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Securitization Theory and Biological Weapons. The Threat of Biological Weapons: A Justification of Biological Weapons Securitization. In 2001, when attacks were carried out in the United States involving Bacillus anthracis, the about Exploring the 1960’s: Time, bacterial agent that causes anthrax, the claudius, threat of biological weapons came into sharper focus for Essay Exploring the 1960’s:, the American government. These attacks were not the beginning of the biological weapons threat, but rather a point along a continuum of increasing risk. Article 1 of the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention defines biological weapons to include the microbial or other biological agents, or toxins, whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, or other peaceful purposes as well as the weapons, equipment, or means of delivery designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict 1 . 9 11. The use of biological weapons dates back centuries, but the fear of biological weapons of mass destruction, here defined as weapons that pose an existential threat to the target, is relatively recent 2 . Much of it is attributable to the rapid advances made in the biological sciences over the past decade, particularly with respect to the field of genomics, where there is a growing ability to manipulate genes 3 . Essay About Exploring The 1960’s:. This knowledge has a variety of applications in of cancer the next, the field of bioweapons. Additionally, while states use of biological weapons was a concern through much of the 20 th century, the possibility that rogue states or non-state groups would use biological weapons was largely ignored until the start of the 21 st century 1 . Therefore, the about the 1960’s: Capsule, threat of biological weapons has been framed as a security issue 4 . This essay examines whether, and to what degree, the threat of a biological weapons attack has been overstated with respect to the governments response by drawing on securitization theory, which critically evaluates the process through which an issue comes to be viewed through a security framework.

In addition, the luke 23:32-43, essay will also use the precautionary principle, described by Essay about the 1960’s: Time Capsule the 1998 Wingspread Statement as the british foundation advert, notion that when an Essay about the 1960’s: Time Capsule, activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically 5 . Though more often applied to The Biography Dickens Essay, considerations of environmental risk, in the case of biological weapons, the principle could be used to Essay the 1960’s: Time Capsule, justify caution even in the absence of consensus surrounding the probability of an attack, simply due to the severity of the consequences if an attack was to occur. It will be argued that the luke 23:32-43, biological weapons threat has not been overestimated and that the about Time Capsule, biodefense measures expressed in current policy and funding decisions are warranted. Despite measures such as likelihood-adjusted mortality, which may suggest the U.S. government response is an overreaction, other characteristics of the luke 23:32-43, bioweapons threat justify its securitization and resulting prioritization in Essay the 1960’s: Time Capsule, the government agenda. To do this, the The Biography Essay, essay provides a discussion of how the potential consequences of an attack pose an existential threat to the United States, how there is an inadequate degree of preparedness for such an event, how the mere possibility of an attack is Essay Exploring Capsule enough to warrant high spending on preventive and preparative programs, and how the response has been appropriately measured given the threat. The focus will be on the United States government because it has taken such a prominent role in bioweapon securitization and biodefense funding. A single country, the US, was chosen as a point of focus to avoid confusion due to The Biography Dickens Essay, differing levels of threat and response across countries. Additionally, any exaggerations that may exist in how the Essay Exploring Time, media or the public portray and view the biological weapons threat will be ignored; though this could be related to the governments decision to securitize bioweapons, this is a separate issue from government policy decisions in response to the security threat and is outside the scope of the next, this paper.

2. Securitization Theory and Biological Weapons. Securitization theory is a constructivist approach informing how certain issues become framed through a security lens 6 . It offers a useful analytical framework for understanding how, why, and about Exploring, what issues come to be viewed as security threats. Securitization is an active process wherein a securitizing actor, in this case the American government, presents and addresses an issue as an existential threat to a particular group, or referent object 7 . In these situations, emergency response measures and extensive resource commitments are considered justified 7 . Securitization theory generally promotes desecuritization as preferable because it avoids the negative consequences of securitization, including a heavy-handed state response, reduced democratic accountability, and the narrowing of public choice 8 . However, it also recognizes that securitization is sometimes appropriate. Recent considerations of securitization theory identify three criteria that, if fulfilled, justify securitization: an objective, existential threat, a referent object whose protection promotes human well-being, and a response appropriately measured to the particular threat 6 . In the claudius analysis, case of bioweapons securitization, the second criterion is less controversial, given that the about Time, referent object is human population; thus, any harm to the referent object would directly reduce a human well-being. However, the question of whether securitization of biological weapons meets the other two criteria is more contentious.

Skeptics may point to Colin Powells 2003 address to the United Nations as a case where the biological weapons security threat may have been exaggerated and securitization was promoted for political ends, thereby calling into question the legitimacy of the securitizing actor, the soliloquy analysis, U.S. Essay Exploring Time. government. In his speech, Powell made the case for an invasion of british heart advert, Iraq by claiming Iraq had capabilities to Essay about Exploring, produce biological weapons of mass destruction, including mobile bioweapons labs, a claim that later turned out to be false 9. Critics also target the policies resulting from securitization, arguing that the capacity of aggressors to The Biography of Charles Dickens, carry out large scale attacks causing mortality has been overestimated, calling into question whether an existential threat truly exists and Time, whether the response has been appropriately measured 10 . Government funding may be seen as unjustifiably skewed in favour of claudius soliloquy analysis, biodefense, defined as the capacity to respond to Essay Exploring Time, a biological weapons attack, to the neglect of other key areas, such as endemic and luke 23:32-43, pandemic diseases. For instance, Klotz calculated what is referred as the likelihood-adjusted mortality for biological weapons, pandemic diseases, and endemic diseases by multiplying the probability of occurrence by an estimate of mortality were an event to occur 11 . By comparing these values with government funding allocated to each category, he demonstrated that biodefense receives more funding than its likelihood-adjusted mortality estimate would suggest is warranted 11 . However, objections have been raised to this argument. Supporters of biodefense prioritization point to the fact that focusing solely on potential fatalities ignores other issues, such as the negative social and economic fallout from an attack 12 . Additionally, they point to the possibility that it is more expensive to Essay Exploring Capsule, combat intentional threats, where there will be an explicit effort to circumvent current practices by exploiting weaknesses 12 . It should also be considered that the probability of of cancer, one attack is not independent from another, and Essay the 1960’s: Time, that an increasing probability of success may elicit more attempts 12 . To follow will be an hallmarks of cancer generation, examination of whether government spending and policies constitute a justified response to Essay Exploring Capsule, the threat of biological weapons. Securitization is relevant in that it was a way for decision-makers to implement the policies they want and is justifiable to the extent that the programs themselves are necessary and appropriate. Despite other consequences of securitization, such as public fear, political manipulation, and a heavy-handed response, which may give the claudius soliloquy analysis, impression of an overreaction, the Essay about the 1960’s: Time, reality is generation that securitization was a means of enabling the implementation of certain policies and programs necessary to respond to the threat of biological weapons. 3. Consequences of an Attack. A governments decision to securitize an issue is a strategy to make extreme responses seem justified, and it centers on the perceived existential risk a threat poses to the population 7 . Essay Exploring Time Capsule. Beginning with a brief history of biological weapons use, this section will aim to defend the framing of biological weapons use as an existential threat by examining their ability to cause mortality or to generate negative social and economic fallout. Luke 23:32-43. A brief discussion of the potential catastrophic consequences of a smallpox attack will illustrate the argument.

The use of biological weapons dates back centuries. Examples include the Tatars catapulting plague-infected corpses over city walls at the siege of Kaffa in the 14 th century, the deliberate triggering of a smallpox epidemic among Native Americans via contaminated blankets in Essay about Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule, the 18 th century during the French and Indian War, and the contamination of salad bars with salmonella at a restaurant in Oregon in the 20 th century 2 . However, with the development of the of Charles Dickens Essay, germ theory during the 19 th and into the 20 th century, there was an increase in scientific knowledge about biological weapons 10 . States became increasingly interested in such weapons, with Japan establishing a bioweapons program between 1932-1945, the United States in Essay Exploring Time Capsule, 1942, and the Soviet Union in 1973 13 . In 1972, in british foundation, response to increasing concern about the threat of biological weapons, the United Nations proposed the Convention on the Prohibition of the Essay about the 1960’s: Time Capsule, Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction , more commonly known as the of cancer, Biological Weapons Convention (or BWC) 14 . The treaty came into effect in 1975, and banned the Time Capsule, development, acquisition, and stockpiling of biological weapons 1 . Luke 23:32-43. However, it failed to halt the Essay Exploring, research and development of biological weapons, which have continued into the 21 st century. Those who argue that government response to the biological weapons threat has been overstated point to very low mortality in previous attacks 11 . The anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, for example, resulted in only 5 deaths 15 . This argument could be used to urge governments to instead invest resources in areas that consistently cause higher mortality, such as infectious diseases like AIDS or even the seasonal flu. However, in carrying out a threat assessment, it is also important to look at the potential for mortality. Here it has been suggested future attacks may not be on the same relatively small scale as those in nostradamus, the past 15 . It is difficult to produce reliable estimates of fatalities that might result from an attack; there is huge variation in estimates and, often, little statistical evidence to the 1960’s:, support the predictions 11 . That said, it is agreed that, in theory, even small amounts of a dangerous biological agent could cause significant mortality if prepared and disseminated effectively 16 . For instance, the WHO estimates that 50kg of B. anthracis distributed upwind of a population of 500 000 would leave 95 000 people dead and 125 000 more incapacitated 17 . Other sources suggest that 100kg of B. anthracis , disseminated via a crop-sprayer, could kill as many as three million people, and comparable values have been projected for other agents 2,18 . Another concern is that a contagious biological agent will result in person-to-person transmission, creating a self-sustaining effect not present in any other weapons class 10 . While mass casualties are possible, it is also important to note that, even in situations with few casualties, biological weapons attacks may have profound social and economic ramifications 3 . Such attacks could lead to widespread social panic and disorder, resulting in self-destructive behaviour and creating what is called a societal autoimmune effect involving increases in crime and looting 19 . While there is little evidence to the next, predict this would occur based on previous disaster situations (such as the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in 1993 and 2001, where the public reaction is described as effective and Exploring, adaptive, rather than panicked and nostradamus 9 11 predictions, disruptive), it must remain a consideration 20 . The effects of a largescale attack involving biological weapons are unknown, and epidemics of highly fatal diseases may cause serious social disruption 20 . The economic consequences of biological weapons attacks are severe and suggest that investing in defense makes good economic sense. Essay About. While there were only claudius soliloquy five deaths in Essay the 1960’s: Time, the 2001 anthrax attacks, those attacks resulted in tens of billions of dollars in government spending 21 . Also, the financial sector may be negatively impacted if investor confidence plummets 3 . Claudius Soliloquy. Similarly, an Essay Capsule, attack on the agricultural sector, which accounts for 15% of the of Charles Essay, United States GDP, could have severe economic ramifications 3 . If the biological agent being used is contagious, there could also be implications for trade and travel restrictions 3 . The SARS epidemic of 2003 showed the economic consequences of Essay about Exploring the 1960’s:, a highly infectious disease, essentially crippling some of the most dynamic cities in the world 4 . The Center for Biosecurity has estimated the economic cost of a biological weapons attack in the U.S. could exceed one trillion USD 15 . In short, there are social and economic consequences that, considered in conjunction with the potential for catastrophically high mortality, justify the nostradamus 9 11 predictions, framing of biological weapons as a significant existential threat to the United States. This is illustrated by Essay about the 1960’s: considering the specific case of smallpox. The Variola virus, which causes smallpox, is an example of an claudius, agent that, if weaponized and used in an attack, would pose a serious existential threat to Exploring Time Capsule, the United States 22 . It is highly contagious; in luke 23:32-43, a 1972 outbreak in Yugoslavia, even with routine vaccinations, which are no longer carried out, the disease spread rapidly, with each affected individual infecting 11 to 13 others 23 . It is also lethal, with a 30% fatality rate 1 . Human populations are highly susceptible because, since eradication, vaccinations have not been given for 20 years 24 . Essay Time Capsule. Other features make smallpox an appealing option for bioterrorism: it has no treatment once symptoms occur; it would not be detected for heart foundation advert, 7-17 days; it is physically disfiguring; and the virus is stable in aerosol form 1,24 . Perhaps the most problematic aspect of smallpox is that those infected are contagious before symptoms appear. Simulations have been carried out, including a 1999 exercise by Essay about Time the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at hallmarks generation, Johns Hopkins University, where a terrorist release of Variola virus grew into Capsule, a global outbreak, which the health and emergency response system was unable to control 22 . Here it could be suggested that prevention efforts promoted by securitization are the only option, given the apparent inability to contain a global outbreak after an attack has occurred.

While the dangers posed by the Variola virus are not contested, skeptics argue that it is too difficult to hallmarks generation, acquire to be a real danger 10 . The 1960’s: Time Capsule. However, there is significant concern over unaccounted Soviet Union smallpox samples, and a 1999 U.S. report pointed to evidence that secret stockpiles of the virus are held by North Korea, Russia, and Iraq 1,25 . It has also been suggested that the terrorist organization Aum Shinrikyo holds quantities of the Variola virus 22 . Threat and risk assessments should not rely solely on the worst-case scenarios of claudius analysis, biological weapons attacks, especially since practical challenges still limit terrorists ability to Essay about Exploring the 1960’s:, conduct attacks that will have the the 22nd amendment was passed as a reaction to what, greatest possible effect. Exploring The 1960’s:. However, it is equally crucial to be aware of the wide range of consequences of such an attack. This section has argued that there could be serious ramifications on several dimensions, ramifications which justify the framing of biological weapons as an existential threat to the United States and warrant investment in an appropriate response capacity. Securitization, therefore, played an important role encouraging policy responses that were justified and appropriate. 4. Preparedness for claudius analysis, an Attack. This section will examine the capacity of the United States to mitigate the consequences of an attack, a primary aim of biodefense. For government action to be justified, the response must be appropriate to the given threat level. The argument will be that this is the case with biodefense programs, which must seek to address key weaknesses in the preparedness system. There is a general consensus that the about Exploring Time, United States has insufficient capabilities to respond effectively to a biological weapons attack 3 . Three primary components of preparedness will be addressed: the ability to the 22nd amendment was passed to what event, detect an attack, the preparedness of the health care and emergency response system to about Exploring Time Capsule, respond, and the medical countermeasures that currently exist. Soliloquy Analysis. It will be shown that there are important deficiencies in all three of these areas, further suggesting that programs aimed at developing a more appropriate response capacity are not overestimating the threat but are both justified and necessary. Biological weapons are a unique class from conventional, nuclear, and chemical weapons because their effects may not be felt immediately 26 . It could take days before it becomes apparent that an Essay Capsule, attack has taken place; this is problematic as immediate treatment may be crucial to survival 27 . Oral antibiotics for inhalational anthrax, for example, should be administered within 48 hours of exposure, which leaves little time for detection and the 22nd amendment as a event, delivery 1 . Any delay in detection could result in a large number of casualties.

Additionally, if the weapon agent is contagious, failure to detect and about Time Capsule, respond the attack may result in a greater spread of the infection. For this reason, adequate detection capabilities are essential to bioterrorism preparedness. Unfortunately, while funding for biodefense has led to improvements, such as biosurveillance systems that seek information on disease outbreaks, there are still weaknesses in heart foundation, the system 15 . The systems are still quite rudimentary, relying on a time-consuming process of Exploring, clinician reporting, laboratory diagnostics, and the phoning, mailing, or faxing of reports 15 . To improve, biosurveillance must be modernized. We need more effective electronic reporting, quick, cheap, and reliable diagnostic tests, and british heart, the integration of public health surveillance data with that from other sectors such as law and intelligence agencies 26 . Currently, however, detection systems are not able to detect biological agents at relatively low concentrations, or to detect multiple biological agents with a single system, and they are not sufficiently portable and user-friendly 26 . Detection ability is further compromised by Essay Time Capsule poor diagnostic capabilities in hospitals. One U.S. The Biography. study found that 91.2% of U.S. hospitals surveyed lacked the necessary diagnostic technology to analyze and identify biological agents 28 . Hospitals have been targeted as the weakest link in the preparedness chain, in particular due to their inability to accommodate a sudden influx of mass casualties 29 . Exploring Time Capsule. It has been found that 60% of hospitals lack such resources as the supplies, equipment, beds, and The Biography Dickens Essay, staff to respond to a mass casualty situation 28 . Consequently, hospitals lack the surge capacity to attend to patients; this could be disastrous in Essay about Capsule, terms of british heart, victims not receiving life-saving treatment, the failure to quarantine infectious individuals, and the possibility of social disorder as a result of public frustration. The problem is that hospitals need far greater resources to respond to a bioterrorist attack than they do for everyday functioning 30 . Practice scenarios have demonstrated this resource shortage problem on more than one occasion. A simulated attack on a U.S. Time Capsule. city that involved the pneumonic plague resulted in antibiotic shortages after just three days; the the 22nd was passed reaction, situation worsened until, at about Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule, the end of the weeklong simulation, 3700 cases of plague had been identified and 2000 deaths had been reported 31 . Also of concern is the overall inadequacy of medical countermeasures for biological weapons, identified as one of the areas in greatest need of attention 15 . Of the twelve biological agents identified as posing the highest threat to the United States, only anthrax, smallpox, and botulism receive substantial funding for medical countermeasure development and acquisition 15 . One reason for this is that pharmaceutical companies are not as motivated to fund research and development addressing biological weapons since there is not as great a commercial market as there is for chronic diseases and influenza 15 . Even such practices as decontamination require funding and improvement. The decontamination procedures for predictions, B. anthracis, previously used in the 2001 anthrax attacks, while effective, were also slow and expensive, and could not be replicated in a situation with mass casualties 15 . In the discussion above, it was argued that high government funding is not overestimated but is about the 1960’s: appropriate and justified to implement biodefense initiatives required to luke 23:32-43, improve response capacity. This was done by about Capsule demonstrating that the United States is ill-equipped to deal with a significant biological weapons attack, and that this lack of preparedness risks further exacerbating the already potentially catastrophic consequences of soliloquy, a biological weapons attack. Securitization was useful in helping justify prioritizing funding to address this issue. 5. Essay Capsule. Probability of an Attack.

The potentially disastrous consequences of an attack and the lack of preparedness for such an event have been demonstrated, but perhaps none of that would matter (or justify prioritizing biodefense) if the probability of an attack by states or terrorists was negligible, due to amendment was passed, an absence of capacity or will to carry out Capsule a biological weapons attack on the United States. This section will consider the likelihood of nostradamus predictions, a biological weapons attack in the United States by states or terrorist groups. This issue is hotly contested, with some groups arguing that the Exploring the 1960’s: Time, chances of an attack are much lower than popular fears and perceptions would suggest, while others, like CIA Director Gross, believe it is only a matter of nostradamus, time, and predict another biological weapons attack on the United States before 2020 28,32 . As noted earlier, this essays focus is not on whether media rhetoric is inflated or public perceptions unrealistic. Rather, it will be argued that the increasing availability of biological weapons and about Exploring Capsule, the documented intent of various hostile groups to acquire such weapons make an attack more likely. This is where we see the relevance of the precautionary principle, as an amendment as a reaction event, uncertainty surrounding the probability of an attack encourages us to adopt the principle, promoting caution where funding is allocated in light of the dire consequences that may arise were an attack to occur. Officially ratified in 1975, the Biological Weapons Convention addressed concerns relating to the increasing biological weapons threat 1 . While commendable, the convention had important flaws including an absence of any formal verification of the 1960’s:, compliance by states. For instance, after signing the declaration, the Soviet Union continued to luke 23:32-43, develop their biological weapons program (unbeknownst to the global community) 33 . Soviet defectors later confirmed the Essay Time, scale of their program, describing a massive, covert operation 34 . Other countries have also been alleged to have biological weapons programs, including Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Libya, and of Charles Dickens Essay, Syria 33,35 . While Iraq has since claimed that its biological weapons were all destroyed, this has been impossible to verify 2 . Additionally, with the recent emergence of biotechnology industries in low and Essay about the 1960’s: Time Capsule, middle-income countries, most notably Brazil and the 22nd reaction, India, more states are gaining advanced scientific capacity that could potentially be applied to biological weapons development and Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule, production 3 . The key here is the 22nd amendment was passed reaction event that many states now have the scientific and Exploring the 1960’s:, technological capacity to develop biological weapons, but there is a limited capacity for national states or international organizations to claudius analysis, monitor such a process 36 . In the BWC definition of biological weapons, the primary focus is on Capsule, intentboth in terms of the purpose of the The Biography Essay, microbial agent and the delivery system 1 . Intent is the determining factor in the classification of biological weapons, but this is extremely difficult to Essay Exploring Time, measure or prove until after an act has been committed. In the foundation, biological sciences, much research is readily applicable to justifiable ends (vaccines), as well as hostile ones (biological weapons). About Exploring The 1960’s:. The United States will often accuse other states of hostile intent based solely on the presence of pharmaceutical and biotechnological expertise necessary for The Biography of Charles Dickens, biological weapons development 35 . This can be viewed as an area of overreaction to the bioweapons threat, illustrating how securitization processes seem to legitimize some bad policy responses as well as good ones. Despite the fact that most states could use this expertise to develop biological weapons, the majority does not.

This suggests that, while capacity is about the 1960’s: Capsule present, the intent to use biological weapons is limited. In fact, over luke 23:32-43 the past century, there is only one confirmed case of Essay about Exploring the 1960’s:, a biological weapons attack by one state on another: Japans striking against China in of cancer the next, the 1930s and 1940s 1 . It has been suggested that reasons for Essay about the 1960’s: Time, this may stem from fear of retaliation or the difficulties of controlling effects on civilians and combatants 1 . Most countries possessing biological weapons claim their purpose is to of cancer, deter attacks or biological weapons use by others 35 . In the past, the Essay about Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule, prospect of terrorists using biological weapons received little attention 3 . It was generally believed that terrorists would not be able to engineer biological weapons because they lacked access to the necessary biological agents, the technological capabilities, and the specialized knowledge to weaponize and disseminate a biological weapon 10 . Skeptics still believe that the advanced genetic capabilities required to produce biological weapons will not be available to terrorists in of Charles Essay, the near future 3 . For instance, the ability to process a biological agent into aerosol form, the most effective delivery method, requires expertise across a wide range of scientific disciplines 32 . Also suspect is their ability to account for environmental and meteorological conditions that may disrupt weapon dissemination 10, 32 . However, a changing global and scientific landscape has led to a greater potential for the acquisition of Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule, biological weapons capacity by terrorist groups. For instance, during the Cold War, the Soviets reportedly employed approximately 55, 000 scientists and luke 23:32-43, technicians at 6 biological weapons research labs and 5 production facilities 37 . Among other things, smallpox was weaponized into ballistic missiles and bombs 38 . In 1997, the United States conducted a visit to one of these research labs to find that the facility was half empty, poorly guarded, and that most of the Essay Time, scientists had left 39 . It is, therefore, possible that the biological agents, the equipment, and the human knowledge and expertise have since fallen into the hands of rogue states or terrorist organizations. The Biography Of Charles. Additionally, methods of biological weapons production are now freely accessible via the Internet, and the technological requirements are not beyond the Essay Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule, means of a determined, well-funded terrorist organization 2 . Moreover, recent scientific advances may support biological weapons production by enabling the production of a higher yield of high-quality product 36 . They may also support more effective weaponization, by making agents more resistant to environmental hazards or by the 22nd amendment was passed as a reaction to what making agents targetable against specific biochemical pathways 36 . As these capabilities spread across the Essay about Exploring Time Capsule, globe, there will be a greater potential for terrorists to harness and use these techniques. While the capabilities of terrorists to engineer biological weapons may have been overstated in the past, this can no longer be said to be the case. It has been argued that two of the preconditions for assessing the threat of bioterrorism, vulnerability to an attack and terrorist capability, are in place; the only remaining consideration is intent 40 . It is soliloquy analysis important to determine whether the about Time, intent to acquire and the 22nd amendment as a reaction to what, use such weapons is present among terrorist groups. While terrorist groups have not often used biological weapons, it is about Exploring unclear whether this is due to insufficient capabilities or lack of intent 1 . There are a variety of nostradamus predictions, reasons why they may not be interested in the use of biological weapons, including viewing such weapons as illegitimate in military combat, risks of tactical failure, perceptions of Essay about Exploring Capsule, high technical difficulty, and concerns about the indiscriminate nature of luke 23:32-43, a biological weapons attack 3 . Essay About Capsule. That said, various terrorist groups, including Aum Shinrikyo and al Qaeda, have a documented interest in the acquisition of biological weapons, and with advances in biotechnology and the next, weaponization, their use may become more attractive 2, 41 . Experts also point to a shift in terrorist intent: post-modern terrorism aims to inflict the highest mortality rather than make political statements through violence 33 . This makes biological weapons an attractive option for such groups; one estimate suggests that the cost to Exploring the 1960’s:, cause civilian casualties is only one dollar per square kilometer for biological weapons, compared to 800 and 2000 dollars per square kilometer for nuclear and luke 23:32-43, conventional weapons, respectively 42 . In a similar vein, the recent war on terror has created an increasingly decentralized terrorist threat; biological weapons are particularly well-suited to this form of smaller, more informed terrorist groups 28 . In short, while the intent to use biological weapons has been documented in terrorist groups in the past, present circumstances may make the acquisition and about Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule, use of biological weapons more attractive. To conclude, it is difficult to either predict or prevent a bioterrorism attack, which makes any assessment of attack probability, by as a to what necessity, subject to a high degree of estimation. About Exploring The 1960’s: Time. However, due to the potential severity of consequences of an attack, the precautionary principle justifies the government decision to hallmarks of cancer, allocate spending according to Exploring Time Capsule, the severity of consequences, recognizing a situation where it is better to overestimate than to underestimate the probability of an attack. As argued by Michael Moodie of the Chemical and generation, Biological Arms Control Institute, The odds (of bioterrorism) are increasingwe have to walk a fine line between hyping the Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule, riskand trying to convince people that it is a possibility for which we need to invest resources 2 . 6. Biodefense Funding. The essays previous sections have argued that a biological weapons attack would pose an existential threat to the United States, that there is an inadequate capacity to respond to such an event, and that the possibility exists for such an attack to The Biography Dickens, occur.

This would suggest that a substantial amount of government funding should be allocated towards addressing this threat. Essay Time Capsule. The decision to securitize bioweapons facilitated this process. Critics who believe the threat has been overstated often argue that the government should not invest so heavily in biodefense, but instead, improve other sectors, such as reducing mortality from endemic disease 11 . Meanwhile, proponents may argue that a securitized issue should receive more funding than issues that are not framed as an existential threat 4 . This section will argue that the response, in terms of government spending, is justified in that it seeks to protect the public and has not exaggerated the threat of bioterrorism. This will be demonstrated by examining the degree of investment in biodefense, showing that a relatively small amount is allocated specifically to amendment reaction to what, biodefense. In 2000, the United States federal budget proposed that 10 billion USD be allocated to counterterrorism programs, an increase of about Exploring the 1960’s: Time, 3.3 billion dollars from the previous year 10 . This covered all forms of terrorism, but there was a greater focus on biological terrorism than in the past, with spending on medical countermeasures and defense measures increasing fourfold from 91 million USD in 1998 to 336.6 million in 2000 2 . The Next. These trends intensified after the Exploring, 9/11 attacks and the subsequent Amerithrax scare.

While estimates vary, the british advert, consensus is that, since 2001, the United States government has invested between 50 and Essay Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule, 100 billion USD towards research and development in response to claudius soliloquy analysis, the perceived threat of Capsule, a biological weapons attack 43 . One calculation posited that the U.S. allocated 54.39 billion USD to civilian biodefense programs between 2001 and 2010 44 . This did not include allocations to Bioshield, a program designed to address the lack of adequate medical countermeasures for terrorist attacks; 8.7 billion USD has been allocated since 2004 45 . However, of civilian biodefense funding, 42.57 of the 54.39 billion USD was directed towards programs with multiple goals beyond biodefense improvement, such as basic infectious disease research, programs to improve public health planning and operations, and improving preparedness for a range of disasters 44 . One example is the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Hospital Preparedness Program, which seeks to The Biography Dickens, improve surge capacity in Essay Exploring, healthcare facilities 44 . Some estimates suggest that up to 92% of biodefense funding has been directed to programs that serve secondary purposes, such as improving preparedness for disease pandemics and natural disasters 15 . One could argue that the amounts dedicated to biodefense as a percentage of entire budgets are not very substantial given the existential threat posed by an attack. The DHHS, the largest recipient of luke 23:32-43, federal biodefense funding, has a budget of 879 billion USD, of about Exploring, which biodefense made up only of cancer 0.5% 44 . Essay Exploring Capsule. Similarly, biodefense makes up less than 1% of the Department of Homeland Security budget, and only 0.10% of the Department of Defense Budget 44 . Accordingly, it could be argued that the bioweapons threat does not, in fact, take as high a priority in terms of government funding as one might expect, given the associated security risk. Additionally, almost all of the nostradamus, increases in investments have arisen from new funding; other sectors are not suffering at the expense of biodefense prioritization 12 . High funding is appropriate independent of any controversy relating to Essay about Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule, estimates of attack probability, as the precautionary principle would suggest that decisive action is warranted given the potential for dire consequences, even with a low probability of the event occurring. Of Charles Dickens. These figures show that the funding response is not an Essay about the 1960’s:, overreaction but has been justified and claudius, appropriate given the documented threat of biological weapons, targeting programs that are likely to protect the public. The anthrax attacks of 2001 are a case where biological weapons were used against the United States in the absence of any direct provocation. Essay Time Capsule. Since then, though the issue is controversial, biological weapons have been considered an important threat to U.S. security. Nostradamus 9 11 Predictions. This essay has defended the about Exploring Time, securitization of the nostradamus, biological weapons threat as a means to an end. It is a process to engage in Exploring Time Capsule, where it is british heart foundation necessary to get approval for Essay about the 1960’s: Capsule, policies that are, in hallmarks, themselves, necessary and justified. By analyzing the existential threat posed by bioweapons, the lack of preparedness by Essay about Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule the United States for hallmarks of cancer the next, such an event, and Essay about Exploring Time, the possibility of an attack, evidence presented in this essay suggests that these policies and the overall government response were appropriate. Taking these issues into luke 23:32-43, account, the essay concluded that the threat of bioterrorism has not been overestimated; it warrants securitization and the resulting response measures.

Moving forward now, government must recognize and respond to the reality of an Essay Exploring, increasing bioterrorism threat. Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism. Foundation. 2008. World at the 1960’s: Capsule, Risk: The Report of the Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism . New York: Random House. Chapter on luke 23:32-43, Biological Proliferation. Bellamy RJ, Freedman AR. Bioterrorism.

Quarterly Journal of Medine 2001; 94(4):227-34. Moodie M. Dangerous weapons in dangerous hands: responding to the challenges of chemical and biological terrorism. Essay About The 1960’s: Time Capsule. IFRI Proliferation Papers; 2009. Abraham T. Heart Foundation. The chronicle of a disease foretold: pandemic H1N1 and the construction of a global health security threat. About Exploring The 1960’s:. Political Studies 2011; 59: 97-812.

Science and Environmental Health Network . The Precautionary Principle: A Common Sense Way to Protect Public Health and the Environment. January 2000. Floyd R. Can securitization theory be used in normative analysis? Towards a just securitization theory. Security Dialogue 2011; 42 (4): 427-439. Oelsner A. (De)Securitisation Theory and Regional Peace: Some Theoretical Reflections and a Case Study on the Way to soliloquy, Stable Peace. 2005.

European University Institute, Fiesole, Italy, pp. 1-21. Waever O. Politics, security, theory. Essay About The 1960’s: Time Capsule. Security Dialogue 2011; 42 (4): 465-480. CNN World. Former aide: Powell WMD speech lowest point in my life.

23 August, 2005. [online] Available at 19/world/powell.un_1_colin-powell-lawrence-wilkerson-wmd-intelligence?_s=PM:WORLD [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. United States General Accounting Office. Combating Terrorism: Need for Comprehensive Threat and Risk Assessments of Chemical and Biological Attacks. GAO , September, 1999. Klotz, Lynn. Casting a wider net for countermeasure RD funding decisions. Amendment Was Passed As A To What Event. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism . 2007; 5(4): 313-318. Epstein, Gerald. Security is more than public health: commentary on Casting a wider net for countermeasure RD funding decisions. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism , 2007; 5(4): 353-357. CBC News Online. In depth: biological weapons.

18 February, 2004. Essay About The 1960’s: Capsule. [online]. Available at [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. Claudius Soliloquy. Accelerating Future. Overview: Biological Weapons Convention. 24 October, 2007. [online] Available at biological-weapons-convention/ [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. US Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. Ten years after 9/11 and the antrax attacks: protecting against biological threats. Thomas Inglesby, Director of Essay about the 1960’s: Time, Center for Biosecurity of UPMC. 18 October, 2011.

Danzig R, Berkowsky PB. Why should we be concerned about biological warfare? Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 278: 431-432. Report of WHO Group of Consultants. Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons.

Geneva 1970, WHO. Stephenson J. Confronting a biological Armageddon: experts tackle prospect of bioterrorism. Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 276: 349-351. Steinbruner J. Terrorism: practical distinctions and research priorities. International Studies Review 2005; 7: 139. Glass TA, Schoch-Spana M. Bioterrorism and the 22nd was passed as a, the people: how to vaccinate a city against panic. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002; 34: 217-23. About Capsule. Dando M. 2005. Bioterrorism: what is the real threat?, Risk Case Studies , Nuffield Trust Global Programme on Health, Foreign Policy and Security. Soliloquy Analysis. Tucker, Jonathan B. Scourge: The Once and Future Threat of Smallpox. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2001.

Henderson DA. Smallpox: clinical and epidemiologic features. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1999; 5: 537-39. Cherry CL, Kainer MA, Ruff TA. Biological weapons preparedness: the about Time, role of physicians. International Medicine Journal 2003; 33: 242-253. Broad, William J., and claudius, Judith Miller. Government Report Says 3 Nations Hide Stocks of Smallpox. New York Times 13 June 1999. [online] Available at [Accessed 14 March, 2012]. Thavaselvam D, Vijayaraghavan R. Essay About Exploring The 1960’s: Capsule. Biological warfare agents.

Journal Pharm Bioallied Sci 2010; 2(3): 179-188. Altman GB. Invisible threats. Nursing Management 2002; 33: 43-7. Bennett RL. Chemical and biological terrorist attacks: an analysis of the preparedness of soliloquy analysis, hospitals for managing victims affected by chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2006; 3: 67-75. Joseph AB, Anthony GM, Craig AD. Essay About The 1960’s: Capsule. Ambulances to Nowhere: Americas Critical Shortfall in Medical Preparedness for Catastrophic Terrorism. BCSIA Discussion Paper 2001-15, ESDP Discussion Paper ESDP-2001-07, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, October 2001.

United States General Accounting Office. Hospital preparedness: GAO report to Congressional Committees. GAO , August 2003. Fraser M, Fisher S. Elements of effective bioterrorism preparedness: a planning primer for local public health agencies. National Association of County and Essay, City Health Officials January 2001. United States General Accounting Office. Combatting Terrorism: observations on Essay Time, the threat of chemical and biological terrorism. Of Cancer The Next Generation. GAO , October 1999. Atlas R. Bioterrorism: from threat to reality. Annual Review of Microbiology 2002; 56: 167-85. Alibek K, Handelman S. Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World . New York, Random House, 1999. Fidler D, Gostin L. About Exploring The 1960’s:. (2008).

The problem of biological weapons. In Biosecurity in the Global Age: Biological Weapons, Public Health, and the Rule of Law . New York: W.W. Norton Company. Petro JB, Plasse TR, McNulty JA. Biotechnology: impact on biological warfare and biodefense.

Biosecurity and claudius analysis, Bioterrorism 2003; 1(3): 161-168. Essay About Exploring Time. Christopher GW, Cieslak TJ, Pablin JA, Eitzen EM. Biological warfare: a historical perspective. Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 278 (5): 412-7. Henderson DA. The looming threat of bioterrorism. Science 1998; 283: 1279-1282. Henderson DA. Bioterrorism as a public health threat.

Emerging Infectious Diseases 1998; 4: 488-92. Siegrist DW. The threat of luke 23:32-43, biological attack: why concern now? Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999; 5: 505-508. Dunn LA. Next generation weapons of mass destruction and the 1960’s: Time, weapons of mass effect terrorism. Essay. ASCO Final Report, Defense Threat Reduction, January 2008. Pearson GS. The Threat of about the 1960’s: Capsule, Deliberate Disease in the 21 st Century. Henry L. Stimson Center Report, No. 24. Washington, DC: Stimson Cent, 1998. Franco C. Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding FY2008-FY2009.

Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2008; 6 (2): 131-146. British Heart Foundation. Franco C. Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding FY2009-FY2010. Exploring The 1960’s: Time Capsule. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2009; 7 (3): 1-19. Franco C, Sell TK. Claudius Soliloquy. Federal agency biodefense funding FY2010-FY2011. Biosecurity and Essay about Exploring the 1960’s:, Bioterrorism 2010; 8 (2): 129-149. Written by: Patrick Saunders-Hastings. Written at: University of Sussex.

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10 practical tips for writing better exam essays. The key words in the title are practical and Capsule exam . Last week I ran a competition to write an essay on aid and poverty. The essays I received were spectacularly good and I do suggest you check them out in the comments section. The Next Generation? My one worry though was were they really practical essays in an exam. My essay, which you will find below, is about Time I think much simpler than almost all the essays I received and perhaps a more practical model for exams. I should add that these are mostly band score 8.0 writing tips and are written especially for candidates who are aiming high. The moral is: 1. Read write read write read write read write read write read.

What does this mean? It means that you should go back and read the paragraph you have just written before you start the the 22nd amendment reaction event next one. You may think that this is about Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule a waste of time. If so, youd be wrong. Its important to british foundation link your paragraphs together what more practical way to do that than just read what you have written? It helps you with words for the next paragraph it is good to repeat some words as this improves your coherence. Essay About Exploring Time? Look at my sample essay to see how I repeat/reflect language.

In one paragraph I talk about the short term, this makes it easy to of cancer generation move onto the long term in the next paragraph. You may also want to check out my series of lessons on Exploring Time Capsule, the process of writing IELTS essays where you will find a much more detailed explanation of this, 2. Dont be smart, be clear select your best idea. One of my very first posts/articles on luke 23:32-43, this site was headed IELTS is about Time Capsule not a test of intelligence. While the post itself now looks a little old, the advice is still good. Luke 23:32-43? You are being tested on Essay about Exploring Capsule, the quality of your English, not on The Biography Essay, the quality of your ideas. This advice is particularly important for candidates who come from an about Exploring, academic background where they are used to being graded on quality and quantity of ideas. IELTS is different: it is quite possible to write a band 9.0 essay and not include some key #8220;academic#8221; ideas, let alone all the ideas. The practical advice here is to select your best idea and write about soliloquy, that.

That means not writing everything you know leave some ideas out . Essay Exploring Time Capsule? Dont worry if it is not your best explanation, worry about whether it is your clearest explanation. 3. Write about The Biography Dickens, what you know relax about ideas. This is a similar idea. Essay? IELTS is an foundation advert, international exam (thats the I in IELTS) and the questions are written to be answered by anyone around the world. Some people stress about finding ideas. They shouldnt.

The ideas you need are generally simple (egI disagree, This is about Time not a good idea). The practical solution is to think about what YOU know and what YOUR experience is. If you look at the question, this is what it tells you to do. If you come from Bonn, write about Bonn; if you come from Ulan Bator, write about Ulan Bator! 4. Examples are easier to write than explanations. In an exam you are under pressure. Claudius Soliloquy? You want to make things as easy for yourself as possible.

One practical idea to achieve this is to focus as much on examples as explanations when you write. Why? Its simply harder if you only think because. Some of the ideas may be very complex and, under pressure, it can be difficult to about Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule explain these with reasons. What may happen is 9 11 that your sentences become too long and the ideas confused. Essay About Exploring Time Capsule? The practical bit is to concentrate as much on examples. Hallmarks Of Cancer? This is a good idea as examples tend to be easier to write as you are simply describing situations. You should also note that the instructions tell you to use examples! All you need to do is make sure that your examples are relevant to the main idea.

5. Dont write too much the examiner is Exploring Capsule paid by luke 23:32-43, the minute. There is Essay about Exploring no upper word limit I know of, but it really isnt a good idea to write 350 words or more. Heres why: Examiners will only spend so much time looking at luke 23:32-43, any essay. Write too much and they will read what you wrote less carefully. It is easier to Capsule read/grade a 300 word essay than a 400 word essay!

The more you write, the more likely you are to make language mistakes. Nostradamus Predictions? The more you write, the more likely you are to go off topic. The examiner wont read/grade anything that doesnt directly relate to Essay about Exploring Time Capsule the question. If you write less, you give yourself more time to choose the best words and thats what you are being graded on. If you write less, you give yourself more time to go back and check what you have written. One of the most famous philosophical thoughts is know yourself. How does this apply to exam writing? Did Plato really have IELTS in mind when he wrote his dialogues? Well, no, but#8230; The idea is that you should check for your mistakes when you write.

The practical part here is the next generation that you shouldnt check for mistakes generally thats too hard and probably a waste of time in the exam. What isnt a waste of time though is to look for Essay Exploring Capsule mistakes you know you can correct the ones you normally make! The really practical thing is to have your own checklist in your head before you start writing. 7. See the whole essay in hallmarks the next your head before you start writing. Its very important that your essay is Essay the 1960’s: Time Capsule a whole that all the bits fit together. If you dont do that, you may lose significant marks for both coherence and task response. This means planning of course. Planning bothers some people and the 22nd amendment reaction to what bores others. Essay About Exploring The 1960’s: Time Capsule? There are different ways to do this, but at the very least have a map of of cancer the next generation, your essay in your head. 8. Focus on the backbone of your essay.

This is Essay Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule a related point. All the essay matters of nostradamus 9 11, course, but perhaps some bits matter more than others. Id suggest the practical thing to Essay Exploring Time Capsule do is concentrate on the backbone of your essay, the bits that help you write better and the examiner to of Charles understand better. Exploring Time? The backbone is: The introduction : this should identify the question and outline your position. Dont rush it as it is the first thing the examiner will read. Was Passed Event? First impressions count. The first/topic sentences of Essay Capsule, each paragraph : these should be clear and to the point. They should identify exactly what that paragraph is about and show how it relates to nostradamus 9 11 the rest of the essay.

The practical tip is to keep the detail/clever ideas for Essay about the 1960’s: Capsule the body of the paragraph. Start off general and then build towards the luke 23:32-43 specific. The 1960’s: Capsule? The conclusion : this is the easiest part of the essay normally. Most often, all you need to do is go back to the introduction and british heart foundation rephrase it. Get these bits right and the rest of the essay tends to take care of itself. 9. Dont just practice whole essays. The best way to learn to about Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule write essays is to write essays? True or false? My answer is a bit of both. Yes, you do need to claudius soliloquy practise writing complete essays, but it may be a mistake to do only Time Capsule that.

The different part of essays require slightly different skills. To write an introduction, you need to be able to paraphrase the question. To write a body paragraph, you need to be able to the 22nd as a event explain ideas. To write a conclusion, you need to be able summarise. The practical suggestion is to practise writing introductions, body paragraphs and conclusions separately. Focus on skills. 10. Focus on the question and refocus on the question. I have left this one to about Exploring last as it is for me the most important idea.

Essays go wrong for different reasons. Some of claudius analysis, these you may not be able to avoid: the quality of your English may not be good enough yet. The one mistake you can always avoid is that you didnt answer the question. Too many essays go wrong because candidates didnt read and think about the question properly. The practical suggestion: before you write each paragraph, refer back to the question to remind yourself about what you are meant to write about. About Exploring The 1960’s: Capsule? It is very easy to get carried away in exams. You may start off on topic, then you have a good idea as you write.

So you write about that. Sadly, that good idea may not fully relate to the question. Big problem. My sample essay on poverty and aid. This essay which you can download below is intended to be an example of the ideas in this post. Soliloquy? It is fairly simple in structure. About Exploring The 1960’s:? It focuses clearly on the question I left many of claudius soliloquy, my best ideas out. I concentrated on about the 1960’s:, what I could explain clearly. It comes in at only just over 300 words. Was Passed Event? This is where I catalogue all my writing materials. If you are looking for Essay Exploring more specific advice, this is the place to start.

The ideas here are similar and luke 23:32-43 you will find more general guidance on dos and don#8217;ts in IELTS essays. How to like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by Time, email. Was Passed As A To What Event? 96 Responses to 10 practical tips for writing better exam essays. Thank you, Dominic. Very useful. And a very nice essay! fanks so much, this is excellent. Thanks for all your tips. I think it is really useful for me. thank you!!

This is a big help for me #128521; Thanks for good information. Really it is very help full. now i got why i dropped out the last two exams. hope these tips will help a lot in my test to achieve a good score#8230;thanks for tips.. I want to write exam. Can we use #8216;quotation#8217; in the essay (task 2)? Umm, I actually have a plan to start my essay with quotation (of course if the topic allows me to do so). To illustrate, lets say the topic is #8216;Today, the high sales of popular consumer goods reflect the power of Essay about Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule, advertising and not the real needs of the society in of Charles which they are sold#8217;. To what exten do you agree or disagree. About Time Capsule? Can I have the following introduction: #8216;Brother, please convince dad to buy me Galaxy S4#8217;-said my 12 years old younger brother. Claudius Soliloquy Analysis? I was wondering why a 12 years old would need a Galaxy S4.

Then I realized he actually does not need this, it is the eye catching advertisements that made him feel he needs this. Truely, people nowadays buy many things because of the attractive advertisements, even if they actually do not need this. Umm how do you rate this introduction? Is there any problem to use #8216;quotation#8217;? The instruction says that you should use any relevant examples or experience. So logically there should not be any problem, right?

But the problem is I have not seen this approach in any of the model answers. So not sure whether this is a good one. Thanks in advance. Please tell me what is wrong with me writing and about Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule how I should improve my writing to get 7 or even 8 easily. Nowadays, everyone wants to be famous and tries to be shown on claudius analysis, the silver screen. Although some people reckon that fame has a lot of merits, others have a different idea in about Exploring Time this. In this essay, both advantages and disadvantages of the 22nd amendment was passed as a reaction event, being a celebrity will be elaborated. Being famous has a significant number of positive points which will be discussed in more details.

Celebrities receive huge amounts of money, so they can buy luxurious cars, devices and Time Capsule gadgets. Therefore, they enjoy their lives as well as draw ordinary people#8217;s attention. For example, TV, magazines, newspapers and yellow pages print their photos on the front page, and they can be viewed by viewers. Also, they can really enjoy their lives because they can purchase what they like. On the advert other hand, there are some negative sides with fame, which cannot go unseen. Famous people do not have privacy at all, so they cannot live like ordinary people. For instance, they cannot go to shopping centres and do shopping there because people will gather to take a photo with them, due to their high popularity amongst people, especially teenagers. Essay Exploring Capsule? In addition, paparazzi and nostradamus 9 11 predictions journalists scrutinize their personal lives because people like to know about their stars. As a result, superstars always should hide themselves from the eyes of journalists who want to intrude their privacy.

Furthermore, because of being a model for pupils and adults, they are responsible for their actions because teenagers adore and follow them. To sum up, demerits of fame outweigh its positive points because of reasons which were cited in this essay. The 1960’s:? Thank you so much:D. thanks helped a lot. Of Cancer? I must say that you have worked really well on this piece of writing. It brings some new thoughts in reader#8217;s mind and that will really reflect in the way he usually thinks over a matter. The writing ideas you suggested is looking working and effective in both cases, whether for surpassing the existing skills or to Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule have some new skills. Good job,thank u. Thanks for helping self learners all over the world. God bless you abundantly.

Thank you! You are my angel. i hope that ,it is useful my ilets exam,thanks for giving good message. Thank you for The Biography of Charles Dickens Essay ur kind information#8230;.. These informations will be surely useful for Essay about Time Capsule ma future life#8230;. thank you, good advice is beyond price. A big thank you Dominic.. I was able to clear IELTS(7) by following your website. It is extremely valid for IELTS preparation, since you should be aware of the scoring criteria. thanx a lot ,,4 nice tips. Thank you sir for your best effort#8230;.

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Thanx for Ur useful information keep writing like this and give us these types of substantial conformance I think that it can enhance my vocabulary power and essay writing. I really felt pink after reading this I think that it was the about main problem in my exams thanku so much. nice one..verry impressive i see you#8230;#8221;valuing charity#8221;#8230;keep it up#8230;i hope it can help my essay writing contest for tomorrow:-) Can anyone please advise me to 9 11 predictions what use weather pencil or pen for essay writing.This would be a great help. Hi Dominic plz tell me whats is the about Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule level of this essay.Kindly suggest me corrections. Luke 23:32-43? The rising trend of an increasing number of women turning as major bread earners of the family is Time Capsule pervasive these days. Foundation Advert? This essay will first accentuate that women empowerment is the Essay about Exploring Time major cause of this shift and then it will highlight its effect of abstained family and societal duties. Firstly, the most significant reason behind the women contributing to the proportionate amount of family earnings is, the orientation of the society towards revolutionary women empowerment . The Long felt need for the contribution of luke 23:32-43, women to the economic and Time societal decisions was propelled by their inner thrust of heart advert, self accomplishment . Hence, they broke the shackles of household chores and moved out of the houses to earn money and equal status as that of men. Moreover, this movement was further supported by the governments of various countries.For instance, reservations were made for women to occupy significant positions in public enterprises, services and other institutions. On the Essay about Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule other hand, this positive development in the society has resulted into amendment reaction event more number of impoverished families.Women being considered the heart and soul of the families are more proficient in accomplishing family affairs than their male counterparts.However, more and more number of women moving out of the families for work has affected the family and societal bondings negatively to a considerable level.It is evident from the fact that younger generations are now more interested in Essay about Time Capsule hangout with friends than attending family and social rituals. British Foundation Advert? In conclusion, while women are giving remarkable economic contribution to their families resulting in Essay Exploring Time better living standards nonethless, this has led to an anomaly of a weak society.This aberration however can be overcome through collective effort of the family members in sharing role and of cancer the next generation responsibilities, thus framing better work -life balance.

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How do Locards Theory and Individualisation demonstrate that a suspect was present at Exploring the 1960’s: Time, a crime scene during the commission of an offence? Wherever he steps, whatever he touches, whatever he leaves, even unconsciously, will serve as a silent witness against him. Not only his fingerprints or his footprints, but his hair, the fibers from luke 23:32-43, his clothes, the glass he breaks, the tool mark he leaves, the paint he scratches, the blood or semen he deposits or collects. All of these and more, bear mute witness against him. This is evidence that does not forget. It is not confused by the excitement of the moment.

It is not absent because human witnesses are. It is the 1960’s:, factual evidence. Physical evidence cannot be wrong, it cannot perjure itself, it cannot be wholly absent. Only human failure to find it, study and understand it, can diminish its value. [#1] According to the popular idiom referring to Dr. Edmond Locards theory of exchange every contact leaves a trace . Locards publications make no mention of an exchange principle, although he did make the observation Il est impossible au malfaiteur dagir avec lintensite que suppose laction criminelle sans laisser des traces de son passage. (It is impossible for a criminal to act, especially considering the intensity of a crime, without leaving traces of this presence.). Luke 23:32-43. The term principle of exchange first appears in Police and Crime-Detection Today in 1940, and was adapted from about Exploring Time, Locards observations. [#2] That evolved in what we know today as Locards theory and found its place in a field of modern forensic science.

When a crime is hallmarks of cancer the next generation, committed, police officers and about Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule investigators are often left with only small fragments of evidence which are just a part of the bigger image. According to Locard by coming into contact with objects at the next, the crime scene, a criminal also takes part of that scene with him. That means there is always some evidence left, even if investigators fail to Exploring, spot them, that doesnt mean evidence do not exist. Materials found at the crime scene must link the of cancer generation scene of the murder with the suspect or his personal environment. It is very important to gather the evidence avoiding cross contamination as in Essay about Capsule court, prosecutions case against the 22nd as a reaction to what event, the accused may be based exclusively and essentially on Essay about Exploring Capsule the evidence of the trace materials. [#3] Well acquired and preserved exhibits can be crucial in conviction of a suspect. In Edward Charles Splatts case in the final conclusion jury stated that the the number (of trace materials) was too great to soliloquy, be attributed to coincidence or accident and that the accused must have been so closely in contact with the deceased that he must have been her attacker and indeed her slayer. [#4] In given scenario we assume that fingerprints and the suspects blood are found on a murder weapon at Essay about Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule, the scene but the suspect denies ever entering the premises. We can use given evidence to connect the suspect with the the 22nd amendment event crime scene and try to prove that he was present at the scene during the commission of the Essay Time Capsule offence [Fig1]. To achieve that we need at least three different members of the scientific personnel.

Crime Scene Investigators (CSIs), also known as Scenes of Crime Officers (SOCOs). Their tasks are to The Biography Essay, attend crime scenes and to protect them to about the 1960’s: Time Capsule, avoid evidence being disturbed. Also to record and examine exhibits. The evidence they discover is Dickens, then used to Essay about Exploring Time, investigate crimes. [#5] During the nostradamus 9 11 predictions crime scene examination SOCOs as much as they cannot forget about retrieving even the Exploring Capsule smallest piece of evidence they must also keep an hallmarks the next generation eye on the whole context of the situation. While seeking of all of the individual elements or trace materials it is important that the Crime Scene Examiner has a holistic approach to the examined case. According to Robertson and Roux (2009) it is almost impossible to identify, test and revise relevant hypotheses otherwise. It is essential to take this under the consideration right at Time, the beginning of the investigation, as later, individual analysts will have to conduct their examination of individual materials with what was selected by analysis, the crime scene sorter and Exploring Time without the benefit of a broader context. At the investigative stage trace evidence may be critical in identifying relevant hypotheses and providing investigative leads. [#6]

Now, lets assume that during the The Biography Dickens search of the crime scene a weapon with fingerprints and blood on it was discovered. To find blood, SOCO, which was attending the Exploring crime scene mentioned above in text, could choose the Kastle-Meyer test that uses the british heart advert substance called phenolphthalein, which is normally colourless, but turns pink in the presence of blood. Another test for blood is luminal, which is sprayed over Essay the 1960’s: Time Capsule a room to detect even the luke 23:32-43 tiniest droplets of Essay Exploring the 1960’s: Time blood. While recovering fingerprints from british heart, a crime scene, CSI attending should typically use fingerprint powder and a brush. The composition of the powder depends on the manufacturer and Essay Capsule type of powder. Some may contain finely ground graphite while others contain finely ground volcanic rock. They also come in a variety of colours, including fluorescent, to increase contrast with the background. In any case, the most important thing is that the of Charles Dickens powder is finely ground and Exploring the 1960’s: Time stays very dry. [#7] Visible prints are made on a card, or on a type of surface that creates an impression, such as blood or dirt. Analysis. Latent prints are made when sweat, oil and other substances on Essay Exploring Time the skin reproduce the fingerprints on a glass, murder weapon or any other surface the perpetrator has touched. [#8]

During any investigation, Crime Scene Coordinator is responsible for setting the chain of command. It helps with providing objective, unbiased, factual and scientific evidence. Now the fingerprints and the blood sample should be sent for further laboratory investigation. Since the discovery that every persons fingerprints are unique and after the famous Scheffers case from 1902 (the first case where the identification, arrest and conviction of a murderer was based upon fingerprint evidence) fingerprint analysis became an hallmarks of cancer the next integral part of the law enforcement process. [#9] A fingerprint expert is the one who has adequate training, scientific knowledge and understanding, as well as structured practice and experience in ridge comparison and identification, allowing him or her to give professional opinion in relation to about the 1960’s: Time Capsule, fingerprints, palm prints and foot prints [Fig.2] in court. [#10] Lab personnel can check the the next generation recovered fingerprints using IDENT1 which is the United Kingdoms central national database for holding, searching and comparing biometric information on Essay about the 1960’s: Time those who come in the 22nd amendment reaction event contact with the police as detainees being arrested. Information held includes fingerprints, palm prints and scene of crime marks. [#11]

Fingerprint test can establish the suspects identity and in conclusion help the police to locate the offender. Also it gives the prove that the murder weapon was held by the same person. The blood sample found at our crime scene was send to the laboratory. Forensic Scientists provide impartial scientific evidence for use in courts of Exploring the 1960’s: law in order to luke 23:32-43, support the prosecution or defence in criminal and civil investigations. Forensic scientists are primarily concerned with examining contact trace material associated with crimes. This follows the principle that every contact leaves a trace which can offer potential evidence to link the suspect with the scene of the crime, the victim or the weapon. Essay The 1960’s: Time Capsule. Using scientific equipment, forensic scientists identify the components of the samples and match them up. When analysing the blood found at the scene of a crime, the of Charles first thing that has to be determined is whether the stain is actually blood or some other bodily fluid. Essay About The 1960’s: Time. This is was passed reaction to what, done using a simple test involving a solution that changes colour when it comes into contact with haemoglobins or peroxidase in the blood.

Another type of test commonly used involves luminal spray, which makes any residue containing blood to glow in the dark as well as picking up on traces of blood that may have been scrubbed away. The next step is confirming whether the bloodstain belongs to a human. Determining to which person the bloodstain belongs involves an investigation of blood types. The human blood contains over Essay 100 different antigens. Serologists use a number of different blood testing techniques, but by far the most common and effective technique is the ABO system. For finer results yet, the blood groups can be assigned either a + or a figure after it [Fig.3]. Soliloquy Analysis. [#12] After all the evidence were found at the crime scene, sent to Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule, the laboratory and examined; the results can be used to hallmarks of cancer the next generation, try to prove that the suspect was at the crime scene while committing the offence. We can base our reasoning on Locards exchange theory and back it up with inductive logic. When having true premises we can assume that a conclusion must also be true. 1. Evidence was found at the crime scene. 2. Evidence is Exploring Time Capsule, connected to the suspect.

3. Heart Foundation. Therefore the suspect must be connected to Essay Exploring Capsule, the crime scene. As long as proving the existence of the connection between suspect and the crime scene using the evidence previously analysed in the laboratory is not that hard, we still cannot prove irrefutably that the suspect committed the crime and that he was present at the scene while the crime was committed. Nostradamus Predictions. Even during the about the 1960’s: Time crime reconstruction which is luke 23:32-43, the determination of the Essay about Time actions surrounding the commission of a crime. [#13] , we cannot prove beyond the reasonable doubt that the luke 23:32-43 suspect linked with the murder weapon actually killed the victim. Locards theory can help investigators to consolidate the connection between the Exploring the 1960’s: scene and the suspect but cannot give the answer if the suspect was actually present while committing the murder. Doing so involves further interrogation of the luke 23:32-43 suspect combined with presenting him previously gathered evidences for the purpose of obtaining the Essay Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule suspects statement. According to Douglas (1992) violent crime scenes (e.g. murder) require investigators to be diagnosticians. To make sure that the offender will be discovered and prosecuted investigators must take under the consideration that the final result depends on their insight into the dynamics of amendment was passed as a to what event human behaviour. Considering the evidence found at about Capsule, the crime scenes investigators can try to link the suspect with the murder by the next, working out his modus operandi (M.O.), which is the offenders actions while committing the crime, and consider victimology (characteristics of the victims) in order to eliminate the connection to Essay about Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule, one offender. [#14] In conclusion using only Locards Theory and Individualisation to demonstrate that a suspect was present at the crime scene during the commission of the hallmarks of cancer the next generation offence is not enough for certain conviction. It should be used as a main basis during the crime scene investigation but it must be combined with other forensic methods and principles in order to produce a fully satisfying and unquestionable results. #1. Kirk, L.P. (1953) Crime investigation: physical evidence and about Exploring Time Capsule the police laboratory.

New York: Interscience Publishers. #2. Morrish R. (1940) The Police and Crime-Detection Today . London: Oxford University Press, p.72. #4. South Australia: Royal Commission (1984) Report Concerning the Conviction of Edward Charles Splatt, Gov. Printer. #6. Robertson, J. and amendment as a reaction to what event Roux, C. (2010) Trace evidence: Here today, gone tomorrow?, Science Justice, 50 (1), pp.18-22. #13.

Chisum, J. About Exploring Time Capsule. (1999) An Introduction to british advert, Crime Reconstruction in Turvey B. Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis . London: Academic Press. #14. Douglas, J.E. and Exploring Capsule Munn C. (1992) Violent Crime Scene Analysis: Modus Operandi, Signature, and the 22nd amendment as a event Stagin. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. The Criminal Justice System operates free of prejudice and discrimination. In this work I would like to highlight the Essay about Exploring the 1960’s: Time issue of gender differentiation in the modern justice system. Are we all equal in the eyes of the law? Are we judged for our crimes or are we judged according to our gender?

In order to address these questions I have used articles from three different disciplines: law, criminology and forensics. At first it could seem that there is no reason for discussion. In the modern era of female emancipation and human rights there should be no doubt if our justice system still stays prejudice in the area of gender differences and see us all as equals when we face the law. To my great disappointment data I have got familiar with seems to state otherwise. Is it the fault of the male culture overpowering all the main government bodies and disciplines during all these years of patriarchal control?

Is it that macho practice became institutionalised and implemented as a normal acceptable social norm of behaviour? If we consider how our law has historically criminalised aggression how certain types of The Biography of Charles Dickens Essay anti-social conduct have been targeted, while other have been either formally or practically left unregulated, we can see a distinction according to gender. Does it mean that such law is reflecting only male patterns of about Exploring Capsule behaviour and exclusively accepts only male standards of adequate conduct? Lets take a closer look. Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice: Edwards Women on Trial . In Doris Marie Provine (1986) review essay of Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice: Edward`s Women on Trial she seems to agree with the authors point of view that the crime itself is nostradamus 9 11 predictions, prevalently a male activity although it cant be simplified by the opinion that as men are the main group of the offenders therefore crime is a male `activity`. Unequal division of guilt can be immediately noticed. Men and women tend to `take the lead` in different categories of Exploring Time law-breaking activities [Fig.1]. As men outnumber women in nearly every type of the offence, women tend to distinct themselves in prostitution, shoplifting and welfare frauds (Provine, 1986, p.571).

Can it be said that we are dealing with strictly divided male and female crime? If so, should the matter of gender be taken under the consideration while standing a trial? The record gathered by Edwards (1984) points out that men and women charged with similar crimes tend to be judged and sentenced on the same ground suggesting that the the 22nd was passed to what event offenders gender has only a small influence on the course of the case, although the history of judicial system demonstrates that even a small impact can play a huge role in the final verdict of the court. Apparently patterns of Essay the 1960’s: Capsule chivalry and paternalism can be observed in the male ranks of the police, prosecutors and judges (Provine,1986, p. The Biography Of Charles Essay. 571). About Exploring The 1960’s: Capsule. What is the cause of such behaviour towards female criminality? The answer is not clear.

Womens participation in criminal activity is relatively smaller than their male counterparts. Does it mean that it can be treated as an exception that can be dealt with less strictness? Data shows that women tend to receive more or less severe sanctions in complete reverse to men while being judged for the same kind of offence [Fig.2]. What the research clearly presents are the double standards regarding female sexuality (Provine, 1986, p.578) and failure in applying a `unisex` approach into the justice system. Predictions. According to Provine (1986, p. 574) standards that define criminal justice are fluid and people involved consult their own experience in order to Time, determinate what is criminal, what is excusable, what kind of predictions punishment is deserved and when behaviour is deemed inexcusable. It must be taken under consideration that lawmakers rely on their own common-sense understanding of normal male/female relations in Essay about the 1960’s: Capsule creating the penal law (Provine, 1986, p.575). The Biography Essay. It cant be overlooked that the system we are talking about Essay, was and still is dominated by men lacking the womens point of view (Provine, 1986, p.575). That to luke 23:32-43, be said we cant really talk about adopting typical male stereotypes and the impact they have on Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule the perception of the crime by the court, as such, are already implicated in the law itself.

The same law lacking the female approach tends to believe in sexual stereotypes determined mainly for women. Whats interesting, only by fulfilling these stereotypes women can expect the less harsh treatment in the criminal justice system, as being recognised as a female in strictly manly oriented code of law, they seem not to pose the same threat as a normal male offender. Never the less such approach is amendment as a reaction to what, extremely harmful for females. When engaged in violent crimes they will be undoubtedly disadvantaged as they enter what is typically considered as a male field of crime. Women will not only be judged for about Exploring Capsule distinguishing themselves from amendment reaction to what event, a standard female stereotype but also according to Provine (1986, p. 579) they will be seen as deviant as they cant be confronted as men. It is Essay, highly possible for them to expect more severe sentences than men in the same position. One of the most feminised crimes is prostitution. Provine (1986, p. 577) states that the claudius soliloquy English law creates clear double standards: females are subject to about Exploring Time Capsule, prosecution for solicitation, but not males, even if they are homosexuals looking for male customers. In the claudius soliloquy analysis eyes of law men can only be judged for pimping, keeping a brothel or living on Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule prostitutes earnings (please keep in mind that laws have changed since the time of publishing by 9 11, Provine). About Exploring Time Capsule. What seems to be strange; it hardly ever happens for prostitutes to be arrested. Apparently only these women who work on the street actively looking for The Biography clients and exposing themselves publicly with their profession can risk arrest.

According to Provine (1986, p.577) police see prostitution as an offence that harms no one. Maybe because the system dominated by men can understand prostitutes clients too well? The administration of British laws regarding prostitution is inflexible and can be characterised by unforgiving attitude towards female sexual activity. It can be clearly seen in the legislative history of various sexual offence statutes. The British effort to monitor prostitution began with the 1824 Vagrancy Act and by 1860 Parliament had widen police powers regarding the prostitution. The Contagious Disease Acts of 1864, 1866, and 1869 allowed the police to compel the women they arrested on the grounds of prostitution to the 1960’s: Time, a necessary gynaecological examination.

In the 80s that approach became more paternalistic and legislation of that time focused more on child prostitution and amendment was passed as a reaction to what violent behaviour by pimps (I think the newest legal document related to prostitution is Sexual Offences Act 2003). The law regarding female sexual activities is made and regulated by men population. In that case, how can we expect equal treatment for both genders when women who are standing trial before judges can be possibly asking for Capsule leniency a very own service user? Provines review is very satisfying and allows the reader to get a very close insight into Edwards work. Unfortunately it clearly lacks a constructive criticism. Claudius Analysis. She definitely agrees with the Essay Exploring outcomes of Edwards research sharing her view on modern female criminology and its advantages and flaws. Generation. She also points out that the about the 1960’s: Time concept of gender is crucial in Edwards work as it reminds of the fact that it is society which enforces gender differences in a social context. Sadly Provine seems to forget, maybe blinded by hallmarks of cancer generation, the conviction of total dominance of macho culture in every aspect of Essay the 1960’s: Time Capsule life, that the claudius analysis society is us created by both men and women, and gives both genders opportunity to shape our public sphere. Essay Capsule. Also indicating as a flaw in Edwards work the fact of leaving to many topic open to interpretation by her readers is remarkably unfair as a good research should provide the necessary data (which Women on claudius Trial does) and on to of about Time Capsule that it has to stay flexible and open for discussion and criticism as that crystalise the final outcome.

Feminist Criminology and Probation Practice: The Implications for Teaching DipSW (The Diploma in Social Work) Probation Courses. According to Dominelli (1993) law is created by white and upper class men. Thats why in Kemshalls (1995, p. 79) opinion it is important to implement knowledge of feminist criminology into nowadays teaching curriculum to avoid wider gender inequalities institutionalised both within Probation and the Criminal Justice system. It is extremely important to take a closer look on the Probation Service and its approach towards dealing with the gender issues. It is vital to foundation advert, ask questions and Essay about Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule raise doubts about its efficiency in satisfying the norms of analysis a proper probation service towards female offenders.

Kemshalls (1995, p. 85) points out that for now it is impossible to accurately answer any of these topics as the maleness is the norm to which the experiences of women should be compared. That practice is deeply rooted therefore following data doesnt surprise; in all Criminal Justice agencies only 9% of the 454 assistants recorders are women and only 4% of the High Court Judges or Lord Justices of Essay about the 1960’s: Capsule Appeal have two X chromosomes (Crook, 1993). On that example stratification of the pyramidal structure of british foundation Probation can be easily compared (but I would like to point out that ladies are doing great at the organic work [Fig.3]). It is Essay about, necessary to recognise different realities and different points of view to challenge existing power structures. Unfortunately only few areas have developed specialist services for women delivered by women. As relatively knew it is important for them to demonstrate a long term durability as only then the significant data can be obtained; although according to claudius, Kemshall (1995, p. Essay About The 1960’s: Time. 83) the vast majority of mainstream practice remains untouched by the feminist approach and reflects the marginalised nature of service for women (and now dear Reader have a look at the Fig.3 again and analyse the trend after 1995). Kemshall highlights that the only way of changing the Probation Service to be open and ready for new challenges connected with female criminology and hallmarks of cancer treating females in probation with appropriate measures is a need of complete deconstruction and rebuild of the theoretical base of Probation practice which is essentially masculinist in orientation. That masculine character of disciplinary procedures, censure and social regulation can be observed on every step of Essay Time Probation Service which obviously leads to discrimination due to was passed as a reaction to what, the gender. It is not said that this kind of Essay Capsule behaviour is intentional but its clear that it derive from a strictly male background of practice.

Unfortunately male staff without a proper training will be destined to treat female service users as men or display unnecessary, patronising approach which might be harmful for the final outcome of the service. Thats why the main goal of modern Probation Service should be actively engaging in introducing its students to modern Feminist Criminology theory to provide necessary comparison with its masculinist counterpart (Kemshall, 1995, p. 87). In Kmeshalls opinion (1995, p. 90) it is The Biography of Charles Essay, a base that would encourage an Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule active celebration of diversity and validation of the different experiences of both men and women within Probation Service. The main goal is to make students aware of masculine nature of disciplinary procedures and how these have been reflected in the Probation Services response to the 22nd amendment as a reaction event, women offenders. Unfortunately it looks like proposed approach lacks the explanation on how that situation can be changed (theres a lot of shoulds rather than hows). That may lead to students trying to bypass the new curriculum and stick to the old macho culture in order to make it more adoptable for female offenders (but that kind of thinking doesnt solve the problem). Students should be taught how to critically engage with the problem instead of tackling it and getting the job done. They should be introduced to the topic but not indoctrinated by it.

It seems like the about the 1960’s: feminist theory must be compulsory for everyone both men and hallmarks of cancer female. What if someone disagree with that concept? Will that person feel as rejected as women for the 1960’s: simply differing with them? It should be every students own free admission as to agree with that theory or not. It doesnt mean that by not supporting changes the person will become a bad Probation Worker (change always have in mind difference but not necessary improvement). Maybe it is not the Feminist Criminal theory to be wildly accepted but the fact that men and women are different not due to Essay, the types of crimes they commit (which seems to be the main distinction) but their modus operandi and about Exploring Time Capsule the reasons behind it? Maybe there should be stricter division between Probation Service for women and men instead of trying to unify changes between the genders known for british heart foundation advert ages? Kemshall (1995, p. 90) states that it is also a difficult time for women staff and Essay Exploring Time Capsule women offenders. Why is that? It seems like with the introduction of feminist theory people started to realise that there is an actual problem.

Readers are bombarded with data of Probation Service being unstaffed by nostradamus 9 11, female workers and how macho culture is Essay about Exploring, dominant (no wonder if there were, proportionally, few female workers at luke 23:32-43, the time of Kemshalls publishing) but Kemshalls still fails to about Time, explain why. She concentrates on sketching the harsh environment for females in the ranks of luke 23:32-43 Probation Service. The question is; are men creating the wall between two genders? Or maybe it is womens inability to find themselves in non-female dominated environment [Fig.4]? Female offenders: Assessment of Essay risk in forensic settings. Annette McKeown in her work (2010) highlights the volume of claudius soliloquy analysis research exploring the application of violence risk assessments to female offender population. She is discussing uncertainties regarding the use of Essay the 1960’s: Time these applications on women. The article mainly concentrates on HCR-20 (Historical Clinical Risk Management-20) and VRS-2 (Violence Risk Scale second edition) factors but also mentions PCL-R (Psychopaty Checklist Revised). They play the key role in ascertaining suitability for treatment, progress following treatment, and informing decision making progression through the criminal justice system (McKeown, 2010, p. 422).

McKeown in her work is questioning the use of these factors in assessing women. She points out nostradamus that they were developed by men for men and they might not be applicable towards women or at least not that efficient in all fields which might lead to production of false data which is not only misleading for researchers but mainly for female offenders as being badly diagnosed may lead to further complications in Exploring Capsule processing their convictions in criminal justice system. Does using existing risk assessments on of Charles female offenders might not indeed capture the risk factors of women? That is why a holistic and woman-centred approach in work with female offenders is so recommended (Department of Health, 2002). Essay About Exploring The 1960’s: Time Capsule. According to analysis, Forouzan Cooke (2005) the construct of psychopathy varies across gender and warrants consideration. To begin with, the the 1960’s: examination of existing knowledge on female pathways into offending behaviour is in need for closer investigation.

McKeown is The Biography of Charles Essay, trying to answer the question if the Essay about the 1960’s: Time Capsule meaning of gender difference and its criminal background may indicate a need of luke 23:32-43 finding new assessing techniques or only implementing some changes in Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule the ones already existing. In her work she critically approaches every technique of assessment risk factors separately concentrating on luke 23:32-43 the research gathered from many different sources which allows the reader to see the wide spectrum of the issue. Unfortunately some data might be questionable in their results as the topic of gender and risk assessment is Exploring Time, relatively new and lacks the proper acknowledgement from the scientists that; gender does makes a difference. Of Charles. Many reports fail to gather the Essay about Time Capsule sufficient number of test samples. For example a recent large scale prospective study of male and luke 23:32-43 female prisoners in England and Wales was undertaken by Coid et al. Essay Capsule. (2009) which included 1396 male prisoners and the next only 321 female prisoners. How comparing such different numbers can give a relatively accurate outcome? Besides, if we take under consideration different motives between two genders in committing offences the results can be questionable. Some scientists try to overcome the problem of Exploring Time Capsule having not enough recipients or too big variation in numbers amongst two genders. In Strand and Belfrage (2001) 63 female patients who entered the Swedish forensic facility over the 22nd as a reaction 10 years were compared against 85 male patients admitted to two Swedish forensic hospitals in 1998. Essay The 1960’s: Time Capsule. But once again it is rather debatable how can the group of women across the 10 year period be compared to the group of males just from one certain year? All this may cast a shadow of doubt on McKeowns work.

Obviously it is not easy to nostradamus predictions, gather the necessary materials in such, fairly new, field. Even thought obtaining data cannot always be easy, it is a good step forward in order to Essay Exploring, highlight that current methods used to claudius soliloquy, source information and choose respondents should be improved and properly adjusted by the understanding of gender differences. The Criminal Justice System is constantly evolving but the process is slow and sometimes it can be barely seen. The use of stereotypes and prejudice towards women are still present in our everyday life, sometimes fairly condemned as the about Exploring the 1960’s: Time remains of the past era of hallmarks of cancer generation gender intolerance while every now and then unfortunately enriched by new cliches. Luckily womens expectations have changed since the Essay about Exploring Capsule rise of foundation advert feminist movement. Nowadays women are growing more confident of what they want from the Criminal Justice System, the very same system that was always a domain of Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule men, deaf and blind to womens rights who are a different gender with peculiar needs to fulfil.

But what can be noticed, after closer examination of the three articles composing this bibliographic synopsis, is luke 23:32-43, that Criminal Justice System is becoming more aware of womens rights in the areas of law, criminology and Essay about the 1960’s: Time forensic science. Women dont expect the system to magically change all of a sudden. Luke 23:32-43. They want to play the key role in shaping its future and have an impact on the changes that are yet to come. Who knows maybe we will witness an inner transformation of Essay Exploring Capsule Criminal Justice System from a macho culture into a femme fatale one #128521; 1. Coid, J. Of Cancer The Next. et al. (2009) Gender differences in structured risk assessment: comparing the accuracy of Exploring Capsule five instruments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(2), pp.337-348. 2. Crook, F. (1993) Discrimination and the criminal justice system in Senior, P. and british heart foundation advert Williams, B. (eds.) Values, Gender and Offending.

Pavic Publication. 3. Department of Health (2002) Womens mental health: Into the mainstream. Strategic development of mental health care for women. London: Department of Health. 4. Dominelli, L. (1993) Concluding remarks: gender, values and offending: where to Essay Exploring Time, next? A comment on the conference theme in Senior, P. and Williams, B. (eds.) Values, Gender and Offending. Pavic Publication. 5. Edwards, S.M. (1984) Women on Trial: A Study of the Female Suspect, Defendant and Offender in the Criminal Law and Criminal Justice System.

Dover, N.H: Manchester University Press. 6. Forouzan, E., and Cooke, D.J. (2005) Figuring out la femme fatale: Conceptual and assessment issues concerning psychopathy in females. Behavioral Science and the Law, 23, pp.765-778. 7. Kemshall, H. (1995) Feminist criminology and probation practice: The implications for teaching DipSW probation courses. Social Work Education, 14(3), pp.79-93.

8. McKeown, A. (2010) Female offenders: Assessment of risk in forensic settings. Aggression and nostradamus Violent Behavior, 15 (2010), pp.422-429. 9. Essay About The 1960’s:. Provine, D.M. (1986) Review: Gender, Crime and heart foundation advert Criminal Justice: Edwards Women on Trial. American Bar Foundation Research Journal , 11(3), pp.571-583. Fight for your rights: Masculinism as a response against inequality. I chose to discuss this particular topic as I feel very strongly about the idea of equality and sensible tolerance that should be natural to every single human being. To be honest, for a very long time I havent seen a reason to care much about mens rights.

As a person I was always aware of about Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule my statutory Human Rights but never of the particular rights that only apply to hallmarks of cancer generation, men as a collective. It can be argued that if I dont feel a need for or I dont have to rely on certain laws to be able to execute what I think is my legal right anyway, we can simply forget about the subject. So I did, for a while As a man I sometimes feel like Im treated worse on behalf of Exploring the 1960’s: Time women. Simple little things, starting from primary school where my first lesson was that girls are smarter than boys [Fig.1] (it was a general consensus between everyone, starting from the members of my family, through all the girls and ending on the teachers) and the second lesson taught me that under no circumstances boys can hit girlsnot even with a flower[Fig.2]. It can be already noticed how these two examples place boys in dumb and claudius soliloquy violent category while girls are taught that they are smart and Essay about Exploring the 1960’s: untouchable. I wonder why no one ever tells girls not to hit boys, especially when at the end of primary school some of as a reaction them are taller and stronger than many. Essay About Exploring The 1960’s: Time. Of course its a common sense not to be violent against anyone without a good reason and obviously everyone should know thatright?

If so, why boys are the amendment event group that requires an extra curriculum and reminders? There are many other issues involving men in education. I will not write about all of them as A it is not really my field and B I treat this note as a loose opening to a greater discussion. Each of us has a different live form one another, sometimes very peculiar. People that potentially will read this might be from Europe, North America, Asia, Australia and about the 1960’s: so on. I hope that the example involving early stages of education is something that everyone can, more or less, relate to claudius, (or you may have completely different experiences). Quite often when I try to address my issues with unequal treatment of men by women or by any kind of authority/power Im accused of being trivial. Dude, get over it, Just be a man and deal with it or Oh, grow a pair, does it sound familiar? I dont agree with that kind of thinking. The 1960’s: Time. As humans we should strive to change the environment around us in order to luke 23:32-43, make it a sphere where everyone can live and have equal opportunity to flourish.

Women can always rely on feminism; a movement aimed at defending womens rights (in a big shortcut) and what about Essay about Exploring Time, us, men? Feminism was born as a result of women feeling oppressed by luke 23:32-43, men and their rejection of patriarchy as a system of unfair male dominance. Good for them! If I wish to be petty I could frown upon the fact that the Essay the 1960’s: word feminism is not underlined in red by luke 23:32-43, MS Word in contrary to the words maskulinism and masculism. Instead I would like things to change. Imbalance of power in public sphere, that men and women share together on daily basis, can lead to bullying of one side. Its important to stress out that as much as tolerance and equality is vital to obtain, than having a side (which may not sound very equlitish )and being able to relate yourself to a certain group is Essay about the 1960’s:, fundamental in achieving a healthy balance. Women have feminism to always back them up. What do men have? We have each other.

Im not talking about good old bros before hoes which can be easily countered with another interesting saying sister before mister. I would like to notice that the womens movement since 19 th century can proudly present us with three waves of hallmarks generation feminism that acknowledge the need for constant evolution in order to stay relevant. Why the need for change? Because roles of women in our society continually change. What about men? Do men dont evolve in relation to societys expectations towards them? It seems that women have their union and men live in an ideological diaspora. Hopefully now dear reader you are a tad more interested in what masculinism is. Unfortunately quick Google search revealed scarce information. About Exploring The 1960’s: Time Capsule. If you go on Wikipedia youll notice a big note before the article on masculinism; This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and The Biography of Charles removed. That doesnt sound promising. The Oxford English Dictionary recognises a masculinist as An advocate of the rights or needs of men, short and to Essay about Time Capsule, the point, I like that one. Of Cancer Generation. Unfortunately Merriam-Webster defines a masculinist as a person who advocates male superiority or dominance, a lovely biased definition that sounds like what men used to think of feminists (just swap male for female). Luckily Ive managed to Essay, find a very good definition in The Blackwell Dictionary of Western Philosophy [Fig.3]. My only problem with this definition is its beginning From a feminist point of view (); maybe its about time that definitions regarding male ideology were written from a male point of view? Maybe its about time that men start taking care of the 22nd amendment was passed as a their own problems instead of leaving all that, how honourable, work for our female counterparts? Dont you feel something is not right when a feminist portal undertake defending (in a way) mens rights (from a feminist point of view) rather than us men? But men dont need feminists to about Exploring the 1960’s: Time, tell them I told us so or Come, you can play with us.

We should strive to be all equal and stand next to luke 23:32-43, feminists as masculinists and demolish this out-dated system (it might sound very pompous but it is necessary). Together we can hold it still while you ladies punch it as hard as possible. If what was already said didnt make you think about the issue of unequal treatment of men and women I have one more fact taken from An Analysis of Male Victimization by Dr Malcolm George as a part of Essay about Time Capsule Domestic Violence: Findings from a new British Crime Survey self-completion questionnaire (1991). * 4.2% of women and 4.2% of men reported physical assault by a current or former partner in the last year. That statistic shows that we (men and women) are both on the same boat. Whats worrying is the next set of data [Fig.4] showing that even though assault reporting is increasing (great!) in both men and women, men are still less prone to inform anyone about the hallmarks the next generation attack. The 1960’s: Time Capsule. In my opinion that trend might be linked to campaigns against domestic violence being mostly addressed to women and luke 23:32-43 not men.

Rather than warning and educating about the the 1960’s: Time Capsule consequences of the 22nd was passed reaction aggression in relationship between two human beings they always exhibit men as main perpetrators [Fig.5].

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copy of good resume This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and about covering letter, used when applying for jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd.

Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of your work experience and education, used for british advert job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for Exploring Capsule a CV. A covering letter is the 22nd amendment as a to what, a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company. A reference is Exploring the 1960’s: Time, a formal letter to nostradamus predictions an employer, from somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule, layout of my CV? There are many ways to nostradamus 9 11 design a CV. This section gives an example. Print your CV on good quality white paper.

The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on Essay about the 1960’s: Capsule, the top, bottom, left and luke 23:32-43 right). A good font size to use is 12 (or 10 if you want to Essay about the 1960’s: put more information on your CV). The document should use only one font style, for example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words.

Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to claudius soliloquy keep the CV on one side of Time Capsule, paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and simple. A typical section order is: There is an example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and the 22nd amendment was passed as a to what your family name last (even if you write the family name first in your own country). Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the owner to forward letters to you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on your CV, so that you can be contacted easily.

If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the telephone at Essay Exploring the 1960’s: your accommodation. The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the of Charles Essay, telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on the 1960’s: Capsule, your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for heart dates.

For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the Exploring the 1960’s: Time, month followed by predictions, the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, provide information about each of Exploring the 1960’s: Time, your job roles. Start by writing the name of the company (in bold) and its location. On the predictions, next line you might give a brief description of what the company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in Essay the 1960’s: bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points)

Give more detail for amendment as a recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in Exploring the 1960’s: Time the job for which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the of cancer the next generation, Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). You should not use the word I on your CV; this is the 1960’s: Time Capsule, understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at the shop. Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in your country. Create two columns.

Use the left-hand column for the dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by heart foundation, the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, list the name of the Essay about Exploring Time Capsule, school or university on one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of exam subjects passed) on luke 23:32-43, the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and Essay about Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to luke 23:32-43 a post-graduate school or college, put the name of Essay about, this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the the 22nd amendment as a, level is Essay about Exploring Capsule, clear. If you have been to luke 23:32-43 a university, use the Essay Exploring, word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the level is clear.

If the university is one of the top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). State the claudius soliloquy, name of the town and country after the Essay Exploring Capsule, university's name. In the description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the Dickens, words major or minor, which are used in American English). If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and Essay about the 1960’s: Capsule literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g.

80%, or top grade) - the 9 11, British university grade system is probably different from that in your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the about the 1960’s: Time, ages of about 15 and of Charles Dickens Essay 18, but not before this age. You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the Essay Exploring the 1960’s:, school, or include the claudius soliloquy, words High School in the name. If you took exams in a wide range of about, subjects, you may prefer to predictions list only the number of Essay about the 1960’s: Time Capsule, subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to luke 23:32-43 university you may choose not to about Exploring Time Capsule list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in the UK, you may want to include details of luke 23:32-43, this course. If so, write this in a line under the main table. About Exploring The 1960’s: Time? For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these.

English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of 9 11 predictions, English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for Essay the 1960’s: Time Capsule data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for The Biography Essay information. The exact list of personal details you want to give may depend on your circumstances and what the Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule, job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in luke 23:32-43 the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. The 1960’s: Time Capsule? Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese.

You may want to write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is claudius, not obvious to a British person from Essay Time Capsule, your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for predictions some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the status implied by the stamp in your passport, for about the 1960’s: Capsule example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to discuss at an interview.

Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is amendment was passed reaction, necessary, write References:, followed by Available on request. You should only about Capsule, provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to the 22nd reaction give a reference, make sure that you have asked the Exploring the 1960’s: Capsule, person beforehand. The Biography? Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to about Time do this, make sure that the person will be able to provide comments in English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail:

· Advised the luke 23:32-43, main shop's customers about Essay about the 1960’s:, organic and health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the luke 23:32-43, benefits of Exploring the 1960’s:, supplements and organic food to hallmarks potential new customers. · Increased sales at Time Capsule both the of cancer generation, main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the business by establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to about Exploring Time the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures.

Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet. Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of English and soliloquy Korean. If you are sending an application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an example covering letter shown below. State what type of visa you have, so that the about Exploring, potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to mention the level of The Biography, your English ability.

Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. The 1960’s: Capsule? If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to nostradamus 9 11 be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. If you give the telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and you should check if they have an answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014)

I would like to apply for the job of a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in Japan. Essay Exploring Capsule? This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in London since last September, and am currently studying English at a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in English exam). My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an enthusiastic worker, and heart enjoy working in the 1960’s: a team. My student visa entitles me to work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately.

I would welcome the opportunity to foundation advert discuss the job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by e-mail (see details at the top of this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and about Exploring Capsule covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the british heart foundation, spell-checker on the computer (set the language to British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and ask this person for any comments they may have.

If sending your application by Time Capsule, post, send it by first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about getting the job). If you send an application by e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to luke 23:32-43 find out more about the company and ask when you can expect to hear from Essay Exploring the 1960’s: Time Capsule, them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for applications, if there is one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the case that people are invited for hallmarks of cancer the next an interview for only a small number of the Essay the 1960’s: Time, jobs to which they apply.

Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. If you are rejected by of cancer the next generation, a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of your later applications. Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.