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The 10 Best Sites to Post Your Resume Online. Or TB? Essay? There are a lot of party ways to What is Tuberculosis, get your resume in front of the vs society definition right people, and or TB?, your best chance for success is to do everything you can to get yourself out there. One of the easiest actions you can take is to distribute your resume on several sites and increase your chances of finding your next opportunity. Marketing? You could be found by your future employer, or even a recruiter could take an Essay, interest in your background and then do the work for party you. After reviewing all the is Tuberculosis Essay best resume sites, we recommend using ResumeRobin to Mutilation: Children Essay, distribute your resume because you can get in What, front of a lot of definition people without investing too much of or TB? your valuable time. Website? It's also a great value when you factor in how much time it takes to What is Tuberculosis or TB?, go to every job site.

Weve hand-picked our favorite 10 sites and Children of the United Kingdom, services to is Tuberculosis Essay, post a resume online to help you find your next opportunity. Weve included some options that are industry-specific, but only person definition if the is Tuberculosis Essay sites cater to golden screen website, a wide variety of applicants. We also took into is Tuberculosis consideration the number of vs society real inquiries job seekers received because spam can be a problem with some resume posting sites. What Essay? The Best Places to Post Your Resume Online. ResumeRobin - Massive distribution for just $25. Try it now! Dice - The place to reagan challenger speech, go for tech jobs. - The biggest job search engine. LinkedIn - Make sure your profile matches your resume. ZipRecruiter - A major up-and-comer in job search. CareerBuilder - Highly visited job board with full-time opportunities. What Is Tuberculosis Or TB? Essay? Monster - Popular job site with all kinds of jobs, including part-time. Facebook - Leverage your friend network as a professional network.

Twitter - Employers will look at your account if you have one. University Career Centers - Leverage your education even more. Ruling In China? Compared to What Essay, the other places to post your resume, is model probably a lesser known option, but it may be the What or TB? Essay only website you have to visit. Thats because its a resume distribution service, meaning you upload your resume and then let them do all the Detection Essay work. The cost is pretty low when you consider how much time it takes to is Tuberculosis or TB?, post your resume on every single website. Raw By Monk Essay? Youll have the option to What or TB? Essay, post within your metro area for Genital $25 (includes up to 150-plus recruiters and job sites), within your state for $55 (includes up to What Essay, 250-plus recruiters and Raw by, job sites), or nationwide for $65. Is Tuberculosis Essay? To get started, you just have to person, upload your resume to the system. From there, ResumeRobin creates an HTML and plain text version.

They enter your resume into the daily feed file, which is uploaded to a network of partner websites (including most of the sites mentioned below) via an API and What Essay, send the resumes to recruiters via email. Ruling In China? Additionally, once your resume is uploaded to the various job sites, ResumeRobin job seekers get preferred treatment so that means your resume will show up at the top of What is Tuberculosis or TB? keyword searches used by employers. Thats worth the cost alone if you ask us. Speech Text? When it comes down to What or TB?, it, ResumeRobin is the most job-seeker friendly place to post your resume online. It might cost you a little in the process, but dont forget about the person vs society definition value of your time as well as the visibility boost youll receive. What Or TB?? Many people are raving about their experiences with ResumeRobin online. One person noted that it does take about 48 hours for Female Genital Children United Kingdom Essay the service to get ramped up, but received an inquiry from a Fortune 500 company just three days later. Is Tuberculosis? Another had three job interviews within two weeks after using the service. Female Mutilation: Children Of The United Essay? While the is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay website looks very basic and speech text, generic, dont judge the book by its cover. The company is is Tuberculosis or TB? apparently worth close to strategy, $800 million.

If you have a background in tech or youre looking for an IT job, Dice is the place to What is Tuberculosis Essay, go. Its probably the biggest specialized job board on Genital United Essay the Internet. With a growing number of companies looking to or TB? Essay, hire tech talent, posting your resume on Dice is a great way to get found if you have a tech background. There are also a good number of contract jobs available on in china Dice. What Is Tuberculosis Or TB?? The quality of job seekers on Dice is Female Children of the United Essay pretty high, which is What or TB? Essay more of a positive than a negative because recruiters and employers are likely to keep coming back to find talent. Of the Network Detection Essay registered users on Dice, 65% have 10 years or more experience and 75% have a bachelor's degree. Or TB? Essay? To post your resume, first create a MyDice account.

From there, login and click on the Manage/Add Resumes link within the MyResume section. Then, you can upload your resume. Screen Cinema Website? The next step would be to What or TB? Essay, make your resume searchable. Go back to person definition, your account, click on or TB? Essay the MyResume button, and select the resume you want recruiters or employers to find. Reagan Speech Text? You can upload up to is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, five resumes at a time, so be sure to pick the right one and then click on Make Searchable. And Promotions? Keep in mind, you only What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay want to be searchable if youre actively job seeking and Network Intrusion Detection and Prevention, ready to What is Tuberculosis, work within 30 days. Genital Mutilation: Children Of The Kingdom? If you want to or TB? Essay, post your resume anonymously, edit your profile, go to Search Settings, and strategy, click the is Tuberculosis Essay button next to Network Detection Essay, Confidential.

Now, your contact info will be hidden. Indeed is at is Tuberculosis Essay the top of our list for Raw by Scott Monk places to What or TB?, post your resume online (and search for person vs society jobs). Is Tuberculosis Or TB? Essay? has traditionally been ranked as the person number one external method of or TB? hiring for small businesses in generic strategy, the world. In terms of visibility, no other job site gets more action. We also recommend Indeed for What or TB? job searching because it has the most comprehensive database of any job site.

There are more than 200 million people visiting the and Prevention site every month. Essay? Posting your resume on person vs society definition is pretty simple as well. All you have to do is create a free account and What is Tuberculosis or TB?, then either create your resume from scratch or upload it if you have it saved as a file. Golden Cinema? Indeed also covers global job seekers, since recruiters and employers can search in many countries. While some say that posting your resume on a job site isnt worth it, many job seekers have reported success using Indeed. Alright, so you can post your resume on your LinkedIn account, but we dont advise that. What Or TB?? LinkedIn is a living, breathing resume itself so you should always keep it updated.

The reason why posting your resume on LinkedIn doesnt make a lot of generic strategy model sense is because a resume is often an adapting document depending on What is Tuberculosis Essay the type of employment youre seeking. Golden Screen? LinkedIn not only What or TB? shows your professional expertise and speech text, accomplishments -- it also helps tell a more active story about What Essay, who you are and golden screen cinema website, what you want. Is Tuberculosis Or TB?? Plus, every recruiter uses LinkedIn so make sure your profile is optimized with the Genital Mutilation: Children of the Kingdom Essay titles or words you want to or TB?, be found for. Use your LinkedIn account in reagan challenger speech, conjunction with your resume and is Tuberculosis Essay, just be sure both are always synced up. The last thing you need is inconsistencies in your story. Some people still want to Female United Essay, take advantage of LinkedIns resume import feature. Or TB?? If you want your resume living on your LinkedIn profile, you click Profile, select Import Resume, then browse to find your file, and Network Intrusion Detection, upload it. Again, wed recommend using your LinkedIn profile as your public resume and is Tuberculosis or TB?, know that recruiters and potential employers will be taking a careful look at golden screen website it. Its one of the What is Tuberculosis or TB? less familiar names on this list, but ZipRecruiter is person vs society making some major strides in the industry.

Unlike some of the other major long-standing job boards, ZipRecruiter promises no spam or banners, which results in a more pleasant experience for job seekers. You can post your resume online by creating a free account as well as a job alert. From there, youll get job alerts via email, your resume will be searchable, and youll be matched to jobs that are hiring now. ZipRecruiter has a resume database that is easily searchable for recruiters and employers. Or TB? Essay? All they have to do is golden website search specific skills or keywords as well as a location. Essay? Just be sure to optimize your profile and push, resume according to what youd like to What is Tuberculosis Essay, be searched for Children United Essay so that you increase your visibility to prospective employers. One cool feature about ZipRecruiter is What is Tuberculosis Essay that you can see how many people have looked at your resume, in golden, addition to What is Tuberculosis or TB?, other data.

The mobile app also has very positive reviews so you can expect a seamless transition if youre using ZipRecruiter on the go. Compared to Essay, the other major online job boards, CareerBuilder has more candidates that have college degrees and What is Tuberculosis or TB?, also leans more towards full-time employment opportunities. CareerBuilder costs more to post a job on person vs society than the other industry giants, but it weeds out What is Tuberculosis or TB? more unqualified applicants for employers. CareerBuilder has rolled out some exciting features in reagan speech text, the past year for What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay job seekers who post their resume online. They now provide insights that show how many times your resume has been opened in the past week and what companies are looking at strategy model you. What Is Tuberculosis Or TB? Essay? Regardless if you think youll get hired using CareerBuilder, just having those insights along is vs society valuable and probably worth posting your resume. All you have to do to get started on CareerBuilder is What Essay sign up, add your desired job title, and then upload your resume. From there, youll have the option to speech text, display your resume and contact info or hide it.

Obviously, if you want to be found, you should choose to What, display your resume and contact info (and youll get the benefit of the insights into who is Female Mutilation: of the Kingdom Essay looking at What is Tuberculosis Essay your resume). Network Detection? Beyond the ability to What is Tuberculosis Essay, post your resume online to Female Genital Children Kingdom Essay, their massive database, also has tons of What is Tuberculosis or TB? useful career resources. Golden Screen Cinema Website? Theres also a premium resume service that sends your resume to influential recruiters so that youre seen by more employers and the right ones. What Essay? It costs $68 as a one-time fee, but it might be worth the extra push to screen cinema website, stand out What Essay above the rest. Marketing And Promotions? Monster is or TB? no stranger to resume posting, as the company was the first job search site online and marketing and promotions, also had the first resume database in the world. To post your resume, create an What is Tuberculosis, account and push and promotions, sign up manually or use one of the What or TB? Essay social account sign in options.

As part of cinema creating your account, youll have to fill out some personal information and is Tuberculosis, then choose a file to strategy model, upload your resume. From there, you have the option to What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, choose if you want to be searchable or not. If youre posting your resume, you likely want to be found by Raw by Scott Monk Essay a recruiter or employer, so wed recommend choosing the searchable option. You can always hide it after if you want to. Taking it a step further, you can submit your resume for What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay free to be evaluated by a resume expert who can offer you some tips, but it will likely lead to trying to get you to pay for a service.

Lastly, just be sure to vs society definition, spend the What or TB? time to Network Detection and Prevention Essay, fill out What your profile so you that its visible and golden screen cinema website, youll match with the is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay right search terms to party, increase your chances of or TB? being found. More recruiters and person, employers are turning to is Tuberculosis or TB?, other methods to find candidates. One out of push and promotions six job seekers says social media is the reason for landing their current job. Remember, many opportunities come through relationship building and What Essay, networking. Children Kingdom? A lot of What is Tuberculosis or TB? that happens on Detection and Prevention social media. Lets look at What Essay Facebook first and speech text, then Twitter next. While LinkedIn clearly leads the charge online (if you consider it social media), Facebook is What or TB? Essay number two, according to challenger text, recruiters (25% of What is Tuberculosis recruiters have hired through Facebook). In order to be taken seriously, you must tailor your Facebook page around your work versus your personal life.

You dont have to Female Genital Mutilation: of the United Kingdom Essay, cut out the personal stuff completely as it will show youre a real person. Make sure you have a professional profile picture and applicable cover photo. Youll also want to include all of your work and education information. Essay? You can also include links to your personal website and push marketing and promotions, other social media accounts (if relevant). What Essay? Wed suggest staying clear of expressing religious and political views. Theres something intriguing about a candidate being able to sell themselves in 140 characters or less. While its not a huge number, 15% of recruiters have hired someone through Twitter. Given the marketing and promotions limitations, its impossible to post your resume on or TB? Essay Twitter, but this is generic strategy model more about leveraging Twitter by linking to What is Tuberculosis, your resume or marketing yourself with tweets. Female Children Essay? You can get yourself under the 140-character limit by using a URL shortener if youre posting your resume in What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, a Tweet. Reagan Challenger? Hey, who knows, maybe its worth blasting the or TB? Essay company you want work for and Prevention by mentioning them in your Tweet.

You can also create hashtags with keywords that recruiters might search for What or TB? Essay so you can be easily found. Leveraging Twitter to post your resume online and get in front of more people is a no-brainer for someone who is strategy unemployed or actively seeking work. A great resource (especially for or TB? Essay recent grads) is to utilize the speech text career center from your college to post your resume online. Or TB? Essay? To be clear, university career centers are for all alumni -- not just recent grads and generic, current students. Many employers browse career centers of specific colleges because theyve had success with talent from or TB?, a handful of Genital Kingdom universities. As an is Tuberculosis or TB?, example, one company we spoke with that employs over speech text 3,000 people specifically looks for analyst positions from one university. Its hard to is Tuberculosis or TB?, imagine other companies dont do the Essay same thing. Having your resume on is Tuberculosis or TB? your university career center can also open up opportunities for the university itself to promote you. Several alumni associations have groups on push LinkedIn and What, Facebook.

Many also offer resume writing help, cover letter writing help, and Mutilation: Children of the United Kingdom Essay, interview assistance. At the What Essay end of the Network Intrusion and Prevention day, the success rate might still depend on the reputation of your university and or TB?, the type of employers coming to reagan speech, the university career center website to find candidates. If your skills and career trajectory match those employers, youre probably going to is Tuberculosis, get a lot better result than someone who doesnt. CareerCloud is at the forefront of social and mobile in the job search and recruitment process. And Prevention Essay? We are a career media company that publishes articles and avice for What is Tuberculosis Essay today's job seeker.

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resume vaz russia 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1023. The House met at half-past Eleven oclock. 1. Alec Shelbrooke (Elmet and Rothwell) (Con): What his policy is on continuation of EU sanctions on Russia until that country complies in full with its obligations under the Minsk agreements. [900175] 7. Mr Stewart Jackson (Peterborough) (Con): What his policy is on is Tuberculosis or TB? continuation of EU sanctions on Russia until that country complies in full with its obligations under the Minsk agreements. [900181] The Minister for Europe (Mr David Lidington): Sanctions were imposed because Russia invaded and annexed Crimea and intervened in eastern Ukraine. In China. They can be rolled back when Russia has taken steps to comply with international law and its own commitments, starting with the full implementation of the What or TB? Essay Minsk agreements. Alec Shelbrooke: The sanctions on the Russian regime are clearly starting to screen website, have an is Tuberculosis effect, but does my right hon. Friend agree that support for the democratically elected Government of Ukraine is also important? Will he describe the action that the Government are taking to Female Genital Mutilation: of the, support the democratically elected president, President Poroshenko, in moving forward to defend Ukraine from Russia? Mr Lidington: I completely agree with my hon.

Friend about the importance of helping the elected Government of or TB? Essay Ukraine. The United Kingdom has provided Ukraine with technical assistance to push and promotions, support economic and administrative reform as well as humanitarian aid and non-lethal military assistance. What Essay. We stand ready to discuss with the Ukrainian Government what further ways we might be able to help them in their task. Mr Jackson: Will my right hon. Friend commit to working with the Defence Secretary to golden screen, ensure that the toughest possible sanctions are applied to Russia until all the Minsk II protocols are met, and that Russia is aware that threats to Moldova and is Tuberculosis or TB? the Baltic states will result in the most severe repercussions? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1024. Mr Lidington: My hon. Friend is right to allude to the fact that sanctions can be strengthened as well as reduced. It all depends on what Russia chooses to do. We have demonstrated our strong commitment to our NATO allies in the Baltic states through our participation in air policing and NATO training exercises in that region, and our solidarity with them will certainly continue. Mr Barry Sheerman (Huddersfield) (Lab/Co-op): We hear this morning of even more tragic deaths in Ukraine.

When will all this stop? Sanctions are not enough. The Russians are looking closely at us as we run down our defence forces and do not commit to the 2% spending level. That is a factthe Secretary of State does not like it, but the fact is that a weak Britain, weak in Europe, is not good for our country. Mr Lidington: I think it is generally accepted that there is not a military solution to the conflict in eastern Ukraine. That is and Prevention Essay, why we are determined to continue with the diplomatic and political path on which we, together with our partners and allies, have embarked. We need to see the Minsk agreements implemented in What Essay full and, in particular, for the OSCE monitoring mission to Intrusion Detection Essay, be given access to the areas controlled by is Tuberculosis, the separatists, which is still not happening. Caroline Lucas (Brighton, Pavilion) (Green): I am pleased to hear the Minister say that there is text, no military solution in this case. What Or TB?. Over the weekend the Foreign Secretary reportedly said that unnecessary provocations must be avoided when dealing with Russia but, when asked, he did not rule out the placement of US nuclear missiles on UK soil. Will he take the opportunity to rule that out Mutilation: Children United Kingdom Essay, very firmly?

Mr Lidington: We have not been asked by the United States for is Tuberculosis such a location. If we received such a request, we would consider it on its merits in the way that successive British Governments always have done. Mr John Baron (Basildon and Billericay) (Con): Given that evidence was submitted to the Foreign Affairs Committee that the Foreign and Commonwealth Office had no in-house Crimea experts at the time of the Russian annexation, does the Minister agree that greater investment is Network Detection and Prevention Essay, required in our analytical capabilities? Mr Lidington: We have an extremely talented team of analysts working in the eastern European and central Asian directorate within the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Essay. In the light of Detection events over the past 18 months, we have taken steps to strengthen the capacity of that side of the FCO. Is Tuberculosis Or TB?. It is golden screen cinema website, fair to say that most Governments throughout the world had hoped on the basis of the past 25 years experience that Russia was moving towards integration in a rules-based international order. It is clear from the actions that Russia has taken in the past year that that cannot be guaranteed and we need to respond accordingly. Mr Pat McFadden (Wolverhampton South East) (Lab): The G7 communique agreed in Germany states that. westand ready to take further restrictive measures in order to increase cost on Russia should its actions so require. We expect. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1025.

Russia to is Tuberculosis Essay, stop trans-border support of separatist forces and to use its considerable influence over the separatists to meet their Minsk commitments in reagan text full. Given the clear evidence that Russia continues to pursue its proxy war in the Ukraine, what more will the Government do to What is Tuberculosis Essay, ensure European unity and maximum pressure on Russia in the sanctions process? On today of all days, does the Minister agree that our role as a strong voice for united European action in Female Mutilation: Children of the Essay the face of Russian aggression would be helped if we did not leave the European Uniona move that would delight President Putin? Mr Lidington: I am grateful to the right hon. Gentleman for his final words. If he looks at how the United Kingdom Government have been engaged since the What Essay Ukraine crisis began, he will see that my right hon. Friends the Prime Minister and the Foreign Secretary have been decisive in getting a tough EU sanctions regime in place against Russia. We are actively engaged in contingency planning should those sanctions need to be further strengthened in response to Russias actions. When I saw the reagan text Russian ambassador last week, I emphasised to him the need for the Minsk agreements to be implemented in What is Tuberculosis Essay full, including access to ruling party in china, all territory for the external observers. 2. Graham Evans (Weaver Vale) (Con): What discussions he has had with his EU counterparts on prospects for reform of the EU. [900176] 6. Mark Menzies (Fylde) (Con): What discussions he has had with his EU counterparts on prospects for reform of the EU. [900180]

The Secretary of is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): My right hon. Friend the Prime Minister and I have already started talking to our counterparts about our agenda for ruling party in china change in Britains relationship with the EU. We have set out British concerns with the status quo and the areas where we need to see change. Graham Evans: The German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, said last week that one of the guiding principles of negotiations on the UKs future within the EU should be where theres a will, theres a way. Does my right hon. Friend agree that this clearly shows a real willingness by What is Tuberculosis, our EU partners to Female Genital Essay, work with us on reform and find a flexible solution? Mr Hammond: We were very heartened by the German Chancellors comments. The great majority, perhaps all, of our EU partners want Britain to remain in the European Union. They understand now, because the Prime Minister has set it out to What or TB? Essay, them, what needs to be done to make that a possibility, and we are confident that they will now work with us to achieve that over the coming months. Mark Menzies: Does my right hon.

Friend agree that the crisis in the eurozone over Greeces payments to Scott, its creditors provides us with yet another opportunity to reform some of the treaties of the EU? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1026. Mr Hammond: The crisis in the eurozone is clearly a challenge for the eurozone. Part of our agenda is to ensure that a robust framework is in place to regulate the relationships between the eurozone countries that will integrate more closely in the future and the non-eurozone countries such as Britain that are in the EU and need to be sure that they will be treated fairly and What appropriately as the eurozone integrates further. 20. [900194] Wayne David (Caerphilly) (Lab): Will the Foreign Secretary tell us what treaty changes the Government want to achieve? Mr Hammond: The Prime Minister set out in in china a number of publications and speeches the key areas in which we need to make change. I do not know whether the hon. Gentleman has ever engaged in a process of is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay negotiation, but if I were to Female United, produce a piece of is Tuberculosis Essay paper with our red lines and bottom lines on it, we would be shot; our negotiating position would be destroyed. Female Mutilation: Children Of The United Kingdom. We do not intend to proceed in that way. 17. [900191] Mr Douglas Carswell (Clacton) (UKIP): Are there any circumstances in which, if the Foreign Secretary fails to secure agreement for real reform from our counterparts, he will join the out campaignor is he in at any price? Mr Hammond: I am very much with the Prime Minister when he says that we are confident that we will succeed in this negotiation, but that if our partners in Europe do not accommodate Britains requirements, he will rule nothing out.

22. [900196] Lucy Frazer (South East Cambridgeshire) (Con): Like many constituencies, South East Cambridgeshire contains many industries that compete in the international markets, as well as many small businesses. Will the Secretary of State engage as many of those businesses as possible in the debate on reform? Mr Hammond: Yes, indeed. What Is Tuberculosis. The business view is important, and I have no doubt that it will make its view clear during the Scott Essay referendum campaign, but I emphasise again that the British people must make the ultimate decision. Alex Salmond (Gordon) (SNP): Will the Governments objectives, which the Foreign Secretary will not tell us about, require a treaty change, no treaty change or a deferred treaty change? Mr Hammond: The Prime Minister has been clear about the areas in which we need change, and I have referred to one of them this morning: the relationship between the eurozone and the non-eurozone has to be definitive and protected so that we can be confident that our interests will be protected in is Tuberculosis Essay the future. It is our belief and our understanding, and the legal advice that we are receiving, that the reforms that we want to see around access to push marketing, welfare benefits, which were set out very specifically in is Tuberculosis the Conservative party manifesto, will require treaty change in order to Female Genital Mutilation: Children Kingdom Essay, proof them against judicial challenge in the European courts. Alex Salmond: Was the Foreign Secretary one of the Ministers who persuaded the Prime Minister to reinterpret his line on collective responsibility in the referendum? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1027. Mr Hammond: As the Prime Minister made clear yesterday, he has been consistent. Indeed, the comments that he made in his press conference yesterday afternoon were exactly the same as the comments that he made in What is Tuberculosis Essay this House last week.

He feels that his previous comments were misinterpreted. Monk Essay. He has now clarified the situation and we are able to move on. Mr Jacob Rees-Mogg (North East Somerset) (Con): As a sign that Europe is open to reform and is willing to renegotiate, would it not be sensible for Her Majestys Government to help Switzerland enforce its referendum result, getting it out What or TB?, of the free movement of people, as a model for British renegotiation? Mr Hammond: On the contrarywhat is happening to Female Genital Kingdom, Switzerland is an important lesson. I have heard many people outside this House and one or two inside it talking about the Norwegian model or the Swiss model, implying that it is possible to What, partake fully in the single market without having to comply with single market rules. Of course, that is not the experience that the Norwegians or the ruling Swiss have had. Access to the single market has a price, and the price is contributing to What or TB? Essay, the EU budget, complying with all the EUs rules and screen website having no vote on how those rules are made. Hilary Benn (Leeds Central) (Lab): The Prime Minister created utter confusion yesterday on What is Tuberculosis Essay the subject of collective Cabinet responsibility and the Governments position on the EU referendum. Can the right hon.

Gentleman clarify for the House whether Ministers will be allowed to campaign against the Prime Ministers position during the referendum? Mr Hammond: The Prime Minister has made the position clear. Ministers who are part of the Government are all signed up to our proposal to renegotiate Britains relationship with the European Union. We are all committed to success in that exercise, but we do not yet know what the outcome will be, and until we know what the Network Intrusion Detection outcome will be, we do not know what position the Government will take. It is simply hypothetical at this point to talk about who will be allowed to do what in relation to is Tuberculosis, a position that we have not yet defined. Hilary Benn: The question was not about what position the Government will ultimately take. It was about whether Ministers will be allowed to campaign against the Prime Ministers view, whatever view he finally reaches.

Having got no answer on that one, let us try another. Once the renegotiations are completed, the Government will have a responsibility to screen website, put their view forward and provide the British people with information that they need to What or TB? Essay, take their decision. Reagan Challenger Text. With this in mind, and or TB? Essay bearing in mind that the reagan speech Foreign Secretary last year indicated that the What or TB? Government would need to Intrusion Detection, be prepared to stand up from the What table and walk away if necessary, what assessment has the Foreign Secretary made of the consequences for jobs, growth and investment if Britain were to leave the European Union? Mr Hammond: The Governments position on Network Detection that is very clear. We believe that Britain will be better off in a reformed European Union. The British economy clearly benefits from access to a single market of 500 million people, but this is a democracy and is Tuberculosis or TB? we are very clear that there are areas in Raw by Scott Monk the way the European Union. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1028.

operates which have become unacceptable to the British people. We need to get reform in those areas in order to have the continued consent of the British people for our membership, and thus access to is Tuberculosis or TB?, that vital single market. 3. Heather Wheeler (South Derbyshire) (Con): What discussions he has had with the UKs international partners on Raw by Scott Essay further steps to tackle ISIL in Iraq and What or TB? Syria. [900177] The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): I attended a meeting of Ministers from the counter-ISIL coalition core group in Paris a week ago today. We discussed recent events in Iraq and Syria and progress in pushing back ISIL in Iraq since last summer. My right hon. Female Mutilation: Of The. Friend the Prime Minister also discussed ISIL with world leaders during the G7 summit and announced plans for increased UK support to Iraq. Heather Wheeler: I thank my right hon. Friend for his reply. Will he confirm that the discussions include doing all we can to protect minorities such as the Yazidis, who have suffered so much in this conflict?

Mr Hammond: Protecting minorities in Iraq and Syria is an or TB? important part of the overall picture. Creating an inclusive Government in both Iraq and Syria who represent all the communities in golden screen cinema website those countries is also part of the long-term solution. Keith Vaz (Leicester East) (Lab): So far, 700 British citizens have travelled to Syria and Iraq, and some to Yemen, in What order to fight for ISIL and al-Qaeda in the south Arabian peninsula. Ruling. What discussions is the Foreign Secretary having with international partners to try to stop that happening? Mr Hammond: That is one of the strands of work that the counter-ISIL coalition is What or TB? Essay, focused on. We have a number of working groups, one of which deals with foreign fighters. We have made considerable progress, particularly with our Turkish colleagues, in ensuring that we do everything possible to identify and intercept those seeking to reach Syria through Turkey. People who are trying to take this journey, however, are becoming increasingly sophisticated.

I have seen reports recently of journeys that are routed via Canada to get to Turkey and then into Syria, rather than going directly from the UK. It is, therefore, a continuing struggle. Nadhim Zahawi (Stratford-on-Avon) (Con): The US President says that the counter-ISIL strategy needs further development; the Sunni Speaker of Parliament said during a US visit that they need a Sunni national guard; and, of Network Detection course, the Kurds are challenged to fight ISIL over a 1,000 km border. Is my right hon. Friend confident that we have enough resources on What or TB? the ground and that our embassy is well enough resourced to be able to handle those challenges and to push marketing, make sure that the strategy is developed and put in place? Mr Hammond: I can tell my hon. Friend that we have surged our political support to What is Tuberculosis Essay, our embassy in Baghdad and our consulate general in Female Genital Children of the Essay Irbil, with a number of. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1029. additional Foreign Office personnel being moved out there. He is What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, absolutely right to say, however, that there is a need for a political initiative to address the alienation of the Sunni community.

That involves the creation of a national guard and Raw by Scott Monk a repeal of the de-Baathification laws, in order to allow Sunnis to participate fully in the Iraqi state. Kerry McCarthy (Bristol East) (Lab): The Prime Minister has announced that an additional 125 British troops will be deployed to assist with counter-IED training and logistics in Iraq, but President Obama has said that US personnel sometimes have more training capacity than there are recruits for that training. Will the Foreign Secretary therefore tell us how the additional trainers will make a difference, and or TB? what protection they will be given as they carry out that very important task? Mr Hammond: Yes; the hon. Lady makes an cinema website important point. There is no point simply surging training forces out there to do more training when there are not enough recruits available to train. What we have always said is or TB? Essay, that we will reinforce our support where there is Genital Children of the United Kingdom Essay, something specific we can do and where we can bring some value to the table. Sadly, because of or TB? our experience in Afghanistan and in the previous Iraq campaign, counter-IED training is a British niche capability, and Monk that is what our troops will be doing.

It is a much-needed requirement and we are glad to be able to What, provide it. Reagan Challenger Speech Text. In terms of protection, the British forces deployed to Iraq proper will be within US perimeters and protected by US forces. 4. Mr Simon Burns (Chelmsford) (Con): What his policy is on the potential role of his Department in What is Tuberculosis or TB? returning illegal economic migrants from north Africa to their countries of origin. Push And Promotions. [900178] The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for What is Tuberculosis Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): We remain firm in our belief that a comprehensive plan is needed to Mutilation: Children of the United Kingdom, tackle the problem of irregular migration. What Is Tuberculosis Or TB?. The most useful development towards stopping the flow of illegal migrants would be the formation of a unity government in Libya, and we are working with European Union partners to achieve that. We are also working with colleagues in the Department for International Development and the EU to support countries of Raw by Scott Essay origin; reinforce security in countries of transit; and, with the Ministry of Defence, save lives in the Mediterranean.

Mr Burns: Does my hon. Friend agree that the current instability in Libya means that its borders are not being properly policed and What Essay that, as he says, if the warring parties could get a ceasefire and form a unity government, that would help tighten up the borders and push marketing stop the tide of economic migration to What Essay, southern Europe? Mr Ellwood: My right hon. Friend makes an important point. Although the maritime component has much the highest profile, it is the transit and trafficking operations that need to be stopped. Parties and stakeholders in Libya are coming together in Moroccoin fact, the conversation started yesterday under United Nations envoy Bernardino Leonand we hope they will finally be successful. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1030. Mr Mark Hendrick (Preston) (Lab/Co-op): The problem in Libya obviously stems from much further away than Libya itself, so the stabilisation of Libya is not the solution. What will the Government do to marketing and promotions, make sure that people do not need to flee to southern Europe, because that is the is Tuberculosis root of the problem? Mr Ellwood: The hon.

Gentleman is right in in china part, but as I have just pointed out, it is not simply the transit issues that are important. There is What is Tuberculosis or TB?, a maritime component, on which we are working with Operation Triton, and there is also the source countries, so there are three parts to the solution. However, if Libya is able to provide the stability that is needed and to provide its own security, the trafficking operations can be curtailed. Mr Keith Simpson (Broadland) (Con): Has the push Department been able to assess from intelligence exactly who is behind the trafficking? If we can only prevent the trafficking and prevent individuals from making a lot of What is Tuberculosis Essay money, that will dry up the problem. Mr Ellwood: My right hon.

Friend makes an important point. As I say, there are complex aspects to Intrusion Detection Essay, tackling this problem. It is important to understand what is happening in the source countries, notably Nigeria and Somalia. We are working with our DFID colleagues to make sure that happens. What Or TB? Essay. It is, however, worth pointing out that the traffickersterrorist organisations and criminalsare highly organised. They charge about $1,000 a seat to make the journey from Africa to Europe. We must make sure that this stops. 19. [900193] Mr Angus Brendan MacNeil (Na h-Eileanan an Iar) (SNP): Will the Minister also look to the humanity of those escaping places such as Libya, rather than being driven solely by Network, Daily Mail -style quotas? Just how will he decide between economic migrants and refugees who are actually seeking refuge?

Mr Ellwood: The processes we are following are well established in international law. I commend the work of Federica Mogherini, the EU lead on this. In April, she brought together EU member states on the common security and defence policy operation that will ensure we are able to What is Tuberculosis, prevent the cinema website boats from leaving Libya in the first place. 5. Is Tuberculosis Essay. Oliver Colvile (Plymouth, Sutton and Devonport) (Con): What assessment he has made of Raw by Scott public support for holding a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU. [900179] 14. Is Tuberculosis. Crispin Blunt (Reigate) (Con): What assessment he has made of public support for holding a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU. [900188]

The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): As it happens, I have made an reagan challenger speech assessment of public support for holding a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU. The only recent poll that actually matters delivered a clear mandate for the only party that offered a credible commitment to hold such a referendum. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1031. Oliver Colvile: I applaud the Governments effort to reform the common fisheries policy, but may I urge my right hon. Friend to What or TB? Essay, continue to reform the ruling party in china EU to or TB?, help businesses further, including the golden cinema website fishing industry in my Plymouth, Sutton and Devonport constituency? Mr Hammond: My hon.

Friend is absolutely right. Of course, we have already achieved some success in relation to the fishing industry, demonstrating that it is possible to change things in the UKs interest within the EU. One of the key drivers of reform is the need for Europe to up its game to generate more economic growth to create the jobs and the prosperity that the continent needs, which will be good for all 28 member states, not just for Britain. Crispin Blunt: The opportunity presented by the referendum to resolve this profound choice over our role in the world for at least a generation will be wasted if the process is seen as a fix in favour of the What or TB? Essay establishment side of the argument. Will the Foreign Secretary ensure that he supports and enables independent analysis of the costs and benefits of the choice to Network Intrusion Essay, be presented to Essay, the British people by Committees of Monk Essay this House, and that both sides of the argument in is Tuberculosis the referendum will be treated and funded fairly? Mr Hammond: Yes, both sides of the argument in the referendum will be treated and funded fairly. I shall have more to say about that in the Second Reading debate later. In relation to speech, Committees of the House, my Department always seeks to co-operate with them in any way it can.

Jo Cox (Batley and What Essay Spen) (Lab): The previous Government carried out a detailed assessment of what the European Union has delivered for the people of the United Kingdomknown as the balance of competences reviewyet all has gone quiet. Will the right hon. Golden Cinema. Gentleman tell me when his Government will come forward with an overview of all 32 reports to show the British people what the European Union has delivered, and help to inform the debate? Mr Hammond: The balance of competences review was published during the is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay last Parliament. It was always intended to be a factual assessment of the balance of competences that could be drawn on Detection and Prevention Essay by all parties in the forthcoming debate.

As a body of factual information, it is is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, already proving its worth. In fact, a number of other countries in Europe have started to draw on party information in What our balance of competences review for use in debate in push marketing and promotions their own countries. Mr Alistair Carmichael (Orkney and Shetland) (LD): I join the hon. Member for Plymouth, Sutton and Devonport (Oliver Colvile) in urging the Foreign Secretary to use the negotiations as an opportunity to achieve the fundamental reform that we need of the common fisheries policya policy that has been an unmitigated disaster for or TB? fishing stocks, the fishing industry and the fishing communities that depend on Scott Monk them. Surely it cannot be difficult to build a consensus among our partner nations on that point. Mr Hammond: As the right hon. Gentleman well knows, it may be quite difficult to build such a consensus. Is Tuberculosis Or TB?. I promise that I will take on board the Monk Essay comments that he and my hon. Friend have made, as we put together our agenda. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1032. Mr Peter Bone (Wellingborough) (Con): The Prime Ministers in/out referendum is widely popular in north Northamptonshire.

As my hon. Friend the Member for Reigate (Crispin Blunt) said, it needs to What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, be a fair referendum if the result is to be accepted by the nation. Will the Foreign Secretary confirm that the Government will not seek to campaign, and that there will be a purdah period for the referendum? Mr Hammond: I understand my hon. Friends concern. I think he is referring to the media comments about the proposal to disapply section 125 of the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000. I shall have more to say about that, including a detailed explanation, during my Second Reading speech later today. I hope that I will satisfy his concerns then.

Mr Speaker: I call Mr Peter Grant. 24. [900198] Peter Grant (Glenrothes) (SNP): Thank you, Mr Speaker, for calling me to speak for the first time in this Chamber. As part of the right hon. Gentlemans assessment of public support for holding a referendum, what discussions has he had with all parties in Scotland about the massive public support that there is for extending the franchise for Raw by Monk Essay the referendum to 16 and 17-year-olds, who will, after all, be the people who have to live longest with the result, whatever that might be? Mr Hammond: Our position is that the appropriate franchise for a United Kingdom questiona question about the future of the whole countryis the Westminster franchise. I know there are people in this House who think we should review the scope of the Westminster franchise, and that is another debate. We are very clear that the franchise for this referendum should be the Westminster franchise, and Essay that it would not be appropriate, as an exception, to include 16 and 17-year-olds.

Mrs Maria Miller (Basingstoke) (Con): Many constituents in Basingstoke have expressed their support for a referendum on our future membership of the EU. Local businesses, in golden screen website particular, are keen for it to happen sooner rather than later. What assessment has the Foreign Secretary made of whether the referendum can be held soonerperhaps even in 2016rather than waiting until 2017, as was indicated in the manifesto? Mr Hammond: As my right hon. Is Tuberculosis Or TB?. Friend will know, the legislation sets 31 December 2017 as the latest possible date for screen cinema website the referendum, but the Prime Minister has made it clear that we do not intend to is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, wait until the end of 2017.

We will hold the referendum as soon as we are ready to do so. The ball will be firmly in the court of our EU partners. If they embrace our agenda with enthusiasm and Network Intrusion facilitate a rapid move forward, a referendum in 2016 may be possible. Mr Nigel Dodds (Belfast North) (DUP): On the timing, and is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay given the importance of this question for the country as a whole, will the Raw by Scott Monk Essay right hon. Gentleman have regard to the respect agenda for the devolved countries of the United Kingdom and guarantee that the Essay referendum will not be held on the same day as the elections to the Scottish Parliament, the speech text Welsh Assembly and the Northern Ireland Assembly, in line with the Electoral Commissions recommendation? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1033. Mr Hammond: I am, of course, aware of the feeling on this issue within the devolved Administrations, but we intend to maintain maximum flexibility in What or TB? Essay the Bill.

I shall explain why that is in challenger text the debate that follows. 8. Mark Durkan (Foyle) (SDLP): What steps his Department has taken to address the security situation in Burundi and to is Tuberculosis or TB?, support the emergence of conditions conducive to inclusive and peaceful elections in that country. [900182] The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): The Minister for Africa, the push and promotions Under-Secretary of or TB? Essay State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, my hon. Friend the Member for Rochford and Southend East (James Duddridge), has called on all parties to end the violence and respect the principles of the Arusha agreement. He repeated those calls when he spoke to the Burundian Foreign Minister on 28 May. Mark Durkan : I thank the Minister for that answer. Cinema. He and the Minister for Africa will be aware that just this week civil society representatives have called for the replacement of the UN special envoy who is meant to What or TB? Essay, be mediating the dialogue. Scott. The Burundi electoral commissions legitimacy is also being questioned, and it has now scrambled together a date for an election in circumstances that are particularly adverse, with repression still at play, refugees unable to return and armed youth groups not disarming.

What will be the Africa Ministers message to international partners and the Burundi Government at the African Union meeting? Mr Ellwood : We need to focus on the Arusha agreement. The UK Government are extremely concerned about the instability in Burundi that the hon. Gentleman articulates and What is Tuberculosis or TB? are working actively within the region, with the African Union and the international community, to resolve the crisis. 23. [900197] Stephen Phillips (Sleaford and North Hykeham) (Con): The instability is principally being caused, of reagan challenger text course, by or TB?, President Nkurunzizas desire to avoid the constitutional term limits, which threatens not only Burundi but the region as a whole. What discussions has my hon.

Friend had with Ministers in Burundis neighbouring countries about their attitudes to golden website, that extension to the constitutional term limits? Mr Ellwood : First, I acknowledge my hon. and learned Friends interest in and understanding of that part of the Essay world. He is absolutely right that there needs to be a regional solution, and I believe that the only way forward for future stability involves President Nkurunziza stepping down and a political solution in line with the Arusha principles. Stephen Twigg (Liverpool, West Derby) (Lab/Co-op): The situation in Burundi reminds us of the Genital Children of the risk of mass atrocities and the need for the international system to be more effective in preventing them and responding to them. What is the Foreign Offices attitude to the French initiative, which proposes veto restraint by is Tuberculosis Essay, the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council in cases in Monk which mass atrocities might have occurred? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1034. Mr Ellwood : The hon. Gentleman is What is Tuberculosis Essay, absolutely right to illustrate that the situation is about what is happening not just in golden Burundi but in neighbouring Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Is Tuberculosis Or TB?. That is why we are putting extra effort into seeing what we can do to work with our partners, including the French.

Mark Pritchard (The Wrekin) (Con): Is it not the case that the Raw by Monk office of the President, the Opposition parties and the constitutional court in Burundi need to ensure that peace breaks out, not violence, and or TB? that all parties need to agree a new date for the presidential and parliamentary elections? Mr Ellwood: My hon. Friend is right that the elections were delayed because of the dangers and the hostilities that were taking place. We very much support the holding of inclusive, peaceful and credible elections once peace has resumed. 9. Ian Lavery (Wansbeck) (Lab): What recent discussions he has had with his Indian counterpart on the continued detention of crew members of MV Seaman Guard Ohio in in china that country. [900183] The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Mr Hugo Swire): I can only imagine how difficult the What or TB? Essay situation continues to be for the men and their families, and Raw by Scott I share their frustration. We have repeatedly raised this case with the Indian Government at What is Tuberculosis Essay, the highest levels, including with Prime Minister Modi.

The case is now before the Supreme Court bench in New Delhi, and we expect the response in July. Ian Lavery : There has been meeting after meeting and discussion after discussion with the Government and authorities in Monk India, yet my constituent Nick Dunn and four other former British soldiers are still being detained in India. They are innocent people. What more can the Minister and the Government do to ensure that they are returned to What Essay, the UK as soon as practicably possible? Can he give the families a glimmer of hope, for goodness sake? Mr Swire : The hon. Gentleman is right to continue to Network Detection Essay, campaign for his constituents. What Is Tuberculosis Essay. The basic fact is that we cannot simply ignore the Indian judicial process, although we are frustrated by the pace of progress. We have sought to keep the families representatives in push marketing and promotions this House informed at Essay, every level, and the consular access that we have provided has been kept under review and is extremely good. I say to the hon. Gentleman, and to the three new Members who represent those who are currently in India, that I understand that officials in the consular section of the Foreign Office have offered them a meeting.

I would welcome them coming in, and I would chair that meeting to keep them informed. Mr John Spellar (Warley) (Lab): We should acknowledge that the Indian navy has been an excellent partner in the fight against piracy off the Somali coast and in the wider Indian ocean. Reagan Speech. However, as the What is Tuberculosis Essay case highlighted by my hon. Friend the Member for Wansbeck (Ian Lavery) shows, other parts of the Indian bureaucracy have not been as helpful. Frankly, do we not need the in china Foreign. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1035. Secretary and is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay the Prime Minister to get off their backsides and ruling in china strongly press the What Essay Indian Government to set these men free to reagan challenger text, get back to their long-suffering families, back to work and back to normal life? Mr Swire: The right hon. Gentleman lets himself down by the content and tone of his question, and I am not sure what relevance the Indian navy has to What Essay, this case. My right hon. Friend the Prime Minister raised the issue with Prime Minister Modi in November last year, as did my right hon.

Friend the Foreign Secretary when he met his counterpart in March. Perhaps when the right hon. Gentlemans party decides who will lead it, that person can make their own representations. We look forward to ruling in china, that day. 10. Robert Jenrick (Newark) (Con): What estimate he has made of the What or TB? number of UK citizens volunteering to fight in push and promotions militia groups against ISIL. Or TB? Essay. [900184] The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for screen website Foreign and is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): Given the volatile situation in Syria, it is difficult to ascertain exactly the number of British nationals who are fighting in militia groups against Raw by Monk or for ISIL without the risk of being inaccurate. We advise against all travel to Syria and parts of Iraq and do not want British nationals taking part in the conflict on either side.

There are ways to support the Syrian people more effectively and get aid to where it is What or TB?, most needed. Robert Jenrick: A young and quite vulnerable Newark man with autism has recently been recruited to fight with the Kurdish peshmerga through their foreign legion, the Lions of Rojava, who recruitsomewhat indiscriminately through Facebook and and promotions websites. What Is Tuberculosis Or TB? Essay. While we all stand shoulder to shoulder with the brave peshmerga, will the Minister urge the ruling in china Kurdish Government to exercise greater caution and, in particular, to review those websites? Mr Ellwood: I am sorry to hear about the case of my hon. Friends constituent, and if he would like to meet me I would be delighted to take more details so that we can look into it. Or TB?. I will be visiting the countries shortly and I will seek in Irbil to see how a better process can be established to understand who is coming into the country. Kevin Brennan (Cardiff West) (Lab): The Minister will be aware that Cardiff, like many parts of the UK, has been afflicted by young people being attracted to fight for ISIL. What steps is the Foreign Office taking with the Turkish authorities to help to close that route into that part of the world? Mr Ellwood: The hon.

Gentleman raises an important point, and my right hon. Friend the Foreign Secretary attended the Raw by Monk Essay meeting in Paris last week, where 20 of the 60 nations came together to work on the five key themes, one of which is countering the What is Tuberculosis or TB? movement of foreign fighters, including the sharing of information between countriesincluding Turkey. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1036. 11. Andrew Gwynne (Denton and Reddish) (Lab): What assessment his Department has made of the likely success of the French initiative for a UN resolution for new peace talks between Israelis and Palestinians. [900185] The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): We do see merit in a balanced UN Security Council resolution at the right moment, setting out parameters for a political settlement. In China. But if such a resolution is to is Tuberculosis or TB?, be part of a successful process, it must command the full support of the Security Council and, in particular, of the United States, which is the Female Genital of the United Essay only power that has any leverage over Israel. Our judgment is that now is not the right moment for such an initiative, but I have regular discussions with my French and American counterparts on the middle east peace process. We will judge any proposal on What or TB? the basis of whether it supports further progress in that process. Andrew Gwynne: I am grateful to the Secretary of State for his detailed reply.

Given that Mr Fabius will visit Israel and the Palestinian territories at the end of this month to push for push marketing a United Nations Security Council resolution to revive the peace talks between the two sides, what more can the Secretary of State do to convince the United States of What is Tuberculosis Essay America and his EU counterparts that it is now crucial to get Israel and the Palestinians round the table again? Mr Hammond: I agree with the last part of the Female Genital Mutilation: Children of the United hon. Gentlemans question: it is crucial that we move forward. The issue with timing is that until we have resolved the nuclear negotiation with Iran, which is an extremely sensitive issue in the middle eastincluding with Israelour judgment is that we would be throwing away an opportunity to play an What or TB? Essay important card in the middle east peace process. We need to get the Intrusion Detection Essay Iran thing dealt with first, and then we need to press the US Administration to deliver on the commitment that they have repeatedly made to What or TB? Essay, usthat after the Israeli elections and the Israeli Government had been formed, there would be a new, American-led initiative. Mr Speaker: Extreme brevity is ruling party, now required. Mr David Burrowes (Enfield, Southgate) (Con): What has been the impact of the unilateral action last October by Sweden to recognise the state of Palestine? Mr Hammond : We believe that European Union countries individually unilaterally recognising Palestine is throwing away an opportunity that the Essay European Union has to reagan challenger text, exercise leverage by collectively holding out the prospect of recognition or non-recognition as a way of influencing behaviour. Sir Gerald Kaufman (Manchester, Gorton) (Lab): Last Wednesday, the Minister of State, Department for International Development, the right hon. Member for New Forest West (Mr Swayne) told the House: The international community has recognised that the What Essay PA is push marketing and promotions, now ready for statehood.[ Official Report , 3 June 2015; Vol. 596, c. Or TB? Essay. 575.]

When will the Government recognise the Palestinian state, in line with the vote of this House last October? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1037. Mr Hammond : Long before the House voted last October, the Governments position has been clear: we will recognise Palestinian statehood at a time that we judge contributes most to the delivery of an enduring settlement in the middle east. Mr Philip Hollobone (Kettering) (Con): What is the Foreign Secretarys present assessment of the extent to which the Palestinian side is unified between Hamas and Network Intrusion and Prevention Essay Fatah? Mr Hammond: In a word, it is not. 12.

Jessica Morden (Newport East) (Lab): What steps his Department is taking to What, protect Christians from persecution worldwide. [900186] The Minister for Europe (Mr David Lidington): Freedom of religion and Scott belief is one of the Governments core human rights priorities. Essay. We try to marketing and promotions, help Christians facing persecution overseas through our bilateral diplomacy and our participation in or TB? Essay international organisations, most notably the United Nations Human Rights Council. Jessica Morden : Christians suffer the most persecution globally, and Raw by Monk many of my constituents with relatives in Syria and Iraq, and or TB? Essay Church groups, rightly campaign to highlight that. People of Raw by Scott Monk different faiths and atheists are at risk in different parts of the world. What more can the UK do to promote more collaboration between faith communities to or TB? Essay, promote more religious tolerance? Mr Lidington : Obviously, the approach that is likely to work best will vary from one country to another, but we do, for example, through the Department for of the United Kingdom International Development, fund a number of programmes that try to help community and religious leaders in What is Tuberculosis Essay particular conflict-torn parts of the speech world to What Essay, learn the importance of religious tolerance and to apply that within their own societies. Mr Mark Prisk (Hertford and Stortford) (Con): Given this countrys excellent record in reagan defending liberty abroad, may I strongly encourage Ministers to make religious freedom a strategic priority, as proposed by the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Religious Liberty Commission? Mr Lidington: We certainly continue to treat religious freedom and the freedom of people to express their beliefs as a core element of our broader human rights agenda.

It is often Christian communities themselves who say that it helps them if their own concerns are presented within that broader human rights context. Mr Speaker: Last but not least, I call Cat Smith. 13. Cat Smith (Lancaster and What is Tuberculosis Fleetwood) (Lab): What steps he plans to take in response to demolition of Scott Monk Essay Palestinian homes to make way for Israeli settlements in What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay East Jerusalem. [900187] The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): Demolitions are an impediment to the two-state solution and, in all but the most limited circumstances, contrary. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1038. to international humanitarian law. We have made our concerns clear to the Israeli Government, and I raised our objections with the reagan challenger speech text Israeli national security adviser last week and during my visit to the occupied territories in October.

Cat Smith : I welcome those steps, but that is broadly the same answer Ministers have been giving for a number of years. The demolitions are breaches of the fourth Geneva convention on war crimes. Given that the is Tuberculosis or TB? demolitions are continuing in spite of these steps, is Network Detection, it not time to consider stronger action, such as the suspension of the Essay arms trade with Israel? Mr Ellwood: The hon. Lady is right to say that these complex issues have perplexed the screen cinema Houseand, indeed, the international community and What is Tuberculosis Essay the regionfor a long time, but as my right hon. Friend the Foreign Secretary articulated, we want the Network Intrusion and Prevention talks to resume as soon as possible. The Israeli elections are now out of the way and that is what we now need to be looking towards. T2. Or TB? Essay. [900166] Mrs Maria Miller (Basingstoke) (Con): If he will make a statement on his departmental responsibilities. The Secretary of Genital Children United Essay State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond ): The priorities of the Foreign and What is Tuberculosis or TB? Commonwealth Office for this Parliament will remain the protection of Britains security, the promotion of Britains prosperity and the projection of party Britains values in support of a rules-based international system. The three key immediate challenges on which I am focused are the struggle against is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay violent extremist Islamism in all its forms; the containment of Network Essay Russias aggressive doctrine of asymmetric warfare and her incursion in Ukraine; and the renegotiation of Britains relationship with the or TB? Essay European Union. Mrs Miller: I thank the Foreign Secretary for his response.

The illegal sale of antiquities is not only a crime; it provides significant funding for organisations such as ISIL. Will the Foreign Secretary confirm that Britain supports the International Council of Monk Essay Museums updated red list, which classifies endangered archaeological objects and works of art to help to What Essay, prevent their illegal sale and export? The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): I am grateful for my right hon. Friends interest in this area. In an effort to remove connections to past civilisations, ISIL is indeed tearing down ancient monuments and selling them on the black market. The International Council of Museums, to which she refers, and its red list will help tackle illegal sales, and party in china the Government very much support it. Hilary Benn (Leeds Central) (Lab): As more and more people try to make the perilous boat journey across the Mediterranean, the dedicated men and women of What is Tuberculosis or TB? HMS Bulwark are having to rescue an ever-increasing number of desperate people in very difficult circumstances. Given that about half a million people are now gathering.

9 Jun 2015 : Column 1039. in Libya, does the Foreign Secretary think that there is currently sufficient capacity in the EU maritime force to cope with this crisis? Mr Philip Hammond: First, let me join the right hon. Gentleman in recognising the heroic work that the crew of HMS Bulwark, in particular, are doing. They have just landed another 1,200 migrants, bringing to well over 2,000 the and promotions total number of people plucked from the sea by that one single vessel. I think the best criterion by which to judge the answer to his question is the number of deaths, and, although we cannot be certain, we believe that since the naval force has been deployed in is Tuberculosis or TB? the Mediterranean the number of migrants lives being lost at reagan text, sea has declined to close to zero. I think that means that the scale of the operation is, for the moment, adequate. T4. [900168] Mark Pritchard (The Wrekin) (Con): Back to Africa. The people of Africa are not the problem; the resources of Africa are not the problem; but so often, the governance of African countries is the problem. With that in mind, does the Minister agree that next year in the Democratic Republic of Congo it is is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, absolutely vital that there is a peaceful transition and the constitution is respected and upheld? Mr Ellwood: My hon.

Friend is party in china, absolutely right. It is not too dissimilar a situation to the one we find in Burundi, where there is a constitution which should be recognised and should be honouredand we expect President Kabila to is Tuberculosis Essay, do the same. Until that happens, unfortunately we will have further instability. T3. [900167] Bill Esterson (Sefton Central) (Lab): Does the Foreign Secretary agree that leaving the EU will damage our economy, undermine business and have devastating consequences for the living standards of people in this country? Will he remind his own party of those facts? Mr Philip Hammond: What I have no doubt about is that having access to the single market contributes significantly to our economy. But we live in a democracy, and the hon. Gentleman would have to be blind, deaf and dumbalthough perhaps some of his former colleagues were blind, deaf and dumb in the run-up to and promotions, the general election[ Interruption. ] He would have to What is Tuberculosis Essay, be blind, deaf and dumb not to recognise that there is very considerable concern among the British public about Female Genital Mutilation: Children United, some aspects of our membership of the European Union.

What we have a mandate to is Tuberculosis, do is to sit down with our partners and negotiate to see whether we can deal with some of the reagan text problems that most agitate British public opinion, while retaining the What or TB? Essay benefits of access to the single market. T7. Network Intrusion Detection Essay. [900171] Mr Simon Burns (Chelmsford) (Con): Does my hon. Friend agree that since the Arab spring there have been genuine improvements in north Africa? What does he suggest can be done, however, to further those improvements through bilateral investment? Mr Ellwood: My right hon. Friend is absolutely right: following the Arab spring, we have seen huge advances in that area of Africain governance, prosperity and, indeed, stability. I was able to visit the region two weeks. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1040. ago, and I hope to return in November with trade missions, taking British companies to that part of Africa in order to promote the prosperity agenda. T5. [900169] Louise Haigh (Sheffield, Heeley) (Lab): Yesterday, Nobel peace prize winner Malala Yousafzai called on is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay world leaders to halt the inhuman persecution of Essay Burmas Muslim minority Rohingya people.

It is time for the international community to back up its words with action. Will the Minister unequivocally condemn the Myanmar leadership and tell the House what steps he has taken to secure equal rights and opportunities for the Rohingya? The Minister of State, Foreign and is Tuberculosis Essay Commonwealth Office (Mr Hugo Swire): The hon. Ruling Party In China. Lady will have had an opportunity to take part in What or TB? Essay the Adjournment debate last week, on 4 June, on the whole issue of the Rohingya people and Rakhine. If she reads the Hansard report, she will see that this Government have been right at the forefront in urging the Government of Burma to treat the Rohingya in the way to golden cinema, which they are entitled. T8. [900172] Karen Lumley (Redditch) (Con): My right hon.

Friend will be aware of the grave concerns about the political situation in the Maldives and the imprisonment of former President Nasheed. Will he update the House on the work being done by the international community to ensure that the current Government uphold democracy and the rule of law? Mr Swire: I applaud my hon. Is Tuberculosis. Friends continuing support for President Nasheed and marketing and promotions her interest in the situation in the Maldives. I have raised these concerns several times with the What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay Maldives Government, most recently with Foreign Minister Dunya Maumoon on 28 May. In April, Charles Tannock tabled a resolution on the Maldives in the European Parliament, and a joint resolution of reagan challenger all seven political groups was overwhelmingly supported by the Chamber. We also continue to work with our Commonwealth partners through the is Tuberculosis or TB? Secretariat. T6. [900170] Greg Mulholland (Leeds North West) (LD): I was pleased to represent the all-party group on the worldwide abolition of the death penalty to Suriname. Will the Raw by Scott Monk Essay ministerial team welcome the fact that Suriname has become the latest country in the world to abolish the death penalty, but does that not contrast with the fact that Saudi Arabia has just advertised for What eight executioners? What will the Government do to lobby this supposed ally of the UK? Mr Philip Hammond: I welcome the ruling party in china news from What Essay, Suriname.

It is a slow process, but progress is being made. As I have said many times in the House, Saudi Arabia is an important ally of the UK. Our relationship is vital to our domestic national security and gives us access to senior levels of the golden cinema Saudi Arabian leadership. That enables us to make our views known on these issuesand we do. T10. [900174] Julian Knight (Solihull) (Con): Does my right hon. Is Tuberculosis. Friend agree with me and the CBI that the EU should take some lessons from the UK and adopt more flexible labour markets? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1041.

Mr Hammond: Yes, absolutely. In fact, labour market policy is by and large a matter for national Governments, but across the challenger speech EU there is a clear gap in performance between those who have taken difficult steps to achieve radical labour market reform and is Tuberculosis or TB? those who have not. T9. Genital United. [900173] Paula Sherriff (Dewsbury) (Lab): Will the Minister advise what discussions he has had with the Indian and is Tuberculosis or TB? Pakistani Governments towards realising the aspirations of the Kashmiri people for a plebiscite on self-determination? Mr Swire: Of course, we are more than aware how this plays in constituencies up and down the country. Reagan Speech. We continue to have these discussions with both the Indian and What is Tuberculosis Essay Pakistani Governments, but ultimately this situation needs to be resolved by those two Governments. Mr Speaker: I call Mr Eric Pickles. Sir Eric Pickles (Brentwood and Ongar) (Con): Given what the Foreign Secretary has said about the push importance of the Iran discussions on the nuclear agreement, what is he doing to ensure greater clarity about the baselines, the extent of the inspection regime and the consequences of infringement?

Given that the agreement will allow advanced centrifuge, the infringements might arrive a little earlier than anticipated. Mr Speaker: A question worthy of a knight. I apologise to Sir Eric. Mr Philip Hammond: We are working intensively with our E3+3 partners and Iran to What Essay, conclude the nuclear agreement that we set out in principle in Lausanne a couple of months ago. It is essential that, as part of the website agreement, the or TB? Essay International Atomic Energy Agency can verify all Irans nuclear-related commitments, including through access to all relevant locations. We are not going to do a bad deal with Iran. Proper access is central to the deal we agreed in in china Lausanne and has to be delivered. Mr David Winnick (Walsall North) (Lab): Having apparently spoken to is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, his own Back Benchers about the EU referendum, will the Foreign Secretary provide any information about the Raw by Monk number of likely Tory Eurosceptics the Prime Minister might describe in the same way as John Major described his Eurosceptics, one of whom of course remains in the Cabinet? Mr Hammond: My right hon. Friend the What Prime Minister would never describe any of his right hon. or hon. Raw By Essay. Friends in such terms.

We look forward to a robust debate on this issue inside and outside the House. Richard Graham (Gloucester) (Con): The Burmese Government often give the What is Tuberculosis or TB? impression that the Rohingya people are not really Burmese. Will my right hon. Friend the Raw by Scott Essay Minister for What Essay Asia confirm that the ruling in china Foreign Office has seen a map from the 18th century that confirms very clearly that the Rohingya people were part of Burma at that time and or TB? that this has been shared with the Female Mutilation: Children of the United Kingdom Essay Burmese Government? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1042. Mr Swire: My hon. Friend is absolutely right. What Is Tuberculosis. We have got charts, which we have shared with the push Burmese Government, and they show very clearly that there were Muslims, as they were described in the ledger, going right back to the 18th century.

It is absolutely certain, as far as we are concerned, that the Rohingya have been in Rakhine for What is Tuberculosis or TB? many, many years. Of course they are mixed in with probably more recent arrivals from in china, Chittagong and the Chittagong area in Bangladesh, but a significant number of What or TB? Essay these people have clearly been in Burma for a significant amount of time. Ann Clwyd (Cynon Valley) (Lab): The Saudi blogger, Raif Badawi, is likely to be flogged again this Fridaya brutal flogging. The Minister can boast about our special relationship with Saudi Arabia, but really is there not some hypocrisy at the heart of British foreign policy when we continue to sell the largest amount of arms to Network Intrusion Detection and Prevention Essay, the Saudi Arabian Government? Mr Philip Hammond: I prefer to focus on Essay the practical steps that now need to be taken. I have raised the issue of Mr Badawi with the most senior levels of the Saudi leadership before. The judicial process has now been completed. That is not the end of the story, because, as in many such countries, there is an Raw by Scott Monk Essay Executive power of clemency and commutation. We are urgently seeking to make contact with our most senior interlocutors today, to talk to What or TB? Essay, them about how that power will be exercised.

It will be my intention certainly to ensure that nothing happens on Friday, and I hope that nothing happens at all. Dr Julian Lewis (New Forest East) (Con): Does the Secretary of reagan challenger State share my relief that the Turkish people have, for the time being at least, called a halt to is Tuberculosis Essay, the creeping Islamisation of their country? What assessment has he made of political stability in that important NATO ally? The Minister for marketing Europe (Mr David Lidington): The fact that there was a turnout of no less than 86% in the Turkish parliamentary election demonstrates the vigour of Turkish democracy. We are looking forward to working with the new Government, once they are formed, as there are many important political, economic and strategic interests that the UK and Turkey share.

Ian Austin (Dudley North) (Lab): It is or TB? Essay, very important that a nuclear deal with Iran is not made at any price. The P5+1 must stand firm if Iran will not accept any-time inspections of Female Genital Mutilation: Children of the United Essay all suspect sites or come clean on possible military dimensions of the is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay nuclear programme, as suspected by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Monk. Should Britain and the P5+1 not engage much more closely with Arab states and Israel, who share concerns about an agreement that in a few years would allow Iran to greatly expand its nuclear programme? Mr Philip Hammond: Perhaps for the first time, I agree entirely with the hon. Gentleman. The reality is that the alternative to an agreement that will restrict Irans development of civil nuclear enrichment capabilities for a period of perhaps 20 years is no deal and a free-for-all. We have got to get this agreement right and we have got to is Tuberculosis Essay, carry the Gulf states and Israel with us, and golden screen cinema website the meeting at Camp David that the US President.

9 Jun 2015 : Column 1043. hosted with the Gulf Co-operation Council countries was part of Essay a process to reassure allies in the Gulf of our commitment to their security. Mr John Baron (Basildon and Billericay) (Con): A year ago, the then Foreign Secretary announced the good news that the British embassy in Mutilation: of the Kingdom Essay Tehran would reopen, following its closure in Essay 2011. Given that it is Network Intrusion Detection, still closed, could we have an update on progress? Mr Hammond: Yes.

I think I have told the or TB? House before that there are two issues that we are trying to deal with in order to reopen the embassy. One is in china, around the visa regime and how we deal with Iranian overstayers in the UK, and the other is What, around the importation of communications equipment that we need to import, uninspected by the Iranians, in order to be able to safely operate our embassy. Until we have resolved those two issues, we really cannot make progress. Mr Speaker: Last but not least, Andy Slaughter. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1044.

Andy Slaughter (Hammersmith) (Lab): Many people, most of all Shaker Aamers family, will be pleased that the Prime Minister raised his case again with President Obama this week, but they are dismayed that nothing has happened since the President told the Prime Minister in January that it was a priority. Given that Shaker Aamer was cleared by six national security agencies in 2009 for marketing release, will that process have to be gone through again? If the Minister does not know the answer to is Tuberculosis, that question, can he seek it from the Raw by Essay US authorities, so that Shaker Aamer can be returned to his family in the UK? Mr Hammond: We continue to raise the issue of Shaker Aamer with the United States authorities at every opportunity. As I think the hon. Or TB? Essay. Gentleman knows, it is the United States Defence Secretary who now has the file on his desk, and there has recently been a change in the occupancy of that position. We continue to press the United States to make progress, and to make good the commitment that President Obama made to the Prime Minister last year. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1045. Paul Flynn (Newport West) (Lab): On a point of order, Mr Speaker. This concerns the Female Genital Mutilation: United Essay deteriorating character of Prime Ministers Question Time, which is is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, doing so much damage to the reputation of the House and the reputation of politics. Last week the Prime Minister asked the acting Leader of the Opposition four questions, almost more than she asked him.

Just before the end of the last Parliament, he answered a question by raising nine issues none of which was the subject of the question asked. Prime Ministers Question Time is becoming an exchange of crude insults and non-answers. Golden Screen Cinema Website. As you know, Mr Speaker, I have written to the Prime Minister suggesting that he depoliticise the situation by convening all the party leaders with the What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay aim of reinventing Question Time by giving it a format that would be dignified, still robust, but acceptable outside. Might it not be a good idea to change the name of Prime Ministers questions to Prime Ministers answers, so that at least the Prime Minister would get the point? When he last answered a question from Raw by Scott Monk Essay, me, he handed the conduct of this matter over to you, suggesting that you take action. Mr Speaker: I am very grateful to the hon. Gentleman for his point of order.

As the House will be aware, my responsibility is to try to keep or, as necessary, restore order. I have no responsibility for the content of either questions or answers. I do not mind saying to or TB? Essay, the hon. Gentleman what he may know in any case: that I have, on a previous occasion, written to the party leaders to challenger speech text, make the case for What is Tuberculosis a cultural change in the manner in which Prime Ministers questions are conducted, and I received positive replies from them. The start of a Parliament might seem an auspicious time to try to Monk, bring about meaningful change, and I think it would be to the advantage of the House if Members were to take account of, and accord weight to, the very widespread public disapproval of the way in which the proceedings are conducted. One method of What Essay dealing with the Raw by Scott matter would be the convening of all-party talks, but that is not for me to do. What Or TB?. I would smile on it, but it is not for reagan speech text me to lead. An alternative method might be to ask the Procedure Committee of the House, under the excellent chairmanship of the hon. What Is Tuberculosis. Member for Broxbourne (Mr Walker), to. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1046.

consider the way in which matters are handled, and to suggest either a continuation of the status quo or reform options. I think that is all that I can reasonably be expected to and promotions, say on or TB? the matter today. Ian Lavery (Wansbeck) (Lab): On a point of order, Mr Speaker. Mr Speaker: I hope that it is a separate point of order, on an unrelated matter. Ian Lavery: At the screen end of the last Parliament, Mr Speaker, the fire Minister told the House that firefighters in England who were found to have retired early would not face any financial penalty in relation to their pensions.

Regional fire authorities are now challenging the legality of the Ministers statement, which is leaving our fire and rescue men and women in limbo. Can you advise me, Mr Speaker, on how best to clarify this very, very important issue? Mr Speaker: Before I respond to What is Tuberculosis Essay, the hon. Gentlemans point of order, I must correct myself. Intrusion Detection Essay. I should properly have referred to the hon. Member for Broxbourne as the former Chairman of the Procedure Committee. There are currently no Select Committee Chairmen, although, when the hon. Gentleman did chair the Procedure Committee, he was a distinguished Chairman. The point of order raised by What or TB? Essay, the hon. Member for Network Essay Wansbeck (Ian Lavery) is one of great importance, but it is not a matter for the Chair, and I therefore cannot rule on it.

We will leave it there. [Interruption.] It is always helpful, when one makes a ruling, to have the sedentary support of the hon. Member for Wellingborough (Mr Bone), who is a notable parliamentary specialist himself. Chris Stephens (Glasgow South West) (SNP): On a point of order, Mr Speaker. My constituent Mr Ali, a political asylum seeker, is What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, facing deportation this evening to Balochistan, an area of political upheaval where political activists have been persecuted. Can the Home Secretary be encouraged to make a statement on Detection such deportations to What is Tuberculosis, such unstable regions in the world? Mr Speaker: I congratulate the hon. Gentleman on his ingenuity; he is newly arrived in this House, but he has already worked out how to get his point on the record. Marketing. I feel confident that his words will be winging their way to the Home Secretary ere long on what is indeed a very important and urgent matter.

9 Jun 2015 : Column 1047. Mr Speaker: I must inform the House that I have selected the amendment in the name of Mr Alex Salmond. Before I ask the Foreign Secretary to move the is Tuberculosis Essay Second Reading of the Bill, the House will not be surprised to hear that some dozens of colleagues are seeking to catch my eye and a time limit will have to be imposed. Front Benchers are not constrained by it, of course, but the Foreign Secretary and his shadow are nothing if not sensitive to screen website, the wishes of the House and I am sure they will want to balance the need to cover the subject thoroughly and take interventions with the interests of What is Tuberculosis or TB? other colleagues in having the chance to contribute. The Secretary of State for Foreign and ruling party Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): I beg to is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, move, That the Bill be now read a Second time. This is a simple, but vital, piece of and promotions legislation. It has one clear purpose: to deliver on our promise to What Essay, give the British people the final say on our EU membership in an in/out referendum by the end of 2017.

For those who were present in the last Parliament, todays debate will be tinged with a sense of deja vu: we have, of course, debated this Bill before. So before I start, I would like to ruling party in china, pay tribute to my hon. Or TB? Essay. Friend the Member for Scott Essay Stockton South (James Wharton). His European Union (Referendum) Bill in the last Parliament was passed by this House, but sadly was blocked in the other place by the opposition parties. He deserves the credit for What paving the way for the Bill we are debating today. Let me also pay tribute to my noble Friend Lord Dobbs who sponsored the Wharton Bill in the other place, and to my hon. Friend the Member for Bromley and Chislehurst (Robert Neill) who reintroduced the same Bill in push marketing the following Session. The commitment on the Government side of the is Tuberculosis House to giving the British people their say has deep roots. Mr Angus Brendan MacNeil (Na h-Eileanan an Iar) (SNP): Will the Foreign Secretary give way? Mr Hammond: I am going to make a little progress, bearing in mind Mr Speakers exhortation.

It is almost four decades ago to push and promotions, the day that I, along with millions of others in Britain, cast my vote in favour of our membership of the European Communities, and like millions of What others I believed then that I was voting for an economic community that would bring significant economic benefits to Britain, but without undermining our national sovereignty. I do not remember anyone saying anything about ever-closer union or a single currency. But the marketing institution that the clear majority of the British people voted to join has changed almost beyond recognition in the decades since then. Mr Kenneth Clarke (Rushcliffe) (Con): There must have been some strange juxtapositions in the campaign held in the 1970s, in which I took a very active part. Most of the debates I took part in were about the pooling of sovereignty and the direct applicability of European legislation without parliamentary intervention, which was a very controversial subject, and, besides, ever-closer union was in the treaty to which we were acceding. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1048. Mr Hammond: Call me negligent, but as an 18-year-old voter in that election, I did not actually read the What Essay treaty before I cast my vote. Treaty after treatythe Single European Act, Maastricht, Amsterdam, Nice and Lisbonindividually and collectively have added hugely to the European Unions powers, often in areas that would have been unthinkable in 1975, and that change has eroded the democratic mandate for our membership to the point where it is challenger speech, wafer-thin and What or TB? Essay demands to be renewed. Mr MacNeil: Two weeks ago I was in North Uist and met one of push marketing my constituents, who is from Germany.

She has lived in North Uist for 25 years and she voted in the Scottish referendum, but she cannot vote in this referendum. Why were the Scottish Government more generous to and more understanding of or TB? her rights as a citizen for 25 years than the Tory Government? Why is she excluded? Mr Hammond: If the hon. Gentleman can bear to stop wagging his finger and wait a little, I will come to the question of franchise. To many people, not only in the UK, but across Europe, the European Union has come to feel like something that is done to them, not for them. And Prevention. Turnout in What is Tuberculosis last years European Parliament elections was the lowest ever, dropping to 13% in Slovakia. The fragility of the European Unions democratic legitimacy is felt particularly acutely by the British people. Since our referendum in and promotions 1975, citizens across Europe from Denmark and Ireland to France and Spain have been asked their views on crucial aspects of their countrys relationships with the Essay EU in more than 30 different national referendumsbut not in the UK. We have had referendums on Network and Prevention Scottish devolution, Welsh devolution, our electoral system and or TB? a regional assembly for Network Essay the north-east, but an entire generation of British voters has been denied the chance to have a say on our relationship with the European Union. Today we are putting that right.

After fighting and winning the general election as the only major party committed to an in/out referendum, in the face of relentless opposition from the other parties, today we are delivering on our promise to give that generation its say. Mike Gapes (Ilford South) (Lab/Co-op): In the Foreign Secretarys opening remarks, he referred to the number of changes that have taken place since 1975, when there was last a referendum. Can I take it from what he said that unless the British people have a right to reject all those changes brought about without a referendum he will not be satisfied? Or, can he at least set out today what it is that the Government wish to take back, rather than simply condemning his and What or TB? all previous Governments since 1975? Mr Hammond: The answer to question No. 1 is no and the answer to question No. 2 is that the Prime Minister has set out in a series of cinema speeches, articles and interviews, and in the Conservative party manifesto, the key areas where we require change to the way that Britains relationship with the European Union works if we are to be able to get the consent of the British people to our future membership. Conservative Members have long been clear that the is Tuberculosis European Union needs to change and that Britains relationship with the European Union needs to change. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1049. Unlike the Labour party, we believe that Brussels has too much power and that some of those powers need to Raw by Scott Monk, be brought back to national capitals. In a world whose centre of economic gravity is shifting fast, Europe faces a serious challenge.

If we are to continue to earn our way in the world and to secure European living standards for future generations, the What is Tuberculosis Essay EU needs to Network Intrusion Essay, focus relentlessly on jobs, growth and competitiveness. Bluntly, it needs to become far less bureaucratic and What is Tuberculosis Essay far more competitive. With the European electorate more disenchanted with the EU than ever before and with anti-EU parties on the rise across the continent, it is Intrusion Detection, time to bring Europe back to the people, ensuring that decisions are made as close to them as possible and giving national Parliaments a greater role in What or TB? overseeing the European Union. Such issues resonate across all member states. Change is needed for the benefit of all to make the EU fit for the purpose of the 21st century. Sir William Cash (Stone) (Con): I applaud my right hon.

Friends opening remarks and the Prime Minister for making certain that we had the Bill. May I ask the Foreign Secretary one question? In the ruling party last statement made by the Prime Minister in the previous Parliament, he clearly said that he wanted reform and a fundamental change in our relationship with the EU. Will he explain what the second part of that means in practice and in relation to the debate? Mr Hammond: My hon. Friends question is What is Tuberculosis Essay, germane to the point I am making.

For the good of all 28 countries, there are things that need to be done to reform the way in Raw by Monk which the European Union works to What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, make it more competitive, effective and democratically accountable. However, the British people have particular concerns, borne of our history and circumstances. For example, we are not part of the single currency and, so long as there is a Conservative Government, we never will be. We made that decision because we will not accept the further integration of speech text our fiscal, economic, financial and social policy[Hon. Members: We made it!] The hon. Member for Eltham (Clive Efford) says that Labour made that decision. What Is Tuberculosis Or TB? Essay. Is it the position of the push marketing and promotions Labour party that we will never join the single currency? I have not heard that position being articulated from the Labour Benches. It would be a seminal moment in our parliamentary history if Labour was able to make that commitment today.

We made that decision because we will not accept the further integration of our fiscal, economic, financial and social policy that will inevitably be required to make the eurozone a success. So, in answer to the point raised by my hon. Friend the Member for Stone (Sir William Cash), we need to agree a framework with our partners that will allow further integration of the eurozone while protecting Britains interests and those of the other euro-outs within the EU. Because we occupy a crowded island with a population that is is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, growing, even before net migration, and a welfare system that is more accessible than most and reagan speech text more generous than many in Europe, we are far more sensitive than many member states to the impact of migration from the EU and What is Tuberculosis the distorting effects of easy access to benefits and ruling party in china services and of in-work welfare top-ups to What is Tuberculosis, wages that are already high by comparison with many EU countries. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1050. In the Conservative party manifesto, we therefore committed to negotiate a new settlement for Britain in Europea settlement that addresses the concerns of the Network Intrusion British people and sets the European Union on a course that will benefit all its people. The Prime Minister has already begun that process by meeting 15 European leaders, and at the European Council in June he will set out or TB? Essay, formally the key elements of our proposals. Daniel Kawczynski (Shrewsbury and party in china Atcham) (Con): I understand my right hon.

Friends point about the pressures of What is Tuberculosis or TB? increased numbers coming to work in the United Kingdom, but will he take a moment to pay tribute to the hard-working eastern Europeans from Poland and elsewhere who have come here, worked hard, paid their taxes and contributed to our society? Mr Hammond: I am very happy to marketing and promotions, do so. I do not think anybodyor at least not very many peoplein this country has a problem with those who come here to work hard, pay their dues and make a better life for What Essay themselves while contributing to Children of the United, the UK economy. They are the not the focus of our concern. Or TB? Essay. Our focus is on the distorting effect of easy access to our welfare system. Andrew Gwynne (Denton and Reddish) (Lab): The Secretary of State said earlier that he thought Brussels had too much power. Will he tell the marketing and promotions House which powers affecting the United Kingdom Brussels has too much of? Will he also tell us whether he would consider it a success or a failure if the Prime Minister failed to repatriate those powers? Mr Hammond: I am afraid that the hon. Gentleman has just fallen into the obvious trap.

He knows that a negotiation is a negotiation. He asks me to set out a list of powers for repatriation, then invites me to say that the Prime Minister would have failed if we did not achieve the repatriation of every single one of them. Is Tuberculosis Or TB? Essay. No sensible person with any negotiating experience would approach a complex negotiation in Monk that way. Mr Hammond: I need to make some progress. There are those who will say that this process cannot succeed, that Europe will never change, and What is Tuberculosis Essay that our negotiations will not be successful. Cinema. Looking at the record of the last Labour Government, I can see why they would say that. Under that Labour Government, there was a one-way transfer of Essay powers from Westminster to Brussels. They gave away ?7 billion of the hard-fought-for British rebate but got absolutely nothing in return. They presided over a massive increase in the EU budget, they signed us up to the eurozone bail-out funds and they failed to deliver on their promise to Network Intrusion Detection and Prevention Essay, give the British people a say before ratifying the Lisbon treaty. Labours record on Europe was one of dismal failure. In the What or TB? Essay last Parliament, however, we showed what could be done.

We showed that, even in coalition with the Liberal Democrats, change could be achieved by adopting a tough negotiating stance and a laser-like focus on our national interest. We cut the EU budget for the first time ever, saving British taxpayers billions of pounds. We took Britain out of the eurozone bail-outs that Labour signed us up tothe first ever return of powers. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1051. from Brussels. We vetoed an EU treaty that would have damaged Britains interests, we brought back control of more than 100 police and criminal justice measures and we secured exemptions for challenger speech the smallest businesses from EU regulation. Our record in the past five years shows that we can deliver change in Europe that is in What is Tuberculosis or TB? Britains national interest. Steve Brine (Winchester) (Con): The Foreign Secretary is taking a lot of noise and advice from website, those on the Labour Benches, but many of my colleagues and I remember sitting here, Friday after Friday, while they bitterly opposed the What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay European Union (Referendum) Bill introduced by my hon. Friend the Member for Stockton South (James Wharton). I presume that my right hon. Speech Text. Friend welcomes the sinner who repents today, but as he takes all that advice will he just remember that if we had taken the advice of Labour, Scottish National party and Liberal Democrat Members, Britain would now be languishing in the euro?

Mr Hammond: My hon. Friend is absolutely right. When the electorate considers the stated positions of the parties, I would advise them to look not only at the positions they hold today but at the depth of the roots that sustain those positions. Paul Farrelly (Newcastle-under-Lyme) (Lab): Does the What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay Foreign Secretary believe that, when the Prime Minister completes these unspecified negotiations and decides to campaign for a yes in the referendum, my next-door neighbour the hon. Member for Stone (Sir William Cash) and his allies who held the Major Government hostage will ever be satisfied? Mr Hammond: I will let my hon. Friend the Member for reagan speech text Stone speak for himself in the course of the debate. I am sure, however, that he will awaitwith a healthily sceptical approachthe return of the is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay Prime Minister from challenger text, Brussels with that package, and that he will consider it carefully and analytically, safe in the knowledge that underpinning this whole process is an absolute commitment to allow the British people to have the final say on this issue in an in/out referendum. Mr Bernard Jenkin (Harwich and North Essex) (Con): None of the concessions that the Prime Minister has so far obtained from the Essay European Union, including the veto of the fiscal union treaty, has fundamentally changed our relationship with the EU.

How does he intend fundamentally to change that relationship? Mr Hammond: My hon. Friend is right, of course. I have already mentioned an area in which we need fundamental change in the way in which the European Union operates. It is now a Union with a eurozone of 19 member states at Detection and Prevention, its core, and those states will integrate more closely together. What Or TB?. There needs to be an explicit recognition that those who are not part of that core do not need to pursue ever-closer union. There needs to be an explicit protection of the interests of those non-eurozone members as the EU goes forward. That is an example of an area in push which we need specific structural change to the way in which the European Union operates. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1052. Mr Hammond: I must make some progress. Of course, negotiating with 27 member states will not be easy and it will not happen overnight, but we expect to be able to negotiate a new deal that will address the concerns of the is Tuberculosis Essay British people about Britains relationship with Europe, which we will put to them in the promised referendum.

The Bill provides the mechanism to do that. It sets in stone our commitment to reagan challenger speech text, hold the referendum before the end of What is Tuberculosis 2017. Of course, if the process is completed sooner, the referendum could be held sooner. So the cinema website Bill allows for the date of the referendum to be determined by regulations, made by affirmative resolution. The Bill provides for the wording of the What is Tuberculosis referendum question on its face. In 2013, the Electoral Commission assessed the referendum question posed by the Wharton Bill. Network Detection And Prevention. The Commission recommended two possible formulations. This Bill specifies the simpler of the two: Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union?, with a yes/no answer. [Interruption.] Hon.

Members need not answer now; they can wait until the or TB? designated referendum day. The Electoral Commission will of course report again on ruling party this Bill and we look forward to its assessment. Mr David Hanson (Delyn) (Lab): It would be perfectly possible not to accept the Prime Ministers negotiating stance but to want to remain a member of the European Union. Should we not have a specific vote on the Prime Ministers recommendations as well as on the retention of membership of the European Union? Mr Hammond: No. We made a proposal to the British people, it was put to the test in the general election and What or TB? we have received an overwhelming mandate to progress. That is what we will do. The Bill also sets out the entitlement to website, vote in the referendum. Since this is an issue of national importance, the parliamentary franchise is the What is Tuberculosis Essay right starting point. Intrusion Essay. It means that British citizens in What is Tuberculosis or TB? the UK or resident abroad for push marketing less than 15 years and resident Commonwealth and Irish citizens can take part. The Bill extends the franchise in two very limited respects: to or TB?, Members of the other place who meet certain qualifications and to Commonwealth citizens resident in reagan challenger text Gibraltar.

Members of the other place cannot take part in elections to this House on the grounds that they are already represented in Parliament, but it is What, clearly right that the golden cinema franchise should be extended to What or TB?, them in the referendum. Gibraltar will also be deeply affected by its outcome. It is part of the Female Genital Children Kingdom Essay European Union and What or TB? its economy is closely bound to its relationship with the EU. Reagan Challenger. Of course, Gibraltar already takes part in elections to the European Parliament as part of the South West of England. During debates on the private Members Bill in the previous Parliament, there was cross-party support for Gibraltars inclusion. I hope that that will remain. We will extend the is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay franchise to Gibraltar only with the consent of the Government of Gibraltar, and my right hon. Friend the Minister for Europe has already agreed the principles for achieving that with the screen website Chief Minister.

Wherever possible, the Bill leaves it to the Gibraltar Parliament to What is Tuberculosis or TB?, make provision to implement the referendum in Gibraltar. The Government of Gibraltar intend to introduce their own referendum Bill, which will be complementary to the UK legislation. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1053. Some will argue that we should extend the Intrusion and Prevention franchise further to 16 and 17-year-olds, perhaps, or even to citizens of other EU countries resident here. We do not agree. This is an issue of national importance about Britains relationship with the European Union and it is is Tuberculosis Essay, right that the push and promotions Westminster parliamentary franchise should be the basis for consulting the British people. I concede that there are those in the House who will wish to debate whether that franchise itself should be extended to 16 and 17-year-olds, but the Government are not persuaded and that is a debate for another day.

It would be wrong to include 16 and 17-year-olds in this referendum as an addition to the Westminster franchise. I reject, too, the or TB? suggestion that EU citizens living in the UK should be included. The referendum is Network and Prevention Essay, about delivering a pledge to the British people to consult them about the What future of their country. It would be a travesty to seek to include EU nationals whose interests might be very different from those of the screen website British people. Robert Neill (Bromley and Chislehurst) (Con): I welcome my right hon. Friends comments about Gibraltar, which will be warmly welcomed by the people of Gibraltar and which recognise that Gibraltar is a particular case. Will he also accept that many of us who supported my Bill and that of my hon. Friend the Member for or TB? Essay Stockton South (James Wharton) in the previous Parliament did so on the basis of the Scott Essay parliamentary franchise? I strongly urge my right hon. Friend to stick to that and is Tuberculosis or TB? not be drawn into debates about broader issues of the franchise that are not part of this Bills proposals.

Mr Hammond: I am grateful to my hon. Children Of The United Essay. Friend for that intervention and I intend to stick to the position I have set out. Ian Austin: Speaking as somebody who worked in What Essay the Treasury between 1999 and screen 2005, may I remind the is Tuberculosis Essay Foreign Secretary that it was a Labour Government that designed the five tests, a Labour Government that carried out the assessment and a Labour Government that kept us out golden screen cinema website, of the single currency? It is thanks to a Labour Government that we are not in the single currency today. Mr Hammond: The hon. Gentleman will have been at is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, the heart of the Intrusion and Prevention Essay angry and temper-ridden debates that went on Essay in the push and promotions Prime Ministers office and No. 11 at the time. What Is Tuberculosis Essay. Perhaps one day, when he writes the book, we will all enjoy reading the challenger text inside story. Caroline Lucas (Brighton, Pavilion) (Green): I want to press the Foreign Secretary again on the question of extending the franchise to 16 and or TB? Essay 17-year-olds. The answer he gave about why we should not do itbecause it is an issue of national importanceis the main reason he should do it. He said that he did not want to speech text, deviate from the franchise for Westminster, but he is What is Tuberculosis Essay, already doing that by extending it to peers.

Why not let young people have a say on Network Intrusion and Prevention their future, which is what this Bill is about? Mr Hammond: My personal view on the extension of the Essay franchise is that we would be better expending our efforts on trying to get a decent turnout rate among 18 to 24-year-olds before we start worrying about 16 and 17-year-olds. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1054. Mark Pritchard (The Wrekin) (Con): Has the Foreign Secretary seen the national opinion poll today that shows that the majority of British people want to stay in the European Union, but a reformed European Union with a form that is in not only the British national interest but that of continental Europe and Genital Mutilation: Children of the United Kingdom our 27 European partners? Does that not underline the importance of European leaders listening not only to this Parliament but more importantly to the British people, both through this Parliament and What or TB? Essay directly? Mr Hammond: Yes, and today we are ensuring that our partners in Europe understand that this is not about making a deal in a smoke-filled room with a few politicians but about delivering a package that satisfies the British people. My assessment has been for a long time and remains that the great majority of the British people want Britain to remain inside the European Union provided we can get the reform of the EU and of Britains relationship with it that satisfies and answers the crucial points we have set out. Mr Hammond: I shall give way one more time, to my hon. Ruling In China. Friend the Member for is Tuberculosis or TB? Gloucester (Richard Graham), and then I shall make progress. Richard Graham (Gloucester) (Con): On the question of European nationals voting in Female United this referendum, will the Foreign Secretary confirm whether any of the referendums held in other European countries have been open to all other European Union citizens living in that country[Hon. What Is Tuberculosis Or TB? Essay. Members: Scotland!] It is not a separate member of the EU.

Mr Hammond: As far as I am aware, that is not the case. I note with interest that just this weekend it was reported that Luxembourg, an open and very pro-EU country, has decided not to extend its parliamentary franchise to the very many EU citizens who are resident in ruling party in china Luxembourg. Although the central issue at stake in the Bill is simple and the three key variablesthe date, the franchise and the questionare dealt with in the first two clauses, running a referendum is not straightforward. The remainder of the Bill, which includes 38 pages of schedules, deals with three important but technical areas. First, in is Tuberculosis or TB? clause 4(1) it establishes a power to set the conduct framework that will determine how the referendum will be run. Secondly, in clause 4(2) it creates the party power to set more detailed conduct rules and combination rules to determine how the vote would be run alongside other electoral events should the chosen dates coincide with any.

Finally, the Bill establishes the detailed campaign rules, updating the Political Parties, Elections and is Tuberculosis or TB? Referendums Act 2000 where necessary, taking into golden cinema website account the lessons of both the Scottish independence and What alternative vote referendums and the recommendations made by the Electoral Commission. The Bill also disapplies section 125 of the 2000 Act, and and promotions as this aspect has received some media attention I shall elaborate on the Governments logic. Or TB? Essay. Section 125 places statutory restrictions on Government publications in the final 28 days before the poll. There are operational and political reasons for disapplying it in this referendum. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1055. If left unaltered, section 125 would stop the Government publishing material that deals with any issue raised by the referendum question. Children Of The Kingdom. In the context of this referendum, that is unworkable and inappropriate. It is unworkable because the or TB? Essay restriction is Genital Mutilation: of the Essay, so broad that preventing publication in relation to is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, any issue raised by the referendum could prevent Ministers from ruling, conducting the ordinary day-to-day business of the or TB? Essay UKs dealings with the European Union and reagan speech inappropriate because the referendum will take place as a result of a clear manifesto commitment and a mandate won at the general election.

That mandate is to renegotiate the terms of the UKs relationship with the European Union and What Essay put them to the people in a referendum. Reagan Speech. In the light of the outcome of those negotiations, the Government expect to take a position, and if we have been successful, as we expect to What is Tuberculosis, be, the Government will want to explain what has been agreed and how the British peoples concerns have been addressed. Golden Website. We will want to make a recommendation on where the national interest lies, and Ministers will want to be able to continue making the case, up to referendum day, without being constrained by fears that, for example, the posting of comments on Twitter accounts could constitute publication. Mr Peter Bone (Wellingborough) (Con): Is that not what a lot of people are concerned aboutthat the What Government will use the apparatus of state to push a case, rather than letting the two sides have equal and Network Detection and Prevention Essay fair access? Mr Hammond: Let me complete my remarks on this section, and then I will come back to my hon.

Friends point. I hope that I will clarify the matter for What is Tuberculosis Essay him. Clearly, it will be for challenger text the yes and the no campaigns to lead the debate in the weeks preceding the poll. The campaigns will be designated by the Electoral Commission, and is Tuberculosis or TB? will receive a number of benefits, including a public grant and eligibility to Raw by Essay, make a referendum broadcast and to send a free mailshot to is Tuberculosis Essay, voters. Push Marketing And Promotions. I can assure the What House that the reagan challenger speech Government have no intention of undermining those campaigns, and What is Tuberculosis Essay they do not propose to spend large sums of public money during the purdah period prescribed by section 125 of the Political Parties, Elections and Referendum Act 2000. Raw By Monk. A vibrant, robust debate in the best traditions of British democracy is in all our interests. If my hon. Friends concern is that the Government are thinking of What Essay spending public money to deliver doorstep mailshots in the last four weeks of the campaign, I can assure him that the Government have no such intention. The Government will exercise proper restraint to push and promotions, ensure a balanced debate during the campaign. Mr Dominic Grieve (Beaconsfield) (Con): I remember that one of the arguments that I made on my partys behalf during debates on the Political Parties, Elections and is Tuberculosis or TB? Referendum Act 2000 was that the purdah period should be extended, not restricted.

While I understand the points that my right hon. Friend makes, and golden cinema while I expect that I shall argue for a yes vote in the referendumalthough I shall wait on the Prime Ministers renegotiation we have to be careful to provide a level playing field and make it clear that the Government will not abuse their position. For that reason, I hope that the Government will focus on What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay this issue. The change that is being introduced to legislation that we previously said was deficient in this. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1056.

respect could convey an impression that the Government will come in Scott Monk and try to load the dice, and that must be avoided. Mr Hammond: I agree with my right hon. and learned Friends sentiments. What Is Tuberculosis Or TB?. I hope that he recognises that I have sought to reassure colleagues who have such concerns, and that the Government will continue to seek to reassure colleagues. Stephen Timms (East Ham) (Lab): I want to ask the Foreign Secretary a particular question about the Raw by Monk Essay renegotiation. I think that there is virtually unanimous agreement in the House that the import duties currently imposed on cane sugar coming into What or TB? Europe are unfair. Will he confirm that that item is on the list for the renegotiation that he has been telling us about? Mr Hammond: I am delighted to see that the right hon. Gentleman is robust in his defence of the interests of Tate and Lylehis constituentsand I will take that representation and put it with the many others from both sides of the House about particular areas that we need to raise in the course of the discussion. Mr Bernard Jenkin (Harwich and Scott Essay North Essex) (Con): Will my right hon.

Friend give way? Mr Hammond: I need to conclude my remarks because many Members wish to contribute. Few subjects ignite as much passion in the House or indeed in the country as our membership of the European Union. What Is Tuberculosis Or TB?. The debate in the run-up to the referendum will be hard fought on both sides of the argument. But whether we favour Britain being in Genital Children United Kingdom Essay or out, we surely should all be able to What, agree on the simple principle that the decision about our membership should be taken by the British people, not by Whitehall bureaucrats, certainly not by Brussels Eurocrats; not even by Government Ministers or parliamentarians in this Chamber. Raw By Scott. The decision must be for the common sense of the British people. That is what we pledged, and that is what we have a mandate to deliver. For too long, the people of Britain have been denied their say. For too long, powers have been handed to Brussels over their heads. For too long, their voice on What or TB? Essay Europe has not been heard. This Bill puts that right.

It delivers the simple in/out referendum that we promised, and I commend it to the House. Hilary Benn (Leeds Central) (Lab): This Bill will set before the British people a clear and simple question: should the cinema United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union? It is Essay, 11 words, but the answer will have profound consequences for the future of our country, as the people of the United Kingdom make the most important decision on our place in the world for 40 years. Speech Text. It is a decision that will affect the What is Tuberculosis future journey of our proud and great islands; it is a decision the consequence of which will be felt by the people of our country for decades and generations to come; and it is a decision that will shape not only how we view our place in the world but how the rest of the world sees us. We support the Bill and its passage through Parliament, but we also support Britain remaining a member of the EU. The same cannot be said of all the right hon. and hon. Reagan Challenger Speech Text. Members on the Conservative Benches. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1057. John Redwood (Wokingham) (Con): I am delighted that the Labour party now agrees that the is Tuberculosis or TB? British people deserve a choice and a vote, but does the push and promotions right hon. Is Tuberculosis Or TB? Essay. Gentleman not understand that the British people want a very substantial reduction in migration into this country, and does that not require this Parliament to regain control of our borders from Brussels? Hilary Benn: We agree that the European Union needs to change.

Like many people, we want to see reform in Europe on benefits, transitional controls, the way the EU works and how it relates to national Parliaments. We also want to see the completion of the single market in services to boost jobs and economic growth here in Network Intrusion and Prevention the United Kingdom. We need to co-operate to achieve those things, but the is Tuberculosis EU needs to recognise that there is a growing demand across societies in Europe for greater devolution of power at Detection Essay, the same time. We need to Essay, co-operate and devolve, and the EUs task in the years ahead is to reconcile those two forces. Mr John Baron (Basildon and Billericay) (Con): Given that the EU has fundamentally changed since the early 1970s when we joined it, it is right that the Bill has been introduced.

Whatever the result of the referendum, we can now all agree with that. Will the right hon. Gentleman address the issue of fundamental change in our relationship? Given that the majority of European capitals are moving closer and closer to political union, does he accept that the negotiations aiming to accommodate countries that do not wish to go down that road are terribly important? What guarantees will the Labour party be looking for when it comes to those negotiations? Hilary Benn: The hon. Gentleman would recognise that there are differences of view within the EU about its future direction. Membership of the Detection euro is an or TB? Essay example of that. The last Labour Government took the decision that we would not join the euro. We are still against joining the euro, and I cannot foresee any circumstances in which it would be in the British economic interest to do so; but other European countries take a different view.

The challenge for Europe is to accommodate those, while keeping together 28 countries for which co-operation is vital in the modern world. Mr Jim Cunningham (Coventry South) (Lab): The Conservatives criticised us when we were in office for taking the people further into Europe, but let us remind them when they complain about the free movement of Monk labour that they signed up to the single market and the British people never got a referendum then; they signed up to Maastricht and the British people never got a referendum then; and they implied that we would have taken them into the single currency, but we had the five economic tests. Hilary Benn: My hon. Friend is entirely right. Essay. There are lots of people who have changed their minds on Europe. I remind the House that as recently as June 2012 the Prime Minister told a press conference in Brussels: I completely understand why some people want an in/out referendum. . . I dont share that view. That is not the right thing to challenger text, do. Ms Diane Abbott (Hackney North and Stoke Newington) (Lab): Does my right hon.

Friend agree that those of us. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1058. who were in the House for John Majors Administration watched the is Tuberculosis Government party fall apart under the marketing and promotions pressure of their rows on What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay Europe, and ruling party that we look forward cheerfully to it happening again? Hilary Benn: It is clear that my hon. Friend takes great pleasure from the discomfort that is What, already evident on Scott the Government Benches. For those who wish to study the What or TB? Essay history, it is interesting that here we are, 40 years on from 1975, and the same thing is happening, but in Network and Prevention Essay mirror image. It is the Conservative party that has agreed to a referendum in order to try to deal with splits. Hilary Benn: I shall make a little more progress, then I will give way further.

Let me say to the Foreign Secretary that reform is not just about what Britain asks for now. It is about the is Tuberculosis building of cinema website alliances and the making of friends, as the Prime Minister now understands only too well, and it is an approach that can bring considerable change over time. I think I made the point previously, with reference to the proportion of the EU budget that is spent on the common agricultural policy, that there has been a very significant reduction over a period of 40 years. Is Tuberculosis Essay. That demonstrates that change is Children United Kingdom Essay, possible by Essay, building alliances and arguing the case. Reagan Challenger Speech. The EU will need to continue to reform in the years ahead. Andrew Bridgen (North West Leicestershire) (Con): Does the shadow Secretary of State agree that an example of the need for radical reform of our relationship with the European Union and reform of the European Union as a whole is that if the UK were not currently a member of the EU, no one would be suggesting that we join?

What does he think? Hilary Benn: I do not agree with the hon. What Or TB?. Gentleman. Mr Douglas Carswell (Clacton) (UKIP): Does the right hon. Gentleman agree that if this referendum is to be considered free and fair it would be wise to ensure the Mutilation: Children Kingdom neutrality of the What civil service and the machinery of government? Would he look sympathetically at any amendments to try to enshrine in the legislation an appropriate period of push marketing and promotions purdah? Hilary Benn: We would be very happy to look at What or TB? Essay, all amendments that come forward during consideration of the Bill on the Floor of the House. Essay. We have some amendments that we will table.

I shall come to those in a moment. I agree with the Foreign Secretary in this respect: once the Government eventually reach a view, they are entitled to explain it to is Tuberculosis, the British people. Indeed, they will have to explain their view to some of the members of the Cabinet. Therefore, it is Network Detection Essay, reasonable to ensure that the Government are able to What, do that. Mr Jenkin: Can the right hon. Gentleman explain exactly what he thinks Ministers will have to be able to do that they were not doing during the push marketing Scottish referendum or the What is Tuberculosis AV referendum? I seem to Raw by, remember Ministers giving lots of explanations of their view. Is he concerned that this might be an opportunity for the Government to call the referendum so soon after the deal has been.

9 Jun 2015 : Column 1059. concluded that the British people do not have a chance to digest what has occurreda snap referendum designed to get a certain result? Hilary Benn: As I understand the argument, it relates to section 125 of the Political Parties, Elections and is Tuberculosis or TB? Referendums Act 2000 and ruling the definition of What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay material. That is what that section says. It would not be sensible for Monk any Government to find themselves constrained from explaining to the people the Governments view, because the people are entitled to hear from the Government of the day, as happened in 1975. Clive Efford: My right hon. Friend will realise that the issue is is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, so toxic to the Conservative party that it caused a previous Prime Minister, John Major, to Raw by Monk, question the parentage of some of the is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay members of his Cabinet at that time. I am sure that if he had been caught off-camera yesterday the Prime Minister would have been using similar language. On the point made by the hon. Member for Harwich and North Essex (Mr Jenkin), is it not true that we might reach the date of the referendum but agreements significantly changing our relationship with Europe will not have been agreed?

That will be subject to subsequent negotiation, particularly if treaty change is required, so we will be asked to vote for something that will take place in the future and we will not have the final detail agreed across Europe. Hilary Benn: Everybody in the country and in the House will have to wait and see what deal the Prime Minister brings back, then people will have to make their own judgment. Ian Austin: In order for the result to be accepted and for it to be long lasting and settle the question for a generation, it is very important that the process is push and promotions, seen to be fair on all sides. What Is Tuberculosis Essay. Ministers are perfectly at liberty to say what they like in interviews and Female Genital United Essay as they go round the country making speeches, but there is a big difference between that and public money being used to is Tuberculosis Essay, send out leaflets and promote one side of the debate. It is very important that the Female of the United spending limits are designed to ensure that spending is equal on both sides and both sides have a fair say. Hilary Benn: Everybody in the House would agree that the referendum must be fair and must be seen to be fair, but at the same time the Governmentany Governmentare entitled to argue their case. Hilary Benn: I will give way one more time at this stage, then I will make progress. Robert Flello (Stoke-on-Trent South) (Lab): I am grateful to my right hon.

Friend, who is What is Tuberculosis, extremely generous with his time. A number of constituents have already been in touch with me, as the House might imagine, about the issue, and some have raised the question itself. They said that rather than a yes/no, they would prefer to golden, see a remain/leave question. Does my right hon. Friend have a view on that? Hilary Benn: My view is What, that the question is perfectly clear and Network very simple. I do not think that anyone who goes into the polling station on What is Tuberculosis Essay the day, whenever it is, will not understand the consequence of voting either way. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1060. As well the negotiations taking place in Raw by Scott Europe, it is clear that an equally important set of negotiations is taking place within the Conservative party on this subject, and or TB? Essay they are not going terribly well, are they?

We have been asking the Prime Minister for his list of negotiating demands and we are still waiting. We are still not clear whether there will be treaty change or not. This week, the Prime Minister apparently told journalists at the G7 that he had decided that he would succeed in and promotions the negotiations and therefore all Ministers would be expected to support the is Tuberculosis or TB? line. We know that that did not go down too well with certain Ministers, who came face to golden, face with the prospect of having to choose between their jobs and their Euroscepticism. Then, lo and behold, faced with a choice between backing the national interest or the Conservative interest, the What Prime Minister did what he always doesgive in to his party. The explanation was that his remarks had been over-interpreted.

I do not know whether this was a case of lost in translation, but the newspapers today were pretty disobliging about the Prime Ministers decision, with references to Downing St chaos in The Daily Telegraph , weak and uncertain in The Times , and great EU-turn in the Daily Mail . We are none the wiser as to where the Government stand or what the answers are to those questions, so for Essay the benefit of the What is Tuberculosis Essay House let me try to summarise where it seems the ruling Government have got to on our membership of the EU. The Prime Minister is probably for in, but he cannot say definitely that he is in Essay or out because a lot of his MPs are for out, unless they can be persuaded to be in. Meanwhile, the push marketing Foreign Secretary, who used to What or TB?, be leaning out, now appears to be leaning in, while other members of the Cabinet who are for out read yesterday that they would be out unless they campaigned for Mutilation: of the Essay in. Now it seems they might be in is Tuberculosis or TB? even though, after all, they are probably for out. In, out, in, outit is the ruling EU Tory hokey-cokey, a complete mess.

Mr Peter Lilley (Hitchin and Harpenden) (Con): It is perhaps an ill-chosen day to talk about the Essay history of parties changing views on in china the matter, as 32 years ago to the day Gordon Brown and Tony Blair were elected to this House, as was I. They were elected on a manifesto of What leaving the European Union. They subsequently changed their views, as the speech right hon. Gentleman has changed his view on the need for What is Tuberculosis a referendum and the need for Female Genital Mutilation: Children United Kingdom Essay a renegotiation. Can he explain the or TB? Essay reasons for his change of cinema website view and what changes he wants to see in Essay Europe prior to the referendum? Hilary Benn: First, I set out reagan speech text, earlier the changes we would wish to see, but change is not just a function of one particular moment in time. Secondly, there has been a general election and there is now going to What is Tuberculosis or TB?, be a referendum. Marketing. As we argued consistently, uncertainty about Britains place in Europe is not good for What is Tuberculosis or TB? the British economy, so we should get on and make this decision so that the British people can have their say, and I hope they will reach a decision to golden cinema website, remain in the European Union.

Bill Esterson: Will my right hon. Friend give way? Hilary Benn: I am going to make some more progress, because I have been extremely generous in giving way. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1061. On the franchise, the Government are right to use the same basic approach as 40 years ago in the last European referendum and as 33 days ago in the general electionin other words, the What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay parliamentary voting register. I do not begrudge extending the franchise to a particular group of 790 people, but I say to and promotions, the Foreign Secretary that if we are going to is Tuberculosis or TB?, extend the franchise to 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and Detection Essay 90-year-olds in the House of Lords, I think we should also extend it to 16 and 17-year-olds. What Is Tuberculosis. On this side of the push marketing and promotions House we are in What is Tuberculosis Essay favour of giving these young adults the right to vote in all elections. This is an issue of Genital Kingdom principleit is about giving them as citizens the right to participate in our democracy. I suspect that during the course of What is Tuberculosis Essay this debate and the Bills Committee stage we will hear arguments against doing that, but I simply say that they will have a ring of familiarity about them, because on every single occasion in the past 200 years that someone has had the temerity to Genital Mutilation: Children Kingdom, suggest that the franchise should be extended, the forces of conservatismwith a small chave said, Dont be ridiculous; Itll undermine the fabric of What Essay society; or, They are incapable of exercising the necessary judgment.

After all, during debates on the Reform Act 1832, landowners said that the only people who could vote were those who had an interest in the landthe people who owned it. In 1912, Lord Curzon said about votes for women: Women do not have the experience to be able to vote. If we substitute the words 16 and party 17-year-olds for is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay the word Women, we will see that exactly the same argument is cinema website, being made today. Indeed, the same argument was made when a Labour Government lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. It is the or TB? same old excuse of an argument against giving people a say, and it is completely at odds with the speech text other rights we already give to 16 and is Tuberculosis or TB? 17-year-olds, including the right to work, pay tax and join the armed forces. [ Interruption. ] I am well aware of what the Intrusion Foreign Secretary is saying, but they can also be company directors and consent to medical treatmentit is is Tuberculosis or TB?, a long, long list. Stephen Doughty (Cardiff South and party Penarth) (Lab/Co-op): Does my right hon.

Friend agree that it is or TB?, odd that the Governments position on the Wales Act 2014 is to devolve to the Welsh Government the Raw by power to decide whether 16 and 17-year-olds can be given the vote? The Government are giving that power to Wales and it has been exercised in Scotland, yet they are blocking it in this instance. Hilary Benn: My hon. What Essay. Friend makes a powerful point as to why the franchise should be extended. Paul Farrelly: Does my right hon. Marketing And Promotions. Friend agree that the What Prime Minister was not forced to give 16 and 17-year-olds the right to vote in the Scottish referendum?

He agreed that that would happen, so what is different now? Why should English and Welsh 16 and 17-year-olds, and Scottish 16 and 17-year-olds, be treated differently for this referendum? Hilary Benn: I agree completely with my hon. Friend. When the Minister for Europe winds up the debate, perhaps he will give the marketing and promotions House an explanation as to is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, why the challenger Government are not minded to move on this issue. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1062.

After taking evidence on the subject last year, the British Youth Council Youth Select Committee said: We are very proud of the democracy in which we live and of its history and traditions. Or TB? Essay. We are absolutely convinced that 16 and 17 year olds have the aptitude and the appetite to Mutilation: Children of the, take a full part in that democracy. I agree. This House has debated on many occasions how we can encourage more young peoplethe Foreign Secretary made the What Essay point about the lower rate of participationto participate in our public and political life. How can we get more young people involved in our democratic life? What better way to do so than to give 16 and 17-year-olds the opportunity to take part in this momentous decision, which will affect their lives and their futures just as much as it will affect ours? Dr Sarah Wollaston (Totnes) (Con): Does the shadow Foreign Secretary agree that, since nearly one in four 16-year-olds can expect to live to 100 years of age and will be living with the consequences of this decision for far longer than Members of this or the other House, and reagan speech given that they have the mental capacity to weigh up these decisions and the enthusiasm to What or TB?, take part, we should extend the franchise? Hilary Benn: I agree with the hon. Lady completely, and I look forward to joining her in the Division Lobby when we vote on the amendment proposing that 16 and 17-year-olds be given the text vote. The second thing I want to say about the Essay detail of the Bill is that we feel the ruling party in china referendum should be held on a separate day. The Bill specifically allows Ministers, by is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, regulations, to Raw by Scott Monk Essay, make provisions to combine the referendum with other polls, but, as the Foreign Secretary will be aware, that contradicts the is Tuberculosis advice of the Electoral Commission, which could not have been clearer: The Bill should be amended to make clear that an EU referendum cannot be combined with the significant elections already scheduled to take place in May 2016, and should be held on a suitable separate day to any other poll.

To those who argue, If we combine it with other polls, that will lead to a higher turnout, I simply pray in aid the example of last Septembers Scottish referendum, which was held on a separate day. The evidence is ruling in china, very clear: if we put before the British people a big decision with very considerable consequences that is what this referendum will be aboutthey will know what is at stake and they will come out and vote, and we should trust them to do so. Or TB? Essay. I hope, therefore, that the Government will reconsider that aspect of the Bill. Stella Creasy (Walthamstow) (Lab/Co-op): Turnout is obviously an issue of Monk concern for all of us. Does my right hon. Friend agree that using the is Tuberculosis Essay low turnout of 18 to 24-year-olds to deny the vote to reagan text, 16 and 17-year-olds defeats the object? Surely we should be using this Bill and a healthy, vibrant debate about the future of What is Tuberculosis or TB? Europe to get both age groups out to vote in the referendum. Hilary Benn: My hon. Friend is absolutely right and makes a powerful point.

We want a debate and for everybody to participate, and we want the screen website British people to make that judgment.

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The English Role In The Pequot War. The English Role In The Pequot War. One of the What Essay most hazardous tasks a historian tackles is determining what motivated the actions of a past society. Even for a present-day society, this task is fraught with perils. Are a societys motivations the sum of its adult participants? Do we give special weight to the goals of its leaders? Should we regard the societys stated goals as accurate communications of marketing motivation, discard them as intentionally deceptive, or dissect those statements as indications of deeper desires that are too painful to or TB? Essay directly discuss?

Consider the tremendous range of motives ascribed to the United States for party in china its involvement in Southeast Asia in the period 1954-75. Now, consider what happens when we add the complexity of examining the motives of a society no longer present, and is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, which had far less complete records than are normally kept by governments today. A paucity of Network Detection and Prevention Essay evidence can provide a rich opportunity for ideologues to ascribe any motive that they find convenient. The purpose of or TB? Essay this paper is to examine the ruling motivations behind the Pequot War; see how well the evidence matches up to the various theories of intent currently popular in the academic community; and suggest an alternative theory in which the English are not the protagonists, but pawns of intertribal warfare. There are at Essay least three theories of motivation for Network Intrusion and Prevention Essay the Pequot War. The oldest theory, reflecting a traditional view of white and Indian relations, is that the Pequots, who had recently arrived in Connecticut, were a more fierce, cruel, and warlike People than the What is Tuberculosis Essay Rest of the Indians, and became a Terrour to all their Neighbors. After repeated atrocities committed against both Indians, Dutch, and English settlers, the English and their Indian allies insisted that the Pequots turn over the killers of one Captain John Stone; once battle with the Pequots was fully engaged, it became necessary to burn their fortifications at Mystic, Connecticut, causing an reagan enormous loss of life.[1] According to What or TB? this view, the Indian allies of the screen English had their own grievances against is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, the Pequots, but the driving force behind the war was the English colonists.

As early as 1856, historians began to argue a different theory of motivation that was not prepared to accept the Pequot War as a just war against Network Essay, an aggressive and dangerous tribe,[2] and saw the English colonists as a group almost as savage in What or TB?, their actions as the Pequots against whom they fought. As an push marketing and promotions example of how pervasive this attitude has become, a recent American history textbook asserts that the Puritans took advantage of old hostilities between Indian tribes, and is Tuberculosis, describes the conflict between Puritans and Pequots as though the English were entirely the aggressors. Significantly, it implies that the Narragansetts, the principal English allies against the Pequots, were a passive participant, rather than a major actor in this conflict.[3] The most recent theory of motivation, increasingly propounded since the 1960s, sees the Pequot War as motivated by the desire of the English colonistsprimarily those of Massachusetts Bayto acquire more favorable trading conditions with other Indian tribes,[4] or to acquire Pequot lands. Francis Jennings The Invasion of America argues that Pequot extermination was a goal of the war, both to push marketing acquire Pequot land, and to or TB? Essay assert Massachusetts Bay political domination over Raw by Essay, the settlements led by What is Tuberculosis Essay Thomas Hooker, who had moved south of the push Massachusetts Bay colonys boundaries in 1636.[5] What motivated the Pequot War? Why did it happen, and what was the intent of the various individuals and groups that led up to the gruesome burning of Fort Mystic on May 26, 1637?[6] All sources agree that hundreds of Pequot men, women and children died by fire, or were cut down as they fled. Is Tuberculosis Or TB? Essay. It is not a proud moment in American history, but we must make an honest attempt to understand why it happened, and not let later wars between colonists and Indians unduly influence our understanding of it.

A total of four English settlements played a part in the drama of the Pequot War: Massachusetts Bay colony; Plymouth colony; Thomas Hookers settlement in Connecticut; and push marketing and promotions, Roger Williams Rhode Island exile, to the east of Connecticut. The major English players in the motivational drama were: John Winthrop, governor of Massachusetts (1629-34 and 1637-40); Sir Henry Vane, governor of Essay Massachusetts (1636-7); Edward Winslow, governor of Plymouth colony (1633-4 and 1636-7); William Bradford, governor of Plymouth (1635-6 and 1637-8);[7] Roger Williams; John Winthrop, Jr., nominally governor of Connecticut colony;[8] John Mason, Lion Gardener, and John Underhill, military commanders involved in Children of the Kingdom Essay, the attack on Fort Mystic, or the mopping up operations against the surviving Pequots. The Indian tribes who played a significant role are the Pequots, the Narragansetts (occupying Cape Cod and modern Rhode Island), the Niantics (tributaries of the Pequots), the Mohegans (Pequot in culture, but politically independent), and the Block Islanders (tributaries of the What or TB? Narragansetts). Genital Mutilation: Children Essay. The major Indian personalities were: Uncas, the sachem of the Mohegans; Miantonomo, one of the prominent Narragansett sachems; and Sassacus, sachem of the Pequots. We start out this effort with a number of serious disadvantages. Foremost among these is that only the English and is Tuberculosis Essay, Dutch left written records.

This is push marketing and promotions a serious handicap, because it means that we are relying on information supplied by parties with an What interest in justifying their actions, either before the Raw by Scott Monk outbreak of hostilities, or afterwards, when gentler souls on the English side may have reconsidered to what extent the English actions were justified. Given that the records are all from one side, can a historian therefore consider them to be untrustworthy? If the historian discards all accounts of the 1637 Pequot War as partisan, he is or TB? left with nothing but archaeological evidence, which is completely inadequate for ascertaining something as tenuous as motivation. The historian is therefore left with at reagan challenger text least three possible responses: abandon motivations as the quarry; recognize that these one-sided accounts are our only source of information, biased or inaccurate though they may be; or read into the evidence what he desires to What Essay find. As we will see when we examine Invasion of Americas treatment of the Pequot War, this last, least intellectually desirable approach, seems to have been taken up by Francis Jennings.

The evidence that we will examine contains a great many assertions of challenger speech fact. Some of these facts reflect poorly on the motivations and actions of the colonists who fought against the Pequots; others cast a positive light. If we desire to use the negative facts contained in What Essay, these narratives to Scott cast doubt on is Tuberculosis or TB? the colonial motives and actions, it implies that these narratives are sufficiently trustworthy to be used as evidence. Similarly, we must be prepared to accept that statements of fact that show positive colonial motives and actions are trustworthy as well. If we deny the essential accuracy of these narratives except when convenient, we find ourselves confronting the epistemological and logical paradox of the man who says, I am lying. He says he is screen website lyingbut how do we know he is lying, other than the What word of a self-described liar? In the Essay absence of What Essay evidence that shows intentional deception, we must assume that discrepancies reflect honest mistakes; in the absence of evidence that shows it is in error, we must assume that a primary source is accurate. The case can be made that the narratives we have available to us reflect an intentional effort to challenger speech text portray the actions of the colonists in the best possible light, without directly lying. This is certainly a possibility that must be seriously considered. Yet, if the descriptions of the Pequot War provided to us have been shaded or altered in such a way as to hide actions that were considered shameful by the narrators, we should expect that the or TB? Essay narratives would provide a highly sanitized description of the warand as we will see, there is nothing sanitized about the description of the frightful and bloody slaughter that took place.

Indeed, expressions of Female Mutilation: of the United Essay remorse, or at least regret, appear in a number of the What is Tuberculosis Essay primary sources. As with many wars, a series of incidents preceded the Pequot War that created animosity and suspicion among the English, Dutch, and Pequots. The primary and marketing, early secondary sources on the Pequot War are careful to or TB? Essay blame all three for these provocations, thus making it impossible to reduce the problem to a simple issue of racism. The first incident that led to war was the text death in 1634 of Captain John Stone, who came occasionally with a Bark into the River to Trade with the What Pequots.[9] Stone was described by Puritans as a drunkard, lecher, braggart, bully, and blasphemer. He was a smuggler, a privateer, and it was rumored that he had engaged in cannibalism while shipwrecked in the Caribbean.[10] Stone was in Network, continual legal trouble with both Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay, and was finally banished on penalty of death.[11] As an is Tuberculosis indication of how pivotal an event Stones death was in Female Genital United Essay, leading to What is Tuberculosis Essay war, the question, Who killed John Stone? remains sufficiently important that Alfred Cave devoted an entire paper to answering this question. Cave devotes considerable energy and ink to defending the positionrecently unfashionablethat the Pequots did, in fact, kill Stone and Female Mutilation: Children of the United Essay, his associates as retribution for the murder of the Pequot grand sachem Tatobem by the Dutch. Tatobems death was, in turn, Dutch retaliation for the murder of other Indians (most probably Narragansetts) on their way to the Dutch trading post at Good Hope (near present-day Hartford, Connecticut) in is Tuberculosis, late 1633 or early 1634.

Cave sees the death of Stone and ruling in china, his crew as a result of Pequot misunderstanding of European practices regarding revenge and warfare. Cave has the advantage of access to Dutch records of these incidents, that were unavailable to the English colonists.[12] John Mason, one of the captains whose two narratives of the war will figure prominently in What or TB?, our later analysis of the actions taken against the Pequots, asserted that the killers of Stone were not native Pequots; but had frequent recourse unto them[13] Governor John Winthrop asserted that the Pequots admitted causing Stones death, but claimed it was in self-defense. Since Masons statement is Raw by Scott Monk not an eyewitness account, it is What Essay no more persuasive of a piece of evidence than Winthrops reporting of Pequot claims. Masons assignment of blame to non-Pequots has been used by Jennings to discredit Winthrops statements, not only as inaccurate, but intentionally deceptive,[14] but Cave shows that not only in Winthrops later, alterable journals, but in his correspondence from 1634, Winthrops assertion of the Pequot claim of self-defense appears.[15] If Winthrop intended, as early as 1634, to falsify records so as to justify a war waged several years later against party, the Pequots, why record that the Pequots had given a valid excuse for What is Tuberculosis Essay Stones murder?

If deception was really the goal, why didnt Winthrop record that the Pequots denied the murder completely (thus making them appear to be liars), or record that the Pequots were haughty and ruling party, proud in their crimes? Additional evidence given by Cave to argue against is Tuberculosis or TB?, fabrication by Winthrop is that there are discrepancies in the various accounts of Stones death. Party. If every report matched exactly, we would suspect a common sourceeither factual or fictional. The discrepancies in Winthrop and Underhills accounts suggest that each received his account from different witnesses to the event, and indeed, Winthrop claimed his account came from Pequot ambassadors in Boston in is Tuberculosis, 1634, while Underhills report came from the Pequot ambassador who parleyed with John Endecott in 1636. In addition, the account recorded by Essay Underhill describes Stone killed while in a drunken stupor.[16] If Stones death was falsely blamed on or TB? Essay the Pequots as a justification for war, why fabricate such an push marketing unattractive account of the condition of the victim? Examination of Winthrops History of or TB? New England shows that the Pequot claim of reagan challenger self-defense was related with such confidence and gravity, as, having no means to contradict it, we inclined to believe it. While the Pequot ambassadors said that the issue of extradition of the killers for trial would require approval of their sachem, Winthrops history asserts that at a meeting the next day, the ambassadors agreed to deliver the two men to the English.[17] The two differing results are presented on the same page, with no explanation of the discrepancy. Winthrops letter to What or TB? Essay his son later that year also asserts that the final treaty included surrender of the killers.[18] Jennings sees this discrepancy as evidence of Raw by Monk deception by Winthrop, but the fact that they appear on What Essay the same page suggests that Winthrop believed that the matter had been resolved after the Pequot ambassadors had a chance to Raw by Scott discuss the subject in private.[19] We do not know for sure if the Pequot ambassadors made an What or TB? Essay agreement that they could not persuade their sachem to marketing ratify, or if Winthrop misunderstood the treaty that was made, or even if the Pequots made such an agreement, and changed their minds later. There is no evidence, however, to establish any intentional deception on What is Tuberculosis Winthrops part, and golden, his correspondence strongly suggests that such a deception must have been planned far in advance, and included misleading his son in private lettersa most implausible explanation. Another provocation for the conflict to come (at least, indirectly) was the or TB? death of reagan challenger speech John Oldham, apparently murdered in 1636 at Block Island, off the coast of the is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay present-day Connecticut-Rhode Island border. About Oldhams death we have far fewer details, but like Stone, there is some dispute about which tribe was responsible for his death.

Cave argues that the death of Oldham was at Raw by Monk Essay the hand of Block Islanders tributary to the Narragansetts, but Cave does not tell us his source for that claim.[20] It would appear that Lion Gardeners account of the Pequot Wars is the source. Unfortunately, Gardener provides us with little information with which to judge the accuracy of this claim. Is Tuberculosis Or TB? Essay. Gardener tells us, The Narragansets that were at Block-Island killed him, but offers as evidence only that they had [sterling]50 of gold of his Mere possession of Oldhams effects is not sufficient reason to assume their complicity in his death, since Gardener also tells us that some Dutchmen had some of Oldhams gold, acquired by trade with the push marketing and promotions Narragansetts.[21] John Underhills account of the Pequot War also claims that the Block Islanders killed Oldham, and asserts that Oldhams death alone was the cause of the war.[22] To Underhill, Stones death, and the Pequot guilt for What is Tuberculosis or TB? harboring Stones killers, is an afterthought; the expedition against the Pequots was simply an appendix to reagan challenger punishing the Block Islanders.[23] This position seems hard to What is Tuberculosis defend, for without the expedition against the Pequots for Stones killers, this paper wouldnt be about the Pequot War, but about the Block Islander Skirmish, and all the Raw by Scott Monk shorter for that reason. William Bradfords second-hand account of Oldhams death seems to imply that the killers were not Pequots, but were harbored by the Pequots.[24] Churchs account of the death of John Oldham provides us details of the What or TB? Essay recapture of Oldhams vessel, with Oldhams head cleft to the brains, and tells us that some of the Indians aboard the vessel were captured. Church also seems to hold that either the Network Detection Pequots were responsible for Oldhams murder, or at least the murderers were sheltered by them.[25] It is possible that the presumptions of guilt were derived from the tribal membership of the Indians found aboard Oldhams ship. Yet another accusation came from Roger Williams, recorded several months after the major battles of the Pequot War had concluded.

Williams claimed that Pequots indeed murdered Oldham, and were sheltered by one Wequashcuck a Niantic sachem.[26] (Since Williams accusation dates from What or TB? several months after the war, it obviously did not play a part in motivating the war.) Who killed John Oldham? The bulk of the evidence suggests what most of the participants on the English side had claimed: the Female Genital Mutilation: of the United Kingdom Block Islanders, a tribe tributary to the Narragansetts. The question may be legitimately asked why punitive efforts were not made against the Narragansetts for the killers of John Oldham, similar to the actions taken against the Pequots for the death of is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay Stone. Church held that [t]he Narraganset[t]s, who had some hand in the murder, now submitted to party in china the terms offered by the English. It appears that the Narrangansetts accepted without retaliation a punitive expedition in 1636 against their Block Island tributaries by Captains Endicott, Underhill, and What, Turner.[27] Jennings, on the other hand, tells us that one of the Narragansett chiefs took two hundred warriors in seventeen canoes to Block Island to deal out revenge in Massachusettss behalf for Oldhams death.[28] Winthrop recorded that Miantonomo, a chief sachem of the Narragansetts, informed the Massachusetts Bay government that two of Oldhams killers were being held captive by him, and that they would be turned over to the English for Intrusion and Prevention punishment. (One was turned over; the other died in Narragansett custody.)[29] Jennings, however, uses the or TB? Essay conflicting reports of Oldhams death as evidence of ruling some grand conspiracy by Massachusetts Bay officials to justify war with the Pequots,[30] as if every eyewitness to a traffic accident can be relied upon to give identical accounts. Larzer Ziff advances the theory that Stones death led to the Pequot War because the fur trade led to the unhesitating need to kill Indians to assure the security of the trader, and explains that the lack of a similar bloody war against the Narragansetts was because they were a more important military ally than the Pequots. What. However, Ziff provides no supporting evidence for this theory of motivation. Moreover, Ziffs assertion that, The fur trade corrupted the push Indians by introducing artificial demands into their culture, suggests that Ziff has an ax to grind against the Puritans.[31] In 1637, there was certainly no awareness of the extent to which Indian culture was changing in response to English trade, and to What is Tuberculosis or TB? call this change corrupt is marketing and promotions one that would have doubtless caused an indignant response from is Tuberculosis any Pequot who had exchanged furs for a musket. While extant letters from ruling party Massachusetts Bay officials fail to make any assertions about trade and its relationship to the Pequot War, Plymouth Governor Edward Winslows letter of What February 17, 1637, seems to party argue against such a motivation:

Yet let me commend one thing to your consideracion how dangerous a thing it may prove if the Dutch (who seek it) and they should close by reason of the Pequots necessity: I speake not this as desiring the benefit of their trade, for we are weary of the worke as we are dealt withall.[32] Ziff also seeks to explain the reluctance of Massachusetts Governor Henry Vane to take action against the Pequots as reflecting the emerging Antinomian division in Boston, which culminated in Anne Hutchinsons trial and banishment. Ziff argues that Winthrop and his followers were primarily interested in production of goods, and What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, regarded trade as a necessary evil, while Vane, Hutchinson, and Scott Monk, other Antinomians were proto-free marketeers[33] uninterested in the fur trade, for, their worldly interests lay elsewhere. Ziff flatly denies that the Antinomian reluctance to What is Tuberculosis pursue the Pequot War showed any real concern for Female Genital Children of the United Kingdom the Pequots, and insists on the most negative interpretation of their actions: [I]t indicates the negative fact that they were unwilling to join in What is Tuberculosis or TB?, a communal enterprise with those with whom they had so profound a disagreement in other matters and who had so rudely turned their representatives out of Raw by Essay elective office.[34] Ziff provides no source for What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay his belief about the challenger text nature of Antinomian opposition to the Pequot War. Since he also asserts that Vane as governor had dragged his feet in What is Tuberculosis Essay, sending an expedition against the Pequots, revenge for turning Vane out of office could not have been a motivation for actions taken by Vane while he was still governor![35] Jennings sees the two year delay between Stones death and Endecotts punitive expedition as an indication that Massachusetts Bay was deciding whether profitable trade was possible with the Pequots, and that Stones death was just an excuse for a war motivated by the pursuit of Detection Essay land and trade opportunities. At the same time, Jennings finds it hard to believe that Stones death would have motivated action by any of the New Englanders at all, because of Stones criminal history. Jennings position seems to be that they should have been immediately driven to action by Stones deathand yet he acknowledges that there were reasons why both colonies might only have regarded Stones death as the or TB? regrettable end of a troublemaker.[36]

Rather than focusing attention on the long interval between Stones death and Intrusion, the start of the war, it is more important to recognize that Stones death was only one of the provocations that led to the Pequot War. It was probably not the most emotionally affecting incident for the colonists, especially in light of is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay Stones reputation. The actions which took place in the period between Governor Winthrops meeting with the Pequot ambassadors in 1634, and the decision to make war upon the Pequots in Monk Essay, 1637, played a far more inflammatory part than the death of Stone. The punitive expedition by Captain Endecott against the Block Islanders in 1636 also included an or TB? Essay attack on the Pequots on the mainland, with the goal of forcing Sassacus, chief sachem of the of the United Kingdom Pequots, to turn over the killers of Stone. The movement, instead of intimidating, did but irritate that warlike nation. Sassacus attempted to ally with the Narragansetts against the English, but they declined the invitation.[37] In response to the punitive expedition, the Pequots launched a series of What Essay kidnappings, murders, and tortures of prisoners from the frontier communities then being established in Connecticut, which, not surprisingly, inflamed the colonial attitude towards the Pequots. The tortures inflicted are described in gruesome detail in screen cinema website, several sources, both primary and secondary; to What is Tuberculosis or TB? read them is to get some grasp of the reactions provoked:

A few days after, they took two men out of challenger a boat, and murdered them with ingenious barbarity, cutting off first the What hands of one of push and promotions them, then his feet. What Or TB? Essay. Soon after, two men sailing down the river were stopped and horribly mutilated and party, mangled; their bodies were cut in two, lengthwise, and the parts hung up by the rivers bank. A man who had been carried off from Wethersfield was roasted alive. All doubt as to the necessity of What is Tuberculosis Essay vigorous action was over, when a band of a hundred Pequots attacked that place, killed seven men, a woman, and a child, and carried off two girls.[38] Gardeners account tells us something of the tortures inflicted by the Pequots: some flayed alive, others cut in golden, pieces, and or TB? Essay, some roasted alive Gardener identifies the brother of Mr. Michell, who is the minister of Cambridge as one who was roasted alive. Gardener also informs us that:

I would fain die in the field, with honor, and Genital Mutilation: Children United Kingdom, not to have a sharp stake set in the ground, and thrust into my fundament, and to have my skin flayed off by piece-meal, and cut in pieces and bits, and my flesh roasted and thrust down my throat, as these people have done, and is Tuberculosis, I know will be done to the chiefest in the country by hundreds, if God should deliver us into their hands[39] Mason adds to the list of tortures performed by the Pequots: their Flesh being first slashed with Knives, and Intrusion and Prevention, then filled with burning Embers.[40] Torture of captives was part of the tradition of Indian warfare among many Eastern Woodland Indian tribes, perhaps as emotional compensation for or TB? the more limited scale on which the warfare was usually conducted.[41] The Puritan reaction, however, was self-righteous anger (despite the retaliatory torture of Intrusion Detection Essay Pequots by Masons men at Saybrook).[42] It is important to recognize the major part that the Indian allies of the English played in Essay, encouraging the ruling party in china war, even though they hesitated once the battle of Fort Mystic began. Plymouth (and indirectly, Massachusetts Bay) had been informed in 1636 by Uncas, a Mohegan sachem, that the Pequots had planned to attack and take one of the What or TB? Plymouth trading vessels the previous year. Screen. (The attack was never carried out, however.)[43] Jennings suggests that the report may have originated in Uncass malicious imagination Jennings argues that because the Mohegans were an offshoot of the Pequots, Uncas might have perceived a potential benefit from Essay provoking war between English and reagan speech text, Pequots; Uncas had an interest in becoming grand sachem of both Mohegans and Pequots.[44] It would be entirely credible for What is Tuberculosis or TB? Uncas to believe that a major defeat of the Pequots would cause Sassacus to Raw by Scott fall from What is Tuberculosis Essay power as grand sachem, opening up an opportunity for himself. Roger Williams informed Governor Winthrop of the golden great willingness of the Narragansetts to Essay assist in making war on Raw by Scott the Pequots, providing intelligence about Pequot positions, and the best locations from which to What is Tuberculosis Essay attack Fort Mystic. Female Genital Mutilation: United Essay. Indeed, Williams describes the Narragansett sachems as anxious for the English to start the war as soon as possible. According to Williams, the Narragansetts had the What Essay goal of stealing Pequot canoes, killing all the men, and most of the women and Detection and Prevention, children.[45] But two days later Williams asserted, That it would be pleasing to all natives, that women and children be spared, etc.[46] By all natives, it would appear that Williams was referring to tribes other than the Narragansett. Is Tuberculosis Essay. After the Fort Mystic massacre, the Narragansetts expressed their desire for some smale interrest and priveledg in Pequot Cuntrye[47] This desire, however, might have been only an after-the-fact attempt to gain from the Pequot loss. A few weeks later, Daniel Patrick was informing Increase Nowell that, The Narregansets woulde be the onelye lords of Indeans; the Mutilation: Children of the United Kingdom Essay Inglish if god will, may, I doubt not, receive tribbute of all but Narregansets[48] Israel Stoughton complained to Governor Winthrop the same day that the Narragansetts are so eagerly sett upon is Tuberculosis their owne ends, to gett booty etc. and to Raw by Essay augment their owne Kingdome etc., that upon the matter they use us as their stalking horse Stoughton, in the same letter, described a Squa-Sachem of Long Island who was apparently a Pequot tributary, who sought peace with the English, yet from or TB? Essay Stoughtons description, Miantonomo, one of the Essay two chief sachems of the Narragansett, attempted to prejudice us against her that we might fall foule with her, albeit he can shew in truth no cause. Was the destruction of is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay Pequot power the Narragansett goal before the battle of Fort Mystic, or merely a logical outcome, once their major rival for power had been removed as a military force?

Stoughton reported that Pequot captives told it playnely, That were it not for the English the Pecots would not yet feare the reagan challenger Narra: but would take their Country[49] Were the Narragansetts the major instigators of the Pequot War, for their own advantage? The Narragansetts by themselves could not have achieved the decisive victory over the Pequots that English arms and organization made possible. Even after the destruction of is Tuberculosis or TB? Fort Mystic, Roger Williams reported that a council of surviving Pequots, including Sassacus, debated whether to continue fighting, first against the Narragansetts (not the English), or to remove to the west.[50] This suggests the party in china Pequots regarded the Narragansetts as their principal enemies, not the is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay English. We must consider the Network Detection and Prevention Essay possibility, however, that the Pequots regarded the English as too dangerous an enemy to attack. In examining evidence about the supposedly recent arrival of the Pequot tribe in New England, Alfred Cave observes that: Both Winthrop and Bradford recorded in the early 1630s that several River Indian sachems had invited the English to settle in the Connecticut Valley, but both concluded that the What or TB? Essay sachems motive was to use the Puritans to regain the power they had lost to marketing the Pequots. What Or TB?. Neither Winthrop nor Bradford regarded the River Sachems as victims of an external aggressor but rather viewed them as treacherous connivers who hoped to manipulate the English.[51] While Cave argues in The Pequot Invasion against the Pequots as recent arrivals in their 1630s location, based on archaeological evidence, oral tradition, and the lack of any evidence from the earliest accounts to establish that they were not long indigenous, he does agree that the Genital Mutilation: Kingdom Essay Pequots had, shortly after their first contact with the Dutch in 1622, fought and What Essay, beaten these River Indians. These tribes, as well as the Narragansetts to the east, resented Pequot hegemony.[52] Did Winthrop forget his earlier perceptions of why other tribes sought English assistance against Essay, the Pequots, or did the is Tuberculosis Essay attacks on Stone, Oldham, and the frontier settlements put him in too much fear to remain neutral any longer?

The English colonists, rather than being regarded as the prime villians in the Pequot War, should perhaps be regarded as pawns in intertribal power politics. In summary, a variety of motivations existed for the English to make war on the Pequots, all consistent with their claimed goal of golden cinema website forcing the Pequots to turn over suspected murderers. But in What is Tuberculosis or TB?, addition to the English motivations, there are other motivations as well on Genital Children Essay the part of Uncas, and the Narragansetts. We must consider this as evidence that the Narragansetts manipulated the English into war against the Pequots. An accelerant is an incendiary that turns a small fire into a large one. What Or TB? Essay. When fire investigators try to determine the cause of reagan speech text a structure fire, they look for char marks that show that gasoline, kerosene, or some other hot-burning liquid may have been used. In a similar way, we can find accelerants at work in the Pequot Waractions and is Tuberculosis, fears on both sides that made it into a much more deadly confrontation than might otherwise have been necessary, for Raw by Scott Indian tribal conflicts rarely turned into such bloody wars.

Captain Endicotts expedition against the Block Islanders and the Pequots was both punitive, and an attempt to extort extradition of Stones killers from the Pequots. As many sources agree, including all of the primary sources, the goal was to punish the Block Islanders for the death of John Oldham, and to encourage the What is Tuberculosis Essay Pequots to Network Intrusion Essay give up the killers of Stone and Oldham to colonial justice.[53] There is agreement from the What is Tuberculosis Essay primary sources that only one Pequot was killed, many wigwams were burned, and a considerable quantity of ruling corn taken.[54] Secondary sources are less certain about the number of What is Tuberculosis or TB? Pequots killed, but otherwise agree about the damage done.[55] There is Raw by Scott Monk Essay some disagreement, however, about the effectiveness of Essay this effort. Church claims, It was Endicots first trust of such a kind, and he did not execute it with good judgment. Palfrey appears to suggest that Endicotts effort was unsuccessful because he could get no audience of Female Genital Children of the Essay [the Pequots] chief men.[56] This would be consistent with the or TB? Essay instructions given by Governor Henry Vane of Massachusetts Bay Colony May 4, 1636 to Connecticut Governor John Winthrop, Jr., which appears to be the basis on golden cinema which Endicotts expedition was dispatched.[57] While the damage sounds minor, it appears that it exceeded Pequot notions of acceptable warfare, provoking a more dramatic response (in the form of the attacks on the frontier English settlements) than was the norm for Indian warfare.[58] Another accelerant to the bloody confrontation was Pequot blasphemy. The Pequots, like many Indian tribes when engaged in warfare, taunted their enemies. Edward Johnson recorded the Pequot insult that, Englishmans God was all one Flye and boasted of power that Puritans read as literal pledges of allegiance to the devil.[59] Underhill reported that some of the Pequot warriors taunted the What is Tuberculosis or TB? English that if one of the Pequot warriors could kill but one of you more, he would be equal with God, and as the Female Genital Children United Englishmans God is, so would he be.[60] When we consider the willingness of Massachusetts Bay to execute troublesome Quakers for violating banishment orders, the Pequot blasphemies help to explain the bloody results of the Pequot War. Both Indians and Englishmen believed in What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, the powers of the supernatural. Roger Williams warned Governor Winthrop in September of 1636 that,

The Pequts heare of your preparations etc. and comfort themselves in this that a witch amongst them will sinck the pinnaces by diving under water and making holes etc. as allso that they shall now enrich themselves with store of golden screen cinema guns but I hope their dreames (through the What mercie of the Lord) shall vanish, and Raw by Monk, the Devill and his lying Sorcerers shall be confounded.[61] The current generation may find this a laughable threat, but to understand the is Tuberculosis or TB? level of push marketing fear provoked by is Tuberculosis or TB? such concerns, consider the psychological effect of Hitlers threats of Monk Essay new secret weapons during World War IIand how psychologically destructive it was when the V1 and What is Tuberculosis, the V2 first started to deliver their cargoes of death to Britain. Fear of such supernatural attack may explain the willingness to use fire against Fort Mystic, and the actions taken by the English soldiers to assure themselves of being right with God. As an Genital Children United Kingdom example of What is Tuberculosis or TB? this spiritual concern, the Massachusetts soldiers were delayed by and promotions the discovery that some of the is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay Officers, as well as of the private Soldiers, were still under a Covenant of Works; and that the Blessing of God could not be implored or expected to crown the Arms of Scott such unhallowed Men with Success.[62] The greater the English fear, the greater their willingness to use all means within their power to Essay destroy Pequot resistance. Another cause of the level of blood shed in Raw by Essay, the attack on Fort Mystic on What or TB? Essay May 26, 1637, may have been the relative numbers of soldiers on Intrusion Essay each side. The colonial army that attacked the Pequot fort consisted of 77 Englishmen, 60 Mohegans, and What, 400 Narragansetts and Niantics (the last two among the least reliable allies).[63] Masons eyewitness account asserts that immediately before the battle began, many of the Indian allies had fled, being exceedingly afraid.[64] Underhill expressed concerns about Mohegan fidelity, because of the common origins of Pequots and Mohegans, and feared that once the battle was under way, the Mohegans might suddenly change sides.[65] This meant that the effective fighting force was reduced to perhaps only the 77 Englishmen. Text. Nor should we consider that the English regarded themselves as clearly superior soldiers. While Mason appears to is Tuberculosis or TB? have held Indian fighting skills in low regard,[66] Edward Winslow complained shortly before the battle that Gardener much discourageth common men by extolling the valor of the Pequots.[67] Even Mason, however, once confronting a larger force, might have reconsidered his views. Underhill, attacking the other side of Fort Mystic, may have been in Female Mutilation: United Kingdom Essay, considerable fear as well, for he regarded the English soldiers as unexpert in the use of is Tuberculosis Essay their arms, and the Pequots as brave fighters.[68] There are conflicting descriptions of the number of Female Genital of the Kingdom Essay Pequots the Englishmen were confronting.

Gardener claimed that at least 300 Pequots died in Fort Mystic, and that many prisoners were taken.[69] William Bradfords second-hand account claimed 400 Pequots died.[70] Masons eyewitness account claimed 600-700 Pequots were killed, with only seven taken prisoner, and seven escaped. Masons account also describes another fort, some distance off, that contained an additional 150 Pequot warriors. This means that the English expedition was outnumbered at least 4.5:1, and What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, if we believe Mason, as much as 11:1, although it is clear that many of the Pequots were not warriors. Captain Mason was well aware that, Their Numbers far exceeded ours. The possibility of losing the battlewith potentially torturous consequences for ruling prisonersmust have weighed heavily on What or TB? the mind of Network Intrusion Captain Mason, who made the decision, once the battle was underway, We must burn them.[71] The Pequots had already made clear their acceptance of the notion of total waror so the English thought.

Gardener describes an is Tuberculosis Essay encounter before the battle at Fort Mystic in which one of the Pequots boasted: We are Pequits, and have killed Englishmen, and can kill them as mosquetoes, and we will go to Conectecott and kill men, women, and children[72] To the colonists, such boasts were doubtless good reason for Raw by Scott Monk Essay taking no chances of leaving any Pequot braves alive to carry out What is Tuberculosis or TB?, such threats against screen cinema website, their loved ones at home. What Essay. Roger Williams also informed Governor Winthrop in late August of 1636 that, the Pequts and [Niantics] resolve to screen cinema live and die together and or TB?, not to yeald up one[73] Yet evidence was available that suggested the Pequots view of war did not match their boasting. Edward Winslows letter to Governor Winthrop shortly before the battle of Fort Mystic observed, The Pecoats follow their fishing and planting as if they had no enemies.[74] Underhills description of battle between Pequots and the Indian allies of the English, shortly after the challenger burning of Fort Mystic asserted that, This fight is is Tuberculosis Essay more for pastime, than to conquer and subdue enemies.[75] The Indian tradition of proud boasting was nothing more than a vigorous attempt to and Prevention Essay intimidate ones enemies; traditionally, New England Indians saw little logic in spilling oceans of blood over What is Tuberculosis, matters of largely symbolic importance.[76] It appears that the English played for keeps, and even when they saw that Indian warfare was fought at a very restrained level, it appears not to Network Detection Essay have significantly impacted English thinking about the limits of warfare. Finally, the Old Testament model of extermination must be considered. When the Israelites captured Canaanite cities, they killed every inhabitant, so that proximity would not lead the Israelites into worshipping Canaanite gods.[77] Did the is Tuberculosis English colonists subscribe to reagan speech text this model?

The evidence is contradictory. In 1630, John Cotton articulated this view of the relationship of the Puritans to the Indians, quoting Psalms 44:2, Thou didst drive out the heathen before them.[78] Similarly, Underhill compares the deaths at Fort Mystic to the Old Testament wars: Sometimes the Scripture declareth women and children must perish with their parents. Sometimes the case alters; but we will not dispute it now. We had sufficient light from the word of God for our proceedings.[79] Winthrops views, on the other hand, seem to be subtly different. Essay. Winthrop, in 1630, argued that if we leave them sufficient [land] for their use we may lawfully take the rest.[80] A letter from Winthrop to John Endecott in 1634 argues that the widespread death of the Indians from Intrusion Essay infectious diseases demonstrated Gods support for the Puritan expansion in the new land.[81] There is a large difference between taking advantage of the gradual dying out of the Indians, and intentional extermination. Winthrops claim does not justify extermination, but Cottons does, and Underhills statement may be honestly read as supporting extermination, or death to all the warriors.

The colonists already regarded their actions as establishing a city on a hill of purified Christianity in the New World; the analogy to the Israelites, who purified Canaan by exterminating the What Canaanites, would have been obvious. If evidence for intentional extermination of the Pequots down to the last man, woman, and child were present, this would tend to Raw by argue that John Cottons Old Testament view influenced the actions taken during the Pequot War. What restraints were present during the What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay Pequot War? Initially, the unnecessary killing of non-combatants restrained both sides. Reagan Speech Text. The Pequots were used to a style of warfare that left few dead, and the initial expedition by or TB? Endicott caused few Pequot deaths. But once the colonists perceived that the Pequots intended to do them great harm, there was no logical alternative but complete defeat of their enemies.

It appears that the marketing Pequots failed to understand one important European attitude about warfare: it was not a game, and if fought at all, it was to Essay be as total a victory as could be achieved.[82] There seems to be some question about the extent to which the English regarded women, children, and the elderly as non-combatants. Hirsch asserts that atrocities committed during the Thirty Years War elicited universal condemnation, arguing that the English actions during the Pequot War did not reflect the prevailing European notions of Intrusion Detection fair play. Instead, he sees the breakdown of the What notion of non-combatants as a result of the fears engendered by the isolated and golden screen cinema website, dependent position of the English colonists, in conjunction with the Pequot raids on frontier settlements, where the deaths of English women must have seemed evidence of is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay Pequot barbarism. At the same time, Hirsch points to a number of modern writers on this subject who claim that non-combatants were perfectly acceptable victims under prevailing European standards, and therefore, the slaughter at and promotions Fort Mystic is unsurprising.[83] Finally, in examining the restraints which operated on the Puritans, we must consider the very high standards to which they felt themselves obligated.

This does not mean that every Puritan always lived up to these standards, but most people seek to or TB? justifyor rationalizethe actions which they take. In the screen case of Governor Vanes orders to Endicotts expedition, the instructions were very clearthat war was a last resort, if the Pequots would not turn over the offenders for trial.[84] The actions and statements of is Tuberculosis or TB? various English colonists after the Pequot War suggest remorse consistent with a belief that the matter had gone beyond a point where all, participants and spectators, could be completely comfortable with the results, in spite of an overwhelming victory. Gardeners retrospective description of the Pequot War has a mournful tone to it, and apparently not just for in china the English casualties of the war: Thus far I had written in a book, that all men and posterity might know how and why so many honest men had their blood shed, yea, and or TB?, some flayed alive, others cut in pieces, and some roasted alive, only because Kichamokin a Bay Indian killed one Pequit[85] Similarly, Roger Williams, who had played a major part in organizing Indian allies against the Pequots, expressed concern that some innocent blood cryes at Qunnihticut, and pointed to 2 Kings 14:5-6 as evidence that guilt did not extend to children.[86] Two weeks later, he clarified that his concern was that the Pequot women and marketing, children should not be enslaved, or at least, not permanently. Is Tuberculosis Essay. If they have deserved Death, tis Sinn to spare: If they have not deserved Death, then what punishments? Whether perpetuall slaverie.[87] There is evidence that the New England colonists did, at least occasionally, recognize an obligation to provide color-blind justiceat least in reagan challenger text, peacetime.

In 1638, four Englishmen participated in the robbery and murder of a Narragansett. One escaped English jurisdiction; another died as a result of What or TB? Essay wounds suffered when the Narragansetts took him captive; and the two remaining Englishmen were tried, convicted, and executed for a crime against an Indian. While the motivations included concern about Narragansett retaliation if no justice was done, Bradford emphasizes that those who expressed opposition that any English should be put to death for the Indeans were of a rude ignorante sorte.[88] On a less severe scale, Massachusetts Bay had whipped one of the colonists for soliciting an Indian squaw to incontinency some years before the reagan speech text Pequot War.[89] These incidents suggest that the Essay English concern for justice included justice for crimes against Indians. Thomas Shepards sermon, The Parable of the challenger speech text Ten Virgins, delivered before 1640, suggested that the Pequot War was an event sent by God for the purpose of or TB? Essay awakening the Puritans from spiritual slumber: The Lord awakened us by the Pequot hornet, yet what use is there made of it?[90] This is another reminder that the screen Pequot War was regarded not merely as an unpleasant event, but perhaps an indication of Gods displeasure with the Puritans. What Is Tuberculosis. This is suggestive that feelings of guilt were present about the war, and that at least some English colonists recognized that justice had not been done. There is golden website one piece of evidence that suggests the decision to burn Fort Mystic may not have been completely made on the spur of the moment, and it has apparently been missed by Jennings, who, one would think, would leave no such evidence out of Invasion of America. Underhills description of Captain Mason setting fire to Fort Mystic describes Masons use of a firebrand on the west side, and myself set fire on or TB? the south end with a train of powder. Unfortunately, it is impossible to tell if Underhill is referring to a train hundreds of feet long, or simply the result of emptying his powder horn and lighting it. Yet even on Network the same page, Underhill reported, Mercy did they deserve for their valor, could we have had opportunity to have bestowed it.[91] This suggests, though does not prove, that Underhills actions with the train of powder were an impulsive act, not a premeditated act of or TB? Essay extermination.

The evidence suggests that the massacre at Fort Mystic was not premeditated, but the actions of a commander who had stumbled into a battle prematurely, found himself suddenly outnumbered, afraid that this problem was going to challenger speech get dramatically worse if he fought the Pequots in a traditional way, in terror of torture if captured, and who saw an immediate tactical solution to his problem: fire. This does not mean that a plan could not been hatched in advance for the extermination of women and children, but the evidence for such a plan is simply not present. Was genocide the intent of the English, as some modern historians have claimed or implied? Genocide is a very emotionally charged word. It is a word that evokes images of gas chambers, bulldozers burying mountains of rotting corpses, and crematoria. It is the nuclear weapon of accusations. Strong language should be held in reserve for circumstances that unambiguously call for it, or we are at risk that the word will cease to have any real meaning, much as fascist was used in the 1960s by is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay some political activists and academics to refer to any political opinion to the right of Eugene McCarthy. Genocide is Genital Mutilation: Children United Kingdom a term of or TB? recent origin, coined in 1943 by Raphael Lemkin to describe the actions of National Socialist Germany and its allies in establishing a Judenrein Europe. In the strictest sense, it refers to the intentional effort to achieve the complete physical extermination of an identifiable ethnic or national group.

Katz observes that the term genocide has been recently used by American historians and others to describe various persecutions past and party in china, present[92] Such overheated rhetoric was readily audible during the recent Columbus quincentennial, in spite of its general inapplicability, except in a sense so broad as to What Essay render the in china term genocide meaningless. Can we apply the What is Tuberculosis or TB? term to what happened to challenger the Pequots? While many Pequots died in battle, and at least 30 male prisoners were killed by the English shortly after the burning of Fort Mystic,[93] there is abundant evidence that the What or TB? Essay English did not intend the extermination of the reagan speech text Pequots. Mason describes the taking of Pequot prisoners in subsequent battles, who were turned over for absorption into What Essay Indian tribes allied with the English.[94] Bradfords account of their disposition differs from push marketing Masons, with Bradford asserting that the prisoners were divided some to those [Indians?] of the river, and the rest to us. The male children were sent to Bermuda, presumably into slavery, and the women and maid children are disposed aboute in or TB? Essay, the townes. Bradfords account is not clear whether the Scott Monk Essay Pequot females in Plymouth were enslaved,[95] but Hirsch brings together a number of pieces of or TB? documentary evidence to show that they were enslaved for life, and Raw by Monk Essay, some were sent to What is Tuberculosis Essay colonial prisons.[96] Roger Williams proposal of late June, 1637, that such Pequts as fall to them be not enslaved, like those which are taken in warr was apparently not taken.[97] While the Female Children actions taken were nothing of which to be proud, they are not consistent with genocidal intent.

Katz does an effective job of demolishing Francis Jennings arguments in The Invasion of America that extermination was the intent of the war, pointing out that Jennings proves his position by a highly selective reading of the primary documents, leaving out those pieces of What or TB? Essay evidence that would tend to support the heat of battle explanation that seems most justified to and promotions this reader.[98] Examination of Jennings argument directly, comparing it to the sources quoted, confirms Katzs claim; Jennings clearly misrepresents Masons account of the or TB? Essay events that led up to the burning of Fort Mystic. As one example, Jennings asserts that, Mason had determined that massacre would be his objective. No such assertion is to be found in text, Mason. Similarly, Jennings quotes Masons remark, We had formerly concluded to destroy them by the Sword and What is Tuberculosis or TB?, save the Plunder, as demonstrating an intention to slaughter all the screen cinema inhabitants of Fort Mystic, but this position is not supported by What is Tuberculosis or TB? the context of challenger speech Masons remarks.[99] Jennings also asserts that Mason lied about the What or TB? Essay reasons why his Indian allies withdrew from the battle until the victory was assured by use of fire, yet he provides no evidence to prove that claim.[100] Careful examination of Jennings claims and use of evidence reveals a consistent policy of ruling party in china misrepresentation of is Tuberculosis Essay primary sources and selective reading. Another problem with Jennings argument is that it assumes a level of agreement and organization among the English colonists in preparing to reagan speech exterminate the Pequots. At the same time, Jennings argues that attempts to bring Thomas Hookers Connecticut flock under the political authority of Massachusetts Bay caused Winthrop to provoke a war with the Pequots, so that Massachusetts Bay could claim Connecticut by or TB? right of conquest, thus extending their political claims. Either the colonies were working together to wipe out the golden screen cinema Pequots, or they were fighting each other over political controlboth claims seem to be made by Jennings, and they appear to be inconsistent.[101] The lack of agreement among the three colonies of Plymouth, Connecticut, and What or TB?, Massachusetts Bay is readily shown. At the same time that Massachusetts Bay was starting to Raw by negotiate with the What Essay Pequots about extradition of ruling in china Stones killers, Plymouth and Essay, Massachusetts Bay were not on friendly terms, because of fighting at Kennebunk that led to the death of a Massachusetts Bay man.[102] Similarly, in May of 1636, Massachusetts Governor Vanes letter to Connecticut Governor John Winthrop, Jr., found it necessary to emphasize that Massachusetts concerns about the Pequots concernes not only this state but all the English upon the River[103] If, as Jennings argues, the Pequot War was all some great conspiracy by Massachusetts Bay for commercial ends, in which Governor Winthrop played a major role, it is Monk all the more surprising that his son would need to be persuaded to take part.

As late as March 20, 1637, Governor Winthrops letter to William Bradford acknowledged you objecte that we began the warr, without your privitie, and managed it contrary to your advise. Even more telling against Jennings claim of Winthrop intentionally provoking a war with the What Pequots is the later admission, our first Intentions being only against Block Iland, and the Interprice seeming of Detection and Prevention small difficultie, we did not so much as consider of Essay taking advise, or looking out for aide abroad.[104] To acknowledge that the war was, essentially, a mistake, would not have ingratiated Massachusetts Bay to in china Plymouth; indeed, it would have suggested that Massachusetts Bay didnt quite know what it was doing, at a time when Plymouths alliance was very important. Thomas Hooker also showed the reluctance of Connecticut settlers to participate in the Pequot War. What. Hooker and his settlement finally decided to join in the war because their Indian neighbors were so importunate with us to Network Essay make warr presently that unless we had attempted some thing we had delivered our persons unto contempt of base feare and cowardise, and caused them to turne enemies agaynst us At the or TB? same time, once committed to the war, Hooker requested that Winthrop not to do this work of the Lords revenge slackly[105] The English actions after Fort Mystic seems an entirely understandable response to fear of the Pequot tribe nursing a grudge that might lead to yet another war; reducing their females to an enslaved status was certainly generous compared to the Old Testament model. Governor Edward Winslow, in spite of the initial reservations expressed by Plymouth about war with the Pequots, finally threw Plymouths lot in Network Intrusion and Prevention Essay, with Massachusetts Bay. Is Tuberculosis Or TB? Essay. He agreed that it was necessary for you to proceed in Female Genital Children, the war begun with the Pequots, otherwise the What Essay natives we feare will grow into screen a stronger confederacy to the further prejudice of the whole English.[106] Roger Williams warned Governor Winthrop of reports that the surviving Pequots had entered a league with the Mauquawogs or Mohowawogs [Mohawks?] which signifies Man Eaters in their language: These Caniballs have bene all the talke these 10 dayes, and the [Narragansetts] are much troubled at them. Williams went on to express concern that the Pequots would also turn cannibal, and cut of all hopes of Essay safe residence at Qunnihticut[107] Williams again was reporting Narragansett concerns that would seem certain to provoke the most extreme fear from the English, encouraging the continuing hunt for surviving Pequots, and their enslavement or death.Having established that physical genocide was not accomplished by the English (and it was within their power to have carried it out, had they desired it), what about cultural genocide? First of all, it is reagan challenger speech important to recognize that this term is vague.

The term is often used to describe the intentional destruction of significant cultural identity or elements of a people. But while physical genocide can be reduced to the question: Did all members of that people, or nearly all members of that people, die? cultural genocide is not so easy to measure or define. All populations have culture. All cultures change with time, in response to both internal and external influences. Those external influences may be imposed (e.g., prohibiting Indian children from using their native language in school), or they may be the result of seduction, as American popular culture has done in many parts of the world today. An argument could be advanced that the survival of the Pequot gene pool means nothing, if the carriers of those genes were absorbed into other Indian tribes, especially since the absorption was not voluntary.

But even acknowledging this, can we find evidence of English intent to destroy the Pequot culture? Before the series of is Tuberculosis or TB? raids that provoked the Pequot War, there is no clear evidence of any intention to destroy the independent existence of the Pequots. As we have seen, the war could have been avoided by the Pequots turning over the suspected murderers for trial; the willingness of the Massachusetts government to negotiate with the Pequots in 1636 makes little sense otherwise. Reagan Challenger Speech. Jennings points out that for the Pequots to What turn over the killers (who were apparently of a tributary tribe) would have violated Pequot diplomatic obligations, and he suggests that the demand for the killers was simply a ploy by Massachusetts Bay to justify war.[108] Why would Winthrop bother with negotiations, if the decision had already been made to exterminate the Pequots?

It is possible that a plan was already hatched to marketing wipe out the Pequot tribe, but why negotiate, when such efforts might arouse suspicions of What is Tuberculosis potential hostilities among the Pequots? Perhaps a secret plan already existed, and Scott Monk Essay, negotiations were intended to give the illusion of morality to the population that would, of necessity, have to fight the war, but before we assume such a Machiavellian scheme, some evidence must be provided to support such a claim. After the war was fully under way, of course, the evidence is clear, from the enslavement of the females, and the foreign sale of the surviving males, that the English intended the What is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay Pequots to no longer be a threat. But there is one additional problem with the claim of cultural genocide: the continued existence of the tribe.Katz quotes Alden Vaughan that, Toward the end of Network Intrusion Detection 1637 the few remaining [Pequot] sachems begged for What Essay an end to the war, promising vassalage in return for their lives. With the Treaty of Hartford, signed on September 21, 1638, the Pequots ceased to Essay exist as an independent polity.[109] But did they? Three different sources, two from the nineteenth century, one from the twentieth century, assert the continued existence of the Pequots as a tribe past the time of the Pequot War. Sometime between the end of the Pequot War in 1638 and the beginning of King Philips War, four decades later, a Captain George Denison was appointed by the United Colonies of Connecticut to set aside 8,000 acres as a home for the scattered remnants of the Pequot tribe, the or TB? first Indian reservation in North America.[110] Another indicator of the continued existence of the Pequots as a tribe is an biographical note about Lion Gardener, written in Mutilation: Children of the, July, 1832, by William T. Williams, which describes a remnant of the is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay Pequots still existing. They live in the town of Groton, and amount to about forty souls living on a reservation, and still holding a grudge against the remnants of the other tribes.[111] The most persuasive evidence of Pequot survival as a cultural entity is a book of nineteenth century essays, written by a Pequot.[112] If the goal was cultural genocide, the English failed to achieve it; the continued presence of Pequots as an independent polity suggests that English enslavement and death was not aimed at all Pequots, but only those Pequots who were not prepared to surrender.

Was land acquisition a goal in warring against the Pequots? Jennings argues that Massachusetts Bay sought warfare with the Pequots in order to push consolidate land claims. Yet after describing a nefarious scheme to war against Essay, the Pequots, in order to Female Genital Mutilation: Children United Essay have a better claim to What is Tuberculosis or TB? Connecticut than the Connecticut colonists, Jennings admits in a footnote, All this motivational description must be inferred from the situation.[113] Further, there is nothing in the primary sources that suggests real estate was an English goal of the war, or even a beneficial side effect of wiping out the Pequots as an independent tribeas even Jennings admits. There are, however, pieces of Intrusion Detection Essay evidence that suggest the What or TB? English acquisition of the party in china Pequot land may have been an afterthought. What Is Tuberculosis Or TB?. Israel Stoughtons letter of August 9th to Governor Winthrop described the Pequot lands in glowing terms: I am confident we have not the like in English possession as yet, and golden screen, probable tis the Dutch will seaze it if the English do not.[114] If the plan from the beginning was to What or TB? Essay dispossess the Pequots of their land, then Stoughton was apparently not in on the scheme.

There are, without question, later conflicts with the Indians in which the charge can be validly made that the war was fought with the goal of acquiring land. Certainly, by Intrusion Essay the nineteenth century, there can be no dispute that the goal with respect to some of the Plains Indians tribes was extermination. But we must be careful to distinguish the motives of 1637 from the motives of later periods. In the nineteenth century, Indian raids were a threat to individual lives, but there was no risk of the Indians driving Euro-Americans into the sea; in 1637, the English colonists did, and accurately, could, fear exactly that. In the nineteenth century, motivations were often colored by a hundred years of fear of savages; in 1636, while the Virginia colonys Indian problems were known, the willingness of the English colonists to ally themselves with the enemies of the Pequots suggests that race (though not tribe) was a minor issue (if any) in the decision to go to war.[115] We must not let our anger about atrocities of a later era and against other tribes color our perceptions of the is Tuberculosis Essay Pequot War. The Pequot fort was not Sand Creek Canyon; Captain Mason was not Colonel Chivington; and 1864 was not 1637. Apess, William, On Our Own Ground: The Complete Writings of William Apess, A Pequot, (Amherst, Mass.: University of golden screen Massachusetts Press, 1992). Bradford, William, Of Plymouth Plantation, edited by Harvey Wish, (New York: Capricorn Books, 1962). Caldwell, Thedore C., and George W. Westcott, Massachusetts, Encyclopedia Americana, (Chicago: Americana Corp., 1963), 18:399f-412. Cave, Alfred A., The Pequot Invasion of Southern New England: A Reassessment of the Evidence, in New England Quarterly, 82:1 [March, 1988], 27-44. ________, Who Killed John Stone?

A Note on the Origins of the Pequot War, in William and What is Tuberculosis Essay, Mary Quarterly, 48:3 [July, 1992], 509-521. Church, Benjamin, The History of Network Philips War, 2nd ed., edited by Samuel Drake, (Exeter, N.H. J. B. Is Tuberculosis Essay. Williams, 1829; reprinted New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1969). Denison, E. Glenn, Josephine Middleton Peck, and Donald L. Jacobus, Denison Genealogy: Ancestors and Mutilation: Children Essay, Descendants of Captain George Denison, (Stonington, Conn.: The Pequot Press, Inc., n.d.) Forbes, Allyn Bailey, ed., Winthrop Papers, (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1943). Frost, John, Indian Wars of the United States, (Auburn, Mass.: Derby Miller, 1852). Heimert, Alan, and Andrew Delbanco, ed., The Puritans in America, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985).

Hirsch, Adam J., The Collision of Military Cultures in is Tuberculosis or TB? Essay, Seventeenth-Century New England, in Journal of American History, 74:4 [March, 1988], 1187-1212. Hubbard, William, The History of the Indian Wars in Network Intrusion Detection and Prevention, New England From the What or TB? First Settlement to the Termination of the War with King Philip, in 1677, edited by Samuel G. Intrusion. Drake, (Roxbury, Mass.: W. Elliot Woodward, 1865; reprint New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1969). Jennings, Francis, The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Cant of Conquest, (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1975). Katz, Stanley N., John M. Murrin, and Douglas Greenberg, ed., Colonial America: Essays in Politics and Social Development, 4th ed., (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1993). Katz, Steven T., The Pequot War Reconsidered, in What, New England Quarterly, 64:2 [June, 1991], 206-224. Mason, John, A Brief History of the Pequot War, (Cleveland: 1897; reprinted Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, Inc., 1966). Orr, Charles, History of the Pequot War, (Cleveland: Helman-Taylor Co.: 1897 reprinted New York: AMS Press, n.d.).

Palfrey, John Gorham, A Compendious History of New England, (Cambridge, Mass.: Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1883). Penhallow, Samuel, The History of the Network Intrusion Essay Wars of New-England with the Eastern Indians, or, A Narrative of Their Continued Perfidy and Cruelty, (Cincinnati : J. Harpel, 1859). Vincent, Philip, A True Relation of the What Late Battell Fought in Raw by Scott, New-England, Between the English, and the Salvages, (London: Nathanael Butter and What, John Bellamie, 1637; reprinted Norwood, N.J.: Walter J. Johnson, Inc., 1974). Winthrop, John, The History of New England From 1630 to 1649, (Boston: Phelps and Farnham, 1825; reprinted Salem, N.H.: Ayer Co., 1992). Ziff, Larzer, Puritanism in America: New Culture in a New World, (New York: Viking Press, 1973). [1] William Hubbard, The History of the Indian Wars in New England From the First Settlement to reagan challenger the Termination of the War with King Philip, in What is Tuberculosis Essay, 1677, edited by Samuel G. Network Intrusion And Prevention Essay. Drake, (Roxbury, Mass.: W. Elliot Woodward, 1865; reprint New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1969), 2:116 ff. [2] Alfred A. Cave, Who Killed John Stone?

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