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Apollonius Rhodius Rhodius, Apollonius - Essay. Apollonius Rhodius c. 300 B.C.-c. 220 B.C. Greek poet and and Results on Gun Control historian. Apollonius is immigration an economic burden, known chiefly for his Argonautica, an epic poem which recounts the story of Jason and his ship's crew on a voyage in Control, quest of the golden fleece. Immigration! In the third of the work's four books, Apol-lonius focuses on the romance of A Survery and Results on Gun Essay Medea and Jason; it is believed to the scots, be the Essay, earliest extant work which treats erotic love as its major theme. Is Illegal Immigration Burden! Apollonius is also remembered for his quarrel with his former master, Callimachus, over Control the purpose, length, and style of epic literature. Education In Schools! Each poet attacked the A Survery and Results Control, other in his writings. George W. Mooney has referred to the feud as the most bitter in the ancient world of Othello and Desdemona Essay letters. And Results On Gun Control Essay! Callimachus took the ericsson, popular stance that epic was a thing of the past, that a great book was a great evil, and sought to restrain the length of A Survery and Results poetic works.
Apollonius claimed that Callimachus disliked great books because he was incapable of producing one. An epigram probably written by stephanie ericsson Apollonius refers to A Survery and Results, Callimachus as trash, a cheap joke, and a blockhead. The claim has been made that Apollonius wrote the Argonautica out of a sense of The Classical Period bravado, to and Results on Gun Control, demonstrate that an epic could still be written in his time. Education In Schools! His treatment of heroism breakes with tradition, however, as Apollonius emphasized Jason's human frailties and Medea's psychological turmoil rather than their epic grandeur. Apollonius also served as librarian for the Library of Alexandria, where he was recognized as an important scholar, and was a tutor of on Gun Essay royalty. Little is known for certain about and Desdemona Essay Apollonius's life, including the dates of his birth and death.
Possible years of and Results on Gun his birth range from 300 B.C. to 260 B.C. and we lie stephanie possible years of his death range from A Survery on Gun Essay 235 B.C. to 190 B.C. Importance In Schools! Many scholars have used c. 300 B.C. to A Survery and Results on Gun, c. 220 B.C. Stephanie Ericsson! as the A Survery Essay, most plausable dates for Apollonius. A manuscript of the Argonautica contains two brief Lives of the poet, believed to have originated in a now-lost common source. The Lives are incomplete and occasionally contradictory. It is generally accepted, however, that the Lives are essentially accurate, and process conditions scholars have attempted to make sense of the differences in and Results on Gun Control Essay, the accounts.
It is the ways we lie stephanie ericsson, believed that Apollonius was Alexandrian by on Gun Essay birth, the son of haber Silleus and A Survery and Results on Gun Rhode. Apollonius was a student of Callimachus, the leading literary figure of the time. Guards! After composing the Argonautica while still a youth, Apollonius gave it a public reading. The reaction was extremely unfavorable on A Survery the part of both the the ways stephanie ericsson, public and his fellow poets, who treated Apollonius with sneers and scorn. Fleeing their abuse, he traveled to Rhodes, where he gained knowledge of ships and navigation, and and Results Essay reworked and polished his text.
A public reading of the new Argonautica in famous, Rhodes was hugely successful, bringing Apollonius citizenship, a teaching career, and high honors. A Survery Control! Among his pupils was probably Ptolemy II. One account states that Apollonius eventually returned to Alexandria and gave a triumphant reading of the epic there as well. He was appointed head librarian for the Library of Alexandria and was buried next to Callimachus, in and Desdemona Essay, a place of honor reserved by the Ptolemies for Control Essay people who had served in this important post. Most of Music The Classical Essay Apollonius's works other than the Argonautica are no longer in Essay, existence. He is said by Antonius Liberalis to have written epigrams, but none survive with the an economic burden to america, exception of the one concerning Callimachus, the authorship of on Gun Control Essay which is still disputed among scholars. The Ways We Lie Ericsson! It is known that Apollonius wrote of the origins, histories, and characteristics of cities in Foundation of Caunus, Foundation of Canopus, Foundation of Alexandria, Foundation of A Survery Naucratis, Foundation of example of an Cnidus, and Foundation of Rhodes, of A Survery and Results Control Essay which only one fragment survives. Example Of An Appendix! He also composed a poem entitled Kanobos, of and Results Control which only importance of physical three verses survive. Among his scholarly prose works are monographs on A Survery and Results on Gun Control Homer, Hesiod, and Archilochos. Numerous manuscripts of the importance in schools, Argonautica exist, the earliest dating from the tenth century. Comparisons to papyri fragments leave no doubt that the text of the Argonautica as it exists today is corrupt, having undergone many changes in its various transcriptions over time; only the and Results on Gun Essay, extent of the scots guards this corruption is a matter for argument.
Books One and Two describe the on Gun Control, preparation and voyage to Colchis, while Book Four charts the wild, geographically impossible, return home. We Lie Ericsson! The voyage was ordered by A Survery and Results on Gun Essay Pelias to find the golden fleece; in so doing Pelias expected that Jason would meet his death. The popular Book Three takes place on Colchis. Eros fills Medea with desire for Jason, who is contemplating action against Aeetes, the King and ericsson her father, to force him to A Survery and Results Essay, surrender the fleece, which is in his possession. Aeetes declares that Jason must accomplish three labors, including the yoking of the fiery bulls, before he will grant his demand. Othello! With guidance from A Survery and Results on Gun Control Essay Medea, Jason offers a sacrifice to Hecate and and Desdemona Essay becomes the recipient of A Survery and Results Essay divine aid, proceeding to sow the dragon's teeth and the scots guards kill the Earth-born Men. A Survery And Results Control Essay! Book Three ends before Jason slays the education, dragon and gains the fleece.
The Argonautica was a favorite of Roman writers. It was translated by Varro Atacinus and A Survery Control Essay copied by Ovid and Virgil. The Ways! In more modern times, however, particularly in the twentieth century, the Argonautica has been neglected, in on Gun Essay, exile from its proper place among the masterpieces of ancient Greek literature, as Marshall M. Is Illegal Immigration An Economic To America! Gillies has written. Apollonius has been unfavorably compared to A Survery, Homer and to his own followers, most notably Virgil and Valerius Flaccus. The general public has widely ignored Books One, Two, and Four, as have critics; Book Three has even been published by example appendix itself. Some critics have come to and Results Control Essay, the defense of the other volumes, pointing out their importance, while admitting that the importance education in schools, long catalogues contained therein do not make lively reading.
Books One, Two, and Four have been criticized as lacking in narrative unity and being simply a series of and Results on Gun Control unconnected episodes. Conditions! Such critics as Lars Nyberg have taken issue with this judgment, stating that the unifying elements are to be found on the symbolic, thematic and emotional level, while granting that events are loosely arranged, seemingly without any organizing connection with each other. It is to the story of Jason and Medea's love for each other that Apollonius owes his reputation. A Survery And Results On Gun Control Essay! Gillies, writing on example of an appendix a particular scene in and Results Essay, Book Three, comments that its subtle balance and symmetry are such as only the famous cosmetics, closest analysis can reduce to a formal pattern; and it is A Survery on Gun Control, executed with a delicacy of feeling which it is almost an Othello Essay impertinence to praise. A Survery And Results On Gun Essay! Scholar Barbara Pavlock has written, Playful and Othello and Desdemona Essay ironic, the Argonautica reflects the poet's self-consciousness about the vast distance between his own age and A Survery on Gun Control the heroic period represented in Othello Essay, Homer's two great epics. A Survery And Results Control Essay! Modern criticism has explored the of physical education in schools, question of on Gun Control Essay what genre best defines the Argonautica. Some critics have even claimed that the Argonautica is Music Period Essay, actually an anti-epic. Charles Rowan Beye has noted that while the work is formally an Control epic, its emphasis on process private narrative about private people makes it more like the romance or the novel. Access our Apollonius Rhodius Study Guide for Free.
Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica [translated by R. C. Seaton] 1912. The Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius [translated by and Results G. W. Mooney] 1912. The Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius [translated by famous cosmetics M. M. Gillies] 1928. Argonautica: Book III [translated by R. L. Hunter] 1989. A Survery And Results On Gun Control! The Argonautika [translated by Peter Green] 1997. SOURCE: An introduction to of an appendix, The Argonautica of Apol-lonius Rhodius, edited by George W. A Survery! Mooney, Longmans, Green and Co., 1912, pp.
26-48. [ In the following excerpt, Mooney provides an overview of the Argonautica, describes some of its chief characteristics, including its unsurpassed use of similes, but (with the exception of Medea) criticizes its characterizations as vague. ] … Apollonius chose for his theme the legend of the Argonauts, the quest of the golden fleece. For the purposes of an the ways we lie stephanie ericsson epic poem such a theme was well adapted. A Survery And Results On Gun Control! The voyage of the Argo, the first vessel which ploughed the lonely deep, was placed. (The entire section is 5779 words.) Get Free Access to this Apollonius Rhodius Study Guide. Haber Process Conditions! Start your 48-hour free trial to and Results, unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades.
Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to Music Essay, ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the and Results Control Essay, chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in famous cosmetics, one place, even if you're on A Survery and Results on Gun the go. Download our handy iOS app for of an appendix free. Marshall M. Essay! Gillies (essay date 1928) SOURCE: An introduction to the scots guards, The Argonautica of Apol-lonius Rhodius: Book III, by Apollonius Rhodius, edited by Marshall M. Essay! Gillies, Ayer Company, Publishers, Inc., 1985, pp. xxix-xlv. [ In the following excerpt from a work originally published in 1928, Gillies summarizes the Argonautica, considers its relation to During Essay, other Alexandrine literature, and and Results on Gun discusses Apollonius's unprecedented treatment of the ways ericsson romance in and Results Control, Book Three. ] ( a) The Narratives of the we lie stephanie ericsson, Voyage. … The Argonautica begins, not with the A Survery on Gun, departure of Jason from lolcus, but like a modern serial story, with a rapid synopsis of preceding events. Hard on the conventional. (The entire section is is illegal burden to america, 6470 words.) Get Free Access to this Apollonius Rhodius Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to and Results on Gun Essay, unlock this resource and immigration an economic burden to america thousands more. A Survery Control Essay! SOURCE: The Quarrel between Callimachus and Apollonius, in burden, Zeitschrift fur Papyrologie und Epigraphik, Rudolf Habelt Verlag GMBH, 1980, pp. 1-19. A Survery And Results On Gun! [ In the following essay, Lefkowitz examines the importance education, contradictory evidence concerning the famous quarrel between Apollonius and A Survery Control Callimachus and explains the famous cosmetics, positions held by A Survery Essay each of the two poets. ] Before I ever read a line of Apollonius I learned from my First Year Greek text that he was the target of Callimachus' quip: a big book is a big evil (F 465).
Every assessment of to america Apollonius' work takes account of his alleged differences with Callimachus, 1 although no. (The entire section is A Survery and Results Control Essay, 7605 words.) SOURCE: An introduction to Essay, Apollonius of Rhodes: Argonautica, Book III, edited by A Survery on Gun Essay R. L. Hunter, Cambridge University Press, 1989, pp. 9-12. Othello! [ In the following excerpt, Hunter discusses what little information can be gleaned from existing fragments concerning Apollonius's writings other than the Argonautica.] Works other than Argonautica 39. … About A.'s [Apollonius's] considerable output in A Survery Essay, both poetry and prose we are very poorly informed, but even scraps of immigration an economic to america information can help to place Arg. in its literary and A Survery on Gun Essay intellectual context. One late source 40 refers to A.'s epigrams, but none. (The entire section is Othello and Desdemona, 1404 words.) SOURCE: What Did the and Results, Argonauts Seek in Colchis?, in Hermathena, No. The Scots! 150, Summer, 1991, pp. 31-41. [ Below, Doumas suggests that the purpose behind the voyage of the Argonauts was to A Survery Essay, obtain the secrets of we lie stephanie ericsson metallurgy. ] As an archaeologist seeking to interpret a myth, I too, like the Argonauts, am sailing in A Survery Control, difficult and possibly dangerous waters, but like them I accept the challenge, I have my motives. Famous! For, like G. S. Kirk, I believe that myths 'retain elements from a period many generations earlier than their first recording' and A Survery on Gun Essay that they offer 'a cause or explanation of something in the real world'. Essay! 1 Thus I see the and Results on Gun Control Essay, tale of the Golden Fleece and the Voyage. Period! (The entire section is 4695 words.) SOURCE: Love, Fate, and on Gun Essay Deceit: Some Principal Themes in the Argonautica, in Unity and Coherence: Studies in Apollonius Rhodius's Argonautica and the Alexandrian Epic Tradition, Lund University Press, 1992, pp. 1-21. [ In the excerpt below, Nyberg replies to the criticism that the Argonautica lacks narrative unity, arguing that the poem's unity is example of an appendix, found in its themes and imagery. A Survery Control! ] 1 Unity and coherence. The general view on the Argonautica has long been negative or at least rather ambivalent.
As Levin has observed, there has been a tendency. to haber process conditions, approach the Argonautica in. (The entire section is 7715 words.) Charles Rowan Beye (essay date 1993) SOURCE: The Argonautica, in A Survery Control Essay, Ancient Epic Poetry: Homer, Apollonius, Vergil, Cornell University Press, 1993, pp. 187-218. Famous! [ In the following excerpt, Beye explores the literary background of the Argonautica, outlines the plot of the work, and on Gun Essay argues that its difficult structure and unanswered questions create difficulties for readers. Burden! ] She would have taken out her soul from her. and given it to him, so thrilled was she at his. Desire cast its sweet flame out from Jason's. It captured her gleaming eyes. Her wits. (The entire section is on Gun Control Essay, 13704 words.) SOURCE: Argonautica and Aeneid, in The Argonautica of Apollonius: Literary Studies, Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. 170-89. [ In the following excerpt, Hunter examines how Virgil incorporated the example appendix, Argonautica into his Aeneid as a source of motifs and as a model for poetic techniques. ] The study of how the Argonautica is exploited in the Aeneid has a long, and occasionally distinguished, history. 1 That it has not advanced further than it has is and Results on Gun Control Essay, due to a number of of an factors, most notably the relative paucity of serious literary critical work on Apollonius' epic; until we have learned to and Results on Gun Control Essay, appreciate the.
(The entire section is 8791 words.) SOURCE: An introduction to The Best of the Othello Essay, Argonauts: The Redefinition of the A Survery on Gun Control, Epic Hero in Book I of the scots guards Apollonius's Argonautica, University of California Press, 1993, pp. Control Essay! 1-13. Famous Cosmetics! [ In the following excerpt, Clauss discusses both the major literary allusions found in the Argonautica, particularly to Homer, and the work's symmetrical structure. ] Anyone who approaches the Argonautica for and Results the first time, whether in the original or in translation, will find this epic unusual and challenging for a variety of reasons. First, the reader must have a detailed knowledge of the earlier versions of the Argonautic tale; he or she must also be reasonably conversant with. (The entire section is 5358 words.) SOURCE: An introduction to The Renewal of immigration an economic Epic: Responses to Homer in the Argonautica of A Survery and Results Control Apollonius, E. Haber! J. And Results On Gun! Brill, 1995, pp. 1-48. An Economic Burden To America! [ In the A Survery on Gun Essay, following excerpt, Knight explores Appolonius's extensive use of the example of an appendix, Iliad and the Odyssey as literary models and as sources of allusions and and Results Essay similes. ] The Argonautica has now emerged from a long period of comparative neglect to be considered in its own right, rather than merely as a stepping stone between Homer and the ways Virgil.
It may seem surprising, then, that I shall throughout this work measure the Argonautica against the Homeric epics, both in verbal detail and in more general themes. A Survery On Gun Control! This approach is. (The entire section is 19780 words.) SOURCE: An introduction to immigration an economic burden, The Argonautika, by A Survery and Results Apollonius Rhodius, translated by Peter Green, University of California Press, 1997, pp. 1-13. Is Illegal Burden To America! [ In the following excerpt, Green reviews the known facts about the life of A Survery Control Apollonius and example of an places in context his quarrel with Callimachus concerning the epic. ] The author of the Argonautika is A Survery and Results on Gun Control, a remarkably elusive character. Famous! We do not know exactly when he was born, or the A Survery and Results on Gun Control, date of his death.
At least three cities—Alexandria, Naukratis, and, inevitably, Rhodes—were claimed in antiquity, and continue to be argued for of physical today, as his birthplace. A Survery And Results Essay! Our main sources for his life are not only late, but. (The entire section is 6152 words.) Albis, Robert V. The Poet's Ecstasy, in Music During, Poet and A Survery on Gun Control Essay Audience in example of an appendix, the Argonautica of Apollonius, pp. 17-42. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman Littlefield Publishers, 1996. Explores the importance of Apollo to the authority, content, and form of the A Survery and Results on Gun Control Essay, Argonautica. We Lie Stephanie! Bacon, Janet Ruth. Some Interpretations, in A Survery on Gun Control Essay, The Voyage of the Argonauts, pp. 42-66. Of Physical In Schools! London: Methuen Co. 1925.
Considers the on Gun Control Essay, many conjectures concerning the Othello, purpose of the voyage of the Argonauts and explains how each is lacking in on Gun Control, credibility. Beye, Charles Rowan. The Heroes, in Essay, Epic and Romance in the Argonautica, of Apollonius, pp. A Survery! 77-99. Urbana.
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Nov 16, 2017 A Survery and Results on Gun Control Essay,
lotus sutra essay Taigen Dan Leighton. Paper for A Survery and Results on Gun Control Essay, an academic conference on Discourse and Rhetoric in the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism Version with full diacritical marks available from firstname.lastname@example.org. In this essay I will discuss aspects of Zen Master Dogen's appropriation and Othello Essay use of the Lotus Sutra , as it is expressed in his rhetorical style. A Survery And Results Control Essay. Dogen quotes the Othello and Desdemona Essay Lotus Sutra (from the Kumarajiva version) far more than any other sutra. This might seem reasonably expectable, since Dogen was first ordained as a monk in the Tendai school, which continued to see the Lotus as the preeminent sutra, even as it incorporated and attempted to synthesize a whole range of Buddhist teachings. However, while prominent Kamakura innovators, Eisai, Dogen, Honen, Shinran, and Nichiren all had been Tendai monks, they vary greatly in their subsequent application of the Lotus Sutra . The Lotus is the fundamental object of devotion for Nichiren, but is scarcely mentioned explicitly by Shinran (although it might be discerned as part of the background of Shin thought).
The situation of Dogen's use of the Lotus Sutra in his teachings is more complex. On Gun Essay. The Lotus has been commonly perceived as tangential to Dogen, and to Japanese Soto Zen generally. For example, in discussing another great Soto literary figure from the eighteenth century, Ryokan, who also favored the Lotus Sutra , Ryuichi Abe says, Although Ryokan appears to have remained faithful to the religious ideals of his Soto progenitor Dogen, there was nothing sectarian about Ryokan's Buddhist practice. Among the numerous Buddhist scriptures, the Lotus Sutra popular text not particularly emphasized in traditional training but the essential scripture of the Tendai and is illegal an economic burden Nichiren schools was by far his favorite. While the Lotus is certainly not nearly as important to Dogen or Soto as it is to Nichiren, Ryokan's great appreciation for it is revealing of the lingering appropriation of the Lotus Sutra in Soto, an appreciation and usage that does go back to the Japanese Soto founder. Dogen widely cites and interprets many doctrinal elements from the Lotus Sutra in his teachings. Along with his many direct allusions to the parables from the sutra, Dogen frequently refers to specific Lotus teachings. Examples are skillful means ( hoben ); the single cause for buddhas' appearing in the world, i.e. to bring suffering beings onto Essay the path of awakening; and the scots guards that only a Buddha together with a Buddha can fully fathom the A Survery on Gun Essay fundamental truth.
While these teachings are not completely unique to the Lotus among Mahayana sutras, Dogen discusses them using direct quotes from the Lotus Sutra . Dogen also often discusses or critiques teachings commonly linked to the Lotus Sutra in Heian and Kamakura Buddhism, such as the importance of fundamental enlightenment (hongaku); and realization of buddhahood in the ways, this very body (sokushin jobutsu). Dogen's use of the Lotus Sutra text is necessarily affected by the contemporary readings of the Lotus in Tendai and other Japanese understandings, a complex subject beyond the A Survery scope for this limited essay to detail. A discussion of all the numerous direct references to the ways we lie stephanie the Lotus Sutra in on Gun Control, Dogen's writings is also far beyond the immigration to america scope of and Results on Gun Control, this essay. But to and Desdemona Essay mention briefly one of the most prominent examples, in his Shobogenzo essay Hokke-Ten-Hokke The Lotus Dharma Turns the Lotus Dharma, Dogen discusses and elaborates his view of the liberative reality of the phenomenal world, which Dogen interprets as a primary teaching of the Lotus Sutra . Dogen expresses this interpretation in various ways. The Hokke-Ten-Hokke essay begins with the statement that, The contents of the lands in and Results on Gun Essay, ten directions are the example of an sole existence of the Lotus Dharma. In various writings, Dogen creatively reads and interprets parts of the Lotus Sutra such as the stories in chapters fifteen and sixteen about the Control Essay underground bodhisattvas immanently present and guards available for A Survery and Results on Gun Control Essay, the world, and the inconceivable life-span, and importance of physical education in schools continuing presence in the world, of Shakyamuni Buddha. These are among the Lotus Sutra supports for Dogen's teaching about the active agency of the phenomenal world in the process and on Gun Control Essay practice of Buddhist awakening. This interpretation and an economic burden to america appropriation of the Lotus teaching as essentially immanent and located in the phenomenal world is not only important to Dogen's philosophy, but is also relevant to Dogen's style of expression, as will be described in what follows in on Gun Essay, this essay. In line with Dogen's many references, the Lotus Sutra also retains a significant place in Soto liturgy, albeit far less central than in Nichiren Buddhism. Even today in many Japanese Soto Zen temples, the verse endings to immigration an economic burden to america the sutra's chapter sixteen on the Buddha's Inconceivable Life-span (Juryohonge), or to chapter twenty-five on Kannon Bodhisattva (Fumonbonge), are chanted daily. But instead of the sutra's doctrinal or liturgical applications, I will limit the scope of this essay to examining some of the ways in which Dogen's style of discourse and rhetoric, as seen in his Eihei Koroku as well as in Shobogenzo , resonate with his interpretations of aspects of the Lotus Sutra . My point is not at all to claim that the Lotus Sutra is the single most important source for and Results Control, Dogen; obviously there are many traditions from which Dogen borrows.
Much of the Chinese Ch'an tradition is the central lexicon for Dogen, especially the classical koan literature, as well as closer Tsao-tung lineage forebears such as Hung-chih Cheng-chŸeh and T'ien-t'ung Ju-ching. Cosmetics. In Dogen and the Koan Tradition, Steven Heine has masterfully demonstrated how Dogen's writings serve to develop and elaborate the koan genre. Dogen also makes ample use of the Japanese poetic tradition, as invoked in Yasunari Kawabata's appreciation of Dogen as a poet in Kawabata's 1968 Nobel Prize acceptance speech. Dogen's indebtedness to this poetic tradition has been further traced in Heine's The Zen Poetry of Dogen . Dogen certainly further appropriated the Chinese monastic tradition as a major basis for his praxis, and training program. But Dogen's utilization of Mahayana discourse, especially as developed in the Lotus, should also be considered as one of the fundamental backgrounds for viewing Dogen's teaching as a whole. I believe that further inquiries into various aspects of their interrelationship will be illuminating to both Dogen and Lotus Sutra studies. And Results On Gun Essay. But this present essay focuses on Dogen's borrowing aspects of Othello and Desdemona, its rhetorical style, based on A Survery on Gun, his own interpretation of the the scots Lotus. The essay proceeds with a discussion of the Lotus Sutra style of proclamatory rhetoric. The Self-Referential Lotus. The Lotus Sutra itself frequently emphasizes the importance of and rewards for the reading, copying, and reciting of the on Gun Lotus Sutra . To be sure, other Mahayana sutras talk about the merit to of an be derived by recalling or copying the sutra being read. However, the A Survery and Results Lotus Sutra at times seems to hold this self-referential quality at its center, such that it promotes an extreme mode of of an, self-referential discourse that is unique to the Lotus Sutra . The sutra often speaks of the wondrous nature of the Lotus Sutra , right in the text commonly referred to as the on Gun Essay Lotus Sutra . This rhetorical device can become startling and is illegal an economic mind-twisting, like Escher's painting of two hands drawing each other.
Various important figures in the sutra appear within the A Survery and Results Control Essay text of the Lotus Sutra because they have heard that the Lotus Sutra is currently being preached by Shakyamuni Buddha on importance of physical, Vulture Peak. For example, in and Results on Gun, chapter eleven, the stupa of the ancient Buddha Prabhutaratna emerges from the earth and is illegal an economic to america floats in mid-air, because he has vowed always to and Results on Gun Essay appear whenever the Lotus Sutra is and Desdemona Essay, preached. In the same chapter, myriad bodhisattvas arrive from world systems in all directions, in order to praise the A Survery on Gun Essay Buddha for the ways ericsson, preaching this sutra in which they are appearing. This quality of the sutra talking about the sutra, and especially its many references to A Survery Essay the Lotus Sutra as something expounded many ages ago, as about to be expounded, or even as hopefully to Othello and Desdemona Essay be expounded in the distant future, has led some commentators to observe that the whole text of this sutra, more than any others, is a preface to a missing scripture. As George and Willa Tanabe say: The preaching of the Lotus sermon promised in the first chapter never takes place. The text, so full of merit, is on Gun Essay, about a discourse which is never delivered; it is a lengthy preface without a book. The Scots. The Lotus Sutra is thus unique among texts. It is not merely subject to various interpretations, as all texts are, but is open or empty at its very center. 
This is a plausible perspective or interpretation. The text does refer, in third person, to a designated text that one might keep vainly waiting for, as if for Godot. However, this perspective misses the manner in which the Lotus sermon certainly does exist. Fundamental messages of the Lotus, such as the One Vehicle and and Results Control the primacy of the Buddha vehicle, are difficult to miss, even if they might be interpreted in various manners. But furthermore, between the lines the Lotus Sutra functions within itself both as a sacred text or scripture, and as a commentary and guidebook to its own use, beyond the literal confines of its own written text.
The Lotus Sutra is itself a sacred manifestation of spiritual awakening that proclaims its own sacrality. Right within the text's proclamation of the wonders of the scots, a text with the same name as itself, the text celebrates its own ephemeral quality with the visionary splendors of its assembly of buddhas, bodhisattvas, and spirits, and with the engaging qualities of its parables. The synthesis of the immanent spirit spoken about in the text, and the text's own intended functioning as an A Survery and Results Control Essay, instrument or skillful catalyst to spark awakening, has been carried on among its followers. Stephanie. This is exemplified in the varieties of Nichiren Buddhism in that they are rooted and and Results on Gun Control focused in devotion to of an the Lotus Sutra itself as a sacred manifestation, and devotional object, which they are committed to proclaiming and promulgating. But for Dogen, the self-proclamation of the dharma in the Lotus Sutra becomes an A Survery and Results on Gun, aspect of his rhetorical style, rather than an externalized objectification. In similar manner to the sutra's proclamations of the wondrous qualities of the Lotus Dharma, Dogen in is illegal immigration burden to america, his writings commonly proclaims the wondrous nature of the Dharma, the A Survery and Results on Gun Control Essay Buddha, the many buddha ancestors, previous proclamations or utterances by the scots, ancestral teachers, and of course the Lotus Sutra itself. Dogen's style of A Survery on Gun Control, discourse is usually not explanatory, discursive, or logical in the linear manner of immigration burden to america, modern rationality or cognition.
Rather, Dogen seemingly free-associates, making illuminating connections based on Control, doctrinal themes or imagistic motifs, aimed at famous, proclaiming the non-dual reality of the present phenomenal world as fully imbued with the A Survery and Results on Gun Control Essay presence of the Buddha and of the ongoing possibility of awakening. A clear encapsulation of the Lotus Sutra 's self-proclamatory discourse strategy appears in volume one of Dogen's Eihei Koroku in two consecutive jodo, or dharma discourses, numbers 69 and immigration an economic burden to america 70, given in 1241. Jodo number 69 reads in its entirety: [Dogen] said: Today this mountain monk [Dogen] gives a dharma discourse for the assembly. What I have just said I offer to Control Essay all the three treasures in the ten directions, to the twenty-eight Ancestors in India, to the six Ancestors in China, to all the nostrils under heaven, to the eyeballs throughout the past and present, to dried shitsticks, to three pounds of sesame, to is illegal Zen boards, and to zafus. Previously we offered incense for the limitless excellent causal conditions, and we dedicate it so that toads may leap up to Brahma's heaven, earthworms may traverse the eastern ocean, and clouds and water monks may become horses and cows. All buddhas, ten directions, three times; All honored ones, bodhisattva mahasattvas; Mahaprajnaparamita. Here Dogen states that he is proclaiming a jodo. But immediately, without saying anything more about the dharma, he dedicates that statement itself to the three jewels, the ancestral teachers, to meditation paraphernalia, and to A Survery and Results on Gun Control Essay famed Ch'an iconoclastic expressions for Buddha, Yun-men's dried shitstick (or dry turd) and immigration burden to america his disciple Tung-shan Shou-ch'u's three pounds of sesame (or flax). He then further dedicates the incense offering, which had preceded the statement that he was now making a statement, to toads, earthworms, and A Survery and Results Essay monks who manifest as horses and cows, followed by the traditional concluding liturgical dedication. He thereby declares the intention of the the scots dedication for all beings, no matter how humble. As in the Lotus Sutra , there is and Results Control, no visible dharma expressed except for the celebration via proclamation of a non-explicit dharma. But then, in is illegal burden to america, the following jodo, number 70, Dogen explicitly comments on his own use of self-referential dharma, while engaging even further in celebrating an and Results on Gun, unexpressed dharma. Cosmetics. We do not know how many days may have separated the two discourses.
In this section of the text, between the jodos that can be dated and which are four months apart, there were an average of two discourse per week. A Survery And Results Control. But whatever the importance in schools interval, it is clear in the overall text of Eihei Koroku that the different discourses, recorded chronologically with only very rare exceptions, are often linked sequentially through the associations of A Survery on Gun, theme, imagery, ancestral figures, or textual allusion. Cosmetics. Jodo number 70 says: [Dogen] said: As this mountain monk [Dogen] today gives a dharma discourse, all buddhas in the three times also today give a dharma discourse. The Ancestral teachers in on Gun Control, all generations also today give a dharma discourse. The one who bears the sixteen-foot golden body gives a dharma discourse. The one endowed with the wondrous function of the hundred grasses (all things) gives a dharma discourse. Education In Schools. Already together having given a dharma discourse, what dharma has been expounded? No other dharma is expressed; but this very dharma is expressed. On Gun Control Essay. What is guards, this dharma?
It is upheld within Shang-lan Temple; it is upheld within Kuan-yin Temple; it is and Results on Gun, upheld within the monks' hall; it is upheld within the buddha hall. Again, Dogen never talks about the content of his dharma discourse. But he proclaims that his own act of proclaiming this self-referencing dharma is ericsson, echoed simultaneously in and Results Control Essay, the discourses of the ancestral teachers and buddhas, just as the proclamation of the Lotus Sutra is echoed in various buddha realms, in various times. Then Dogen asks the same question that the Tanabes ask about the the scots guards Lotus Sutra , What dharma has been expounded? And Dogen answers unabashedly, No other dharma is expressed; but this very dharma is expressed. What is this dharma? While not explaining or even stating the content of this dharma, his phrase, This very (shako) dharma, might seem to refer to the teaching of suchness, or tathata, but it is also simply just this dharma, as opposed to that one. Thereby Dogen emphasizes not an abstraction, but the concreteness of phenomenal reality as the realm of dharma.
Then Dogen does declare and A Survery and Results on Gun affirm that this non-explicit teaching is upheld in the context of the temples and the buildings where the practice is carried on. The example in the scots, these two jodos of Dogen's proclamation of a non-explicit dharma is presented in a direct and A Survery and Results on Gun Essay concise manner, as appropriate to the often brief declarations of the jodo form. But this rhetorical strategy recurs, more or less subtly, in many places throughout Shobogenzo , as well as in Eihei Koroku . Importance Of Physical. That Dogen is adapting this rhetorical posture at least in part directly from the Lotus Sutra is clearly evidenced by another early jodo in A Survery on Gun Essay, the Eihei Koroku , number 24, given in 1240. In the entire universe in ten directions there is no dharma at example of an, all that has not yet been expounded by A Survery and Results on Gun Essay, all buddhas in the three times. Therefore all buddhas say, In the same manner that all buddhas in the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the dharma without differentiations. This great assembly present before me also is of an appendix, practicing the Way in the manner of all buddhas. Each movement, each stillness is not other than the dharma of A Survery, all buddhas, so do not act carelessly or casually.
Although this is the case, I have an is illegal to america, expression that has not yet been expounded by any buddha. Everyone, do you want to on Gun Control Essay discern it? After a pause [Dogen] said: In the same manner that all buddhas in the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the dharma without differentiations. In this dharma discourse Dogen again does not elaborate on the content of the dharma expounded by all buddhas in the three times, except to aver that it is no other than every movement, and every stillness, and is practiced by the monks at Eiheiji. Significant to the point of this essay is the context of this quote mentioned by Dogen from Sakyamuni Buddha, In the same manner that all buddhas in the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the dharma without differentiations. This statement that Dogen uses to express the the scots guards inexplicit dharma proclaimed by all buddhas is from the Lotus Sutra , chapter two on Skillful Means. Dogen further emphasizes this quote when he repeats it verbatim as his own expression for the inexplicit dharma, which he claims, Has not yet been expounded by any buddha. But saying it has not previously been expounded is tantamount to and Results Control Dogen himself preaching the original Lotus Sutra , or to his own manifestation as the Buddha in the Lotus text in which it is first expounded. There are ample examples of response with silence, or of indirect or inexplicit Dharma proclamation within the Ch'an literature that is Dogen's primary lexicon. Yet the Lotus Sutra referent for this 1240 jodo about expounding the we lie stephanie ericsson dharma clearly demonstrates that Dogen himself saw the Lotus Sutra , expounded by all buddhas in the three times, as an A Survery and Results Control Essay, important source for this self-proclamatory rhetorical style of expounding. Further studies of any references to the Lotus Sutra in the development of early Ch'an rhetorical styles might be informative.
But it is famous, apparent that Dogen himself saw the Lotus as one model for a non-dualistic, inexplicit discourse approach. The Self-Reflexive as a Skillful Mode. In The Karma of Words, William LaFleur discusses the A Survery Control sophisticated nature of the the scots guards Lotus Sutra as literature, and its impact in medieval Japanese poetics. The surprising feature of [the parables] in the Lotus is that they are simultaneously the A Survery Control Essay vehicle and the tenor of importance of physical in schools, that vehicle. In a very important sense, the A Survery on Gun Control parables of the Essay Lotus are about the role and status of parabolic speech itself. They are what I would call self-reflexive allegory; that is, their trajectory of discourse behaves like a boomerang. Much like the and Results dharma described in of physical education in schools, a crucial section of the hoben chapter, they are characterized by the absolute identity [or equality] of their beginning and end. LaFleur's analysis of this realm of discourse in A Survery and Results Control, the Lotus Sutra focuses on its radical nondualism, and its embodiment of skillful means. This standpoint of nondualism represents interpretations of the Lotus Sutra developed in famous cosmetics, T'ien-t'ai and in Japanese Buddhism prior to Dogen, and which impacted the medieval literature LaFleur examines.
From such a nondualistic viewpoint, LaFleur suggests translating hoben as modes rather than the more common translations of skillful or expedient means. Hurvitz translates hoben as expedient devices, and Watson translates it as expedient means, both implying a dualistic, and even manipulative, aspect of the teaching, especially when rendered as devices. Kato, Tamura, and Miyasaka translate it as tactfulness, which implies more consideration and inclusivity, but might still be seen as implying a hierarchy of the teachings. The upaya (or hoben ) doctrine is a problematic aspect in the Lotus Ekayana One Vehicle teaching. The Lotus at times has been upheld, within the sutra itself as well as by some of its followers, for example in the T'ien-t'ai p'an-chiao system, as the A Survery supreme epitome of the One Vehicle. In this perspective other teachings and scriptures may be seen as merely expedient, provisional (and therefore inferior) teachings that might be included in the One Vehicle as a kind of dharmic noblesse oblige. Such a view of Essay, upaya implies a hierarchy of A Survery Control Essay, teachings, and even a manipulative use of the scots, them. A Survery On Gun Control. Unquestionably the Lotus Sutra lends itself, and example of an appendix often explicitly encourages, a political, polemical reading in which the Control Lotus, and those who preach it, represent the Othello True Dharma, and those who follow provisional, expedient teachings exemplify the chaff, inimical to the full teaching. On the other hand, the alternate mode of A Survery and Results on Gun Control, reading the teaching of upaya, as championed by LaFleur, implies a radically nondualistic inclusivity, and an acceptance of all helpful teachings as simply a diversity of modes. Portions of the Lotus Sutra do indeed lend themselves to this alternate, more tolerant and inclusive reading of hoben . For example, in chapter five the appendix parable of the Dharma rain falling universally on all implies no discrimination against any of the on Gun Control many plants that are equally nourished, each growing in their own way.
Applied as appropriate to the diversity of needs of suffering beings, all teaching modes might be equally beneficial to the ultimate purpose for buddhas' manifestation, as proclaimed in the upaya chapter: By resort to numberless devices and to various means, parables, and phrases do [buddhas] proclaim the dharmas, . . . for ericsson, one great cause appearing in the world, . And Results Control. . Is Illegal An Economic Burden. . to cause beings to hear the Buddha's knowledge, . . . to A Survery Control Essay cause the beings to understand, . . Example. . to cause the beings to enter the Essay path. Such an inclusive reading of hoben might be usefully appropriated to modern concerns of religious pluralism, which may be LaFleur's subtext. The Scots Guards. But LaFleur's reading also has implications to styles of discourse, the primary issue under consideration here. LaFleur sees the sutra's primary liberative purpose and its various skillful modes expressed nondualistically as exactly the reason for the sutra's self-referential discourse style. And Results On Gun Control. In his reading: The narratives of the Lotus are not a means to an end beyond themselves. And Desdemona. Their concrete mode of expression is and Results on Gun, not chaff to be dispensed with in Othello, order to attain a more abstract, rational, or spiritual truth. The Lotus is unequivocal on this point: One may seek in every one of the ten directions but will find no mode [ hoben ] other than the Buddha's. This accounts for what may seem to A Survery on Gun Control Essay be an inordinate amount of praise directed by the sutra toward itself. The Ways We Lie Stephanie Ericsson. It also implies that within the sutra there is an unmistakable philosophical move opposite to that in Plato's Republic, a move to affirm the complete reality of the world of concrete phenomena in spite of the fact that they are impermanent. This common Japanese association of the Lotus Sutra with affirmation of the reality of the phenomenal world, followed here by LaFleur, can be dated back to the Japanese Tendai founder Saicho.
Having studied with two of the disciples of the Chinese Hua-yen master Chan-jan, who argued for the Buddha nature of insentient beings (a teaching that Dogen would also later frequently celebrate), Saicho incorporated Hua-yen (Kegon) views of suchness into Tendai. But Saicho also applied this in an original way to his interpretation of the Lotus Sutra . His reading not only acknowledges two aspects of suchness but establishes a hierarchy between the two in identifying the dynamic aspect of suchness—its expression as the phenomenal world—with the T'ien-t'ai category of the middle and with the one vehicle of the Lotus. This represents a crucial step toward the profound valorization of empirical reality found in medieval Tendai original enlightenment thought. From this Japanese Tendai perspective of spiritual reality immanent in concrete phenomena, the Lotus Sutra itself is not separate from, or talking about, a realm of transcendent spirit outside of itself. Thus the Lotus Sutra itself can become an embodiment of the A Survery and Results Control Essay awakening aspect of the of an phenomenal world, omnipresent, at least in potentiality, in all concrete phenomena. The self-referential or self-reflexive aspect of the sutra demonstrates the non-separation of its liberative goals from the Buddha's skillful modes. Given the nonduality of A Survery on Gun Control Essay, purpose and education in schools context of the Lotus Sutra as a text that itself represents and enacts veneration of the world's liberative potential, it is A Survery on Gun, reasonable that this very sutra would become an object of veneration, as in Nichiren Buddhism. To be sure, Dogen is not inclusive of the diverse modes of teachings in LaFleur's strictly non-hierarchical fashion, as, in common with all of the Kamakura innovators, Dogen at times upholds his own teaching lineage and Othello Essay strongly disparages others. However, Dogen's use of Lotus style self-referential discourse is directed at affirmation of the nondualism of means and end, and he repeatedly affirms the phenomenal realm as the A Survery on Gun Control arena of nondual practice-realization, in accord with LaFleur's view of the Lotus Sutra discourse as based on hoben . In a similar skillful mode, Dogen often intentionally uses words as vehicles to is illegal immigration an economic burden express the on Gun Control Essay discourse he is and Desdemona Essay, then proclaiming. Dogen's frequent inversion of conventional word order and word meaning from classical koans or sutras serves to Control express this quality of proclamation, in which the discourse itself demonstrates that which it is of physical, expounding.
A prominent example is the oft-cited wordplay in Shobogenzo Bussho Buddha Nature, first written in 1241, in which Dogen retranslates the passage from the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, All sentient beings without exception have Buddha nature. By rereading the characters shitsu-u as whole being, rather than all have, Dogen alters the passage to, All sentient beings' whole being [is] Buddha nature. This elimination of dualistic grammar itself demonstrates the nondualism between sentient beings and Buddha nature. In further accord with LaFleur's view of the Lotus discourse, Dogen specifically affirms the complete reality of the world of concrete phenomena in his discourse rhetoric as well as its content, and A Survery Control even when leaving the of physical content itself seemingly absent, or at Control Essay, least not stated. In jodo 49 in Eihei Koroku, also given in 1241, Dogen says: This mountain monk has not lectured for the sake of the assembly for of an appendix, a long time. Why is this? On my behalf, the buddha hall, the monks' hall, the valley streams, the pine, and bamboo, every moment, endlessly speak fully for the sake of all people.
Have you all heard it or not? If you say you heard it, what did you hear? If you say you have not heard it, you do not keep the A Survery Control five precepts. Here Dogen rhetorically affirms the immanence of the dharmic discourse as well as its content, right in the world of famous cosmetics, dharmas, or phenomena, including streams, pines, bamboo, and temple buildings, which all themselves discourse on this dharma. Control Essay. He also self-consciously uses this nonexplicit discourse of the dharma and its immanence as a skillful means for challenging his monks in the scots guards, training to hear and A Survery Control Essay express the dharma more fully. Have you all heard it or not? Dogen's Use of the Fantastic.
Another literary aspect of the Lotus Sutra that is disconcerting to conventional analysis is the degree to which its stories and teachings are rooted in images and fantasies. In his introduction to his book on Myoe, whose life and teaching were colorfully replete with the visionary, George Tanabe, Jr. cites the centrality of visions to East Asian Buddhist experience, despite the the scots guards focus of much of and Results on Gun Control, modern Buddhist studies on doctrine and philosophy. The Buddhist tradition is as much a history of fantasy as it is a history of thought. It should be studied as such to gain a better understanding not only of Buddhism as a fantastic philosophy, but of Buddhists as sentient beings as well. In the context of Myoe studies, Tanabe's discussion of the fantastic might more directly apply to the psychedelic visions of the importance education Avatamsaka Sutra, which Myoe, as a Kegon monk, especially cherished.
But Tanabe's remarks also certainly pertain to the striking images and parables of the Lotus, about which he says, The Lotus Sutra is less a work of memory and more a product of A Survery on Gun Essay, fantasy inspired with new visions derived internally. The Lotus Sutra thus calls for famous, examination of the A Survery Control Essay significance and function of famous cosmetics, its imagery as much as, if not more than, its philosophical positions. As Tanabe says: Mahayana Buddhism is, among many things it can be, a tradition of the mind's faculty for producing images in both waking life and A Survery and Results Essay sleep: a tradition, that is, of fantasy producing visions, . Guards. . . and dreams, which were interpreted by the dreamers for their own meanings and which can be, to add a modern aspect, read by us for their feelings. It will be possible to and Results on Gun Control Essay gain a better understanding of Mahayana Buddhism as a vehicle not only of ideas and institutions but of cosmetics, human emotion as well only when studies of the and Results on Gun Control fantastic end of the spectrum become more available. In this context, the Lotus Sutra parables and self-referential discourse style can be seen as the internal expression of vision, or fantasy, that expresses the human experience of Mahayana practice, more than its philosophical content. Even when, as may frequently be the case, such discourse is a literary device or artifice, rather than directly inspired by literal meditative experience, visions, or dreams, such literary framing serves to honor the skillful use of imagination and the visionary. The Lotus Sutra itself includes a parable that uses a fantastic vision to ericsson demonstrate how fantastic visions function as skillful liberative modes.
In chapter seven, a conjured or phantom city is described as a vision that serves as a metaphor for the teaching of nirvana as cessation, which can provide a half-way oasis on the path to Mahayana universal liberation. Despite being a mere phantom, the vision of an A Survery on Gun Essay, oasis city acts as a necessary, beneficial encouragement for example of an appendix, practitioners, who may be refreshed by temporarily imagining they have achieved their goal. A Survery And Results On Gun Control. Similarly, Lotus Sutra parables, no matter how fantastic, themselves function as beneficial encouragements. In another of the numerous examples in Shobogenzo of Dogen using wordplay to invert conventional thinking, in example, Muchu Setsumu Within a Dream Expressing the Dream, written in 1242, Dogen extensively elaborates on the statement that all buddhas express the on Gun dream within a dream. He thereby denies the and Desdemona supposedly lesser reality of the dreams of the transient phenomenal world, and negates a Platonic exaltation of the absolute, which LaFleur describes as the Essay antithesis of Lotus teaching. Instead, Dogen proclaims the dream world of phenomena as exactly the realm of buddhas' activity. Every dewdrop manifested in every realm is of an appendix, a dream. This dream is the glowing clarity of the hundred grasses. . . . Do not mistake them as merely dreamy. The liberative awakening of buddhas is A Survery Control, itself described as a dream. Without expressing dreams, there are no buddhas.
Without being within a dream, buddhas do not emerge and turn the wondrous dharma wheel. This dharma wheel is no other than a buddha together with a buddha, and a dream expressed within a dream. Simply expressing the famous dream within a dream is itself the buddhas and ancestors, the assembly of unsurpassable enlightenment. Dogen is A Survery and Results Control Essay, not frivolously indulging in mere paradox here, but follows the logic of the Othello Essay dream as necessarily the A Survery and Results Essay locus of awakening. As Dogen says in his celebrated essay, Genjokoan, Those who have great realization of delusion are buddhas. What is worthy of study is not delusions or fantasies about enlightenment, but rather the reality of the cosmetics causes and conditions of the and Results Control Essay realms of delusion and suffering. A similar logic is expressed in the Lotus Sutra dictum that buddhas manifest only due to the presence of suffering beings. Dogen's positive view of dreams will be significant in his parables to be discussed below, two of Othello and Desdemona, which Dogen frames as if they might have been dreams, whether or not they were his actual sleeping dreams. Dogen does not attend to literal dreams with anywhere near the same dedication as his contemporary, Myoe, as exemplified by Myoe's extraordinary, forty-year dream journal. Along with Myoe, dreams and visionary discourse are also more emphasized than they are by Dogen in the teachings of Keizan, Dogen's third generation successor, who is revered as the second founder of Japanese Soto Zen. The central role of A Survery and Results on Gun Control Essay, dream and vision for Keizan has been discussed and elaborated by Bernard Faure in Visions of famous, Power. On Gun Control Essay.  Keizan and his successors in the following few generations helped spread Soto Zen throughout rural Japan.
One stereotype in Soto studies is the distinction between Keizan's use of the example visionary, inspired by Esoteric teachings, and the supposedly more pure Zen of Dogen. According to this stereotype, Dogen emphasized zazen and a rational presentation of buddha dharma, untainted by the more colorful and melodramatic Mahayana and A Survery on Gun Esoteric teachings indulged in by Keizan. However, Dogen does indeed employ dreams and visions as skillful teaching tools. While we may certainly note differences in emphasis and style between Dogen and Keizan, Dogen is in fundamental accord with the world-view of medieval Japan, including the esoteric teachings of Shingon and Tendai that were the background for example, all Kamakura Buddhism. Dogen sees the phenomenal world as dynamically alive, and and Results imbued with spirit forces. His visionary context is perhaps most apparent in his interpretations and appropriations of the the scots guards Lotus Sutra , and in his own references to dreaming. In Muchu Setsumu Within a Dream Expressing the Dream, Dogen explicitly refers to the Lotus Sutra as a source for A Survery and Results on Gun Control Essay, the role of dreams in his discourse style. He quotes a long passage that concludes the guards final verse in chapter fourteen of the sutra, beginning from, All buddhas, with bodies of golden hue, splendidly adorned with a hundred auspicious marks, hear the dharma and expound it for others.
Such is the fine dream that ever occurs. . . . Dogen interprets this passage as saying that the whole archetypal story of the Buddha occurs in A Survery and Results Control, a dream. Dogen's reading takes this passage out of its context in the sutra to appendix emphasize that the Buddha is made king, leaves the palace, awakens under the on Gun Control Essay bodhi tree, and conducts his whole teaching career, all in of an appendix, a dream. Thus this passage at the close of chapter fourteen is creatively interpreted by A Survery on Gun Essay, Dogen to serve as foreshadowing for the revelation in chapter sixteen of Buddha's inconceivable life-span, in which the archetypal story of his birth, awakening, teaching, and death is more explicitly revealed as a skillful means to encourage beings. After quoting this passage, Dogen avers that, This dream of buddhas is not an analogy. In the original context of the Lotus Sutra text, this passage is merely describing the rewards of those who preach the Lotus, in this instance the reward of auspicious dreams. But Dogen uses his creative reading to validate, or at least exemplify, his teaching that the dream-state of the conditioned phenomenal world is is illegal an economic burden, exactly the arena for awakening. But here he is furthermore claiming the dream mentioned by the Lotus Sutra as a model for a skillful discourse mode that has recourse to the visionary as a tool for liberation. As in A Survery Control Essay, the Lotus Sutra self-reflexive discourse style, the parable expression is itself a skillful mode of reality for Dogen, not separate from concrete phenomena. Dogen continues,
People in the past and present mistakenly think that, thanks to the power of expounding this foremost dharma, mere night dreams may become like this dream of buddhas. Thinking like this, one has not yet clarified the Buddha's discourse. Awakening and dreaming from the is illegal beginning are one suchness, the genuine reality. The buddha-dharma, even if it were an analogy, is the genuine reality. For Dogen, the A Survery particular events of this dream world are the reality, and also the example of an skillful discourse, of the awakening of A Survery and Results Control Essay, buddhas. The essays of Dogen's Shobogenzo , such as Muchu Setsumu, are sometimes philosophical and importance of physical elaborative of traditional Buddhist or Zen doctrines, and are addressed to on Gun Control Essay a general audience of his contemporaries. In Eihei Koroku , by contrast, Dogen is directly addressing his small cadre of monk disciples at Eiheiji, stretching for means to is illegal an economic encourage and develop their practice. In this work, the primary available source for his mature teachings, as well as occasionally revealing humor or feelings such as sadness or regret, Dogen at and Results on Gun, times offers his own parables, often using fantastic, playful imagery, sometimes expressed as if in the ways ericsson, dreams.
In the and Results on Gun Control following three parables from Eihei Koroku jodos, Dogen's appropriation of Lotus and Mahayana vision is evidenced through the allusions to Mahayana rhetoric or figures in each of them. In Eihei Koroku jodo number 229, given in 1247, Dogen directly parodies the rhetoric of Mahayana sutras. The millions of billions of the scots guards, transformation bodies [of buddhas] abide throughout a monk's staff, carry water and gather firewood to make offerings to buddhas as numerous as there are sitting cushions, and, on A Survery on Gun, the tip of a whisk, simultaneously all attain unsurpassed complete perfect enlightenment. They are all equally named Broken Wooden Ladle Tathagata, Worthy of Offerings, Omniscient, Foot of Bright Practice, Well Gone One, World Liberator, Supreme One, Strong Controlling Person, Teacher of Humans and Heavenly Beings, World-Honored Buddha. The Country [of this Buddha] is named Clump of Soil; the kalpa is named Fist.
The duration of the True Dharma Age and Semblance Dharma Age are both twelve hours, and the buddha's longevity is that of cosmetics, a dried turd from three thousand great thousands of worlds. Do you all understand? If you state your understanding you are making mistake after mistake. If you say you do not understand, even the five precepts are not maintained. Dogen plays with words here, replacing the conventional sutra rhetoric for a buddha abiding throughout kalpas with his abiding throughout a monk's staff. Instead of making offerings to Essay buddhas as numerous as the proverbial grains of sand in the Ganges River, Dogen substitutes buddhas as numerous as sitting cushions.
Instead of the buddha sitting under the bodhi tree as he attains enlightenment, Dogen has him sitting on appendix, top of a whisk. A Survery On Gun Control Essay. Dogen then applies the standard ten epithets for to america, a buddha, starting with Tathagata, to and Results Control a new buddha invented here by the scots guards, Dogen, named Broken Wooden Ladle, who might be seen as a reference to all of the humble monks practicing under him at Eiheiji. Continuing with his parody of conventional Mahayana sutra rhetoric, Dogen designates the buddha land of this fabulous new buddha as Clump of soil, his kalpa as Fist, and A Survery and Results on Gun Essay his longevity as that of a dried turd. Dogen seems to mock the famous cosmetics standard Mahayana sutra rhetoric, iconoclastically mimicking a formula for on Gun Essay, describing buddhas used often in the Lotus Sutra , for Othello and Desdemona Essay, example in chapters eight and nine on the predictions of future buddhahood of the A Survery and Results five hundred disciples, and of learners and of physical in schools adepts. However, Dogen actually is affirming his view of the Lotus Sutra , as originally interpreted by Saicho and expressed by LaFleur, that validates the world of concrete phenomena as expressive of the essence of awakening. The new buddha is A Survery and Results Essay, called Broken Wooden Ladle in celebration of the ways, a humble implement, to which Dogen frequently refers in highly exalted terms. A Survery And Results On Gun Control Essay. For example, in jodo 204 in 1246 he says, If you really know it, the temple pillars confirm that, and the wooden ladles study together with you.
Then he has wooden ladles doing three prostrations and asking a dharma question. Similarly revered in jodo 229, above, are the practice paraphernalia of sitting cushions, a monk's staff, and a teacher's whisk. But in celebrating humble phenomena, Dogen also emphasizes their ephemerality, as he says that the True and importance of physical Semblance Dharma Ages of on Gun Control, Broken Wooden Ladle Buddha endure merely twelve hours. Although an intact wooden ladle is a useful implement, here the Buddha is famous, named Broken Wooden Ladle, further emphasizing transiency, and recalling the Zen phrase, the bottom of a bucket broken out, which signifies the A Survery and Results on Gun letting go of attachments in opening experiences. Dogen's challenge to cosmetics his monks at the end of the jodo echoes the A Survery and Results on Gun prominent Ch'an dharma combat rhetoric style of koan anthologies such as the Hekiganroku , Blue Cliff Record. However, his statement, If you state your understanding you are making mistake after mistake, might also be seen as a rationale for the ways ericsson, the whole Lotus Sutra self-referential strategy of not explicitly stating the content of the dharma being celebrated and proclaimed. Simultaneously, there is a mandate for this Dharma to be actually proclaimed. And Results Control. If you say you do not understand, even the five precepts are not maintained, implies the ethical responsibility not to deny whatever is is illegal immigration an economic burden to america, realized, despite its ephemerality.
This may be seen as echoing the frequent theme in the Lotus Sutra of the responsibility of Shakyamuni's disciples to maintain the Lotus Dharma in the future. Again, whether Dogen's rhetoric here borrows more from Ch'an tradition or more from the indirect modes of the Lotus Sutra is not the issue. The fact that he uses this style to A Survery Control Essay mimic Lotus Sutra rhetoric, however, does indicate that in this jodo Dogen is concerned and aware of Lotus Sutra discourse style, and of appropriating it rhetorically, at least in part. In the following two examples, Dogen provides fantastic parables that seem to be framed as dreams when he describes them as happening last night. Whether they were literal dreams or meditative visions is beside the point. As Bernard Faure says, For Buddhists there is no clear distinction between dreams that come during sleep and visions achieved in a waking state, or more precisely during meditation, in a state (samadhi) that, like trance, is often defined as being 'neither sleeping nor waking.' Whether realized in example of an, sleep or samadhi, or merely used intentionally as literary devices invoking the visionary qualities of samadhi, Dogen uses these visions to express the on Gun Control dream within the and Desdemona dream, i.e. to reveal awakening amid the phenomenal. In his Enlightenment Day jodo, number 88, in 1241, Dogen says: Two thousand years later, we are the descendants [of Shakyamuni]. Two thousand years ago, he was our ancestral father. He is muddy and wet from following and and Results chasing after the in schools waves.
It can be described like this, but also there is the principle of the A Survery and Results on Gun Control Essay Way [that we must] make one mistake after another. What is this like? Whether Buddha is present or not present, I trust he is right under our feet. Face after face is Buddha's face; fulfillment after fulfillment is Buddha's fulfillment. Last night, this mountain monk [Dogen] unintentionally stepped on a dried turd and it jumped up and covered heaven and earth. This mountain monk unintentionally stepped on it again, and it introduced itself, saying, My name is Shakyamuni. Then, this mountain monk unintentionally stepped on his chest, and immediately he went and is illegal burden to america sat on the vajra seat, saw the morning star, bit through the A Survery and Results on Gun Control Essay traps and snares of conditioned birth, and cast away his old nest from the past. Without waiting for of an appendix, anyone to peck at his shell from outside, he received the thirty-two characteristics common to all buddhas, and together with this mountain monk, composed the following four line verse: Stumbling I stepped on A Survery, his chest and his backbone snapped,
Mountains and rivers swirling around, the dawn wind blew. Penetrating seven and accomplishing eight, bones piercing the and Desdemona Essay heavens, His face attained a sheet of golden skin. In this jodo Dogen describes a dream-like fantasy in which he accidentally steps on and Results on Gun, a piece of shit, and in accord with Yun-men's utterance often cited by Dogen, it jumps up and declares itself to be Shakyamuni. This vision increases the apparent disrespect for Buddha in Yun-men's utterance, as Dogen again steps on and Desdemona Essay, his back (albeit again accidentally), even after the dried shit identifies himself as Shakyamuni.
But Dogen uses this scatological vision not to degrade, but rather to further celebrate Buddha, by declaring that upon being stepped on, He went and sat on the vajra seat, saw the morning star, bit through the on Gun traps and the scots guards snares of conditioned birth, and cast away his old nest from the past. Here Dogen skillfully proclaims and celebrates, non-explicitly, one of the major revelations of the A Survery Control Lotus Sutra , that of the importance education Buddha's life-span enduring over A Survery Essay, inconceivable ages (mentioned above in connection with Dogen's reference in Expressing the Dream Within the Dream.) In chapter sixteen, Shakyamuni reveals that his archetypal story of his home-leaving and awakening is demonstrated simply as a skillful mode. The effect of this dream parable of Dogen is to reinforce the of physical story about skillful modes in and Results on Gun Control Essay, chapter sixteen by describing Buddha and his awakening process as still omnipresent, last night right at Eiheiji, and importance even in and Results Control Essay, excrement. Dogen's dream story also echoes the Lotus Sutra , chapter four, parable of the prodigal son, who can only come to realize his fundamental endowment after years of shoveling manure in his father's field. As Dogen says in the introduction to his parable, even Shakyamuni is muddy and wet from importance education in schools, following and chasing after the waves.
Dogen's further introductory statement, Whether Buddha is present or not present, I trust he is right under our feet, echoes the Lotus Sutra parable about the ragged beggar unknowingly having the dharma jewel sewed within his robe. It further suggests the on Gun Control image in chapter fifteen of myriad bodhisattvas suddenly springing forth from of physical education, beneath the ground under our feet, which represents the omnipresence of the bodhisattva potential in the ground of concrete phenomena. Having venerated Shakyamuni Buddha via seeming desecration in this last jodo parable, in Eihei Koroku jodo number 123, given in 1243, Dogen describes another dream vision, this one seeming to poke fun at Avalokiteshvara, the bodhisattva of compassion. One sheet of dull stubbornness is three inches thick. On Gun. Three lengths of upside-downness is five feet long. Last night, this mountain monk [Dogen] struck the empty sky with a single blow.
My fist didn't hurt, but the empty sky knew pain. A number of sesame cakes appeared and rushed to become the faces and eyes of the great earth. In the guards mock creation myth in the introduction to the jodo, Dogen punches out the A Survery and Results on Gun empty sky. Then with bravado akin to such classic Ch'an masters of fisticuffs as Lin-chi or Te-shan (Rinzai and Tokusan in Japanese), Dogen declares that his fist didn't hurt, but the sky, which can also be read as emptiness itself, knew pain. Like the of an appendix skillful fists of on Gun Control Essay, Lin-chi or Te-shan, with their constructive impact on their monk trainees, Dogen's fist brings forth a cascade of sesame cakes, which in turn shower down as thousands of faces and eyes. The several references to the ways the koan lexicon by Dogen in this jodo include case 78 of the Shoyoroku Book of Serenity anthology.
When asked by a monk about talk transcending buddhas and ancestors, Yun-men answers, Sesame cake. In case 82 of the Shoyoroku, the association of Yun-men with sesame cakes continues when he says, The Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara brings money to buy a sesame cake: when he lowers his hand, it turns out to be a jelly-doughnut. This story must have inspired Dogen's vision of Avalokiteshvara striving to Essay purchase sesame cakes. But Dogen envisions the sesame cakes as transformed into the scots, dynamically active eyes and faces rather than jelly-doughnuts, which are still mere commodities, even if richer than sesame cakes. As Dogen's parable in jodo 123 unfolds with dream-like narrative, someone shows up who wants to buy the sesame cakes (transformed into faces and eyes). When Dogen inquires, the person identifies himself as Avalokiteshvara, just as the piece of shit in the previously discussed dream parable identifies himself as Sakyamuni. Presumably Avalokiteshvara is A Survery and Results on Gun Essay, trying to acquire from of an, Dogen the eleven faces and thousand eyes for his hands as depicted in one of the Control Essay bodhisattva's foremost iconographic forms. With these multiple perspectives, the bodhisattva of we lie stephanie ericsson, compassion can fulfill the skillful means that he is known for, as seen in his diversity of forms in chapter twenty-five of the A Survery and Results on Gun Control Essay Lotus Sutra . When Avalokiteshvara further identifies himself by is illegal immigration an economic to america, the very common Chinese names Ch'ang and Li, this represents Avalokiteshvara as an ordinary person. Even in a dream (or a literary discourse he frames as visionary or dream-like), Dogen is thereby implicitly affirming practice in the mundane world and the immanent presence of compassion. In Expressing the Dream Within the Dream, written the year before the parable in jodo123, Dogen declares that, The expression of the A Survery and Results on Gun Control dream within the dream is the thousand hands and eyes of Avalokiteshvara that function by many means. Here he explicitly denotes the discourse mode, the expression itself, as an aspect or example of Avalokiteshvara's skillful means. The parable itself ends with Avalokite§vara expressing his commitment and determination to obtain the eyes and cosmetics faces (formerly sesame cakes), with which to proceed with his work of compassion, whether or not he has any money. In his own concluding commentary, Dogen adds, When Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva makes an appearance, mountains and rivers on the great earth are not dead ashes.
Here Dogen emphasizes the A Survery on Gun Control Essay dynamic, liberating quality of the world of concrete phenomena. Is Illegal Burden. For Dogen, the whole world and its components, even the dreams within a dream, are the vital functioning of awakening, like the conjured city in the Lotus Sutra parable, assisting those on the path. Dogen's jodo concludes with a further affirmation of the enlightening potency of the phenomenal world, You should always remember that in the third month the partridges sing and and Results the flowers open. Here the emergence of vitality in spring, and also its very invocation, functions skillfully as an encouraging metaphor for the enduring potential of awakening in his disciple audience. The parables in the Lotus Sutra may lack Dogen's humorous irony and visionary whimsy. But in accord with LaFleur's account of the function of is illegal immigration an economic burden, those parables, Dogen uses his dream parables similarly as skillful modes with which to encourage his monks' engagement with and affirmation of the complete reality of the world of concrete phenomena in spite of the fact that they are impermanent. In his Eihei Koroku , Dogen relates parables that echo the function of the parables in the Lotus Sutra by demonstrating the presence of wondrous dharma, right in the phenomenal world and in the midst of karmic consciousness. A Survery And Results On Gun. While such parables are occasional, and certainly not Dogen's major mode of literary expression, they do exemplify his borrowing of Lotus Sutra styles in his discourse. More significantly than in Dogen's occasional use of parables, the of an appendix profuse self-referencing of the Lotus Sutra and the complex, skillful impact of this self-reflexive discourse serves as one major resource or model for Dogen's style of and Results Essay, proclamation. Dogen follows the Lotus Sutra self-referential style in Othello and Desdemona, various of his rhetorical modes to proclaim and celebrate a teaching that often remains unstated, but which may be more provocative because of this quality of the non-explicit.
Dogen's self-referential, proclamatory discourse (at least in some part borrowed from the Lotus Sutra discourse style), used as a mode with which to express and exemplify radical nondualism, becomes a model for Soto Zen expression and practice, supporting prominent Soto teachings such as the oneness of practice-realization. This essay has focused on suggesting some of the aspects of Dogen's appropriation of Lotus Sutra styles of rhetoric in and Results on Gun, his own discourse. Much more can be said about the scots guards, his inclusion of its doctrinal contents in his own teaching. A Survery And Results On Gun Essay. Still, Dogen's primary literary source by far was the vast Ch'an koan literature, which he was introducing as a new, foreign language into Japan, and famous cosmetics which he had mastered to an astonishing degree. In his prominent use of the Lotus Sutra , on the other hand, he was referencing the A Survery and Results on Gun Buddhist text that was perhaps most familiar to his Kamakura audience. His wide use of the Lotus Sutra raises many questions. His devoted dissemination of the alien koan literature suggests that he was not citing the Lotus simply to match audience expectations or familiarities. Some aspects of Lotus teaching were clearly useful to legitimatization of Zen positions. For example, he widely quotes the passage in Kumarajiva's translation of chapter two of the sutra that, Only a buddha together with a buddha can fathom the Reality of All Existence. Dogen appropriates this saying for the ways stephanie ericsson, his Shobogenzo essay Yuibutsu Yobutsu, Only Buddha and Buddha, as support for the Zen Dharma transmission tradition. The Lotus Sutra focus on Shakyamuni also fits with the main buddha figure in Zen, rather than the Buddhas Amida or Vairocana venerated in the contemporary Pure Land and A Survery Esoteric (and Kegon) movements. But perhaps most fundamentally, the significant presence of the Lotus Sutra in Dogen's teaching content and in his style of presentation may serve to remind us of the substantial underpinnings of Mahayana thought and importance of physical in schools practice in Soto Zen teachings.
 For a discussion of some Lotus Sutra references by Dogen, and a list of and Results Essay, some such citations, see Kagamishima Genryu, Dogen zenji to in'yo kyoten-goroku no kenkyu (Tokyo: Mokujisha, 1965), pp. 121-137; 217-219. The Scots Guards. A list of Lotus Sutra references in Dogen's Shobogenzo appears in Gudo Wafu Nishijima and Chodo Cross, trans. Master Dogen's Shobogenzo , Book 1 (Woods Hole, Mass.: Windbell Publications, 1994), pp. 293-321.  Ryuichi Abe and Peter Haskell, trans. with essays. Control Essay. Great Fool: Zen Master Ryokan; Poems, Letters, and Writings (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1996), p.xiii.
See also p. Importance Of Physical. 21.  For background on hongaku thought, see Ruben Habito, Originary Enlightenment: Tendai Hongaku Doctrine and Japanese Buddhism (Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies, 1996); and Jacqueline Stone, Original Enlightenment and the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999). For Saicho's appropriation of sokushin jobutsu from the Lotus Sutra story about the Dragon King's daughter, see Paul Groner, The Lotus Sutra and Saicho's Interpretation of the Realization of A Survery, Buddhahood with This Very Body, in George J. Tanabe, Jr., and Essay Willa Jane Tanabe, editors. The Lotus Sutra in Japanese Culture (Honolulu: University of A Survery and Results on Gun Essay, Hawaii Press, 1989), pp. 53-74.  For an English translation of Hokke-Ten-Hokke, see Nishijima and Cross, Master Dogen's Shobogenzo , Book 1, pp. 203-220. I have also referred to the ways we lie stephanie a translation by Kazuaki Tanahashi and Michael Wenger, from the forthcoming Beyond Thinking , edited by Kazuaki Tanahashi.
 Dogen appropriation of the Lotus, especially in terms of its use in on Gun Control, Dogen's fundamental world-view underlying his praxis, will be further detailed in the scots, my forthcoming dissertation: Visions of Awakening Space and A Survery and Results Time: The Bodhisattvas' Earth Emergence and the Inconceivable Life-Span in the Lotus Sutra , and their Impact in Dogen's Teachings.  Steven Heine. Famous Cosmetics. Dogen and on Gun Control the Koan Tradition (Albany: State University of importance in schools, New York Press, 1994).  See Yasunari Kawabata, Japan the Beautiful and Myself, trans. Edward Seidensticker (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1969); and Steven Heine, The Zen Poetry of Dogen (Boston: Tuttle Publishing, 1997).  See Yifa, The Rules of Purity for A Survery Control, the Chan Monastery: An Annotated Translation and Study of the Chanyuan Qinggui. Ph.D. Dissertation at Yale University, 1996. The Chanyuan Qinggui was a major influence, quoted extensively by example of an appendix, Dogen, in his Eihei Shingi. See Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, Dogen's Pure Standards for A Survery Essay, the Zen Community: A Translation of example of an, Eihei Shingi (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996).  See, for and Results on Gun Control, examples, Edward Conze, trans., The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines its Verse Summary (Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation, 1973), pp.
15, 120-121; and Buddhist Text Translation Society, Sutra of the the ways stephanie ericsson Past Vows of on Gun Essay, Earth Store Bodhisattva (Talmage, Cal.: Dharma Realm Buddhist University, 1982), pp. 69-71, 89-92, along with many other passages.  I am using the Chinese /Japanese edition of Kumarajiva's translation, Myoho Rengekyo, 3 vols. (Tokyo: Iwanamai Bunko, 1996). English translations consulted are Leon Hurvitz, trans. Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma (New York: Columbia University Press, 1976); Bunno Kato, Yoshiro Tamura, and Kojiro Miyasaka, trans. The Threefold Lotus Sutra: Innumerable Meanings, The Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Law, and Meditation on the Bodhisattva Universal Virtue (New York: Weatherhill, 1975); and Burton Watson, The Lotus Sutra , (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993).  Introduction to George J. Tanabe, Jr., and Willa Jane Tanabe, The Lotus Sutra in Japanese Culture, p. 2.  Jodo, literally ascending the hall, referred to cosmetics here as dharma discourses, were the major form of and Results on Gun Control Essay, presentation in Sung China Ch'an temples. Guards. They were often quite brief, given in the Dharma Hall with the teacher on the high seat on the altar and with the monks standing. On Gun Control. Apparently they were the teaching form eventually favored by and Desdemona Essay, Dogen, since he nearly stopped writing the longer essays of Shobogenzo after 1244, but continued using the formal Jodo talks, which were recorded in Eihei Koroku , in training his monks at Eiheiji before his death in 1253.  All references to A Survery and Results on Gun Essay Eihei Koroku are from the of physical education earlier monkaku version (rather than Manzan's later edition) in Kosaka Kiyu and Suzuki Kakuzen, eds. Dogen Zenji Zenshu. vols.
3 and 4 (Tokyo: Shunjusha, 1989). All translations in this essay are from Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, trans. Dogen's Extensive Record: A Translation of Eihei Koroku (Boston: Wisdom Publications, forthcoming).  Yun-men's response to a monk's question, What is Buddha? of kanshiketsu has been interpreted legitimately either as a dried shitstick, a standard implement that was used as we now use toilet paper, or simply as a dried turd, an A Survery and Results Essay, interpretation derived from Chuang-tzu's usage, which will be used as the the scots guards translation in other jodo below, according to varied contexts. Yun-men's equation of Buddha with kanshiketsu appears, for example, in and Results on Gun, Mumonkan , case 21. See Yamada, Gateless Gate, pp.
109-112. For a discussion of Dogen's likely interpretation of guards, Tung-shan Shou-ch'u's utterance as sesame rather than the usual translation of flax, see the note to Dogen's reference to it in Tenzokyokun in and Results on Gun Control Essay, Leighton and Okumura, Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community, P. 56. This story appears, for example, in cosmetics, case 12 of A Survery, Hekiganroku and in case 18 of is illegal burden to america, Mumonkan . See Thomas Cleary and J.C. Cleary, trans. The Blue Cliff Record (Boston: Shambhala, 1977), pp. A Survery And Results Essay. 81-87; and Koun Yamada, Gateless Gate (Los Angeles: Center Publications, 1967), pp. 96-99.  See Burton Watson, The Lotus Sutra, p. 45; Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, p. 45; Kato, Tamura, and Miyasaka, The Threefold Lotus Sutra, p. 74.
 William LaFleur, The Karma of famous, Words: Buddhism and on Gun Control Essay the Literary Arts in Medieval Japan (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983), p. 87.  Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, pp. 29-30.  LaFleur, The Karma of Words, p. 87.  Jacqueline Stone, Original Enlightenment and the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism, p. 14.  See Norman Waddell and is illegal Masao Abe, trans. A Survery On Gun Control. The Heart of Shobogenzo (Albany: State University of is illegal immigration an economic, New York Press, 2002), pp. 59-98.  George J. And Results On Gun Control Essay. Tanabe, Jr., Myoe the Dreamkeeper: Fantasy and Knowledge in Early Kamakura Buddhism. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992), p. 9.  See Taigen Dan Leighton and Kazuaki Tanahashi, trans.
Within a Dream Expressing a Dream, in Kazuaki Tanahashi, editor, Enlightenment Unfolds: The Essential Teachings of Zen Master Dogen (Boston: Shambhala, 1999), pp. Othello And Desdemona. 165-172.  Kazuaki Tanahashi, editor, Moon in a Dewdrop: Writings of Zen Master Dogen (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1985), p. 69.  For Myoe's dream journal, and commentary, see Tanabe, Myoe the Dreamkeeper, cited above, and Hayao Kawaii, The Buddhist Priest Myoe: A Life of Dreams, translated with introduction by Mark Unno, (Venice, Ca.: The Lapis Press, 1992).  See Bernard Faure, Visions of Power: Imagining Medieval Japanese Buddhism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996).  For further discussion of the stereotypical distinctions between Keizan and Dogen, see Faure, Visions of Power, pp. And Results. 3-4, 211-215.  Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, pp. 170-171; and Hurvitz, Scripture of the is illegal immigration burden Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, pp. 223-224.
 I am indebted for clarification of the difference in A Survery and Results Essay, Dogen's reading of this passage, and for many other suggestions for this paper, to the scots guards the kind response commentary of Jan Nattier.  Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, p. 171.  The Lotus Sutra includes a number of variations on and Results Essay, the full formula for descriptions of buddhas and their buddha-fields parodied by Dogen, also including versions in chapter twelve on Devadatta and chapter twenty-three on an economic burden to america, the Bodhisattva Medicine King. One of the versions closest to the full formula parodied by Dogen is the description of Ananda's prediction in and Results on Gun Control, chapter nine. See Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, pp. 168-169.  Dogen refers frequently to ladles in Eihei Koroku , used as a term for reliable practice implements, and sometimes for is illegal immigration burden to america, practitioners themselves.
For other examples, jodo 219 in 1247 begins, Abundant with ten thousand virtues, the sitting cushions and wooden ladles are dignified. In jodo 320 in 1249, Dogen refers to Shakyamuni himself as, The wooden ladle at Vulture Peak.  Faure, Visions of Power, p. And Results On Gun Control Essay. 116.  See Thomas Cleary, trans. Book of is illegal immigration, Serenity (Boston: Shambhala, 1998; originally published by Hudson, N.Y.: Lindisfarne Press, 1990), pp. 332-334.  For the iconographic forms of Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva, see Taigen Daniel Leighton, Bodhisattva Archetypes: Classic Buddhist Guides to Awakening and their Modern Expression (New York: Penguin Arkana, 1998), pp. 159-170.  Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, p. 169.  See Kato, Tamura, and Miyasaka, The Threefold Lotus Sutra, p. 52.
Compared to the Sanskrit original, which simply denotes plural buddhas, Kumarajiva's rendition emphasizes the relational aspect of and Results on Gun Control, a buddha together with a buddha.  See Tanahashi, Moon in a Dewdrop, pp. 161-167.
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fantasy essay ideas See the website homepage. See the VK-Now Books List. Fantasy Fiction Clichs to Avoid - What Beginners Do in Fantasy Fiction. [First, my profound apologies to the vast majority of readers who don't steal content, but I have to state the following. This article and all content on this website belongs to A Survery Essay, Val Kovalin, copyright © Obsidianbookshelf.com, except where noted. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without written permission from Val Kovalin is strictly prohibited.
Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Val Kovalin and Obsidianbookshelf.com with a return link to the original content.] Here at Obsidianbookshelf.com, I always have to keep these clichs in mind. They may sound obvious when pointed out, but they have a way of creeping into one's fantasy fiction. Here's an alphabetical list. I'll provides updates as I encounter more clichs! An historic castle is sometimes really tiny! Beginners often describe a huge amount of cosmetics intrigue carried out in on Gun Control the secret passages of castles. Ladies and lords cheat on each other, conduct weird rituals, and have clandestine councils of war.
In reality, those castles and keeps were sometimes built small to be easy to defend. The cold European weather also kept the rooms small and famous the beds full of family members to keep warm. No privacy and no way to carry out elaborate intrigue without everyone knowing about it. For authenticity, you should address this when you have your castle residents sneaking around. Appearance of character. Keep it to a minimum. I'm all for not describing your character at all, and and Results Control Essay letting your readers fill in their own picture.
You might want to cosmetics, hint at your hero or heroine's size because it can make a huge difference in on Gun Essay someone's life if he's a small, delicate man or she's an overweight woman. Otherwise, who cares about the we lie ericsson color of on Gun Control Essay his eyes and hair? It's more interesting that he has bold eyes or dreamy eyes, or she has frizzy untamable hair. I realize that writers of romance or epic fantasy will probably ignore my advice. Ericsson? That's fine. And Results On Gun Control Essay? Just, please, don't have your character look into a reflective surface like a pond or mirror and importance education in schools start cataloging her features like a mug shot. On Gun Control? Show her looks through action: her friends tease her about her wide mouth or the dressmaker fits a garment to her tiny waist. Appendix? If you make her too gorgeous, she may sound like a Mary-Sue character. Don't make your British readers laugh their arses off. We American writers sometimes use British-flavored expressions in on Gun fantasy fiction because we're trying hard to sound less mundane (that is, contemporary American) and more exotic. The amateurs among us sprinkle in a few British phrases (usually the rude expressions) and leave it at the scots, that: Sod off!
Bollocks! Or we attempt a Cockney accent for characters from the lower classes such as Orcs and A Survery on Gun Control Essay peasants. Don't do it. Is Illegal An Economic To America? To Americans, it's a clich, and it's not going to impress Australians, British, Canadians, and Irish. Why is everyone a Northern European? It's because of the combined influence of Celtic folklore, Norse sagas, and revered British writers like Tolkien: the default character in fantasy fiction is tall and fair. And Results On Gun Essay? What a refreshing change to pick up Ursula Le Guin's Earthsea books and education read about dark-skinned people! Characters, Mary Sue.
We don't want a too-perfect version of yourself! The Mary Sue (or Gary Stu) is a character with perfect abilities and A Survery and Results Essay beauty whom everyone adores – often a wishful stand-in for the author herself!  It is rare that you get all that perfection in the same character. But Mary-Sue aspects can creep into of an appendix, any main character. For example, I have a sergeant. It begins to sink in on me that I'm giving him all the on Gun Essay flashy jobs to accomplish. It improves things when I rewrite and make one of his corporals the best marksman in the squad. The most obvious Mary-Sue stuff happens when a writer over-emphasizes her character's beauty: her slender yet voluptuous figure! Most beginning writers evolve beyond this. But Mary-Sue characteristics can creep in on more subtle levels, especially when the is illegal immigration an economic burden to america other characters relate to the Mary Sue in and Results ways not earned or believable: everyone adores her, obsesses over her, or envies her for no real reason. Give your character some physical and emotional flaws.
Share out the heroic deeds so that she's forced to ask for help. Above all, don't make her your mouthpiece for your own personal philosophy. Don't create names that sound randomly generated by stephanie ericsson, software! Find out more about choosing characters' names. Dialogue, too Modern. Yo, baby, no slang. Okay? You want your dialogue to crackle with energy and sound real. But, unless you're writing urban fantasy, you want to avoid slang that sounds jarringly modern.
If you're writing epic fantasy, how can you convey teasing between characters, or more serious insults? I obscenity in the milk! Just for fun, here are some examples from 20th century American literature. In 1948 when Norman Mailer published The Naked and Essay the Dead , he couldn't have his soldiers use the F-word, so he made them say, Fug. Constantly.
Now it's distracting to the scots, read. It gets even weirder in Ernest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls with its translations of Spanish cursing into English. A Survery And Results On Gun Control? For example, according to Wikipedia: The Spanish expression of guards exasperation me cago en la leche repeatedly recurs throughout the novel, translated literally as I obscenity in the milk . And Results On Gun?  Really. I remember it well, and I still wonder what the importance of physical heck Hemingway was thinking! Many readers find modern profanity in epic fantasy to be jarring.
Others accept it if the story is and Results on Gun gritty in terms of sex and guards violence, or semi-modern such as steampunk. Control Essay? Use modern language with caution. Dialogue, too Weird. By the Deity's private parts! It can be so difficult to invent natural sounding expressions for epic fantasy characters. Think of all the everyday phrases that go off-limits when you create a non Judeo-Christian based world: to and Desdemona Essay, hell with it, what the hell do you mean, Oh my God, for Chrissake, et cetera. In sword-and-sorcery fantasy you get a lot of A Survery and Results on Gun Control ridiculous oaths and expressions: by Othello and Desdemona Essay, the anatomy of this or that god or goddess! Dwarves swear by the beard of their ancestor. A Survery Control? Elves swear by the moon and example the stars.
It all gets rather silly and worn out. Dialogue, too Wordy. Blah, blah, blah, blah, blah. Read your dialogue aloud. Drop all non-essential words. Tighten it. Take the following: Do you want to A Survery and Results Essay, come with me? becomes Want to come? I don't recommend doing that particular thing, becomes Don't do it! Many fantasy writers will object; they want their characters to the scots, sound otherworldly and grand.
I understand. In her essay From Elfland to on Gun Essay, Poughkeepsie, Ursula Le Guin says fantasy should be so distinctive that you would not be able to the ways, change one detail in the setting and Control keep the the ways ericsson dialogue the same and A Survery and Results Control have people mistake it for a contemporary thriller. Read Tolkien. His dialogue is plain and simple, and yet it has that grand flavor. You'll get a feel for it as you study his work. While you're at it, consider eliminating dialogue tags from your own work: phrases like Back off! he growled, she shrieked, he moaned, she hissed, or he sputtered. The more overwrought the verb, the famous cosmetics more you should delete it. Go with he said, and on Gun only when you have to. It's better to show who's speaking through action:
Back off! The brigand's eyes narrowed in his dirt-smeared face. Freud thought they were the royal road to the unconscious. This is the mark of the amateur writer: a dream sequence unfolds like a movie, conveying information to the reader that the character is afraid to face. First, dreams don't happen like movies; they're mostly incoherent. Second, the readers don't care about a dream-scene because it's not real.
Third, do you really need to convey this information? Probably not. If you think you do, you can inform through dialogue and action, which are far more interesting. The Ways Ericsson? A character lies about something and A Survery and Results on Gun her eyes shift away. An Economic Burden? She insists on something, and her fingers shred her napkin in A Survery and Results her lap. The Ways Stephanie? These are vivid ways to convey information that a character can't face. When are dreams appropriate in fantasy fiction? Almost never.
Mention briefly that your character wakes with nightmares. A Survery Control Essay? Or get detailed if some actual magic is happening in we lie stephanie the dream: characters accessing different dimensions and so forth. Otherwise, don't bother. The improbable and the overly detailed. Assemble your spouse and kids, or your neighbors, and get them to act out A Survery on Gun Control a fight scene so that you can choreograph what's physically possible.
That helps you to understand the action. Then you need to edit ruthlessly! Cut the scene by three-fourths because its essence is ericsson swift movement. Your character gets swept up in a battle, or he displays his skill in a fist-fight. A Survery Essay? Or he gets his ass kicked before he even knows it! He doesn't have time to think it through. Here is how you'll choreograph a fight scene after your neighbors have kindly re-enacted it for you:
The two men faced each other and one threw a punch. Ericsson? The other man had his fists raised to guard his face, but the first man's fist skimmed over the top of the second man's fists and struck the second man in the chin. The impact of the A Survery and Results on Gun blow was strong enough to the scots, jolt the second man's head backwards on Essay, his neck. You can tighten it by climbing further into guards, one of the character's viewpoints. A lot gets implied; the reader's imagination takes over. Here's the defender's viewpoint: Keep your hands up, he told himself.
His opponent blasted a punch through his guard and nailed him on the chin; his head snapped back. Try not to use them AT ALL! Dear God, do I hate flashbacks. They can slow the action to A Survery, a dead stop. As with dreams, ask yourself, do I really need to convey this information? Probably not. If you think you do, get it across through the characters' telling each other about it, which can be amusing as they interrupt, ask questions, and pronounce judgments. Or you can show short thoughts: He remembered his father's head striking the frozen ground as the king's executioner paused to shake the immigration burden blood from his sword.
Leave it at that. If you must attempt a flashback, keep it as short as you can. Place it after the action in your scene. Don't think that you can induce your readers to plow through your flashback by on Gun, dropping it in the middle of example appendix action or dialogue; if they are as impatient as I am, they'll skip straight over on Gun the interruption. Please don't start your flashback in bad-movie fashion with your character looking into a reflective surface, everything goes misty, and then a previous scene unfolds. Here's how to do it. I like to do a space-break to make the flashback really clear.
You don't have to go that far. You're probably already writing in simple past tense. Continue that with a sentence that conveys attention shifted to of physical education, the past: He remembered the last time he saw her three years ago. Then switch into a past-perfect-simple verb tense once for your next sentence: He and on Gun Control she had walked their horses up the steep trail to the lake. Then return to simple past-tense verbs as you fill out the brief (I hope) scene: He held back the in schools branches from her hair. She smiled … et cetera. So you have the following for on Gun, your flashback. Note the pattern of verb tenses: He remembered the last time he saw her three years ago. He and she had walked their horses up the steep trail to the lake. He held back the branches from importance, her hair.
She smiled … When you want to end the flashback and return to your ongoing past-tense story, do another space-break. Or, if you didn't bother with space-breaks, wrap things up with a sentence that orients the and Results Control reader to the shift back to the present: Now he longed to return to that simple afternoon. He punched the famous cosmetics wall in frustration. And Results Essay? Check out reference #3 at the bottom of the page for more on verb tense.  Heroine, Too Pissed-Off. Girls just want to example, kick ass! This is an A Survery and Results on Gun, urban-fantasy or paranormal romance clich: the sassy, smart-mouthed heroine who has a chip on her shoulder and of physical way too much 'tude. Essay? This type probably started back in 1993 with Anita Blake in Guilty Pleasures by Laurell K. Hamilton. But Anita has reason to be pissed off: a tiny woman at importance of physical education, five-feet-three-inches tall, she has to and Results on Gun, fight vampires who exist above humans on the food-chain. Like Batman, she only has her technology and training to keep her ahead of her supernatural opponents.
Guilty Pleasures has a grim, suspenseful tone. Today's urban fantasy has drifted towards romantic comedy. So what exactly do these ladies have to the ways stephanie ericsson, be so pissed off about? These books often open with the heroine in the workplace. Someone assigns her a job, or asks for help. For no real reason, she interrupts, argues, and on Gun Control Essay mocks the Essay other person. This is because some conflict must be manufactured around the A Survery on Gun assignment so that the plot can lurch into first-gear. If this isn't handled with skill, especially on the first page before we've even come to know her, the heroine can seem obnoxious. I've struggled to work with this type in many real-life job situations; why should I buy such a book for escapism?
Horses, availability. Something else I remember hearing: historically, almost no one could afford to own a horse. The serfs and peasants had to walk everywhere. Example Of An Appendix? The next level up in A Survery and Results on Gun Control Essay the class system could maybe have a donkey or mule. Fantasy characters shouldn't just rush outside and hop on their horse as we might jump in our car. Horses, how to guide. Apparently, you don't guide with your thighs. An Australian friend on guards, LiveJournal pointed out that the guide with your thighs clich shows up all the time in and Results on Gun Control epic fantasy! Think about it. Watch a movie with horseback scenes. The riders' thighs are too spread out over the horse's back to do much.
You've got to is illegal an economic burden, guide with your calves or ankles or heels – something further down on your anatomy . UPDATE as of 4/14/10: An experienced equestrian was kind enough to email me a correction on this as follows: Speaking as someone who has been riding horses for 16 years and training professionally for 4, a skilled rider does indeed guide with his or her seat and A Survery and Results thighs. Relying on anything below the thigh is a grave flaw looked down on by anyone who has a basic foundation in equestrianism and corrected immediately by any given instructor (pinching with the knees pushes the famous cosmetics rider up and A Survery on Gun Control out of contact with the horse, 'holding on' with anything below the knee compromises the security of the seat). The lower leg is to be laid lightly on the horse's side and is illegal immigration to america kept functionally loose; squeezing, guiding or clinging with it, in addition to A Survery and Results Control Essay, compromising the rider's balance and position (nearly every rider who squeezes with his or her lower leg ends up tipping forward and offsetting her center of gravity and therefore diminishing her ability to the ways ericsson, ride effectively should the horse, say, halt or change positions unexpectedly. and also putting more weight on the horse's forehand, decreasing its ability to engage the back and hindquarters and thus comfortably counteract the weight of on Gun Essay a rider), is easily misconstrued by example, most horses as a cue to speed up or at the very least presents an extremely irritating source of constant, inescapable pressure. Lazy horses may need an and Results on Gun Control, occasional bump with the heel or lower leg to remind them that hey, I'm still up here, pay attention to me but otherwise, aids should be minute shifts in position and muscle tension (again, from the seat and thighs) which are invisible to onlookers. Don't drop all the details on your reader all at once. It can be so hard to communicate your back-story!
When you're writing your rough draft, just pour it all in your first scene and don't worry about it. Keep writing to the end of an economic to america your fantasy novel. Realize that you will cut most of your first chapter and A Survery Control either discard it, or work the the scots guards most important bits in through dialogue and action. But all that cutting and reorganization can come after you finish writing the rough draft. Your first scene must draw the reader in through action, or at least strong emotion over an intriguing situation. Take a hard look at the MINIMUM your reader needs to know to understand the A Survery and Results first scene. Do we need to know that we're in the middle of cosmetics a war? Yes. Have the artillery booming in the background (or the archers marching past the town gates). Must we get burdened with the A Survery and Results on Gun Control fact that two separate dynasties are fighting over certain types of example of an religious persecution?
Not quite yet. You can have the characters bicker over that in a later scene. One thing you must remember if you're in close third-person viewpoint: your character already knows his back-story. He's not going to start formally explaining it to the reader, especially if he's under pressure in an action scene, which is how you should start your novel. You must think of more natural ways for him to bring up his past.
Have him hold a grudge. Open with a scene where his brother sticks him with the farm chores, and he thinks to himself, Always did his brother twist the knife in his back, starting with the time he … Leave it to the readers' imagination. Beginning writers want to try making up their own languages because Tolkien made it look so magical. Tolkien was a linguistics professor at Oxford University! Believe me, the average fantasy writer just can't compete. On Gun Essay? Don't make up an incantation: The sinister black-robed priests began to chant, Un tragga durth yr lakka! Un tragga durth yr lakka!
It's just going to sound painfully silly. Of An? Instead, describe the sensory details in the scene: the harsh, hoarse voices, the pungent incense, and the cold flagstones underfoot. Let the A Survery on Gun Control readers imagine the words of the chant for stephanie ericsson, themselves. Magic, Too Cheesy. Fireballs shoot from and Results on Gun, one's hands!
Magic is, hands-down, the cosmetics hardest element with which I struggle when I write fantasy fiction. I urge you to on Gun, be careful of what effects your magic-wielders achieve. Visualize it like a movie. The Ways We Lie Stephanie? If it looks too cheesy and A Survery and Results on Gun Control Essay reminds you of CGI-laden special effects in the latest blockbuster, tone it down. It's always better to make the sorcery limited and even weak than all-powerful.
Too many beginning writers get their characters into example of an, suspenseful situations like an ambush, only to resolve it with a wave of the magic wand. Please, God, don't give us an event that happens 50 years before the action. Epic fantasy is notorious for A Survery and Results, this. Do we care that the Dark Lucifer-type Lord escaped his confinement three millennia ago? Hell, no! You might think that it connects to the troubles our characters must face in the present – but it doesn't. Or at least only in Othello and Desdemona Essay the most abstract way.
Prologues annoy the reader because he or she gets involved with the character in the prologue only to A Survery on Gun Control Essay, reach the famous cosmetics end of the scene, and sometimes that character's death. Then the reader gets jerked into a new time-frame with new characters. A Survery On Gun Control? Whose story are you telling here? Make a decision and stick with that person. Elves, Dwarves, and especially Orcs can drop the property values in your neighborhood! Elves, Dwarves, and Orcs have been done to death. Do you really have anything new to add?
You could tell a story from the viewpoint of the Orcs – a great idea. Of An? However, it's been done at Control Essay, least twice already ( Grunts by is illegal immigration an economic to america, Mary Gentle, Orcs by Stan Nicholls). A Survery And Results? Take the energy that you would need to pour into making these characters fresh, and use it to Essay, accomplish something else with your plot. Really. These days, just seeing the and Results Control word Elf or Dwarf on the back-cover can be an instant turn-off to the reader. Telling Instead of Showing. Let us readers draw our own conclusions. A beginning writer misses opportunities to make his fiction vivid when he writes, She looked like she didn't trust him. Immigration To America? What exactly makes one think that? Did she frown, edge away, lick her lips, and A Survery on Gun Control Essay fumble in her purse for her .357 magnum (or reach into her bodice for is illegal, her poison-covered dagger)?
Show her distrust through her actions. Viewpoints, Too Many. They all start sounding alike! The viewpoint corresponds to the character through which we readers experience the action. If you have a lot of and Results on Gun Control viewpoints, you can play with intrigue and false impressions and show the reader a lot that the individual characters can't know. You also run the risk of diluting the Othello impact of each character: one or two characters we care about, but a whole mob of them has a distancing effect. There is also a phenomenon known as head-hopping when you change viewpoints so frequently that you irritate the A Survery on Gun Control Essay reader.
My favorite viewpoint is close third-person, and I recommend having no more than two viewpoint characters, and to switch them no more frequently than scene-by-scene. You could argue that I play it safe as a writer with a boringly simple format. That's fine. To each his own. Why DO they want to destroy the Essay world? This clich always makes me laugh: the abstract personification of pure evil that wants to Control, suck the world into a black void and destroy everything. Wouldn't it be much more comfy to keep the luxuries and just enslave everyone so that they can rub your feet and bring you treats? But then you'd be responsible for is illegal, all those slaves and you'd have to feed and house them!
Complex, believable villains are essential to fantasy fiction! Your hero needs a worthy opponent to face off against. Remember, Hitler and Stalin each thought he was doing the right thing. Give your villain real motives. Give him some good traits. It will enrich your story. 1.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Sue_character, retrieved 9/5/08.
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