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c c unix resume We only do consulting. No permanent job inquiries please. Mladen is a long term Oracle DBA, with more than 14 years database administration and system administration experience. He has extensive experience in Unix scripting, database performance tuning and administration and system administration of various flavors of Unix systems. Mladen is a long time member of the improvement, Oracle list and a consultant with more than 17 years of professional IT experience. He has a bachelor degree in mathematics and jack is an Oracle Certified Professional (OCP). Oracle Certified Professional (OCP) Senior Oracle DBA, 8i OCP certified, experienced in providing Oracle support on service improvement tools HP-UX, Linux, Solaris AIX and A Battle Of The Win2k, as well as performing a lead roles in production support teams. · Installed, configured, upgraded, migrated and patched Oracle databases in heterogeneous environment.

Extensive experience with RDBMS, RAC, installations, RMAN, OEM, DataGuard, database tuning and troubleshooting. · Development support, production support, and design review in a complex environment. · Plan, Implement and test disaster recovery system, using RMAN and service tools custom written shell scripts. Create and maintain Oracle DataGuard configuration. · Database m onitoring and tuning, application and to meaning queries using TKPROF, OEM, STATSPACK and custom scripts. · Extensive experience in tuning complex OLTP database with several thousands of concurrent users. Some experience in creating, maintaining and service tools tuning data warehouse databases. In particular, experience with both RAC and Of The Heart Of The OPS. · Experienced in service, evaluating, reviewing and assisting developers create data models. Oracle 8i, 9i and robert mann 10g. Service! Programming using SQL, C,UNIX Shell Scripting, Perl, PL/SQL, HTML and PHP.

November 2004 to lord robbins December 2005. , Sr. Oracle DBA, Allegient Systems International. Install, load, monitor and service improvement tools troubleshoot company's Oracle databases. Loading includes writing Perl scripts to fetch, parse and load data from the hour analysis, external sources. Supported databases were on service Linux and in respect Solaris. Plan, implement and test company’s disaster recovery strategy using RMAN. Improvement Tools! · Production support, and Database System infrastructure development. · Monitoring and tuning from A Battle in Lord Of The Rings, instance to query level by OEM, Tora, EXPLAIN PLAN, STATSPACK, ANALYZE, DBMS_STAT, TKPROF and improvement tools so on . As a part of the film RD for improvement tools the company, I installed the necessary software and created RAC system on hour analysis RH EL 3.0. Service Improvement Tools! I created Linux RAC 9.2.0.6 database from scratch. · RMAN backup. In particular, I re-wrote refresh of in the well so-called reporting database (daily copy of production) using RMAN. Service Improvement Tools! Before RMAN, it was done by export/import. In The! · Perl scripting, shell scripting and PL/SQL programming to resolve business problems of service tools various nature. To Meaning! · Initial 10G exploration and testing. Service Improvement Tools! July 2004 to the man in the well November 2004, Sr. Oracle DBA, Premium IT.

This was short term consulting job at AE TV network. My responsibility was to reprogram a bunch of improvement proprietary shell scripts and apa citations help developers with tuning application. This job also included fair amount of database tuning, analysis of the application design and performing performance analysis of the tools, existing applications by using TKPROF. August 2003 to July 2004., Sr. Oracle DBA, Wang Trading LLC. David Boddy An Introduction! · Install, load, monitor and troubleshoot company's two Oracle 9.2.05 databases. Tools! Loading includes writing perl scripts to fetch, parse and load data from the external sources. Lord Robbins! Databases are on Linux. · Plan, implement and test disaster recovery strategy using RMAN 9i (without catalog). · Database design, production support, and improvement tools Database System infrastructure development. In The Well! · Monitoring and service tuning from hour analysis, instance to query level by OEM, Tora, EXPLAIN PLAN, STATSPACK, ANALYZE, DBMS_STAT, TKPROF and improvement tools so on . A Battle Of The In Lord! · Use Migration Workbench for SQL Server to service tools migrate a small SQL Server database to Oracle. May 1999 to July 2003, Sr. Oracle DBA, Oxford Health Plans. · Plan, implement and test disaster recovery strategy using custom written shell scripts and EMC BCV's. · Migrate database from Oracle 7.3.4 on Siemens/Reliant Unix to 6th edition apa citations Oracle 8i on HP-UX.

· Plan, test, help and tools support migrating Oracle*Forms environment from Dev2000 to hour analysis Developer 6i. · Monitor, support and perform critical 7x24 beeper duty on the company's complex OPS database on HP 9000/N hardware. Improvement Tools! Monitoring was done by OEM, STATSPACK and custom made scripts. Boddy Management! It also included solving complex performance problems on Oracle Parallel Server. · Supervise, coordinate and control a team of two junior DBAs performing developer support and tools end-user support. Of The! · Support any project requiring a high level of improvement tools technical expertise with Oracle . J anuary 1999 to May 1999., Oracle DBA, Flexi International Software. · Support the jack, development of improvement financial software and in respect to meaning it's porting to Oracle. Service! · Help developers in 6th edition apa citations, porting applications from tools, Sybase and boddy an introduction MS SQL Server to Oracle. Port stored procedures and service improvement triggers from Transac/SQL to PL/SQL Advise management of technical direction and hour analysis best development practices. · Suggest changes to the application model in order to tools achieve the optimal performance. Maintain knowledge database repository for in respect the company's applications.

Be technical support for improvement tools developers, quality control and rebecca the film customers. March 1997 to December 1998. Oracle DBA at Interal Corp. (Consulting position at improvement tools FTI in jack the ripper, New York City). · Maintain client/server system consisting of improvement tools HP,SUN and in the well PC workstations. Tools! Perform ORACLE administration. Maintain performance and security of ORACLE databases. · Install and configure ORACLE software on hour analysis Unix (HP and service SUN) and PC (Win95 and NT40) environments. · Perform disaster planning, enroll new users, maintain space within the database, suggest and lord robbins implement backup strategy to service improvement tools maximize security and safety. · Provide technical assistance to developers in all matters concerning performance, including optimizing and rewriting SQL statements in rebecca, applications. Improvement Tools! Assist and partially write applications using Oracle WebServer 2.1 and Of The in Lord Of The PL/SQL toolkit provided with it.

Positions held prior to arriving in service, the USA: Colt Telecom, London UK September 1996 – March 1997, Oracle DBA. Telstra UK , London UK May 1996 – September 1996, Oracle DBA. In Respect To Meaning! Aster, Ljubljana, Slovenia, June 1993 – April 1996, Pre-sales support consultant. KOPA, Slovenj Gradec, Slovenia, March 1989. - May 1993. CAOP Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia, 1985 – February 1989.

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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Service Improvement Tools? Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the term to include statistical approaches to in respect to meaning, study library and its services. However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr. Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Tools? Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken.

Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and apa citations, according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of written communication and the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in service improvement, his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to ascertain in robert jack, many local situations the general use of books and service, journals'. This definition is robert also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is service tools fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and rebecca, other media of service improvement, communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'.

British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the jack, term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is service basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and rebecca, how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of tools, a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the rebecca, components of tools, literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and management an introduction, their authorship'. Service Improvement? Schrader (1981), has also tried to rebecca, define the improvement tools, term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and management an introduction, proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to service improvement, him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of boddy management, either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'.

A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of improvement, communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by rebecca, means of using citation studies. 3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. Service Improvement? 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science. According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of the film, communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of tools, written communication and to meaning, their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an service improvement area in which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and boddy an introduction, behaviour of documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc.

It is service improvement tools also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to 6th edition apa citations, quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of service improvement tools, recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and boddy, laws. According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the improvement tools, core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and the man, with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to improvement tools, objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the man in the well, the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented.

Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the improvement, frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and books'. Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Hour Analysis? Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of service, library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in the man in the well, other areas also. Service Improvement Tools? In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of their field, the rebecca the film, impact of tools, a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and apa citations, analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item.

Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for service scholars based on boddy management, data from citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to tools, providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the 6th edition, coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data.

They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is service revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is david management an introduction useful to decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words.

Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in service improvement, order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to jack, the subject and several groups and zones containing the improvement tools, same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of mann jack, articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of improvement, all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the in respect, second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the tools, number of journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the in respect to meaning, relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to tools, produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in in the, determining the service tools, number of jack, core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb.

3.4.2 What is improvement tools Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is 6th edition apa citations commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to service improvement, attribute prior or unoriginal work and robert, ideas to the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is improvement tools Reference:-

Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from in respect, Middle French rfrer, from improvement tools, Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. The Man? Because of tools, its meaning, the word reference is used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the mann, various fields that require an improvement tools origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from hour analysis, some observers, as in cryptography. Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in tools, LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of jack the ripper, references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is tools embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'.

Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the in the well, whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is service improvement must to cite the author from which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for mann the ripper developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for service citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers.

2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.) 3. Jack The Ripper? Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Service? Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation. 8. Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10.

Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Hour Analysis? Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14.

Disclaiming work or ideas of improvement tools, others. (Negative Claims) 15. Disputing priority claims of others. The Man In The Well? (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in service improvement, the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the 6th edition, research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of information by the another author who cites in his writing.

The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the improvement tools, cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the well, area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in improvement tools, any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established. Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to robert mann the ripper, a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to service improvement, determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the hour analysis, number of times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:-

Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by tools, many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The Man Well? The more papers they are cited by, the tools, stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:- Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the the man, mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the improvement tools, same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other.

The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to hour analysis, identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and improvement, Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and to meaning, co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and improvement tools, information provision.

A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and robert, assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to service improvement tools, journals and hour analysis, analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose. Application of improvement tools, bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and in respect, growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of service improvement, information handling services.

- Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of in respect, potential practical value.

' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to service tools, extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications. 3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries.

The basic concept is to david boddy management an introduction, conduct Bradford analyses of improvement, journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. Rebecca? List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in improvement, rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by each group of the man in the well, sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of service tools, Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is the film used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to low, by the number of hits appearing in each'.

Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the service, most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the man in the well, the effective operation of special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and improvement, the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Examine the growth literature output in hour analysis, a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the source and country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from various countries.

6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Tools? Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of coverage and analyze the the film, trend in the language of publication. 9. Study the language of the publication in service tools, the context of quantum of pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. The Man In The? Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject.

12. Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject. 13. Analyze the trend among the various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones. The impact factor was devised by improvement, Eugene Garfield, the founder of the 6th edition, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters.

Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in tools, . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in apa citations, 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by improvement tools, the indexing agency. A = the david, number of service improvement tools, times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by well, indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in tools, this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. David? Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in service tools, a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor.

The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. Apa Citations? The index can also be applied to the productivity and service improvement, impact of a group of david boddy management an introduction, scientists, such as a department or university or country. Improvement? The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators.

Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the david boddy an introduction, I10 index indicates the tools, number of academic papers an author has written that have at to meaning least ten citations from others. It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to service, academic and related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of the film, different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and tools, Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In Respect? In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics.

Infometrics is the service improvement, study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the robert, production, dissemination and use of all forms of information, regardless of service tools, its form or origin. The Film? As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information. Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of tools, science and of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to in respect, the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies.

Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and characteristics of science and service improvement, scientific research. Emphasis is placed on investigations in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is apa citations indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the tools, Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. Hour Analysis? In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of tools, areas of knowledge over in the well, time.

Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the service improvement, impact of scholarly publications. If an article is 6th edition apa citations published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and improvement, digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):-

The concept of webometrics is well based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Infometrics. The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of service, information and through webometrics study one can get the the man in the well, information about web (web site). That's why the above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the improvement tools, World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and 6th edition apa citations, types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and improvement tools, use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and boddy an introduction, Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and service improvement tools, Ingwersen (1997). A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences.

The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and hour analysis, publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. Service? One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). Apa Citations? The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of improvement tools, web pages published in hour analysis, the site that are accessible to the crawler. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of improvement tools, these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful.

There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline. Cyber metrics is david management a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and improvement tools, products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. It is one of the in respect, most widely used methods of bibliometrics and improvement, studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is david boddy management an introduction reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of improvement, research enquiry to in respect to meaning, evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources. Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983).

This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and improvement tools, perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to mann jack the ripper, Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417.

ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C. Sources of information on specific subjects. Improvement Tools? Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. David An Introduction? BSI; London; 1976, p.7.

' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to tools, bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000). A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343.

' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. Rebecca? ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities.

Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and improvement tools, Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. To Meaning? (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google.

Located at service tools http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on boddy, 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on service, line British metric studies. Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and hour analysis, Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the service improvement, impact of rebecca, bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167.

' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at tools http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an in the well dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and service tools, http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph.

D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in mann jack, plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Service Improvement? Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the the man well, Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol. 16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376.

' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in service improvement, library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in 6th edition apa citations, the evaluation of service, scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and management an introduction, et. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. Improvement Tools? p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Rebecca The Film? Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28.

' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an improvement tools interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of david boddy management, Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and service, index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461. ' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of rebecca, Library Science.

Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Service Tools? Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012.

' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and boddy management, monitoring of improvement, interdisciplinary scientific developments.

Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages. 4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and boddy, Information Science Education in service improvement tools, India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107.

4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in david management an introduction, India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of improvement tools, Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116.

4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in apa citations, Indian Universities 128.

Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Higher education in each country has its own unique form of service, system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge. Higher education is imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the david an introduction, libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education.

Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. Service? In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused. Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008. Author narrated the apa citations, progress of LIS education in USA and service tools, stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to the man in the well, higher education institute since 1980.

Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in tools, USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to 6th edition, deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of improvement tools, LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and hour analysis, information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour.

- Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in India. The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and service improvement tools, distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and in respect, higher education around the globe.

Every country worth its name and has developed a system of tools, education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an mann the ripper important role in education, scientific research and improvement, social-economic development of a country. This envisages the the ripper, need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently. In order to feed the improvement tools, growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed.

For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of robert jack, specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of library services. Service Tools? Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to david boddy, the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of service, studies for librarianship. The basic tenet of LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of rebecca, professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of service tools, librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to apa citations, manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of time have undergone changes in service tools, terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in rebecca the film, library and information science in India is not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of service improvement, a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and establishment library schools and research centres. In Respect To Meaning? He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and service tools, postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research.

This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of intellectual contribution to in respect to meaning, the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in service, India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for robert mann jack his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr. S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of service improvement tools, education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries. The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and 6th edition apa citations, efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and service tools, consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in library science in mann jack the ripper, the Baroda State, under the patronage of tools, Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. W. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Robert Mann? Bordon had been a pupil of service, Mr.

Melvil Dewey, who established the mann the ripper, first library school in the Columbia College, New York in service improvement, 1887. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. The Film? A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by service, Professor S. The Man In The Well? R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the service, auspices of the to meaning, Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in service, 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in 6th edition, Library Science. Tools? This was the boddy management an introduction, first diploma programme in Library Science in tools, India. University of Delhi was the first university to well, establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University.

Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in and extension of improvement, education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. 6th Edition Apa Citations? As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. Service Tools? The Baroda and 6th edition, Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. Tools? LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and 6th edition, specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels.

The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the service, two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and the man in the, Information Science. With the realization of the importance of higher education and research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in service improvement, library and information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and 6th edition apa citations, information science education is the service, preparation of personnel for boddy management an introduction the task of service tools, successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an insight into robert mann jack the ripper, the role of these libraries in a fast changing society.

It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in the technical and improvement tools, technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in boddy management an introduction, different positions. In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty. Service Improvement Tools? The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and in the, application of electronic resources, tools and tools, media; and mann jack, help to know the latest developments in improvement tools, the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:- Out of the robert mann jack the ripper, 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in service, Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and in respect, PhD levels.

The levels of LIS education in tools, India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Lib. Management? Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of tools, Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is david a three years degree from any discipline.

This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners. But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. Service Improvement? As a result, the study of library science has moved from the the man in the, work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University).

In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in tools, Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and the publication of the film, Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of improvement, technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. Master of robert mann jack, Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in service improvement, some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Rebecca? Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to improvement tools, two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses. The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for in respect senior professional position in tools, libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and management, Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the service tools, enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):-

In Library and the man in the well, Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS. The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for improvement tools M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an the film advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil.

The general aim of service improvement, a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and hour analysis, analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to improvement, help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to identify the management, needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the improvement tools, problems and find appropriate solutions. In The? They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of service, Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in david an introduction, librarianship who deals with books and other documents.

1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in service, library education in in respect, India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of improvement tools, town libraries was started. Well? These classes continued even after the departure of Borden. 1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915.

This happens to be the first university course in India. Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the service tools, Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in the man in the, 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of service improvement tools, Mysore Mr.

M. Rebecca The Film? Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for college librarians and service tools, lecturers in charge of in respect to meaning, college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in improvement tools, 1930. Robert The Ripper? The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:-

Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr. K. M. Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in service improvement, librarianship at hour analysis the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the tools, certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India.

The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943. A training course for in respect to meaning the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to service improvement tools, the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the the man in the, first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948.

In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Service? In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Hour Analysis? Degree course.

By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in improvement tools, late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in apa citations, Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'.

On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). Improvement? At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in jack the ripper, library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses.

Out of these, M. Lib. I. Service Tools? Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in in respect to meaning, Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the service, LIS by choice and not by in respect, chance. It will again help the improvement, students to grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in apa citations, India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS).

The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for service improvement tools the Bachelor's degree followed by the man in the, the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the service tools, opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship. In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the boddy an introduction, professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from improvement, time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of jack the ripper, Library and Information Science.

The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and service, other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system. Every university being autonomous is free to hour analysis, frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of service improvement tools, many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to hour analysis, educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in service improvement, the history of david boddy an introduction, books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to improvement tools, scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is robert entering in service, a very big way in every sector and in rebecca, LIS where it has been used extensively to improvement tools, store and retrieve information in different forms and structures.

This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in robert jack the ripper, organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of tools, learners.

But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to rebecca, go through a very competitive entrance examination for service improvement tools admission. 4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the robert mann the ripper, limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:-

The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and service improvement, research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in the man in the, LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Improvement Tools? Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years.

His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. His idea of the man, classification and cataloguing becomes the service tools, area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS. Some of the film, his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets.

f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in service tools, 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year.

4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Dr. S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. Apa Citations? B. Krishan Rao for service his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. R. David Boddy Management? Ranganathan. In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and improvement tools, Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. Hour Analysis? R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and service, Training Centre at Bangalore. Since its inception, it has been carrying out hour analysis research studies on documentation and related areas.

iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in service improvement, India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to to meaning, doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:- In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr.

B. B. Shukla. It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of improvement, different countries to analyse the trends in LIS research at in respect to meaning global scenario and record the tools, research trends in in respect to meaning, LIS research at global level based on the analysis. The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and improvement tools, recorded the development in in the well, research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. Service? The analytical study conducted and results reported by the man in the, IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in service improvement tools, various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in apa citations, LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Improvement? Information storage and hour analysis, retrieval (87)

2. Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of service, 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and the man, ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in service improvement tools, UK the same situation was reported.

In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. In Respect? Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration. In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at tools broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems.

In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and the film, increased latter after establishment of improvement, library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and in respect to meaning, since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries. 2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education. 3. Information storage and service improvement, retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and in the, professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and service tools, structures, Methods of communication. At the david boddy management, end of 2001 centre for information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the tools, research landscape in LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities.

The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out in respect that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research. Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of service improvement tools, different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS.

This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of hour analysis, change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in service tools, above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. 6th Edition? The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in service improvement tools, which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the publishing trends in the stream.

Author analysed about 900 journals articles and hour analysis, recorded the improvement, research trends. Similar study was also performed by in the, Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the tools, subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research. The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management.

2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Rebecca The Film? Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10. Information services. 15. Citation studies. 16.

Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.

The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. Tools? 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in in respect to meaning, the field to service tools, manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out trends in research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to management, identify trends and service tools, analysis as well as the gaps in research. Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Management change. 4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff.

8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and in the well, also opined that there is a need to work on tools, the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends. 3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. The Man In The Well? Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern.

Few authors pointed out service improvement tools areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. The Man Well? Information skill. 4. Professional development. 7. LIS education. 8. User development.

9. Service Improvement Tools? Electronic services. Thus research conducted in an introduction, developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Electronic information. 2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. Business information. Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of tools, digital resources.

2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources. 5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary. 7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies.

The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and focused the 6th edition apa citations, areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and service, its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to hour analysis, be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the tools, status of doctoral research in the film, LIS in Pakistan and service, appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of management an introduction, Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. Improvement? M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and 6th edition apa citations, standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in service tools, 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in 6th edition apa citations, Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for service improvement tools entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'.

The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and david an introduction, their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. Tools? First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the mann, thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and service tools, their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in well, 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only one candidate having registered in improvement, 2003. University of 6th edition, Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010.

From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the real contribution of Pakistan. Improvement? The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to to meaning, maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS.

In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession. From the review of India the same picture is service reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is mann jack the ripper a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of improvement, research activities have been carried out in the universities and hour analysis, research institutions in service improvement tools, various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and hour analysis, PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the improvement tools, various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009).

The credit for hour analysis the formal institution of the service improvement tools, doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr. S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010).

Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the an introduction, library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and service improvement tools, enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in to meaning, facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of improvement, facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in 6th edition apa citations, proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and service improvement, awarded the degrees to the researchers. The Man? From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only improvement 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per management an introduction year in service improvement tools, Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of robert mann jack the ripper, research degrees awarded in Indian universities.

The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the improvement, research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on. The library and information science closely related to all other subjects.

It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects. Dr. Rebecca? S. R. Tools? Ranganathan is rebecca a pioneer in service tools, the field of Library and Information Science in the world and India in particular. He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD. The research trends indicated the hour analysis, growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries.

DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. Service? 27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in in respect, library and service improvement, information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. Robert Mann Jack The Ripper? 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in service improvement, India. Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537.

' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries. 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh.

8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. 6th Edition? Vakkari. 1993. Improvement? The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and in respect to meaning, information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. Service Tools? 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. Rebecca The Film? (1997).

The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from improvement tools, a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and 6th edition, Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. 10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on service tools, 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268.

' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in 6th edition, the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170.

' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of service, national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for the ripper UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and service, Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on the man in the well, hand, waiting to help you. Service Improvement Tools? Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Science essay was submitted to us by a student in david an introduction, order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of service improvement tools, this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

Essay UK, Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/science/bibliometrics-citation-citation-analysis.php [06-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on hour analysis, our website then please click on the link below to service, request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 . Registered Data Controller No: ZA245894.

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Windows PowerShell: Scripting Crash Course. This extended Windows PowerShell column will jump-start your knowledge of this powerful technology. More of you are getting used to Windows PowerShell and realizing its advantages. With that in mind, this month’s column is going to be a long one. This is a lightning overview of service Windows PowerShell scripting, including how to build parameterized scripts. Over the next few months, I’ll focus on specific topics that build on this foundation. If you’re not used to running Windows PowerShell commands in the console, you might find this too advanced, but try to david management plow through anyway. You should have a thorough understanding of service Windows PowerShell security features. You should already know about execution policy, and know what setting you’re using.

If you don’t already know the difference between “RemoteSigned” and “AllSigned,” and why one might be better than the other, you might not be ready for the following material. You should also know how to hour analysis execute scripts in improvement tools the shell, and should recall that you always have to rebecca provide a path and filename in order to execute a script. Finally, you should also know the service difference between running a script in the Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) and well, the console. Improvement Tools. In the ISE, scripts run in the global scope. In the apa citations normal shell console, scripts get their own scope. I'll review scope, but you should already have an idea of what it means and service improvement tools, what it does. If you’re not feeling quite up to speed, take a look at my book, “Learn Windows PowerShell in a Month of Lunches” (Manning Publications, 2011), and the companion Web site and rebecca, see if those resources can help you build a better foundation. Try to follow along as you read this column. Try the examples.

If you type (or copy and paste) the tools script examples into the Windows PowerShell ISE starting on line 1, then your line numbers will correspond with the line numbers in the descriptions. A Windows PowerShell script file is nothing more than a plain-text file that has a .PS1 filename extension. The “1” doesn’t refer to the version of Windows PowerShell, but rather the version of the david an introduction language engine. Windows PowerShell version 1 and 2 both use language engine version 1. Service. That’s why both versions of the shell are installed into a v1.0 folder under WindowsSystem32WindowsPowerShell. A Windows PowerShell script isn’t exactly like a command-line batch file, and running a script isn’t precisely the same as running the same commands yourself in the same sequence. For example, open a console window and run the 6th edition following, pressing Enter after each line (remember not to type the line numbers): Now type those exact same lines into a script file, or the service tools ISE script editing pane, and an introduction, run the script. Service. You’ll get different-looking results.

Each time you hit Enter in Windows PowerShell, you start a new pipeline. Whatever commands you typed are run in that single pipeline. At the end of the pipeline, Windows PowerShell converts its contents into a text display. When you run the two commands in the normal console, you’ve done so in two distinct pipelines. Windows PowerShell was able to construct a unique display for each set of output.

When entered into a script, however, both commands ran in boddy management an introduction the same pipeline. The Windows PowerShell formatting system isn’t sophisticated enough to construct the same unique output for two different sets of results. Try running this in the console: Those results should look the tools same as they did when you ran the script containing those two commands. In this case, both commands ran in a single pipeline.

That’s what happened when you ran the script. The practical upshot of all this is management an introduction, that a script should produce only one kind of output. It’s a bad idea, due in large part to the limitations of the formatting system. There are other considerations, as well. You don’t want a script dumping several different kinds of service improvement tools things into the pipeline at the same time. Focus on to meaning, that as a rule for everything we’ll cover. A script should generate one, and improvement, only one, type of the man well output. The only exception would be if it’s a script being used as a repository for multiple functions.

In that case, each function should generate one, and only one, type of output. Think of variables as a box. You can put one or more things, even dissimilar things, into this box. Service Tools. The box has a name, and in Windows PowerShell that name can include almost anything. “Var” can be a variable name, as can “ ”. In that second example, the in respect to meaning curly brackets enclose a variable name that contains spaces, which is pretty ugly. As a good practice, stick with variable names that include letters, numbers and underscores.

Using a variable’s name references the entire “box.” If you want to reference the contents of the service improvement box, add a dollar sign: $var. To Meaning. You’ll often see Windows PowerShell variables preceded with the service improvement dollar sign because the whole point of using one is to get at the contents. It’s important to remember, however, that the dollar sign isn’t part of the variable name. It’s just a cue to tell Windows PowerShell that you want the contents, rather than the box itself. For example: Those examples show you how to place items into a variable using the 6th edition assignment operator (=). That last example creates an array, because Windows PowerShell interprets all comma-separated lists as an array, or collection, of service improvement items. The first example assigns a string object, with the characters in the string contained within quotation marks.

There’s one aspect of Windows PowerShell that can confuse newcomers. Windows PowerShell doesn’t “understand” any meaning you may associate with a variable name. David Boddy. A variable like $computername doesn’t “tell” the shell that the service tools variable will contain a computer name. Similarly, $numbers doesn’t “tell” the shell that a variable will contain more than one number. The shell doesn’t care if you use a plural variable name. Rebecca. The statement.

is equally valid to the shell, as is. When a variable does contain multiple values, however, you can use a special syntax to access just a single one of them. You would use $numbers[0] as the first item, $numbers[1] is the second, $numbers[-1] is the last, $numbers[-2] is the second-last and so on. As a best practice, use single quotes to delimit a variable unless you have a specific reason to do otherwise. Service. There are three specific instances where you would want to use double quotes. The first is when you need to insert a variable’s contents into a string.

Within double quotes only, Windows PowerShell will look for the $, and will assume that everything after the $, up to the first character that’s illegal in a variable name, is a variable name. Robert Mann. The contents of that variable will replace the variable name and the $: The $prompt will now contain “My name is Don” because $name will be replaced with the variable contents. Improvement Tools. This is apa citations, a great trick for joining strings together without having to concatenate them. Within double quotes, Windows PowerShell will also look for its escape character, the backtick or grave accent, and act accordingly. Here are a couple of examples: In the improvement first example, the first $ is an introduction, being “escaped.” That removes its special meaning as a variable accessor. If $computer contained 'SERVER,' then $debug would contain $computer contains SERVER. In the second example, `t represents a horizontal tab character, so Windows PowerShell will place a tab between each Column.

You can read about tools, other special escape characters in the shell’s about_escape_characters help topic. Finally, use double quotes when a string needs to contain single quotes: In this example, the literal string is name='BITS.' The double quotes contain the an introduction whole thing. Both $filter1 and $filter2 end up containing exactly the same thing, but $filter2 gets there by using the variable-replacement trick of double quotes. Note that only the outermost set of quotes actually matters. The single quotes within the string don’t matter to Windows PowerShell. Those single quotes are just literal characters. Service Improvement. Windows PowerShell doesn’t interpret them.

Everything in Windows PowerShell is an object. Even a simple string such as “name” is an object, of the type System.String. Robert Jack. You can pipe any object to Get-Member to see its type name (that is, the kind of object it is) as well as its members, which includes its properties and service improvement, methods: Use a period after a variable name to tell the shell, “I don’t want to rebecca access the entire object within this variable. I want to access just one of its properties or methods.” After the tools period, provide the jack property or method name. Method names are always followed by a set of service improvement tools parentheses. Some methods accept input arguments, and those go within the parentheses in a comma-separated list. Apa Citations. Other methods require no arguments, and so the parentheses are empty, but don't forget the parentheses: Notice line two. It starts by accessing the improvement tools first item in the $svc variable. The period means, “I don’t want that entire object.

I just want a property or method.” This accesses just the name property. Line five illustrates how to apa citations access a method, by providing its name after a period, followed by tools, parentheses. A period is normally an illegal character within a variable name, because the period means we want to rebecca the film access a property or method. Improvement Tools. That means line two in the following example won’t work the way you might expect: On line two, $name will contain Service is BITS.ToUpper() whereas on the man, line four $name will contain ”Service is BITS.”

Aside from service improvement tools their use with object methods, parentheses also act as an order-of-execution marker for Windows PowerShell, just like in well algebra. In other words, parentheses tell the shell to “execute this first.” The entire parenthetical expression is replaced by whatever that expression produces. Here’s a mind-bending couple of tools examples: On line one, $name will contain the name of the the man first service on the system. Reading this takes a bit of effort. Tools. Start with the parenthetical expression. That’s what Windows PowerShell will start with as well.

The “Get-Service” resolves to a collection, or array, of services. The [0] accesses the first item in an array, so that will be the first service. Because it’s followed by a period, we know we’re accessing a property or method of that service, rather than the entire service object. Finally, we pull out just the name of the service. On line two, the parenthetical expression is reading the contents of a text file. Assuming the file contains one computer name per line, “Get-Content”” will return an array of computer names. David Boddy Management. Those are fed to the “–computerName” parameter of “Get-Service.” In this case, the shell can feed any parenthetical expression that returns an array of strings to the. “–computerName” parameter, because the parameter is designed to accept arrays of strings. Scope is a programming concept that acts as a containerization system. Service Improvement. Things like variables, aliases, PSDrives and other Windows PowerShell elements are all stored in a scope.

The shell maintains a hierarchy of scopes, and has a set of rules that determine how scopes can interact and share information with each other. The shell itself is a single scope, called the global scope. When you run a script, it constructs a new scope and the script runs within that. Anything created by the script, such as a new variable, is stored within the script’s scope. It isn’t accessible by the top-level shell. When the script finishes running, its scope is discarded, and anything created within that scope disappears. For example, create a script that contains the hour analysis following (don’t forget to service improvement not type the line numbers), and then run that script from the console window:

After running the script, manually run “Dir SYS:” and you should see an error. That’s because the SYS: drive was created in the script. Once the script was done, everything it created was discarded. Hour Analysis. The SYS: drive no longer exists. Not everything in the shell is scoped.

Items such as modules are handled globally at service improvement all times. A script can load a module and the module will remain loaded after the script is 6th edition apa citations, done. If a scope tries to improvement access something that wasn’t created within that scope, then Windows PowerShell looks to the next-higher scope (the “parent” scope). That’s why the Dir alias worked in that script you just entered. In Respect. Although Dir didn’t exist in the script’s scope, it did exist in the next-higher scope: the global scope. A scope is free to create an item that has the same name as an item from a higher-level scope, though. Here’s another script to try: That may look weird, but the first time it ran “Dir,” it didn’t exist in the script’s scope. It used the higher-level Dir alias. That alias points to Get-ChildItem, so it displayed a familiar directory listing.

Then, the script creates a new alias named Dir. Service Improvement Tools. This points to Get-Alias. That’s what was run the second time. None of this affected the to meaning top-level Dir alias. Try running Dir in service tools the shell after running the previous script, and you’ll still get a directory listing. Scope can be especially confusing when it comes to variables.

As a rule, a given scope should never access out-of-scope items, especially variables. Hour Analysis. There’s a syntax for doing so, such as using $global:var to forcibly access the global scope’s $var variable, but that’s a bad practice except under very specific circumstances. Windows PowerShell Scripting Language. Windows PowerShell contains a very simplified scripting language of less than two dozen keywords. That’s a stark contrast to a full programming language such as VBScript, which contains almost 300 keywords. Simplified though it may be, the Windows PowerShell language is more than sufficient to service do the in the well job. I’ll review its major scripting constructs now, although you can always get more help on tools, these by david management, reading the appropriate “about” topic within the shell. For example, help about_switchcontains information on the Switch construct, while help about_if contains information on the If construct. Run help about* for a list of all “about” topics. This is the improvement Windows PowerShell main decision-making construct. In its full form, it looks like this:

The “If” keyword is a mandatory part of this construct. A parenthetical expression follows that must evaluate to either True or False. Windows PowerShell will always interpret zero as False, and any nonzero value as True. Windows PowerShell also recognizes the built-in variables $True and $False as representing those Boolean values. If the expression in parentheses works out to True, then the commands in the following set of curly brackets will execute. If the expression is False, then the commands won’t execute. That’s really all you need for a valid If construct. You can go a bit further by providing one or more “ElseIf” sections.

These work the same way as the If construct. They get their own parenthetical expression. If it’s True, the commands within the following curly brackets will execute. If not, they won’t. You can wrap up with an Else block, which will execute if none of the preceding blocks execute.

Only the block associated with the first True expression will execute. For example, if $this did not equal $that, and the man well, $those did not equal $them, then the commands on service improvement tools, line four would execute—and nothing else. Windows PowerShell won’t even evaluate the second elseif expression on the film, line five. The # character is a comment character, making Windows PowerShell essentially ignore anything from there until a carriage return. Also notice the care with which those constructs were formatted. Improvement. You might also see formatting like this from some folks: It doesn’t matter where you place the hour analysis curly brackets. However, what does matter is that you be consistent in tools your placement so your scripts are easier to read. It’s also important to indent, to the exact same level, every line within the curly brackets. The Windows PowerShell ISE lets you use the Tab key for that purpose, and it defaults to a four-character indent.

Indenting your code is a core best practice. If you don’t, you’ll have a tough time properly matching opening and in respect, closing curly brackets in complex scripts. Also, all of the service improvement other Windows PowerShell kids will make fun of you. Consider this poorly formatted script: That’s a lot harder to hour analysis read, debug, troubleshoot and maintain. Tools. While the space after the closing parentheses isn’t necessary, it does make your script easier to read. The indented code isn’t necessary, but it makes your script easier to hour analysis follow.

Consider this instead: Placing a single closing curly bracket on service improvement tools, a line by itself isn’t required by the shell, but it’s appreciated by human eyes. Hour Analysis. Be a neat formatter, and you’ll have fewer problems in your scripts. This is a looping construct in Windows PowerShell. It’s designed to repeat a block of tools commands as long as some condition is 6th edition, True, or until a condition becomes True.

Here’s the basic usage: In this variation of the construct, the commands within the curly brackets will always execute at service improvement least once. The While condition isn’t evaluated until after the first execution. The Man In The. You can move the While, in which case the commands will only execute if the condition is True in the first place: Notice the second example doesn’t use a comparison operator such as -eq. That’s because the Test-Path cmdlet happens to return True or False to begin with. There’s no need to compare that to True or False in order for the expression to service improvement tools work.

The parenthetical expression used with these scripting constructs merely needs to simplify down to True or False. If you’re using a command such as Test-Path, which always returns True or False, that’s all you need. As always, there’s an the film “about” topic in improvement tools the shell that demonstrates other ways to use this construct. This construct is david boddy, similar in operation to the ForEach-Object cmdlet. It differs only in its syntax. The purpose of ForEach is to take an array (or collection, which in improvement Windows PowerShell is the same as an array) and enumerate the objects in the array so you can work with one at a time: It’s easy for newcomers to overthink this construct. Keep in mind that the plural English word “services” doesn’t mean anything to Windows PowerShell. That variable name is used to remind us it contains one or more services. Just because it’s plural doesn’t make the shell behave in a special fashion.

The “in” keyword on line two is part of the ForEach syntax. The $service variable is apa citations, made up. It could easily have been $fred or $coffee and it would have worked in just the service improvement tools same way. Windows PowerShell will repeat the construct’s commands—the ones contained within curly brackets—one time for jack the ripper, each object in the second variable ($services). Each time, it will take a single object from the improvement tools second variable ($services) and place it in the first variable ($service). Within this construct, use the first variable ($service) to work with an individual object. On line three, the period indicates “I don’t want to work with the entire object, just one of its members—the Stop method.” There are times when using ForEach is in respect, inevitable and desirable. However, if you have a bit of programming or scripting experience, you can sometimes leap to using ForEach when it isn’t the best approach.

The previous example isn’t a good reason to use ForEach. Wouldn’t this be easier: The point here is to tools evaluate your use of ForEach. Make sure it’s the only way to accomplish the task at hand. Jack The Ripper. Here are some instances where ForEach is improvement tools, probably the only way to go: When you need to robert mann jack the ripper execute a method against a bunch of objects and there’s no cmdlet that performs the equivalent action. When you have a bunch of objects and need to perform several consecutive actions against each. Improvement Tools. When you have an action that can only be performed against one object at a time, but your script may be working with one or more objects, and you have no way of knowing in hour analysis advance.

Windows PowerShell has several other scripting constructs, including Switch, For and so on. Improvement. These are all documented in “about” help topics within the shell. Sometimes, you can use the constructs covered here to replace those other constructs. For example, you can replace Switch with an If construct that uses multiple ElseIf sections. You can replace For with ForEach, or even with the ForEach-Object cmdlet. For example, having a loop that executes exactly 10 times: It’s up to you to mann select the improvement best construct to get the job done. The Film. If you’re browsing the Internet for improvement tools, scripts, be prepared to run across any and all variations. A function is mann the ripper, a special kind of service improvement tools construct used to contain a group of 6th edition apa citations related commands that perform a single, specific task. Generally speaking, you can take any Windows PowerShell script and “wrap” it within a function:

This defines a new function called “Mine.” That basically turns Mine into a command, meaning you can run the function simply by entering its name. That’s what line five does. It runs the service tools function. Functions are typically contained within a script file. In The. A single script can contain multiple functions. Functions can themselves even contain other functions. However, functions are scoped items. That means you can only use a function within the same scope in which it was created. If you put a function into a script, and then run that script, the function will only service improvement, be available within the script and only for the duration of the rebecca the film script.

When the script finishes running, the function—like everything else in the script’s scope—goes away. Here’s one example: Suppose you enter this into service improvement tools, a single script file and run that script. Line seven executes the function One, which starts on line one. Line five executes a function named Two, which starts on line two.

So the result will be a directory listing, which is on line three inside function Two. However, the next line to execute will be line eight, and that will result in an error. The script doesn’t contain a function named Two. Function Two is 6th edition, buried within function One. Service Tools. As a result, that exists within the function One scope. Only other things within function One can see Two. Attempting to call Two from anyplace else will result in rebecca the film an error. It’s rare to create a script that’s intended to do exactly the same thing every time it runs. Improvement Tools. More frequently, you’ll have scripts that contain some kind of the film variable data or variable behavior. You can accommodate these variations with parameters.

Parameters are defined in service improvement a special way at the top of the script. Hour Analysis. You can precede this definition with comments, but it must otherwise be the improvement tools first executable lines of code within the script. Within the parameter definition area, each parameter is separated from the next by a comma. In keeping with the idea of neat formatting, it helps to place each parameter on a line of its own. Here is an example: This example defines three parameters. Within the script, these are simply used like any other variable. You’ll notice that on line four, I assigned a default value to apa citations the $attemptcount parameter. The default will be overridden by service tools, any input parameter, but will be used if the script is to meaning, run without that parameter being specified. Here are several ways in which the script might be run, assuming I saved it as Test.ps1:

The script accepts parameters pretty much like any cmdlet. Variable names are used as the service improvement parameter names, specified with the in respect usual dash that precedes all parameter names in Windows PowerShell. Here’s a breakdown of how it works: On line one, I’m only specifying one of the parameters—$logfile will thus be empty, and $attemptcount will contain 5, its default. On line two, I’m specifying all three parameters, although I’m doing so using shortened parameter names. Service Tools. As with cmdlets, you only need to type enough of the parameter name for Windows PowerShell to hour analysis know which one you’re talking about. Tools. Line three shows me again all three parameters, although I’m doing so positionally, without using parameter names. As long as I remember to provide values in 6th edition apa citations the exact order in which the parameters are listed in the script, this will work fine. Line four shows what happens if you’re not careful.

Here, $computername will contain 'SERVER' and $logfile will contain 2, while $attemptcount will contain 5. That’s probably not what I intended. Improvement. When you don’t use parameter names, it’s harder to be flexible. It’s also more difficult for someone else to decode what you meant, which makes it harder for rebecca the film, them to troubleshoot any problems. Improvement. Line five is a better example. Apa Citations. Here, I’ve specified parameters out of order, but that’s fine because I used parameter names. Service Tools. As a general rule, I always use parameter names for the man well, the greatest degree of service improvement flexibility. I don’t need to remember the order in which they came. Windows PowerShell supports a technique for rebecca, specifying additional information about tools, parameters. This lets you declare a parameter as mandatory, accepting input from the pipeline and so forth.

This technique is to meaning, called Cmdlet Binding. It doesn’t change the way the service improvement tools script uses parameters. It simply gives the shell a bit more information about the parameters. You’ll find this technique more commonly used in hour analysis a function, but the syntax is valid within a script as well. Service Improvement Tools. Here’s a simple example:

All I added was the 6th edition apa citations [CmdletBinding()] instruction as the first executable line of code within the script. It’s okay for comments to precede this, but nothing else. Improvement Tools. I also added a [Parameter()] instruction to two of in respect to meaning my parameters. Within that [Paramater()] instruction, I’ve indicated that these parameters are mandatory. Service Tools. Now, if someone tries to run the script without specifying these parameters, Windows PowerShell will prompt them for david boddy management, the information. Notice that the last parameter doesn’t have any special instructions, and all three parameters still appear in a comma-separated list (meaning the service first two parameters are followed by commas). There are a ton of other instructions you can specify for a parameter, which you can read about in the about_functions_advanced_parameters help topic.

This was a whirlwind review of some key Windows PowerShell scripting-related concepts. I hope you’ve learned a thing or two. Being able to in respect to meaning build parameterized scripts is especially useful, because you can make scripts that look and service, behave like Windows PowerShell native cmdlets.

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21 Basic Resumes Examples for Students and New Graduates. Service? Written by Neil O’Donnell. Published July 5th, 2017. Neil O’Donnell, CPCC is a nationally certified career coach whose experience includes over 15 years of career counseling experience in addition to his having written thousands of résumés and cover letters. Working with professionals around the globe, Neil helps recent graduates and robert jack, seasoned professionals alike in achieving their career dreams. Let’s face it, writing résumés is a daunting task, especially for undergraduates or recent college or high school graduates. Admittedly, one of the service biggest complaints I often hear from such entry job seekers is that no one showed them how to write a résumé or curriculum vitae. Would it make you feel better to know that most teachers and boddy, professors don’t honestly know how to write a good résumé? Truthfully, most colleges have a career center, which students are repeatedly informed about, but students rarely utilize the services at such centers before or after graduation.

Hello! All graduates should make contact with their alma mater’s career center, because such centers usually offer free or low-cost résumé writing, basic resume examples, and interview preparation services! That said, let’s get to the heart of the issue. How do you write a good résumé for typical undergraduate/new graduate needs? Here are 4 basic resume examples, guidelines, and templates to help you out. 1. Sample Resume for an Internship. Most internships require a student provide a résumé and cover letter, but students often are frightened by this as they usually don’t have any experience related to the internship. Tools? Most employers are not expecting you to have extensive experience because an hour analysis internship is usually the first experience students have in their field.

As for the structure of a résumé for internships, much of the design is consistent with my previous guidance. However, a few things of are more routine when it comes to an internship résumé. First, as a person seeking an internship often has little or no professional experience, volunteer experience can be vital. Because, such experience can show a hiring manager or internship coordinator that you are a go-getter. You’d be amazed at the amount of improvement, employers across most fields place a great deal of value on volunteer experience, especially since a lot of volunteer responsibilities connect with the to meaning responsibilities of professionals. For instance, if you volunteered at service a foodbank, you would likely perform a mix of in respect to meaning, duties from handling inventory, keeping records of improvement, where food was shipped, and interacting with those in in respect needs by providing directions on where to go to obtain food. Tools? Such experience translates into customer service and office operations experience. Considering that MOST interns end up doing a lot of filing work and call monitoring, the in the volunteer experience is huge. Service Improvement? In addition to professional and or volunteer experience, I recommend internship seeking individuals include a summary of mann jack, qualifications section (placed before the service experience section) to identify skills they have that best match with the job and/or highlight skillsets that suggest the would-be intern would excel in the workplace (aka not be lazy). The Man In The? Many of tools, us have had nightmare experiences with interns.

So, any qualifications that could point towards you being a dedicated worker will likely help your case. In the qualifications section, also include coursework you completed that is relevant to the major/internship setting. For a business major seeking sales/accounting experience, it would be prudent to list courses you completed that connect with business, accounting, statistics, and economics. See the included Internship résumé for the film a full example. 2. Sample Resume for a Part-time Position.

College students need to improvement tools pay bills while professionals making little more than minimum wage need to find ways to robert the ripper make ends meet. This is service tools, often where a part-time job comes into play. Part-time jobs most often are connected to the man well the service industry, though sales, medical tech, and administrative jobs often fill this void as well. In most of these instances, training on the job is improvement, key so a relevant degree is not usually necessary (although pursuing a relevant degree could provide an rebecca the film advantage. For part-time work, it is tools, important to keep a few things in mind. First, if you have an advanced degree (a Masters or higher), you should consider dropping that from the résumé. Because, employers might see your advanced degree and figure you will only stay long enough until you find something better (better pay or better benefits). Also, if you have extensive experience, you should limit what is on your résumé to the last ten years. Hour Analysis? Too much experience may also suggest to an employer that you won’t be there long. Undergraduates and recent high school graduates don’t usually have these issues, but older workers seeking employment (especially after a layoff), could very well find themselves battling such hurdles.

Again, including a ‘Summary of Qualifications’ section is a good idea when seeking part-time work as it can highlight skillsets you have relevant to the work being completed. Service? For part-time jobs, especially those in the service industry, your education can be placed at the end (and in in the many cases, it should be last as pursuit of a college degree may make a hiring manager hesitate in hiring you for fear that you are only going to be there a short time. Lastly, as with the internship résumé, those with little experience should consider including volunteer experience to help fill up one full page for the résumé. See the example for service improvement tools an individual seeking part-time work as a sales associate, positions many undergraduates seek out while in to meaning college. Service Improvement? 3. Sample Resume for an Entry Level Job.

Again, applying for entry-level positions, a hiring manager is not going to expect applicants to have extensive experience. For recent college graduates, including a list of relevant coursework is a good thing to the man in the well consider as employers like to hiring individuals with up to date knowledge relevant to the field, particularly in service tools tech fields. I also believe listing relevant technological proficiencies is in the, crucial as many older employers often have limited experience in computer programming and repair. As someone who has always efforted to tools stay on apa citations top of technological advancements, I can attest to the fact that tech-proficient individuals are a hot commodity. For those with a great deal of experience and service, advanced degrees who are seeking an entry-level position, drop the advanced degree and hour analysis, only include last ten years of experience.

4. Basic Sample Resume for No Experience. Improvement Tools? For those without any experience, building a résumé is not so easy. To Meaning? Things that can help in service such situations are volunteer experience, relevant coursework from school, and a job objective. Frankly, most of mann jack, us who are professional résumé writers do not use job objectives, but when in service improvement need of filling a page, an objective can come in handy. Just make certain your resume objective is focused on the job you are applying to (i.e. “To obtain a line cook position at the Cityview Restaurant). Adding a summary of qualifications section where you highlight your computer proficiencies and the ripper, “soft” skills can help as well (soft skills including thriving in a team environment, conflict resolution, good communications skills, and organization). If you participated in activities at high school or college, including those experiences could also be a great addition, especially if you served in a position such as president, treasurer or secretary. For those with no experience, staying at your first job for a few years is important to build a foundation for service tools future success. Getting a new job every year looks bad on a résumé and will hurt your chances of being hired in the future.

Armed with this advice, know that every field/major requires a different focus on to meaning what to highlight in service a résumé, particularly with regards to in the well skillsets. Asking a professor for an example of tools, her/his résumé would provide a good foundation to start with. 6th Edition? Additionally, the following samples offer a glimpse at what a solid résumé would look like.

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Essay In Arabic Language Essays and Research Papers. Historical Background Of Arabic Language : Arabic language , with its rich heritage is . considered to be one of the oldest languages in the world with a wealth of knowledge that archeologists to this day are still trying to uncover. Since the middle Ages, Arabic has enjoyed a universality that makes it one of the greatest languages in the world, along with Greek and Latin. This status shows not only the number of speakers, but also the place that the service tools, language has held in to meaning history, and the significant. Arabian Peninsula , Arabic language , Classical Arabic 850 Words | 3 Pages. DIGLOSSIA Sociolinguistics encompasses a broad range of concerns including the use of two or more language varieties in distinct . social domains within the same speech community. In other words, the use of two distinct varieties of the same language for service, different functions. There are many societies where the official language that is used at schools or media is significantly different from hour analysis, that used at home or in service ordinary conversations and often called a “dialect” or “vernacular”. Such a.

Arabic alphabet , Arabic language , Arabic languages 2010 Words | 6 Pages. ? Language Essay PSY/360 Introduction Language is universal way to express . how a person feels. Rebecca The Film? So of service improvement, course, it is mann jack the ripper, essential in cultures to express their individuality within life. Most of the time people do not put a lot of speculation on what mental processes may be taking place subconsciously. Service Improvement? These mental processes allow a person to think, speak, and express their personal thoughts through language . In order to properly analyze that language , cognition must. Cognition , Cognitive psychology , Cognitive science 1078 Words | 4 Pages. Word Count- 1250 Essay #5 Most professions or trades use language specific to hour analysis that line of work. Service Improvement? In the workplace of . psychiatrists, psychologists, and 6th edition apa citations therapists, there is a specific language used in service improvement assessing, diagnosing, and treating clients and patients. I have come to be familiar with this as my mother is a therapist and we have talked about her work and diagnosing people with a variety of hour analysis, mental health disorders. The problem with such language and expressing that language in a book like.

Antisocial personality disorder , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Homosexuality 1321 Words | 4 Pages. Diglossia: Arabic Language and service Single Language Community. definition Diglossia is a state or attribute, speaking two languages ) refers to a situation in jack which two dialects or usually closely . Tools? related languages are used by robert the ripper a single language community. Service? In addition to the community's everyday or vernacular language variety (labeled L or low variety), a second, highly codified variety (labeled H or high) is mann the ripper, used in certain situations such as literature, formal education, or other specific settings, but not used for ordinary conversation. Service Improvement? Sociolinguistic.

Arabic language , Dialect , Diglossia 955 Words | 3 Pages. existence of different languages and hour analysis the need for their translation create problems for the acquisition of knowledge? According to service Sartre, . Rebecca? words carry more power than we think and have the service tools, ability to betray their proper meanings. Words, or in a broader sense, language , is far more powerful than we give it credit for and is ambiguous in its nature to in respect to meaning either be powerful in a good way or treacherous. When language is translated properly and service improvement knowledge is acquired successfully, language is apa citations, powerful. However. Arabic language , Existentialism , Language 915 Words | 3 Pages. ?Marquise Long Understanding the importance of language An American author named Oliver Wendell Holmes . Improvement? once stated, “ Language is the robert jack the ripper, blood of the soul into which thoughts run and out of which they grow.” This quote, itself describes the importance of language as it embraces “growth” as an service improvement, aspect of it.

Language , which is a method of rebecca the film, communication used by humans, allows for innovation and progress within the world. For starters, communication is important because. American films , Culture , Doctor 987 Words | 4 Pages. Arabic: Inflection and Perfect Imperfect. The Arabic language is the official language of over two - hundred million speakers world - wide. It is spoken . Improvement? throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa. It is robert, also spoken in many Muslim countries due to its religious affiliation with Islam.

It is service, classified as an Afro-Asiatic or Central Semitic language , which has twenty-seven regional specific varieties. For the purpose of my essay , I have chosen to analyze the Classical form. The purpose of this essay is to examine some examples of the verbal. Affix , Arabic language , Grammatical aspect 911 Words | 4 Pages. the cause and effects of English as a world language and evaluate these factors Student:Joe(N3227683) . Tutor:AF Pre-sessional English courses (10 weeks) Language is the carrier of culture and portrayal of cultural. Language and david management an introduction culture is inseparable.

Each language have their own culture. Improvement? In today’s, English as a world language has a seriously effect on the culture diversity. English language , First language , French language 1066 Words | 4 Pages. Essay 1 Does the language you speak reflect your personal and cultural Identity? The United States of America is in respect to meaning, one of the improvement, most . diverse countries in the world and for that reason there are many different languages spoken. Most people who move to hour analysis this land of opportunities are required to learn the primary language , English. By learning the language of the new world they have entered, they are slowly giving up the tools, culture and language from which they came from.

People who have trouble learning English. Americas , English language , Essay 1643 Words | 4 Pages. Japanese and Arabic Language Although Japanese and Arabic languages ranked as top ten . languages used in the web in hour analysis 2011, there are significant differences in the number of internet users and service improvement the percentage of hour analysis, growth between Arabic and improvement tools Japanese language . (www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm). This essay compares the the man in the well, ratio between Japanese and Arabic language in the Internet and then discusses the reasons for this differences. Although Arabic population was higher than Japanese by over than. Arabic language , Classical Arabic , Egypt 406 Words | 2 Pages. Weaknesses of Language as a WOK Language may often be defined as “a body of words and the systems for their use common to . people who are of the same community or nation, the service improvement tools, same geographical area, or the same culture/tradition” (dictionary.reference.com).

Although language is a basis for communication, it has many forms and variations, not only specific to the same lingual group or nation, thus causing it to present both strengths and weaknesses depending on the situation in which language is management, used. Communication , Grammar , Language 1296 Words | 4 Pages. Is Language An Instinct Education Essay. ?Is Language An Instinct Education Essay As you are reading these words, you are taking part in one of the wonders of the natural . Service Improvement? world. Linguists have continually been bewildered by language and the language debate which has been inundated with arguments by several professionals to support either the instinctive or learned side of the debate. Jack? So, in 1994 when “The Language Instinct” by psychologist Steven Pinker was published, it reignited the discussion. His book utilized the concepts developed. Geoffrey Sampson , Intelligence , Language 1535 Words | 3 Pages. essay, english as a global language.

English as a world language outweigh the dangers? Predictions are that English could become a future language for the world. . It is widely spoken and taught around the world. By the late eighteen century; John Adams predicted that it would become the most respectable language in the world and improvement tools most universally read and in respect spoken in the coming centuries. (Burn Coffin: 9). The evidence of this is emphasized by David Crystal in his second edition of service, his book - English as a global language . He states that. Culture , English language , German language 866 Words | 3 Pages. Persian/Farcee is written in Arabic script. Urdu.

2. Muslim does not mean Arab. 3. Turkey/Afghanistan/Iran/Pakistan Only 20% of 1.8 . billion Muslim are Arab. Indonesia has more Muslims than the rest of the world. 10% of Arabs are Christian. Kurds are Muslims that do not speak Arabic . They want their language to be official. 6th Edition Apa Citations? Amazigh became official in 2011. Some Christians support Arabic language . 335 million people in the Arab World. 5% of improvement, world pop. Hour Analysis? Arabic is present in non-speaking. Arabic alphabet , Arabic language , Classical Arabic 1286 Words | 6 Pages.

Discover The New Paradigm That Leverages The 80/20 Principle To Give You More Arabic In An Hour Than YEARS Of Study Combined ? Why ignoring it . will cost you hundreds of hours in wasted effort in service 2012 and beyond … ? Why using it will have you understanding and appreciating the miracle of the Qur’an faster than you now believe possible, and… ? How to harness it NOW Title and Graphic to be determined TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword . Arabic alphabet , Arabic language , Grammatical tense 15666 Words | 39 Pages. Language Essay Ryan Butler Psychology 360 August 29, 2011 Professor Newlin LANGUAGE Have you ever wondered . how we speak? How about why our communication is considered a language and other animal’s communication is not considered language ? A wide range of beliefs exist on what defines language . Rebecca The Film? Thus, by exploring the definition of language and lexicon, evaluating language’s key features, the four levels of language structure and service tools processing, and the role of the ripper, language in tools Cognitive Psychology. Brain , Cognition , Cognitive psychology 1420 Words | 4 Pages. ?Practice Essay “These days we are far more tolerant of taboo language ; it no longer has the power to shock or offend. 6th Edition Apa Citations? Discuss.” . Why are we more accepting of taboo language today? Increased usage, social groups that use taboo language to build solidarity/exclude others.

What are the social purposes of service improvement tools, taboo language ? Support group solidarity, create social distance, challenge authority, establish identity In what situations would taboo language be shocking or offensive, and rebecca when would it be expected/tolerated. Identity , Profanity , Social class 1237 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay - Language and service improvement tools Identity. English Composition Language and Identity Who am I? What is it that defines that personality? Anzaldua argues in her . The Film? essay that the language is what defines one’s identity.

Language is indeed an important component of culture, and culture is known to be a crucial definer of identity. People use language to connect to their identities and service improvement tools communicating their realities and 6th edition values to themselves and to the world around them… In other words, language is service improvement, important because people use it to express. Community , Dialect , English language 1017 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Montessori Language Language lies at the root of that transformation of the environment that we . call ‘civilization’. The child’s language developments during his or her early years are freely remarkable. Apa Citations? Describe how does the Montessori environment aid the child’s language development? What is civilization? “Civilization is a term used to describe a certain kind of development of a human society”(2). In ancient Egypt, writing was first discovered in the form of paintings. Ancient Egypt , Attention , Developmental psychology 1116 Words | 4 Pages.

?Asia Country Official and national Languages Other spoken Languages Afghanistan Pashto (Pashtu, Pushtu) an Eastern . Iranian language , it is the improvement tools, native language of the rebecca the film, Pashtun people. Dari Persian (Farsi-ye Dari) also known as Afghan Persian. Improvement Tools? other Turkic and minor languages . Armenia Armenian (Hayeren) is an hour analysis, independent, one- language subgroup within the Indo-European language family. The unique Armenian alphabet, which consists of service tools, 39 characters, was created in in respect 405 AD by a monk named. Dialect , English language , French language 483 Words | 6 Pages. In this essay I will compare between the story of Zahra by hanan el shik and service tools the wiles of men by salwa bakr . first of all both el shik and . bakr are arab women. Hanan Al-Shaykh was born in 1945 in Beirut, Lebanon. Al-Shaykh began writing at a young age and by sixteen had essays published in the newspaper she would eventually work for, al-Nahar. She attended the American College for Girls in in respect Cairo, Egypt from 1963 to 1966. After her graduation she worked in television in Beirut and as a journalist.

Arab , Arab League , Arabic language 927 Words | 3 Pages. Language Gender and Culture Essay. ? Language , Gender, and Culture Essay In our world there are so people that are being overrated, from their skin color, to improvement how . they talk or to where they came from or the way they walk, everything from apa citations, what people wear to where people come from and their ethnic background. These people are looked down on from the rest of improvement, society for just being themselves and doing only what they know to do. For some, it’s wrong if others do not act just like them and david an introduction they put them down for it. Stereotypes can. Antagonist , Audre Lorde , Audre Lorde Project 879 Words | 3 Pages. The Power of Language 1984 Comparison Essay.

The Power of Language George Orwell, the service improvement tools, writer of many highly regarded literary works, is extremely interested in the . power of 6th edition, language , mainly how it is abused. By analyzing two of improvement tools, his works, 1984 and the man well Politics and service improvement The English Language , it is clear that Orwell is using his writing to bring awareness to the dangers of the manipulation, misuse, and decline of language . To Meaning? In 1984 he demonstrates how language can be used to control thought and manipulate the past. This is proven. Communism , English language , George Orwell 1536 Words | 4 Pages. The secret behind languages Language is the secret of knowledge the more you know language the improvement, . more you know the world, and hour analysis each language has its own special secret. language represents people's identity in a way I can tell who and service improvement tools where you're from by the tone in your voice . Rebecca? Learning a new language can be challenging. It can give the power of knowing and understanding. Service Improvement Tools? Also you can gain and lose something by rebecca the film learning a new language . Sometimes language gives you the ability of. English language , First language , French language 1879 Words | 5 Pages.

The Only Language Widely Used Language plays a significant role in defining who we are. It is service tools, a method of communication in a . structured and conventional way. In Respect? “ Language reinforces feelings of social superiority or inferiority; it creates insiders and outsiders” (p. Service Improvement Tools? 242) states Robert MacNeil (2012) in his article “English Belongs to Everybody”. Robert Mann Jack? Robert MacNeil, a writer of many great historical articles, was once, a journalist and news anchor. In his article, “English Belongs to improvement tools Everybody”, MacNeil.

Commonwealth of Nations , English language , French language 827 Words | 3 Pages. English AS Language Essay - Language and Power. ?With detailed reference to Text H and to relevant ideas from language study, explore how written language is used to assert . power Text H is a poster which displays the rules and information to students taking or entering an exam. It also is for the use of the invigilators, to inform them of the rules as well as the candidates. This poster will be shown right across the david boddy management, country to students preparing to take an exam.

This is done to make sure there is regularity and equality everywhere, so that. Authority , Crime , Mobile phone 953 Words | 3 Pages. Arabic essay language ?????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? If you are studying Arabic , you will no . doubt have to write essays and reflective pieces. Here are some useful phrases and vocabulary for service improvement tools, essay writing. Writing the introduction ?? ???? ????? firstly ????? ???? ?? ??? first and foremost/ firstly, and the man well above all else ?? ???? ????? ?? it goes without saying that ?? ????? ????? ?? it is self evident that ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? It is well known that/ everyone is well aware that ????. Copula , Question , Sentence 1357 Words | 8 Pages. Essay on the Nature and Uses of Language. Discuss the nature and improvement tools uses of language . Hour Analysis? Nature of Language 1) What is language ? Language is a . Tools? collection of symbols governed by rules and used to convey messages between individuals. 6th Edition Apa Citations? The nature of language brings us to the nature of human thought and action, for language is neither more nor less than both these aspects of human nature. Let's examine the nature of language closer. Service Improvement? 2) Paralanguage Paralanguage is the non-verbal elements of communication used to in respect convey emotion and service modify meaning.

First language , Grammar , Language 1870 Words | 7 Pages. ? Language Death—why should we care With the accelerated progress of globalization and civilization, language death today has . become an undeniable and hour analysis undisputed phenomenon as languages have been disappearing in an increasing rate (Guilherme 2013). Language death could be defined as a language which “nobody speaks it any more” (Crystal 2000). According to service improvement tools Colls (2009), the size of david, language pool is over 7000, but by end of improvement tools, this century, it is robert jack the ripper, estimated that 90% of improvement tools, those languages “would have ceased. Culture , Endangered language , Extinct language 1293 Words | 6 Pages. ?The positive and negative transfers of Chinese students use their first language to learn English.

In China, many people are learning . English as their second language . English is the most important language which truly links the whole world together. English language system is very different from to meaning, Chinese language system in improvement many ways such as, grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary. “Belonging to two different language families, English and Chinese have many significant differences. The Man Well? This makes. English language , First language , French language 1399 Words | 4 Pages. the primary range of Arabic script in Unicode (U+06xx) is lam + alif. This is the only one compulsory for fonts and word-processing. Other . ranges are for compatibility to older standards and contain other ligatures, which are optional. lam + alif ??? Note: Unicode also has in its Presentation Form B FExx range a code for this ligature.

If your browser and font are configured correctly for Arabic , the ligature displayed above should be identical to this one, U+FEFB ARABIC LIGATURE LAM WITH ALEF. Arabic alphabet , Arabic language , Consonant 1079 Words | 4 Pages. Explore Some of the Ways in which Your Speech Changes according to the Context you are In In this essay I shall explore the ways in which my . Service Improvement? speech changes according to the context I am in. Most people change the way they speak without knowing it and only realise it when they consciously try to jack the ripper listen for differences in their idiolect, such as their pitch, intonation, pronunciation, speed, lexis and length of their utterances. One aspect of speech which changes is my pitch.

I use sarcasm occasionally. Dialect , English language , English phonology 1229 Words | 4 Pages. LANGUAGE LEGISLATION: VOTER DRIVEN INITIATIVES Kelly M. Jefferson Grand Canyon University: SPE 523 July 23, 2012 . The issue of language policy and service improvement the education of rebecca the film, English language learners (ELLs) in this country has been hotly debated and service improvement widely contested. Rebecca? Students who enter our school systems without an understanding of the English language must attain not only conversational proficiency, but also academic literacy in English. Academic literacy is the. English language , English-language education , French language 1132 Words | 4 Pages. Summary of Arabic Blackberry: Adapting to the Language of the Market.

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Lecturer Areej As’ad Ja’far Altaie (MA in service improvement tools English Language and Linguistics) Department of robert, English College of Education (Safi yil Deen Al-Hilli) University of Babylon 2010 2 Introduction In fact, although. Ambiguity , Arabic language , Homograph 7958 Words | 31 Pages. The Effect of service tools, a Change in Language of the man in the, Instruction on tools, the Returns to Schooling in Morocco. Five Article Summaries The Effect of a Change in 6th edition Language of Instruction on the Returns to Schooling in Morocco Joshua D. Angrist and Victor . Lavy Journal of Labor Economics , Vol. 15, No. 1, Part 2: Essays in Honor of Yoram Ben-Porath (Jan., 1997), pp.

S48-S76 According to this journal, in the last few decades, language reform has been a strong movement throughout the Kingdom of Morocco from a primarily French speaking country, to an Arabic speaking one. In the schools, the French teachers. Africa , Algeria , Casablanca 818 Words | 3 Pages. reference to the above quote, please discuss how language calls to the child and tools how is language encouraged through the hour analysis, . Montessori language exercise? Language is the ability to understand speech and improvement tools a desire to convey one's feelings and thoughts. It is a kind of difficulty, which encloses a given human being company, and separates it from all others. It unites men and they develop and 6th edition apa citations expand according to the need of their mind.

Language is a mean of communication, delivering ideas. Communication , Developmental psychology , Human 757 Words | 3 Pages. ARABIC BLACBERRY In October 2007, the launch of the first Arabic Blackberry was announced in the United Arab Emirates. The device . had Arabic language input and an Arabic interface. Up until this point, the Blackberry was restricted to US and European use. The new initiative to bring the Blackberry to the Middle East and Africa had begun.

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Language changes when words get old and new. English language , Language , Language change 1114 Words | 3 Pages.

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