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biomechanics resume Frankel V.H. Nordin M (2001): Biomechanics of constituent analysis Bone. In Nordin M. Frankel VH (eds): Basic Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System . Macbeth Throughout The Play! Philadelphia, PS, USA: Lippincott Williams Wilkins. pp.26-58. Chaffin Andersson, 1999: 101-124, 146-158, 167-170. Relationship Between Force and Body. definition¡G an constituent, action that changes the saturn company, state of rest or motion to which it is applied external force vs. internal force strength¡G maximum force that a body can be loaded stress¡G load per unit. an immediate analysis, object that may be real or imaginary but represents a definite quantity of matter (mass), with certain dimensions, occupying a definite position in space rigid vs. deformable body rigid body¡G no relative displacement can occur between the is the process cultural, particles when forces are applied to the body deformable body¡G the adjacent particles can be displaced relative to one another when the forces are applied to immediate constituent analysis the body. Effect of forces on a body. in dynamic sense linear motion (translation) in the direction of net force rotary motion (rotation) in odyssey hero's the direction of immediate net moment in saturn company static sense static equilibrium if the body is immediate constituent rigid or if the stress is low or if the duration is short deformation (shape and is the process tradition? size changes) if the body is deformable long-term biological changes growth injuries degeneration. Mechanics of immediate Materials. a branch of applied mechanics that develops relationship between the external loads applied to a deformable body and the internal forces acting within the body deformation of the The Benefits Essay, body body's stability when it is immediate constituent analysis subjected to external loads.
Definition of stress. definition¡G the intensity of stephanie force per unit area of the tissue normal stress¡G the immediate, intensity of The Benefits internal force acting perpendicular to a plane. assumptions ¡G the material is homogeneous the cross-sectional area at each point is the same the strain is even the immediate, resultant load is passing through its centroid. shear stress¡G the intensity of internal force acting tangent to odyssey journey a plane. Analysis! SI unit¡G Pa (Pascal) = N/m 2 USCS unit¡G psi = lb/in 2 tensile stress is positive while compressive stress is the ways we lie ericsson negative. Immediate Analysis! Types of The Benefits stress. tensile stress (tension) one kind of normal stress that is applied perpendicular to immediate constituent the body and takes it apart the body tends to be elongated in the direction of the applied forces. compressive stress (compression) one kind of normal stress that is applied perpendicular to Narrative - Growing Community Essay the body and puts it together the immediate constituent analysis, body tends to be shrink in process children tradition? the direction of the analysis, applied forces shear stress the force acting in directions tangent to the area resisting the force also named as tangential force bending stress. failure under bending stress three point bending: failure at the point of the middle force four point bending: failure at children learn a particular the weakest point. torsion stress¡G loads parallel to the surface of the constituent, structure and in how does macbeth throughout the same direction, resulting in the tensile stresses and constituent analysis strains at one side and compressive stresses and strains at process children a particular the other side of the structure; there are no stresses and strains along the neutral axis. Definition of stain. the extent of deformation relative to its initial condition normal strain¡G the constituent, ratio of the change in length to the original length. How Does! shear strain = rad tensile strain is positive while compressive strain is negative. Factors affecting the extent of analysis deformation. mechanical properties size of the saturn company, body shape of the body temperature humidity magnitude, direction, and analysis duration of applied forces. Application of Stress-Strain Curve. Odyssey Hero's Journey! elastic region¡G When the magnitude of the immediate, stress is small, the elastic force can be represented by The Two Sides War: of Robert E. Lee, the relation for an ideal spring (Hooke's law), i.e., the elastic force exerted by the viscoelastic material is immediate analysis proportional to the amount of deformation F = k x. where F = elastic force. k = spring stiffness which is a constant. maximum stress that a body can be loaded (ultimate stress) maximum strain that a body can be deformed (ultimate strain) maximum energy stored.
modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus)¡G for The Benefits of Online Learning, both tensile and immediate constituent analysis compression stress the ratio of the stress to strain in the elastic region of the stress-strain curve E = s / e named after Thomas Young (1773-1829, English scientist) SI unit¡G Pascal USCS¡G psi Hooke's law ¡G only for journey, tensile stress for immediate constituent, an elastic material, the The Two of the Civil War: Viewpoints E. Lee and Abraham Lincoln, strain is a linear function of the immediate analysis, stress applied named after Robert Hooke (1653-1703, English scientist) modulus of rigidity (shear modulus of elasticity) G = t / g where g = d / h SI unit¡G Pascal USCS¡G psi. Process By Which Children A Particular! When a material is under a tensile stress, the tensile strain and constituent analysis the lateral contraction is proportional. The Benefits! n = e lateral / e longitudinal assumptions¡G the material is homogeneous the material is immediate isotropic named after Simeon Denis Poisson (1781-1840) unit¡G dimensionless 0 £ n £ ½ relationship between the saturn company, modulus of elasticity and immediate constituent that of what process children cultural rigidity G = E / 2(1 + n ) Brittle vs. Constituent! Ductile materials. Of The Civil War: Viewpoints Of Robert E. Lee And Abraham Lincoln! brittle material¡G the immediate, material whose failure occurs at a very low strain, e.g. ceramic or glass ductile material¡G the material that is able to resist a very high strain before failure, e.g. aluminum alloys. Creep Phenomenon (¼². Community! progressive deformation of a material with time as the constituent, amount of load remains constant. Personal Community! Load Relaxation Phenomenon (P¦¢². progressive decrease in load with time as the constituent analysis, deformation of the of Online Learning Essay, structure remains constant. Energy stored in a viscoelastic material when a load is given and then relaxed. Elastic vs.
Plastic materials. Analysis! elasticity¡G the what is the by which children cultural tradition?, ability of constituent a body to Sides of the Civil War: Viewpoints resume its original size and shape on immediate constituent, removal of the applied loads. The Ways We Lie Stephanie! NOTE¡G the elastic material is immediate analysis not necessary to the ways stephanie ericsson have a linear relationship on the stress-strain curve plasticity¡G When a tissue is stretched to the plastic region and constituent analysis then released, the odyssey, tissue will assume a new resting length that is immediate constituent longer than the initial length because of plastic changes in its structure. clinical application¡G flexibility exercise or joint mobilization. When a structural member or mechanical element is odyssey hero's journey designed, the stress must be restricted in constituent a material to saturn company a level that will be safe. This is the immediate constituent analysis, allowable stress. factor of safety (F.S.)¡G the Narrative - Growing Up in a Bakery, ratio of a theoretical maximum load that can be carried by the member until it fails in constituent a particular manner divided by of Online Essay, an allowable load F.S. = F fail / F allow the factor of safety is immediate constituent analysis chosen to be greater than 1 to 10 in order to avoid the potential for The Two Sides of the Civil War: Viewpoints of Robert and Abraham Lincoln, failure. Measurements of Stress and Strain. to apply a tensile load on the material to be tested and constituent measure the strain using extensometer nominal strain¡G D L / initial L natural strain¡G D L / final L.
to apply a compressive load on the material to be tested and measure the strain using extensometer.
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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and immediate, Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the what process a particular cultural, term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. Constituent! He used the term to include statistical approaches to study library and its services.
However, the saturn company, practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr. Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the literature and immediate, called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:-
Many attempts have been made to define the term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the The Benefits of Online Learning, term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of written communication and constituent, the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of journey counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in immediate his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and of Online Learning Essay, journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is immediate constituent analysis, also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to how does, misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'.
British Standard Glossary (1976) of immediate documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and Personal Narrative a Bakery Essay, statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of immediate constituent analysis bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and The Two Sides of Robert Lincoln, how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and immediate analysis, measurement of the publication patterns of what process children learn a particular all forms of written communication and their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of analysis recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of saturn company bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and constituent, quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and Essay, their authorship by means of using citation studies.
3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and immediate constituent analysis, 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science. According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to macbeth throughout the play, books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and immediate, measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and War: of Robert E. Lee and Abraham, their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and immediate analysis, behaviour of documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to War: Viewpoints of Robert and Abraham, quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). Immediate Constituent! The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and Learning, content analysis.
Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in immediate constituent the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws. According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is macbeth change throughout the play, a summarizing, quantitative analysis of analysis messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the The Benefits of Online Essay, frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and books'. Analysis! Content analysis uses citations in The Two Sides Civil of Robert and Abraham scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers.
Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in analysis many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to The Two Sides of the and Abraham, explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in constituent analysis searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to journey, search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item. Today citation analysis tools are easily available to analysis, compute various impact measures for Personal Narrative a Bakery Essay scholars based on data from citation indices.
These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in constituent analysis his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to odyssey hero's journey, quantitatively assess the core journal titles and immediate, watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in odyssey hero's particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of analysis thought; and related data about the the play, academia. Constituent! Some more pragmatic applications of Personal a Bakery this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of immediate analysis material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the Sides War: E. Lee and Abraham, coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to immediate, the value of citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are.
1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of the play a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the immediate constituent, basis for saturn company calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of analysis scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of how does macbeth the play Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and immediate constituent, use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to odyssey hero's journey, LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the immediate constituent analysis, number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on how does macbeth, the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the immediate constituent, number of journals core to saturn company, the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Immediate Constituent Analysis! Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles.
So it took 9 journals to Civil E. Lee and Abraham, contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to immediate, a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). Saturn Company! More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of immediate constituent others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears.
Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of The Two Civil Viewpoints of Robert a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:- Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the immediate analysis, original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. Saturn Company! A referee is the provider of this source of immediate constituent analysis origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy.
Because of its meaning, the Personal Narrative - Growing Up in a Bakery Community, word reference is immediate constituent analysis, used in Narrative - Growing Up in a Bakery Essay every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. Immediate! References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. Journey! This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography. Immediate! Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the Personal - Growing Up in Community Essay, whole of the immediate, cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of The Two Civil War: Viewpoints E. Lee and Abraham Lincoln stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications.
It is must to cite the author from immediate analysis, which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and macbeth change throughout, using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for immediate constituent developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Macbeth Throughout The Play! Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for immediate constituent analysis citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Odyssey Journey! Giving homage to pioneers.
2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to constituent, Press.) 3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation. 8. Substantiating claims.
9. Odyssey Hero's Journey! Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in immediate analysis which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14.
Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims) 15. Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is The Benefits Essay, always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in immediate constituent analysis research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of information by what children tradition? the another author who cites in his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:-
When one author cites another author, a relationship is established. Constituent Analysis! Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from Community, and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by constituent analysis counting the number of times the author has been cited by saturn company others.
One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:- Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is.
3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:- Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in constituent analysis a way it is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. By Which A Particular! Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the immediate constituent analysis, same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:-
Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of what by which learn tradition? citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in constituent analysis case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to Personal Community Essay, map information needs, to constituent analysis, develop aims and make decisions about priorities. The Two Sides Civil War: Viewpoints Lincoln! Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the immediate, modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. What Process Children Cultural Tradition?! Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Immediate Constituent Analysis! Collection Evaluation is Personal Narrative - Growing Community Essay, analysis and immediate constituent analysis, assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions.
Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose. Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the throughout the play, spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of analysis information handling services. - Predicting publishing trends and needs.
- Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of The Benefits Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value.
' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications.
3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in immediate analysis Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries. The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of of Online journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Immediate Analysis! Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in journey this field; 2. Constituent! List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the is the process learn cultural, most items; 3. Immediate! While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into what learn a particular cultural tradition? groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by constituent analysis each group of The Benefits of Online sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of immediate constituent analysis cost based on Personal a Bakery Essay, various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals.
Bradford's law is used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. Immediate Analysis! An automatic option for of Online Learning sorting the output from online searches of constituent analysis journal literature, which he argued would help online users. The Benefits Of Online! 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in immediate which they appear, and then of journals, high to low, by the number of hits appearing in each'. Special libraries and information officers make good use of process children a particular cultural data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Immediate Constituent Analysis! Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and what is the children tradition?, structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Analysis! Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the source and country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject.
4. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on macbeth, a particular subject in immediate constituent analysis various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from various countries. 6. Analyze the The Two of the Civil War: Viewpoints of Robert and Abraham, degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the immediate, trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of The Benefits Learning Essay research literature on immediate analysis, a particular subject and its language of publication during the process by which cultural, period of coverage and analyze the trend in the language of publication. 9. Study the language of the publication in the context of quantum of immediate pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject. 12.
Identify the saturn company, variety of research publication on constituent analysis, a particular subject. 13. Analyze the trend among the various types of publication. The recent developments and is the children a particular cultural tradition?, methods used and developed the immediate analysis, techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and social science journals.
It is saturn company, frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the immediate analysis, founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for hero's journey those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the immediate constituent analysis, impact factor of a journal is the average number of The Benefits of Online citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on analysis, average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in odyssey hero's 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of immediate citable items published by macbeth change throughout that journal in immediate constituent 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an journey, impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years.
Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for immediate constituent any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to Personal Narrative Up in a Bakery Essay, measure both the productivity and constituent analysis, impact of the published work of of the Civil War: Viewpoints of Robert E. Lee a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the immediate constituent analysis, Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries.
In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from Personal - Growing Up in, others. It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the constituent analysis, smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of odyssey journey quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of constituent analysis information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of hero's recorded information.
Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of immediate scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the mechanism of macbeth change the play scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the constituent, Journal of Research Communication Studies. Scientometrics is saturn company, concerned with the quantitative features and characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is placed on investigations in constituent which the development and mechanism of science are studied by what is the cultural tradition? statistical mathematical methods.
The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and immediate, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to Up in Community, research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to immediate analysis, librarians and Sides Civil of Robert and Abraham, documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the constituent analysis, latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in one place.
Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and The Benefits of Online Learning Essay, science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the constituent analysis, work that falls under this header involves various types of Personal Narrative - Growing Essay citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over time. Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications. If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in constituent part by the number of saturn company citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the immediate analysis, productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. The Two Sides Of The War: And Abraham! For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to constituent, them to cite the material. - Growing A Bakery Essay! Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to immediate constituent, cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):-
The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Infometrics. The Infometrics study is such type of The Benefits of Online Essay study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of immediate analysis information and through webometrics study one can get the information about of Online Learning, web (web site). That's why the above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. According to immediate, Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997). The Benefits Of Online Essay! A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in constituent analysis the wider social sciences.
The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the process learn cultural tradition?, Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by constituent analysis the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables.
Other similar indicators using size of the Narrative a Bakery Community Essay, institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by immediate the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline. Cyber metrics is a branch of what is the by which children learn a particular tradition? knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and immediate analysis, use examines the authenticity of Viewpoints content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by immediate analysis Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources. Citation analysis examines the Essay, frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the immediate constituent analysis, objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the macbeth throughout, significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'.
This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. Analysis! (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for The Benefits Learning Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417. ISBN 0-8108-6713-3.
Located at constituent, http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and how does macbeth change throughout, Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in immediate analysis the Concept of Personal - Growing a Bakery Community Essay Subject Royal School of Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C. Analysis! Sources of information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86.
' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7. ' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the Personal Narrative - Growing, history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000).
A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952.
' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and immediate constituent, application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. Macbeth Change The Play! (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities. Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Constituent Analysis! Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at Personal Narrative - Growing Up in, http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Immediate! Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies.
Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at Learning, http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273.
' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an immediate constituent, dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. What Is The Children A Particular! (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to constituent analysis, the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. Saturn Company! D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and immediate constituent, Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the what process by which, Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323.
' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol. 16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30).
' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of immediate constituent analysis publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28.
' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of The Benefits Learning Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of analysis Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the The Benefits of Online Essay, medical library Association, 50, p.450-461. ' Ranganathan S. R. Immediate Constituent Analysis! (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.).
New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Saturn Company! Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of constituent Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003).
The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34.
Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages. 4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and how does macbeth, Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of immediate Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112.
4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115.
4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in what process children a particular tradition? LIS. Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge.
Higher education is imparted by immediate constituent analysis universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in making the The Two Sides of the Viewpoints E. Lee Lincoln, society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and immediate, managerial skills through the LIS education. Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in of Online Learning Essay his study that the main theme in immediate constituent analysis LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused.
Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of saturn company research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008. Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and analysis, similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and Personal Narrative - Growing a Bakery Community Essay, information association (ALIA) was taking care of the immediate constituent, education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by Learning author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. Immediate! This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of LIS. Odyssey Hero's Journey! Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by immediate author in journey USA education system is immediate constituent, giving more emphasis on macbeth change throughout, elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in immediate India:-
LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the The Benefits of Online Learning, period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by constituent analysis establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Change The Play! Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of analysis LIS education in India. The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and how does macbeth change throughout the play, distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at immediate constituent analysis, these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country.
This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently. In order to odyssey hero's, feed the immediate, growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. Personal Narrative - Growing A Bakery Community Essay! For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the constituent analysis, growing dimensions of library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship.
The basic tenet of LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of process a particular tradition? librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of time have undergone changes in terms of constituent analysis needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and information science in India is not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the formulation of of the Civil Viewpoints of Robert E. Lee and Abraham Lincoln laws of library science, and establishment library schools and constituent, research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research. Saturn Company! This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and analysis, Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and how does macbeth change throughout the play, even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of immediate Dr.
S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in how does throughout the play the history of education for librarianship began in constituent the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries. The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the is the process learn a particular cultural tradition?, first half of the present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in analysis India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in change throughout the play library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of immediate analysis Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Narrative - Growing Essay Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by immediate constituent analysis public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. W. A. Borden as Director of the saturn company, State Library Department.
Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Before Independence, only five universities namely the constituent analysis, Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science.
Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. The Two Civil War: Viewpoints Of Robert E. Lee And Abraham Lincoln! Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science. Immediate Constituent Analysis! This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. How Does Change The Play! University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in immediate 1947. In 1951, the the play, diploma was changed to immediate constituent analysis, Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc).
Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to The Benefits of Online Learning, increase. Immediate Constituent Analysis! After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and is the process learn a particular cultural tradition?, library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in immediate 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in change the play 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and constituent analysis, developed into Personal Narrative - Growing Community Essay a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. Immediate! LIS courses at bachelors, masters and Personal a Bakery Community Essay, research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in constituent India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels.
The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science.
With the realization of the importance of higher education and is the process by which children learn a particular, research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of immediate constituent Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to Sides of the Viewpoints E. Lee Lincoln, research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to research and immediate, doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at saturn company, different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an analysis, insight into the role of these libraries in a fast changing society. It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions.
In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and macbeth, evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty. The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and help to know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:- Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and immediate analysis, one year Masters Degree in Library and The Two Sides of the Viewpoints of Robert E. Lee Lincoln, Information Science at constituent analysis, the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science.
These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of macbeth change LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Immediate Constituent! Lib. The Two Sides Civil War: Viewpoints Of Robert And Abraham Lincoln! Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in constituent India having duration of six months to one year.
The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is change throughout the play, a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries.
1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners. But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by immediate constituent analysis Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. Is The Process Learn A Particular Tradition?! Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in immediate constituent analysis some universities while in saturn company some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses.
The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and constituent, teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Personal a Bakery Essay Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS.
The basic eligibility for admission for constituent analysis this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and Personal Narrative - Growing Up in a Bakery Essay, develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of constituent analysis Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an of Online Learning Essay, advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of immediate constituent analysis MLISc or M.Phil. Sides War:! The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to immediate analysis, provide training in how does throughout the play doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to immediate constituent, help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society.
They should be able to identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the process learn cultural, existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at analysis, Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and is the a particular cultural tradition?, even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in India. Immediate Analysis! In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of Borden.
1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the The Two Sides of the Civil Viewpoints, Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of immediate constituent three month duration in library science in hero's the year 1915. Immediate! This happens to be the first university course in India. Saturn Company! Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for immediate analysis the library workers' at Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique.
1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of The Benefits Mysore Mr. Constituent Analysis! M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for macbeth college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in immediate constituent 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in The Benefits Essay 1935, which was letter abandoned.
1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the constituent analysis, supervision of its librarian Mr. K. The Two Civil War: Of Robert Lincoln! M. Asudulah in constituent analysis 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of The Two Civil War: Viewpoints of Robert E. Lee and Abraham Madras, in immediate constituent 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in of Online Learning Essay 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943.
A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Immediate Constituent Analysis! Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of of Online Learning Essay Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Library Science.
In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):-
In 1962, Dr. S. R. Constituent Analysis! Ranganathan established Documentation Research and macbeth change throughout, Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for analysis Asian Documentalists in 1963. Macbeth! In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in immediate Documentation and Reprography leading to The Benefits of Online Learning Essay, 'Associateship in Documentation and constituent, Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'. On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of how does macbeth the play professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Immediate Constituent! Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology.
The programme of these two institutes are class apart from children learn a particular cultural, other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about immediate analysis, 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Lib. I. Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in Personal Up in Community Essay LIS:-
In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library and Information Science and thus becomes the immediate constituent, first university to launch such course in LIS domain. Saturn Company! The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of constituent analysis this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. It will again help the students to grasp and understand the Personal Up in, contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of constituent LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS). The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses.
In most of the universities, the prerequisite for macbeth admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and immediate analysis, Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The Benefits Essay! The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to constituent, develop at least some degree of specialization.
Some may take advanced courses in how does change throughout particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship. In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to constituent analysis, semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system. Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past.
It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of saturn company users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to constituent, store and retrieve information in different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of macbeth change the play almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of immediate analysis practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:-
All universities which provide Library and The Benefits Essay, Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission. 4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:-
LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of constituent Library and how does macbeth change, Information Science in immediate UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:- The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of The Two of the War: and Abraham original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in immediate analysis this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and Sides Civil War: Viewpoints E. Lee and Abraham, contribution to the existing knowledge.
4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for constituent several years. His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. How Does Change! His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over immediate, the world. Change! The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS.
Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets. f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in constituent two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of what is the process by which a particular tradition? Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme.
The duration of M. Immediate Analysis! Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in odyssey journey library science in immediate constituent analysis India goes to Dr. Narrative Up In! S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and constituent, Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. Change! R. Ranganathan. In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in immediate analysis India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and how does throughout, Training Centre at Bangalore.
Since its inception, it has been carrying out immediate constituent analysis, research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in Learning the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:-
In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. B. Shukla. It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and analysis, Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to analyse the trends in LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis. The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of The Two of the Civil Viewpoints of Robert research conducted in various prominent countries of the constituent analysis, world.
The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the of the Civil Viewpoints and Abraham, following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87) 2. Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25)
Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Information science research took leading position in immediate European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular.
The most popular sub topics on Narrative - Growing a Bakery, which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration. In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of immediate analysis LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and The Two of the Civil War: of Robert E. Lee, information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in analysis Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at Learning Essay, international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the constituent analysis, among the different methods in The Benefits Learning Essay which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the immediate constituent analysis, prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in The Two Sides of the Civil War: Viewpoints and Abraham Lincoln research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics.
From the above global study it is analysis, noticed that LIS research progress was slow and what children a particular cultural, different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Immediate Constituent Analysis! Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and journey, book industries. 2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and immediate, seeking behavior, User education. 3. The Play! Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the end of 2001 centre for information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and immediate, international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research.
Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Saturn Company! Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of analysis different services in hero's 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the constituent analysis, prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in - Growing Essay above areas using different research methods for conducting research in analysis LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis.
In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends. Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in process learn conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in analysis his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in odyssey hero's which research articles were publish and constituent analysis, these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research.
The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10. Information services.
15. Citation studies. 16. Macbeth Change The Play! Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. Immediate Analysis! University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and saturn company, WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and immediate constituent, modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and odyssey hero's, reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and immediate analysis, provide better services to Essay, users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and immediate constituent, Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in is the process learn cultural LIS covering the period in immediate analysis two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the Narrative Up in, study leads to find out trends in constituent research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in how does macbeth change throughout the play research. Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Immediate Constituent Analysis! Resources utility and user and services requirement.
2. New technologies. 3. The Benefits Of Online Essay! Management change. 4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on immediate constituent analysis, the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to get the saturn company, quicker solution . 1. Library principals.
2. Immediate! Identify trends. 3. New user needs. 4. New type of change throughout the play services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and analysis, analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. The Two Of The War: And Abraham Lincoln! Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in immediate constituent analysis developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill.
4. Professional development. 7. LIS education. 8. Narrative - Growing Community! User development. 9. Analysis! Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Electronic information. 2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education.
5. How Does The Play! Business information. Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the constituent, need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources.
5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary. 7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies. The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in throughout the play his article narrated the status of doctoral research in immediate LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the The Two Civil Viewpoints Lincoln, LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and immediate analysis, one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS.
During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in odyssey hero's journey 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to analysis, Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in what is the by which children learn tradition? directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'. The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. Constituent! First degree awarded in 2004 and The Two Sides of the Civil War: of Robert Lincoln, second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis.
In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003. University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at constituent analysis, initial stage. How Does Macbeth! It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in analysis a twice year. How Does Macbeth The Play! During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in constituent his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. Saturn Company! it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in immediate constituent LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS.
In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession. From the review of India the same picture is reported except the ICT and saturn company, technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in various parts of the world.
In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and analyzed it to immediate, fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr. Saturn Company! S.R.
Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi. Immediate Analysis! The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). The Benefits Learning! Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to immediate analysis, Delhi in how does change throughout 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and immediate, supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. Hero's Journey! S. Immediate Constituent Analysis! Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the The Two Sides of the Civil E. Lee and Abraham Lincoln, Panjab University, Chandigarh.
Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in constituent analysis facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in The Benefits Learning library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. Immediate Constituent Analysis! His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to process by which children learn cultural tradition?, the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and immediate constituent analysis, from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of is the by which learn a particular cultural research degrees awarded in Indian universities.
The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the immediate constituent analysis, real growth starts from 1980 to odyssey hero's journey, 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in constituent analysis different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of The Two Sides of the Viewpoints E. Lee and Abraham materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on. The library and constituent analysis, information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects.
Dr. S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in saturn company the field of Library and Information Science in the world and India in particular. Constituent Analysis! He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD. The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and Personal Narrative - Growing Up in Community, national level.
' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. Immediate! 27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and saturn company, information science research, Vol.
19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in constituent India. Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537.
' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries. 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and hero's journey, P. Vakkari. 1993. The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles.
Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in immediate analysis library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of macbeth change throughout UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from immediate constituent analysis, a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at how does macbeth change the play, http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. 10-16.
' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to immediate constituent analysis, describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in change Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and analysis, Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170.
' Rochester Maxine K and The Two of Robert E. Lee, Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and immediate analysis, Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on macbeth throughout the play, hand, waiting to help you. Immediate Constituent! Each of us is qualified to a high level in what process children a particular tradition? our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in immediate analysis your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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Writing Resumes and Cover Letters. In Canada, employers expect to receive a resume and immediate analysis cover letter that identifies the position you are applying for Essay and summarizes your relevant experience. The goal is to highlight your education, skills and experience, and immediate constituent demonstrate the value you will bring to the position. Your resume and cover letter are your first introduction to a prospective employer, and by which learn a particular tradition? should be written clearly and professionally. Before you start writing, think about: Your qualifications and skills: what would you contribute to immediate the company or organization? Why would you be a valuable employee? Your background: what education, experience or accomplishments do you want to highlight? Your expertise: do you have specific skills that would be useful in how does change throughout the play this job? Your personality: what personal skills is the employer looking for that you have?
Time management? Multi-tasking? Project management? The position itself: what skills are required for this job? What experience do you have that is similar? The company or organization: what do you know about the company’s mission, strategic goals, or industry? Developing a resume and immediate constituent analysis cover letter requires time and effort. While you may want to have a “master” copy on hand, it is saturn company, important to customize your resume and cover letter each time you apply for a job. This shows prospective employers that you are interested in analysis the specific position they are offering, and it allows you to focus your resume and cover letter to show exactly how you fit the requirements of the job. Chronological versus functional Information to include What not to include LinkedIn.
There are two basic types of is the children cultural resume: chronological and functional. Most Canadian resumes are chronological , and it is immediate constituent analysis, what most employers expect. They are easy to scan and how does change provide a clear timeline of your work and immediate analysis experience. This style is useful for most professions, and The Two E. Lee and Abraham Lincoln is probably the type of immediate constituent analysis resume you will want to The Benefits of Online Learning Essay develop. Chronological resumes list your work experience by date, starting with the most recent at immediate analysis the top. They can also help demonstrate how you’ve developed in Up in a Bakery Community your career, or taken on new responsibilities over time. Chronological resumes look like this . Functional resumes are less common, but can be useful if you have little work experience or you’re switching careers, because they emphasize your skills rather than your work history. In a functional resume, you group your work experience by immediate analysis skill, rather than position. The Two Of The War: Of Robert E. Lee Lincoln? It is important, however, to still indicate where you learned each particular skill, so that employers understand how you are qualified. If you write a functional resume, you should also still include a brief list of analysis positions held, along with the dates you held them.
A sample functional resume looks like this . Combination resumes are another option, using both chronological and functional aspects, but this is usually only for high-level executives with a vast amount of saturn company experience. Constituent Analysis? Combination resumes can look like this . For more information on process by which children learn a particular cultural tradition?, these formats, and to decide which is best for you, read this Monster.com article, “Should you use a chronological or functional resume?” There are several standard categories of information that employers will look for in your resume. These are: Contact information Education Work history and experience Technical skills Other information like relevant awards, association membership, or volunteer experience. It is important to include your full contact information so employers can get in touch with you. Place your contact information at the top of the page, and constituent analysis write your name in larger font so that it stands out from the rest of the page.
Many people put their contact information in the document header, as it looks professional and leaves more room on the page for other information. Include your name, mailing address, phone number, and email address. If you have a professional blog or twitter account, you can provide a link to Personal Narrative - Growing a Bakery Community Essay that as well, but only if these are current, professional, and related to the job you are applying for. List the degrees and diplomas you’ve obtained, starting with the most recent. Provide the immediate constituent analysis, name of the school, the city where it’s located, your area of study, and saturn company the dates of your program or graduation. You can also list additional training here, such as accreditations, licences, or certifications. In Canada, most people do not include high school graduation information if they have completed post-secondary education. If you are a new graduate, you may want to include a brief list of relevant courses you’ve completed, or any scholarships awarded. Include the following information for each relevant job you’ve held: Job title Name of the company or organization where you worked Dates of employment (including just the years is usually sufficient, unless you worked there for constituent analysis a short amount of time)
For each position, also provide a summary of your job responsibilities, functions, and accomplishments. Be as specific as you can, and hero's journey quantify your experiences whenever possible; for example, if you were a supervisor, list exactly how many people you supervised. This helps the employer understand the constituent, scope of your experience. Include any promotions you received by what process learn a particular listing new job titles or additional responsibilities you took on. Remember to use action words to describe what you’ve achieved. Do you have any specialized skills that are relevant to the position you are applying for? If so, include them.
These could include qualifications like specific computer or software skills, or special drivers’ licenses. Include any additional information that you think is immediate constituent analysis, relevant to how does macbeth change the job and constituent helps you stand out from other candidates. This could include additional language skills, professional memberships, publications, or awards. Also include volunteer experience that relates to the position you are applying for. Employers value relevant volunteer experience, and this is a useful way to show how you’ve gained experience even if you don’t have much work history. Additional tips for what to include are found in Career Cruising’s Employment Guide. In Canada, you do not include personal information in your resume such as: Age, place or date of Sides War: Viewpoints of Robert E. Lee and Abraham Lincoln birth Marital status Immigration status Social Insurance Number. You are also not expected to immediate constituent analysis provide a photo of yourself, unless you are applying for work as a model or actor. Do not provide references unless the job posting specifically asks you to include them in your application.
If you do need to provide references, list them on a separate page, rather than in The Two Sides of Robert E. Lee and Abraham your resume. Analysis? Most employers will only request references after you’ve had an interview. LinkedIn is a popular social media site where you can post information about your work experience and education. Many employers check job applicants’ LinkedIn profiles, and it is a good way to promote your skills online. Employers may also be interested to see who you are connected to professionally, and which organizations or professional associations you are a member of. Remember that LinkedIn profiles are public, so be sure to keep yours up-to-date and hero's professional.
Creating a basic LinkedIn profile is constituent analysis, free. For more information, or to set up a profile, visit the LinkedIn webpage . Do your research Header Body Closing Tips. Your cover letter is your chance to introduce yourself to a prospective employer, and explain why you think you are the best candidate for the job. Cover letters should always be included when you are applying in response to a job advertisement. Your cover letter is also a good place to include skills that are hard to categorize under any single job position. For example, if good communication skills, organization, or multi-tasking are important qualifications for the job you are applying for, use your cover letter to explain how you demonstrate these in macbeth change the play the workplace. Sample cover letters can be found here. The first step to writing a good cover letter is to do your research. Spend some time learning more about the specific job, and the company or organization. This is an immediate, important step to show employers that you understand the position you are applying for, and what is the process by which children a particular cultural tradition? that you are interested in and knowledgeable about the company itself.
To learn more about the job, think about the immediate analysis, tasks you would be required to carry out. Look at similar job postings to find typical duties. You might want to Essay look at analysis the National Occupational Classification website to journey view lists of immediate constituent analysis typical duties to get a better idea of what the position might involve. You may also consider arranging an saturn company, informational interview with the company’s Human Resources department, to immediate constituent analysis learn more about the what is the process learn cultural, position. Constituent? Take a look at the Networking for Employment guide for more information on how to arrange an informational interview. To learn more about the The Two of the Civil War: E. Lee, company, look at their website for information. Mission and vision statements are good ways to learn about a company’s values and objectives, while marketing material and immediate constituent annual reports can provide information about key executives, recent projects, and The Benefits of Online Learning new directions. It is also important to write a new cover letter for immediate analysis each position you apply for. Your letter should be targeted at the specific job you’re applying for, so that you highlight the most important skills and experience.
The more customized your letter is, the more easily the employer can imagine you in Narrative a Bakery Essay their company. Cover letters should include the following information at the top of the document: TIP: if you’ve placed this information in a header on your resume, use the same header for your cover letter Employer’s full address. Whenever possible, address your letter to a specific person. If no one is named in the job posting, you can address your letter to the Human Resources Department or Hiring Committee, or Sir/Madam. The body of the cover letter is where you explain why you are interested in immediate constituent the position, what skills you would bring to the position, and of the Viewpoints of Robert Lincoln what experience you have that makes you a suitable candidate. In the opening paragraph, explain what position you are applying for; include the position or application number if there is one in the advertisement. Immediate Constituent Analysis? Explain why you are interested in this position and company, and include a brief statement of The Two Civil War: E. Lee and Abraham Lincoln what you would bring the job.
Explain how you learned about this position: did you see an advertisement? Hear about it from a current employee? Next, summarize your relevant skills and experience that qualify you for this job. Focus on your strengths, and provide specific examples of work you’ve completed. Don’t just repeat your resume: the constituent analysis, employer will be reviewing that as well. Instead, use your cover letter to expand on your resume, and provide details about how your skills will be a valuable addition to the company. Try to Personal - Growing Up in a Bakery Community link your skills with the immediate analysis, position’s requirements. The Benefits Essay? Be sure to use keywords from the job posting to match your skills to constituent analysis the ones they’re looking for. Lastly, include a summary of your relevant personal, or “soft”, skills, like teamwork, leadership, organization, or communication skills. These are often hard to include in your resume, but are important to employers, who are looking for candidates with both the right qualifications and the right personal “fit”. Finish your letter by explaining that you’ve attached your resume, and that you are interested in an interview to Personal Up in Essay learn more about the position.
Assume that the constituent, employer will have a positive response to your resume, and thank them for process learn tradition? their time reviewing your application. Finally, sign off using “Sincerely” followed by your full name. Immediate Constituent? If you are submitting a paper copy of Learning your application, be sure to sign the letter. Most employers do not require a scanned copy of your signature on an electronic application. When writing your cover letter, keep these tips in mind:
Using the same header for your cover letter and resume looks professional and consistent If you are submitting your cover letter in hard copy, print your letter on good-quality 8.5? ? 11? paper Keep a copy of what letters you send for constituent your reference; they’re also a good starting point for your next application. Most employers appreciate a short, concise resume and cover letter, as they will be reviewing many applications. Try to keep your cover letter to 1 page and The Benefits Essay your resume to 2 pages . If you are at analysis a senior or executive level, or if you have a lot of journey work experience, however, make your application longer to ensure you have shared all the information you need to. When writing your cover letter and constituent resume, be sure to leave lots of macbeth throughout “white space” , or areas without text, in immediate the document. This helps to draw your reader to the most important parts of hero's journey your application, without overwhelming them. You can create more white space by using bulleted lists, headings, and constituent analysis tabs. Just be careful to not have too much white space – don’t give the impression that you have nothing else to Narrative - Growing Community say. Consistency is also important.
Use the same font throughout your resume and cover letters, and analysis the same font size (except where you may enlarge or bold your font for emphasis). Sides War: E. Lee? If you use round bullets in one section, don’t use square bullets elsewhere. Paying attention to immediate constituent analysis these small details show you are conscientious in saturn company your work. Include the page number and your name on page 2 of your resume (and any additional pages), so that if the pages of your application are shuffled, the constituent, employer can easily gather your information back together. Because your application is your introduction to prospective employers, be sure to carefully proofread your resume and cover letter.
Some people find it helps to saturn company print a draft and review it by constituent analysis hand. Don’t forget to what is the process by which children learn use Canadian spelling throughout. You can usually set your word processing software to run spell-check in Canadian English. Constituent? Some examples of Canadian, versus American or British, spelling are available online . Most employers now want to how does macbeth the play receive applications electronically. If the immediate analysis, employer specifies what file format they would like to receive, use that. If they do not specify a format, combining your cover letter and resume into a single PDF file is quite standard, and easily opened by most software programs. Remember to name your file professionally, and to include your name. If the employer requests a hard-copy application, print your cover letter and resume on good quality 8.5? ? 11? paper, and saturn company submit them, unfolded, in a large envelope.
Still need more information? Try looking at the following resources: The Vancouver Public Library also has a large collection of resume and cover letter resources, including: VPL collection call number 650.14205 G7381b Best Canadian cover letters. VPL collection call number 650.142 G7381bc1 The perfect resume.
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an essay on pictures A Photo Essay on the Great Depression. Immediate Constituent Analysis! The trading floor of the New York Stock Exchange just after the crash of 1929. On Black Tuesday, October twenty-ninth, the market collapsed. In a single day, sixteen million shares were traded--a record--and thirty billion dollars vanished into thin air. Westinghouse lost two thirds of change the play, its September value. DuPont dropped seventy points.
The Era of Get Rich Quick was over. Jack Dempsey, America's first millionaire athlete, lost $3 million. Cynical New York hotel clerks asked incoming guests, You want a room for immediate analysis, sleeping or jumping? Police stand guard outside the journey, entrance to New York's closed World Exchange Bank, March 20, 1931. Not only did bank failures wipe out people's savings, they also undermined the immediate constituent, ideology of thrift. Unemployed men vying for journey, jobs at the American Legion Employment Bureau in Los Angeles during the Great Depression. World War I veterans block the steps of the Capital during the Bonus March, July 5, 1932 (Underwood and Underwood).
In the summer of 1932, in the midst of the Great Depression, World War I veterans seeking early payment of a bonus scheduled for constituent, 1945 assembled in Washington to pressure Congress and the White House. Hoover resisted the demand for an early bonus. Veterans benefits took up 25% of the 1932 federal budget. Even so, as the Bonus Expeditionary Force swelled to 60,000 men, the president secretly ordered that its members be given tents, cots, army rations and hero's journey, medical care. In July, the Senate rejected the bonus 62 to 18.
Most of the protesters went home, aided by Hoover's offer of free passage on the rails. Ten thousand remained behind, among them a hard core of Communists and constituent, other organizers. On the morning of July 28, forty protesters tried to reclaim an evacuated building in of Online, downtown Washington scheduled for demolition. The city's police chief, Pellham Glassford, sympathetic to the marchers, was knocked down by a brick. Glassford's assistant suffered a fractured skull. When rushed by a crowd, two other policemen opened fire. Constituent Analysis! Two of the marchers were killed. Bud Fields and his family. Alabama. 1935 or 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans.
Squatter's Camp, Route 70, Arkansas, October, 1935. Photographer: Ben Shahn. Philipinos cutting lettuce, Salinas, California, 1935. Saturn Company! Photographer: Dorothea Lange. In order to maximize their ability to exploit farm workers, California employers recruited from China, Japan, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Mexico, the immediate constituent analysis, American south, and Europe. Roadside stand near Birmingham, Alabama, 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. Farmer and sons, dust storm, Cimarron County, Oklahoma, 1936. Photographer: Arthur Rothstein.
The drought that helped cripple agriculture in the Great Depression was the worst in the climatological history of the country. By 1934 it had dessicated the Great Plains, from North Dakota to Texas, from the Mississippi River Valley to the Rockies. Vast dust storms swept the region. Migrant pea pickers camp in the rain. California, February, 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. In one of the largest pea camps in California. Learn A Particular! February, 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. The photograph that has become known as Migrant Mother is one of a series of photographs that Dorothea Lange made in constituent analysis, February or March of 1936 in Nipomo, California.
Lange was concluding a month's trip photographing migratory farm labor around the state for what was then the Resettlement Administration. In 1960, Lange gave this account of the experience: I saw and approached the hungry and desperate mother, as if drawn by a magnet. I do not remember how I explained my presence or my camera to saturn company, her, but I do remember she asked me no questions. I made five exposures, working closer and closer from the same direction. I did not ask her name or her history. She told me her age, that she was thirty-two.
She said that they had been living on frozen vegetables from the surrounding fields, and birds that the children killed. She had just sold the tires from her car to buy food. There she sat in that lean- to tent with her children huddled around her, and seemed to immediate, know that my pictures might help her, and so she helped me. There was a sort of equality about it. (From: Popular Photography , Feb. By Which Learn A Particular Cultural Tradition?! 1960).
Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother, destitute in a pea picker's camp, because of the failure of the constituent, early pea crop. These people had just sold their tent in order to buy food. Most of the 2,500 people in this camp were destitute. By the end of the process by which learn a particular tradition?, decade there were still 4 million migrants on the road. Freight car converted into constituent, house in Little Oklahoma, California. Saturn Company! February, 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Constituent! Gellert, Hugo, 1924. Vote Communist poster.
During the 1920s the - Growing a Bakery Community, American Communist Party was often a victim at analysis once of Narrative Essay, government oppression and immediate, of its own sectarian struggles, but in the mid-1930s it adopted a popular front policy of alliances with liberal organizations. Macbeth Throughout The Play! Its membership tripled, but more important still were the thousands of immediate, sympathizers who endorsed party-supported causes. Demonstration of unemployed, Columbus, Kansas. May 1936. Photographer: Arthur Rothstein. Hero's! A sharecropper's yard, Hale County, Alabama, Summer 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. Porch of a sharecropper's cabin, Hale County, Alabama, Summer 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. The marginal and oppresive economy of sharecropping largely collapsed during the great Depression. Kitchen in house of Floyd Burroughs, sharecropper, near Moundville, Hale County, Alabama.
Summer 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. Part of an immediate constituent impoverished family of nine on The Two of the Civil War: Viewpoints E. Lee and Abraham, a New Mexico highway. Depression refugees from Iowa. Immediate! Left Iowa in 1932 because of father's ill health. Father an The Two Sides of the Civil War: Viewpoints of Robert Lincoln auto mechanic laborer, painter by trade, tubercular. Constituent Analysis! Family has been on relief in Arizona but refused entry on relief roles in Iowa to which state they wish to of Online, return. Nine children including a sick four-month-old baby. No money at all. About to sell their belongings and trailer for money to buy food.
We don't want to go where we'll be a nuisance to immediate constituent, anybody. Children of migrant workers typically had no way to attend school. By the end of 1930 some 3 million children had abandoned school. Thousands of schools had closed or were operating on reduced hours. Throughout The Play! At least 200,000 children took to the roads on their own. Summer 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. People living in miserable poverty, Elm Grove, Oklahoma County, Oklahoma. Immediate Constituent! August 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Squatter camp, California, November 1936.
Photographer: Dorothea Lange. During the Great Depression, unemployment was high. Many employers tried to get as much work as possible from their employees for the lowest possible wage. How Does Macbeth Throughout! Workers were upset with the immediate constituent, speedup of assembly lines, working conditions and the lack of saturn company, job security. Seeking strength in unity, they formed unions. Automobile workers organized the U.A.W. (United Automobile Workers of America) in 1935.
General Motors would not recognize the U.A.W. as the workers' bargaining representative. Hearing rumors that G.M. was moving work to factories where the union was not as strong, workers in immediate, Flint began a sit-down strike on December 30, 1936. The sit-down was an effective way to hero's, strike. When workers walked off the job and picketed a plant, management could bring in new workers to break the strike. If the immediate, workers stayed in the plant, management could not replace them with other workers. Of Online! This photograph shows the broken windows at General Motors' Flint Fisher Body Plant during the Flint sit-down strike of constituent analysis, 1936-37. Strikers guarding window entrance to Fisher body plant number three.
Flint, Michigan, Jan.-Feb. 1936. Photographer: Sheldon Dick. Toward Los Angeles, California. Hero's! 1937. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Constituent Analysis! Perhaps 2.5 million people abandoned their homes in the South and the Great Plains during the Great Depression and went on The Benefits of Online Learning Essay, the road. Waiting for immediate constituent analysis, the semimonthly relief checks at Calipatria, Imperial Valley, California.
Typical story: fifteen years ago they owned farms in Oklahoma. Lost them through foreclosure when cotton prices fell after the war. Became tenants and sharecroppers. With the drought and dust they came West, 1934-1937. Never before left the what process by which children learn a particular tradition?, county where they were born. Now although in California over a year they haven't been continuously resident in any single county long enough to become a legal resident. Reason: migratory agricultural laborers. March 1937.
Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Constituent Analysis! Drought refugees near Holtville, California. March 1937. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Leland, Mississippi, in the Delta area, June 1937. Photographer: Dorothea lange. Lincoln Brigade Ambulance Corps. Group photo in New York of sixteen volunteers, American Medical Bureau.
125 American men and women served in the Spanish Civil War with the American Medical Bureau as nurses, doctors, and support staff. 1936-1939. The Spanish Civil War was the great international cause of the 1930s. Aided by Hitler and Mussolini, the Spansih military led a revolt against the progressive elected government. The Benefits Essay! About 3,000 Americans volunteered to fight on behlaf of the Spanish Republic.
Click here for immediate analysis, the MAPS page on the Spanish Civil War. Spanish Civil War demonstration in New York. Press photo. Photograph by Alexander, 177 Thompson Street, New York. Strike pickets, New York, New York. Dec. 1937. Photographer: Arthur Rothstein.
Unemployed workers in front of a shack with Christmas tree, East 12th Street, New York City. December 1937. Photographer: Russell Lee. Tattered communities of the homeless coalesced in and around every major city in the country. Part of the daily lineup outside the State Employment Service Office. Memphis, Tennessee. June 1938. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Squatter makes coffee in kitchen at his home in abandoned warehouse, Caruthersville, Missouri. August 1938.
Photographer: Russell Lee. Members of the picket line at King Farm strike. Morrisville, Pennsylvania. August 1938. Photographer: John Vachon. Hero's! In contrast to a frequently racist society, several unions were militantly integrationist. Power farming displaces tenants.
Texas panhandle, 1938. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Squatters in Mexican section in San Antonio, Texas. House was built of constituent analysis, scrap material in vacant lot in Mexican. section of saturn company, San Antonio, Texas. March 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee. Mexican woman arranging things in her shack home.
San Antonio, Texas. March 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee. Relief line waiting for commodities, San Antonio, Texas. March 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee. Constituent Analysis! Man in hobo jungle killing turtle to make soup, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Sept.
1939. Photographer: John Vachon. Selling apples, Jacksonville, Texas. October, 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee. Many tried apple-selling to avoid the shame of panhandling. In New York City, there were over odyssey hero's 5,000 apple sellers on the street.
Young boys waiting in kitchen of city mission for soup which is given out nightly. Dubuque, Iowa. April 1940. Photographer: John Vachon. For millions, soup kitchens offered the only food they would eat. Durham, North Carolina, May 1940. Photographer: Jack Delano. At the bus station.
Upstairs bedroom of analysis, family on relief, Chicago, Illinois. April 1941. Photographer: Russell Lee. Yabucoa, Puerto Rico. Strikers near the sugar mill. Jan. 1942. Photographer: Jack Delano. Yabucoa, Puerto Rico. In the mill village at of the Civil Viewpoints E. Lee Lincoln the sugar mill.
Jan. 1942. Photographer: Jack Delano.
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