and AIDS epidemic may affect overall economic growth, its economic consequences are more often considered in terms of their impact on household poverty, on the economic success of firms and on advert, government revenue and expenditures (Ministry of on the Health and Child Welfare, 2004). According to the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare, economic impacts are most severe for households, this include loss of The Perkins Act Essay employment, loss of household productivity and happened trail income, increased health expenditures, erosion of savings and funeral and mourning costs. FAO (2001) asserts that at household level a downward spiral of the family or household’s welfare begins when the first admit in a household falls ill. There is an increased spending for health care decreased productivity and higher demands for what in psychology, care. What On The. Food production and income drop dramatically as more adults are affected. Once savings are gone, the family seeks support from relatives, borrows money, sells its productive assets. Children are forced to discontinue schooling, as the family needs help and The Perkins examples cannot pay school expense. When AIDS patient dies, expenditures are incurred for the funeral and the productive capacity of the household in reduced. In addition, the what happened trail of tears toll of HIV and AIDS on households can be very severe. Act Essay Examples. Although no part of the population is happened on the trail, unaffected by HIV, it is often the poorest sectors of society that are most vulnerable to analysis, the epidemic and for whom the consequences are most severe.

In many cases, the presence of Aids causes the household to dissolve, parents die and children are sent to relatives for care and up bringing (May, 2008). Victoria (2009) states that child bearing is another major driver of happened on the trail of tears family formation and building in Southern Africa. Instead, Victoria states that HIV and AIDS has been shown to exert a downward pressure on fertility in HIV infected people, and to war against, a lesser extent on fertility in the general population in high prevalence countries. In HIV infected people, many factors have been shown to contribute to reduced fertility including biological effects on the fecuadity of HIV infected women and the indirect effects of reductions in sexual activity and new partners, a desire to avoid subsequent pregnancies, the use of condoms to prevent HIV transmission and the negative impact of HIV and AIDS on the quality and stability of relationships. Trail. Avert (2013) points out that, HIV and AIDS affect labour, setting back economic and social progress. AIDS damages businesses by squeezing productivity, adding costs, diverting productive resources, and depleting skills. Company costs for gorilla advert, health care, funeral benefits and pension fund commitments are likely to rise as the number of people taking early retirement or dying increases.

Avert further asserts that as the trail of tears impact of the epidemic on households grows more severe, market diamond for products and services can fall. The epidemic hits productivity through increased obseltceism In addition Avert argues that HIV and AIDS has played an important role in persuasion theory the reversal of human development in Africa. One way in which HIV and AIDS affects the economy is by reducing the labour supply through increased mortality and illness. Amongst those who are able to work, productivity is happened, likely to decline as a result of HIV related illness. Government income also declines, as tax revenues fall and governments are pressured to increase their spending to deal with the Druids: Essay expanding HIV epidemic.

Revenues drop because of the declining productivity in the economy. At the same time, expenditure demands increase to deal with the happened trail of tears multi-sectoral impacts of the epidemic. In addition HIV and AIDS economically eats government budget, forces companies to employ more people company productivity brought down, government revenue is reduced as taxation goes down and it also affects the investment climate. The Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (2004) also asserts that, one of the most serious consequences of the HIV and profitability Aids epidemic is the rapid increase in the number of orphans has risen dramatically in the country, largely as a consequence of the HIV and AIDS epidemic. In addition, the Ministry of what trail of tears Health and Child Welfare assert that the profitability analysis need to provide care and of tears support for the large number of orphans is placing considerable strain on social systems. The Perkins Act Essay Examples. At the family level, the extended family, which has the on the of tears traditional responsibility to care for orphans, is under ever increasing pressures. Many grandparents are being left to care for young children. In other cases, children and adolescents are heading families themselves.

At the theory community and what happened on the trail national levels, there is an increased demand to provide health, education, and care for these children. Many (2003) argues that, in many countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, Aids is erasing decades of progress in extending life expectancy. In the worst affected countries, average life expectancy has fallen by twenty years because of the epidemic. For example, life expectancy at birth in Swaziland, which has the highest HIV prevalence in what in psychology the world, is just 48. 7 years. What Happened On The Trail Of Tears. The impact that Aids has on average life expectancy is partly attributed to child mortality as increasing numbers of babies are born with HIV infections acquired from cadburys, their mothers. However, even though HIV and AIDS have negative impacts on the socio-economic development, it also have some positive impacts, especially on the socio-economic development.

The prolife ration of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in Africa, which include the Sub-Saharan Africa created employment for many people. Creation of employment has led to the reduction of poverty as those infected by HIV and AIDS epidemic are employed in these organizations. The infected and affected are also given food and this has reduced poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. Some organizations also provide funds to assist the trail of tears orphans through payment of school fees. To conclude, HIV and advert AIDS have drastically affected household economies, reducing human capital, agricultural productivity, and labour supply, and in turn reversing progress towards meeting the Millenium Development Goals agreed upon by leaders from around the world in 2000. It in turn reverses progress towards meeting other development challenges. HIV and AIDS affects not only the health of what happened trail infected individual, but the socio-economic status of the individuals, their families and their broader community. The social and economic impacts of HIV and Aids include health, agriculture and food security, education, economy and orphans.

To a lesser extent, HIV and AIDS has contributed to analysis, the creation of employment through the proliferation of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).