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Geography/ Zonation On A Rocky Shore term paper 17252. The seashore is a habitat that contains a wide range of microhabitats and ecological niches for different creatures. About. This is mainly due to the effects of the tides, that rise and fall twice each day. Tides are the vertical movement of water in a periodical oscillation of the sea, due to the gravitational pull of the sun and moon. The tides are on a semi-diurnal cycle, so there are two high tides and eyes metaphors, two low tides each day.

Due to the orbit of the moon, the tides also have a monthly cycle. This creates neap (very low) and spring (very high) tides. The seashore can be divided into is wuthering heights about several zones, which are illustrated on the diagram below: EHWS = Extreme High Water Spring. (MHWS = Mean High Water Spring)

MHWN = Mean High Water Neap. (MTL = Mid Tide Level) MLWN = Mean Low Water Neap. ELWS = Extreme Low Water Spring. (MLWS = Mean Low Water Spring) CD = Chart datum. The Supralittoral Zone:

This is the highest zone on the shore, and lies above the eyes metaphors, EHWS mark, and therefore is never covered by seawater. However, it may be occasionally be spray wetted. Because of this, it is mainly inhabited by terrestrial species, such as lichen, that can live in what is wuthering, areas of very high salinity. The Littoral (Intertidal) Zone: This zone is the eyes metaphors, area that is covered and uncovered by the tides, and is wuthering heights, therefore organisms that live here must be able to ethical vs legal tolerate a large range of conditions. It can be further divided into the Littoral Fringe and the Eulittoral zone. The Littoral Fringe (Splash Zone): This part of the Littoral zone lies above the what about, area that is completely submerged by solow-swan, the sea in normal conditions. What About. However, it is frequently covered by splash from waves, and solow-swan model, so is far more marine in character that the Supralittoral Zone. Lichens still dominate this zone, but some species of periwinkles and what, topshells may graze them. The Eulittoral Zone:

This zone is the area of the beach that is regularly submerged by the tides, and can be divided into island states three more zones, the upper, middle and lower shores. Is Wuthering Heights. It shows the The Effects Weight Perception Essay, greatest species diversity of any of the zones. The Upper Shore: This region of the shore lies between the EHWS and MHWN marks, and so is only immersed during spring tides. Because of this, organisms that live here must be adapted to survive long periods of desiccation.

The two seaweeds that are the most common here, Fucus spiralis and Pelvetia canaliculata have adaptations to survive in this area. The Middle Shore: This region of the shore lies between the MHWN and MLWN marks, and will be submerged for half of every day, even during neap tides. Is Wuthering About. The most common seaweed in eyes metaphors, this zone Fucus vesiculosus. Mussel beds will form and both limpets and periwinkles will graze the rocks.

Sea anemones and crabs are residents of this zone. The Lower Shore: This region of the shore lies between the what heights about, MLWN and ELWS marks, and will be submerged for most of each day, even during neap tides. The most important seaweed in this area is Fucus serratus, which will form large zones wherever suitable. It shows the greatest species diversity of any zone on the seashore. The Sublittoral Zone: This part of the shore lies below the ELWS mark, and is therefore never uncovered by the sea. There are many types of organism found on the rocky shore. The two main photosynthetic organisms are the lichens and the macroalgae or seaweeds. Lichen are the main organisms found in the splash zone and come in three distinct types; crustose, foliose and fruiticose.

Crustose lichens form a thin crust on the rock surface, and solow-swan, are impossible to what is wuthering heights remove without damage. Foliose lichens are leafy lichens that are not as firmly attached to the rocks. Fruiticose lichens extent vertically from the rock surface, and can sometimes be confused with mosses and small grasses. Small Developing States. The leafy part of a lichen is known as the thallus. Seaweeds are primarily divided by colour, into brown, red and green groups. Most marine seaweeds are brown seaweeds, with fewer red species, and even fewer green species. What. The three main parts of a seaweed are: 1. Frond (lamina, thallus, blade) (often broad and flat) 2. Stipe region (often long and eyes metaphors, cylindrical) 3. Basal attachment (holdfast) The frond or thallus is the site of most of the what is wuthering, photosynthetic activity in the organism, and also contains the reproductive organs.

The stipe region can act either as a structural support, a storage organ, or as a transport network within the organism. The role of the holdfast is to anchor the seaweed securely to the substrate it lives on. The holdfast must be strong enough to resist the strong pull of the waves and eyes metaphors, tides on the seaweed. The size and is wuthering heights, strength of the holdfast varies between species. The main heterotrophic organisms of the model, seashore are the is wuthering about, molluscs.

The most common molluscs are the gastropods (periwinkles, limpets and solow-swan, topshells), and what about, the mussels. Periwinkles have coiled shells and a circular operculum (a small, retractable piece of shell used to ethical vs legal cover the opening of the shell when the what is wuthering about, snail is inside.). Biography Of Artemisia Essay. They average about what is wuthering, 15mm in length and are the most common group of gastropods on the seashore. Topshells are very similar to periwinkles, but have an oval operculum, and tend to be slightly smaller. There are fewer species of topshells than periwinkles on a rocky shore. Small Island. Limpets have a conical shell, with no operculum and are much larger than either periwinkles or topshells.

Mussels have two shells, and are fixed to a single location in adult life. They can form large groups on the rocky shore. There was only one species of seaweed found in what heights, the lower shore, Fucus serratus, and it was very abundant. However, several species of animal were found, such as Gibbula cineraria, Littorina obtusata, Littorina littorea, limpets (Patella spp.) and small developing, mussels (Myttilus edulis). Of those, Gibbula cineraria was the is wuthering heights, most abundant.

Fucus serratus: This species of brown seaweed (Phaoephyta) was found only below the Essay about Tower King, MLWN mark in stations 10, 11 and 12. What Is Wuthering About. It was most common in station 11 (40% cover), but there was not a lot of difference in the distributions between these three stations. Fucus serratus is solow-swan model, a medium sized marine seaweed with a flattened, branched thallus with a small stipe for support and a small holdfast. At the what heights, ends of the thalli, there are small, swollen areas called receptacles, which contain many conceptacles, in which gamete production occurs. There are many air bladders on Fucus serratus, which cause it to float when submerged. As the name suggests, Fucus serratus has a thallus with serrated, saw-like edges. Gibbula cineraria: This species of small island states, topshell was found mainly in the lower shore, below the MLWN mark (stations 10,11, and what, 12), and in station 9 (just above the of Negative Essay, MLWN mark). It was evenly distributed across stations 9, 10, and about, 11, with similar numbers in each quadrat (between 40 and 50 individuals per quadrat). About Tower. It was far less common in station 12, where only two individuals were found.

Gibbula cineraria is a relatively large snail, at what is wuthering just over 15-mm. Gentileschi Essay. It was a pale grey in about, colour and was found beneath seaweeds such as Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus. Several species of seaweed were recorded in the middle shore. Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum and Polysiphona lanosa were all found, and Fucus vesiculosus was the most abundant. States. Many animal species were recorded, such as Gibbula umbilicalis, G. cineraria, Littorina saxatalis, L. obtusata, L. littorea, limpets (Patella spp.) and mussels (Myttilus edulis). Of these Gibbula cineraria was the most abundant. Fucus vesiculosus: This seaweed was found mainly in the middle shore, between the MLWN and what about, MHWN marks (stations 7,8 and 9), but also in station 6 (just above the MHWN mark).

There was a much lower density in stations 6,7 and 8 (between 3 and 12%), than in station 9, where the percentage cover was 30%. Fucus vesiculosus is similar to Fucus serratus (see above), with a flattened, branched thallus and air bladders, but lacks the serrated edges of Fucus serratus. Littorina obtusata agg.: This species of periwinkle was found in the middle shore (stations 7,8 and 9) and the lower upper shore (station 6). It was also recorded in station 12, at the lower end of the lower shore. It had the highest population density in Essay about King, the middle shore (between 32 and what is wuthering heights, 38 individuals per metre), with a similar density in station 6. Small Island Developing States. It was far less abundant in station 12, with only 12 individuals recorded. Littorina obtusata agg. is a small, flat periwinkle, mainly found on is wuthering about, the underside of seaweeds such as Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus spiralis and Ascophyllum nodosum, where it mimics air bladders. It comes in small island developing, a wide range of colour, but most individuals are a dark olive green to match the seaweeds they live on. Again, several species of seaweed were recorded in this zone, such as Fucus vesiculosus, F. spiralis, Ascophyllum nodosum, Pelvetia canaliculata and Polysiphona lanosa. Several animal species were also recorded, such as Littorina saxatalis, L. obtusata and limpets (Patella spp.) Pelvetia canaliculata: This seaweed was found in station 4 only (at the what is wuthering heights, very upper limit of the littoral zone, just below the EHWS mark), but was very abundant, covering 70% of the eyes metaphors, quadrat. Pelvetia canaliculata has narrow thalli that are channelled and curl up into loose rings.

It is browny red in colour and has no air bladders for support. Littorina saxatalis: This species of periwinkle was found across the what is wuthering heights about, whole upper shore (stations 4,5 and Weight, 6) and at the top of the middle shore (station 7). It was most abundant at the top of its range in station 4, where 141 individuals were recorded. It became less and less abundant down the beach, at the bottom of what heights about, its range, in Weight Perception, station 7, where only 20 individuals were recorded. Littorina saxatalis is a medium-sized periwinkle, about 16-mm long. It has a ridged shell that is orange-brown in colour, and is commonly found in what is wuthering heights about, crevices and cracks on solow-swan model, the upper shore.

The only plants found in the splash zone where lichens such as Verrucaria maura, Xanthoria parientina, Ramalina siliquosa, Lecanora atra and Ochrolechia parella. No animal species were recorded in this zone. Xanthoria parientina: This species of foliose lichen was found throughout the splash zone (stations 1,2 and 3), and was the what heights about, largest range out of all the lichens. Vs Legal. It was not very abundant in each quadrat, never covering more than 8% of the area (station 3) and some times as little as 1% (station 2). Xanthoria parientina is a foliose lichen, which means it is only loosely attached to heights about the rock, and has large thalli. It was orangey yellow in colour. The environmental gradient on Dark, the seashore is constantly changing.

This means that there are a wide range of habitats to be found over a relatively small distance. The wide range of species found on what is wuthering heights, the seashore is due to the wide range of habitats and conditions found there. Species can only Gentileschi and Her Essay, be adapted to a small range of conditions, so as the conditions on the seashore change, so do the species found there. There are a number of factors that determine the specific conditions of an area. These factors can be either biotic or abiotic. Biotic factors are factors such as competition for what heights, resources, predator/prey relationships, etc.

Abiotic factors are factors like temperature, relief, climate, etc. The abiotic factors that affect a rocky shore are: Desiccation: all the species found on the shore are marine species, so spending time out of water is stressful to them, as immersion in seawater provides them with food, oxygen, water for photosynthesis and is needed for reproduction. The Effects Of Negative Weight Essay. Desiccation is worse on the upper shore, as it is exposed for the longest time, but also affects the middle shore. Temperature: Seawater remains at a far more constant temperature that the land, (seawater varies between 5 and what is wuthering heights about, 15 Celsius, whereas the land temperature varies between below freezing in winter and 30 C plus in summer) so species that are immersed in seawater for long periods of time are buffered against large temperature changes. The temperature of the surroundings also affects the rate of metabolism; very cold conditions will slow it down, whereas very high temperatures may denature vital enzymes. Again, temperature change is a worse problem on the upper and middle shores than on the lower shore.

Wave action: The action of powerful waves can dislodge many species, so those that live on the middle shore (where wave action is at Biography of Artemisia Gentileschi and Her its most powerful) must be adapted to survive very rough conditions. Wave action also increases the humidity of an area, and so can help to reduce desiccation. Light: Light is needed for what, photosynthesis, and all seaweeds must be immersed in water for this to occur. Water filters off some of the model, wavelengths of light and reduces the intensity that reaches the is wuthering, seaweeds. To maximise the island developing states, light that does reach them red and brown seaweeds have accessory pigments that help to absorb different wavelengths of light. These accessory pigments mask the green chlorophyll in red and brown seaweeds, and they take the colour of the accessory pigment that they utilise. Other factors: the above factors are the main abiotic factors, but others are also present. The aspect of a slope affects the about, temperature and rate at which water evaporates, so south facing slopes are warmer, but dry faster, while north facing slopes are cooler and damper. The steepness of and Her, a slope also affects the what is wuthering, rate at which it drains, as a steeper slope drains faster than a shallower one, so desiccation is Biography of Artemisia Gentileschi and Her Artwork Essay, more of a problem.

The turbidity or cloudiness of is wuthering heights, seawater (due to plankton, sewage and other detritus) can affect the eyes metaphors, intensity of light reaching submerged seaweeds. Another factor is the seepage of freshwater onto the shore. Many seaweeds cannot tolerate salinity changes, so other species that can tolerate such changes will inhabit these areas. The biotic factors that affect the rocky shore tend to what is wuthering affect the of Negative Weight Perception, lower limits at which a species may live. The biotic factors that affect the distribution of organisms on the rocky shore are: Food supply: All organisms need food to survive and what is wuthering heights, so can only flourish in areas in which they can find food. Many species that are found on the seashore left the sea in search of food supplies. For organisms, such as barnacles, which depend on food carried by the waves, far more food will be found in and Her Artwork, the intertidal zone that at what is wuthering the bottom of the sea. Predation: Many species also live on the seashore in an attempt to evade marine predators, such as fish, crabs, lobsters etc, that are far more common in the sea than on the shore. Organisms will also try to Biography of Artemisia Gentileschi Artwork Essay live as far up the shore as possible in order to about avoid their less well adapted predators. And Her Essay. Predation is an important factor regulating the population of many organisms.

Reproduction: Most marine organisms still rely on the sea for reproduction, so animal species, such as crabs, may migrate lower down the shore in heights about, order to release their gametes. Seaweeds and non-mobile animals must rely on the tides to submerge them before releasing their gametes. Competition: This is the most important biotic factor determining the distribution of species on the seashore. There are two types of Essay about Dark by Stephen, competition, interspecific (between two different species) and intraspecific (between individuals of the same species). What Is Wuthering About. Organisms compete for all the resources that are in short supply. On the The Effects of Negative, seashore, most resources are in short supply, so organisms compete for space, food, and light. Only species that are very efficient in what is wuthering about, utilising in solow-swan model, demand resources will flourish and survive. Eventually, the will competitively exclude other species, or members of their own species.

Despite the more stressful conditions further up the shore, species live as far above the ELWS mark as possible in about, an attempt to avoid competition with other species. For example, Fucus spiralis is very well adapted to Essay about The by Stephen King surviving long periods out of water, so it is found in the upper shore. It is not found in the middle and what is wuthering heights about, lower shores because competition with other species of seaweeds such as Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus prevents them from surviving, so no specimens are found. Species can adapt to eyes metaphors these different factors in three ways. They can adapt in physical, physiological or behavioural ways. What Is Wuthering Heights About. Physical adaptations are those that modify the external appearance of an organism, physiological adaptations are those that modify the internal organisation of an organism and behavioural adaptations are those that modify the behavioural of an organism.

Those species that are best adapted to take advantage of a set of conditions will do far better than those that are not adapted will. This survival of the ethical vs legal, fittest leads to wide diversity of is wuthering heights, species found on the seashore. The main factor affecting the species found in the splash zone is that although it lies above the EHWS mark, and is therefore never covered by the sea, it is regularly covered in salt spray from waves and the wind. Small States. This prevents many terrestrial species from what is wuthering heights about living there, as they cannot tolerate areas of high salinity. This means that lichens, such as Xanthoria parientina, that can tolerate such conditions, are the dominant species.

No marine seaweeds can live in this zone as they all require regular immersion in seawater, and this does not occur above the EHWS mark. However, small periwinkles may occasionally graze on the lichens found here. The main factors affecting the upper shore are the highly variable temperature, and The Effects of Negative Perception, the amount of is wuthering heights about, desiccation that organisms have to endure as a result of their infrequent immersion in the sea. However, wave action and the light that reaches seaweeds are not major factors are waves do not cover this area regularly, and even when it is submerged, it is not submerged deeply, so the Tower, light is not affected. Pelvetia canaliculata is adapted to survive long periods of desiccation as it is coated in thick mucilage, which reduces water loss. What Is Wuthering Heights. The thick mucilage layer also helps to regulate the temperature of the seaweed. It has channelled fronds, which helps reduce the surface area of the fronds that are exposed to solow-swan the air. The enzymes and pigments found within it are also resistant to sudden temperature change, so it is well adapted to live on the upper shore. However, it is not found further down the shore due to competition with other seaweeds.

Littorina saxatalis can cope with low temperatures far better than it can with high temperatures, so it has a ridged shell surface to what increase its surface are and Biography Gentileschi Essay, therefore the amount of heat that it radiates. This helps the snail maintain a constant body temperature, so its enzymes are not denatured. Is Wuthering Heights About. It has a tight fitting operculum, which helps to seal in moisture within the snail, thus reducing desiccation. All of the main abiotic factors affect the Middle Shore. Wave action is very strong on the middle shore, so any creatures that live here must be able to withstand this.

Desiccation and temperature change are also important factors as the middle shore is regularly exposed to the air. The main seaweed found in the middle shore is Fucus vesiculosus, which has thick mucilage to conserve water. The enzymes and pigments within are also able to withstand a certain amount of temperature shock, though not as much as those found in Pelvetia canaliculata. It is very firmly attached to the substrate material, and so is able to withstand the wave action. Grazing by limpets and periwinkles is not a major problem on Biography Artwork Essay, this shore, so the seaweed cover is very abundant. It is not found in the upper shore, as it cannot cope with the extremes of temperature and the lack of what is wuthering, water in that zone. It does not inhabit the lower shore in an attempt to avoid competition with Fucus serratus. Littorina obtusata can withstand the Biography and Her, moderate amounts of is wuthering about, desiccation and temperature change on the middle shore by closing its operculum to seal in Biography and Her Essay, moisture and by resting under seaweeds to insulate it. It does not have the heights, ridged shell of Littorina saxatalis, so it cannot radiate heat as efficiently and therefore cannot survive on the upper shore.

By remaining on eyes metaphors, the middle shore, Littorina obtusata can avoid predators such as dog whelks that live further down the shore. However, 12 Littorina obtusata were recorded in 12th station, just above the ELWS mark, which is very unusual, as they are normally out competed by lower shore snails such as Gibbula cineraria in that region. The conditions on the lower shore are most like those in what heights, the sea. The organisms that inhabit this zone cannot tolerate large amounts of desiccation or temperature change, so they are not found further up the beach. As they are submerged for long periods, the amount of light reaching the developing states, seaweeds is an important factor and only those with the appropriate accessory pigments can survive here. What Heights About. Predation is far more of solow-swan, a problem for the animals that live here.

Dog whelks inhabit this part of the shore and are one the major predators. Because it is submerged for so long, predation from fish is another danger animals living here face. Fucus serratus is very efficient at using the resources that are in what about, short supply, so it out competes other species, such as Fucus vesiculosus and Pelvetia canaliculata. However, rapid temperature changes destroy the photosynthetic pigments in its cells, so it is not found further up the shore. It is brown in eyes metaphors, colour and so is very well adapted for taking advantage of all the available wavelengths of light that reach it. Gibbula cineraria cannot tolerate desiccation or temperature change very well so it does not inhabit the upper of what is wuthering heights, middle shore.

However, it is eyes metaphors, very good at maximising the resources around it, so it out competes other species of snails, such as Littorina saxatalis. What Is Wuthering Heights. It has a thicker shell than many other snails, and so is more difficult for Biography of Artemisia Gentileschi and Her Artwork Essay, predators to eat. The method that was followed had a number of limitations that lead to anomalous results (such as finding Littorina obtusata in the twelfth station). The limitations affecting the results were: The misidentification of species. Many of species found looked very similar, and so misidentification could have affected the results. The misidentification of species would lead to species being miscounted or being recorded in stations where they are not normally found. The correct species would not be recorded, and this again would affect the results. This limitation affected the periwinkles and about, topshells more that the other groups, as they are the most physiologically similar. Species or specimens being miscounted or missed altogether. Due to the thick seaweed cover on the shore, it is possible that many of the Biography of Artemisia and Her Artwork, periwinkles and is wuthering heights, topshells where either miscounted (as individuals were covered up) or missed altogether. Quadrats containing many cracks or crevices, or large rocks, which organisms could hide under, also made it more difficult to Biography of Artemisia Gentileschi Artwork be confident that every specimen had been recorded, leading to inaccurate results.

Quadrats being placed in the wrong location. It would have been easy for errors to have been made while cross-staffing new locations for what is wuthering heights, quadrats, which would lead to species being recorded at the wrong heights and in the wrong zones. This would make it harder to draw meaningful conclusions from the of Artemisia and Her Artwork, results. Quadrats placed on uneven ground. The shore that was surveyed was very rocky, and what heights, so quadrats were occasionally placed overhanging other areas. This lead to ethical larger areas being surveyed, as the slopes were surveyed as well as the flat ground. The same problem occurred when large rocks were within the quadrats, as the top, bottom and sides of the rock were surveyed, again leading to large areas. This could lead to abnormally high results, as a larger area was surveyed than normal, which would make it harder to is wuthering about draw conclusions from the results. Animals moving around. Essay About The By Stephen King. The majority of the animal species recorded are mobile, and so could move around while being counted, leading to inaccurate results, or could have been found far from is wuthering heights about their niche, distorting the results. The Dark King. The animals could move into a quadrat, leading to what is wuthering heights higher results, or move out of Biography of Artemisia and Her Artwork, a quadrat, leading to lower results than would be expected.

It is what is wuthering about, also possible that animals could have been counted twice, which would increase the results. All of model, these limitations would affect the accuracy of the results, making it harder to draw meaningful conclusions. An organism can only survive in a particular habitat if it is well adapted to that habitat. If a organism arrives in a habitat to which it is not adapted, then it will be either killed outright by the conditions there (e.g. extreme temperature changes in upper shore kill any Fucus serratus spores that germinate there); or out-competed by other, better adapted species (e.g. Littorina saxatalis is not found further down the what is wuthering, shore because it would be out competed by other Littorina species). If a species is very well adapted to a particular habitat, then it can make maximum use of the resources there and competitively exclude any less well-adapted species. It will therefore become one of the most abundant species in that habitat. Species become adapted to new habitats as mutations randomly occur in the population. The majority of these mutations will have no affect on how well adapted the organism is (e.g. a human being born with webbed toes), some will make it less well adapted (e.g. a bright white lion is born and is unable to be camouflaged against its prey and so starves), and model, others may make an organism better adapted to its habitat (e.g. Is Wuthering Heights About. a giraffe is born with a longer neck and so can reach more food). Those organisms that are better adapted to their environment will be more successful than those that are less well adapted, and will have more offspring and so pass on their genes to more individuals. If a disaster occurs, and resources are in very short supply, those organisms that are better adapted will be more likely to survive and pass on their genes.

Eventually, a new species will be formed, with every individual being better adapted. When this occurs, the Essay Dark Tower King, original species may become extinct (e.g. all the heights, giraffes with short necks), or continue surviving if the new species is adapted to about The Dark King take advantage of a different habitat (e.g. a new seaweed evolves that can survive higher up the shore). This process is known as survival of the fittest, and it increases species diversity as new species are constantly evolving. This can be seen on a miniature scale on the rocky shore, where many different species have evolved to heights about take advantage of the about Dark by Stephen, many different ecological niches available. My results show that each species is only found on a small area of the shore, an area that it ha evolved to be adapted to, and one where it is the most successful species. This process of what about, evolution is constantly occurring, producing better and model, better-adapted species, for many different ecological niches.

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an essay story In a narrative essay, the writer tells a story about a real-life experience. Everyone enjoys a good storyespecially one that captures the imagination. However, the narrative essay goes further. What Heights About! In it, the writer places a personal experience within the context of a larger theme, such as a lesson learned. When writing a narrative essay, the writer wants not only to tell a good story, but also convey why the story has meaning. The Five-Step Writing Process for Narrative Essays. At Time4Learning, we are great believers in the writing process.

The writing process empowers students to write with better results by solow-swan model giving them proven steps to what follow. Here, we examine how to write a narrative essay using the and Her Artwork, five-step writing process. Students should find these suggestions helpful: 1. Is Wuthering Heights About! Prewriting for The Effects Weight, the Narrative Essay. The prewriting phase in narrative essay writing is particularly important. In the prewriting phase, students think about their life experiences in the context of the assignment#8217;s theme, for is wuthering heights about, example #8216;write about achieving a goal.#8217; When selecting an experience to write about, keep in mind that even a small incident (or goal, in this case) can make a good essay topic if it has significance for vs legal, the writer. If writers feel an emotional connection to what heights about their topic, their narrative essay will be more effective.

Once a topic is chosen, students should spend time sorting through their memories, and recalling details, including the year, season, setting, people, and objects involved. Think about the eyes metaphors, sequence of events and remember, no detail is is wuthering, too small. Gentileschi And Her Artwork Essay! Often its the small details that communicate big ideas. Creating an what outline of the storys narrative flow is very helpful. Biography Of Artemisia And Her Artwork Essay! 2. Heights! Drafting a Narrative Essay.

When creating the initial draft of a narrative essay, follow the outline, but focus on making the story come alive, using the following techniques: Personal narrative essays are most naturally written in the first person, and using I gives the story an solow-swan model immediacy that engages the what heights, reader. In telling the Gentileschi, story, dont gloss over the details. Readers have no prior knowledge of the story, and many times a skipped detail will skew their understanding. Use vivid descriptions and words that illustrate. In narrative writing, the writers job is to involve the what, reader, rather than simply inform. Take a look at this sentence: Losing the game felt like the bottom of my world dropped out. It conveys so much more about the Biography of Artemisia, significance of the writers experience than simply saying, I was disappointed that we lost the game. While narrative essays are non-fiction, elements of fiction should not be ignored. Is Wuthering! True stories also benefit from the writers ability to use plot-building techniques. 3. Revising a Narrative Essay. In the ethical vs legal, revision phase, students review, modify, and reorganize their work with the goal of making it the best it can be.

In revising a narrative essay, students should reread their work with these considerations in mind: Does the essay unfold in an easy-to-understand progression of events? Do the transitions make sense or confuse the what heights about, reader? Does the essay involve the reader in the experience? Could there be more detail, or is there extraneous detail that distracts the readers attention? Is the small island developing, word choice descriptive, or merely informative? Has the larger message of the essay been conveyed effectively? Has a connection been made between the experience and its meaning to the writer? Will the reader be able to identify with the conclusion made? In structuring a narrative essay, its the writers choice when to reveal the is wuthering, significance of the experience. Some writers make this connection to theme in Weight Perception, the opening paragraph. Others like to focus on the experience and reveal its significance at the end.

Writers should experiment which way works best for what is wuthering about, the essay. Clueing in the reader upfront helps their understanding, but saving the revelation to the end can leave the reader with more to think about. 4. Editing a Narrative Essay. At this point in the writing process, writers proofread and correct errors in grammar and mechanics, and edit to improve style and clarity. Having a friend read the essay is a good idea at this point, and allows the writer to see their work from a fresh perspective. 5. Publishing a Narrative Essay. Due to its personal nature, sharing a narrative essay with the rest of the about The by Stephen King, class can be both exciting and a bit scary.

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European Union (Withdrawal) Bill: Paving the heights way towards a very uncertain future. Professor of EU law, University of Bristol. (This post was first published on the University of Bristol Law School Blog. It is reproduced here with kind permission of the author.) The stated aim of the, then Great, Repeal Bill was to provide clarity and certainty for citizens and businesses, and to ensure a functioning statute book on exit from the EU. The key statement of principle in the White Paper was as follows: In order to achieve a stable and smooth transition, the Governments overall approach is to convert the body of existing EU law into domestic law, after which Parliament (and, where appropriate, the devolved legislatures) will be able to decide which elements of small, that law to keep, amend or repeal once we have left the EU. This ensures that, as a general rule, the same rules and laws will apply after we leave the what is wuthering about EU as they did before (for analysis, see here ). However, the continuity provided by what is now the European Union (Withdrawal) Bill , published last week, must be seen in the context of the reality that leaving the EU will also require major constitutional and policy changes in a relatively short, and currently uncertain, time frame (see here ). After all, the Governments aim is that, as a result of Brexit, the UK will be able to decide which parts of EU-derived law to keep, and which to amend or repeal.

A number of Brexit Bills, which will change the The Effects Essay law in relation to, among others, immigration, trade, customs, agriculture and fisheries, were promised in what is wuthering heights the Queens speech . The clarity and certainty promised in the White Paper, which at first glance appear to provide comfort to citizens and businesses concerned over the effects of Brexit, are more elusive than ever. Continue reading → Brexit Negotiating Terms of Reference. At their first meeting in Brussels today, Michel Barnier and David Davis agreed overall Terms of about The Tower by Stephen, Reference for the forthcoming Brexit negotiations. The Terms of reference set out a general structure and is wuthering heights about, schedule for negotiations between now and October 2017. After todays formal opening, actual talks will begin in July. Round 1 will take place in the week commencing July 17 th followed by Round 2 in the week of Dark King, August 28th, Round 3 in the week of September 18 and Round 4 in the week of October 9 th . We do not yet know what happens beyond that date.

Setting the pattern for future negotiations, the joint post-meeting press conference was held in English and French, with interpretation provided by the European Commission. All negotiations and working documents will be produced in these two languages. The negotiations themselves will take place on two levels general plenary sessions and smaller group meetings. The document states that each round of negotiations should comprise public officials of both sides only however this leaves scope for others, such as business leaders and is wuthering about, bankers, to also take part. Names are not given, but Politico has helpfully produced a list of the key players on Essay about The Dark Tower King each side. Plenary negotiating sessions will be co-chaired by so-called Principals and/ or Co-ordinators presumably from the central team on each side. Is Wuthering? These persons will have overall responsibility both for keeping the process on track and providing advice.

They will also have responsibility for a specific dialogue on Ireland/ Northern Ireland, launched today. It is not clear who will lead/co-ordinate the ethical smaller group meetings or how many there will be the Principals have discretion to what heights, create additional working groups, sub- groups or indeed organise breakout sessions as required. In total, just 3 negotiating groups were created today. Two are very specific: Citizens Rights and Financial Settlement. The latter will clearly deal with the Brexit Bill and the former will focus on the situation of EU citizens in the UK and UK citizens in Weight other parts of the EU. It is also to be hoped that it will deal with the situation of Zambrano carers whose rights to what heights, remain in the UK to look after their British citizens children also derive from EU law. The final negotiating group created today has a general remit and will focus on other Separation Issues. The basis of the negotiations will be texts created by either side. There is no specific timeframe for sharing these materials the document simply rather limply states that Negotiation texts that are intended for about Dark Tower by Stephen discussion at any negotiating round should be shared at what is wuthering heights about, least one week in advance wherever possible. This is Dark Tower, surprising given the ever-decreasing timeframe, tighter rules on the exchange of documents might have been better. The timeframe is also loose the above-mentioned Negotiation rounds will in principle take place during one week in every month. However, this is a loose arrangement which can be departed from by mutual consent.

Negotiators may also meet informally in between formal sessions to prepare negotiations. Continue reading → Brexit: a separate citizens rights agreement under Article 50 TEU. Why a separate citizens rights agreement under article 50 is required. The European Council Guidelines for what heights the Brexit negotiation adopted on 29 th April 2017 (further referred to as Negotiation Guidelines), as well as the small island developing states Council Directives for the negotiation adopted on heights 22 nd May 2017 (further referred to as Negotiation Directives), show a clear EU commitment to vs legal, defend the rights of the nearly five million people whose lives are most directly affected by is wuthering Brexit, namely the solow-swan model EU citizens residing in heights about the UK, and British citizens residing in the EU. Eyes Metaphors? The Negotiation Directives clearly state that the withdrawal negotiations should ensure the necessary effective, enforceable, non-discriminatory and comprehensive guarantees and they favor a rather maximalist defense of the rights of these citizens (including judicial protection by the CJEU). The UKs promises to protect the rights of is wuthering, these citizens are comparatively vague. However, both the EU and the UK have agreed that dealing with the rights of these citizens is the first priority of negotiations.

However, there is no procedural guarantee that these citizens would not end up as a bargaining chip. The Negotiation Guidelines and Directives provide for a phased approach to the negotiations. Eyes Metaphors? However, this phased approach aims primarily at separating the heights about negotiation of the withdrawal settlement under Article 50TEU (phase 1) from the negotiation of an small island developing states agreement on the future relationship between the UK and the EU (phase 2). In addition to that, it provides for a second stage within the first phase (Article 50 withdrawal settlement). In that second stage, the is wuthering heights withdrawal negotiation can start to reflect on the potential scenarios for the future UK-EU relationship. Article 50 requires taking account of the framework for Essay about Dark Tower its [withdrawing Member States] future relationship with the Union when dealing with the withdrawal agreement. However, the Guidelines state clearly that this second stage of the first phase will only start when the what European Council has decided that there is sufficient progress on small developing states the issues identified as priorities of the first phase.

Citizens rights have been identified as the what heights about first item on the agenda of the first phase of the negotiation process. The proposed phasing thus gives some level of separating citizens rights from The Effects Weight Perception other parts of the negotiation. However, this is is wuthering, far from ring-fencing. The EU has taken the approach that as far as the withdrawal issues (phase 1) are concerned nothing is agreed until everything is agreed. This at least means that citizens rights issues might be traded off against other topics of the first phase of negotiation, such as the financial settlement and eyes metaphors, the Ireland-Northern Ireland border issue. Is Wuthering Heights? Moreover, they may even be influenced by the reflections about the future UK-EU relationship which will appear on the negotiation table as issues to be taken into account prior to the finalisation of the Article 50 withdrawal agreement. Hence, EU citizens in The Effects of Negative the UK and British in the EU remain fully at risk of becoming bargaining chips. The proposed negotiation procedure entails two additional dramatic consequences for the 4.5 million citizens directly affected.

The principle nothing is agreed until everything is agreed unnecessarily prolongs the uncertainty these people are living in. What Heights About? Moreover, in small developing the case that the withdrawal agreement fails, citizens will find themselves in a legal limbo with dramatic consequences. The only what is wuthering heights, solution to eyes metaphors, solve the uncertainty of what heights about, 4.5 million people is to adopt an agreement on citizens rights at the start of the Article 50 negotiation, independently from other withdrawal issues. So why has it not happened so far? One can understand the EUs reluctance to negotiate on citizens rights PRIOR to the triggering of Article 50. The UK referendum was merely an internal affair as long as Article 50 had not been triggered. Moreover, if negotiating a citizens rights agreement prior to Article 50 had been attempted, it would not have profited from the decision-making procedure of Article 50 (which allows for the agreement to be adopted via Qualified Majority in Council and consent by the EP, and thus not requiring ratification by national parliaments in the EU 27). Negotiation outside Article 50 would be more cumbersome since it may require ratification by all national parliaments. Of Negative Weight Essay? Hence the time advantage of starting negotiation prior to triggering Article 50 would immediately have been lost as the procedure itself would slow down the process. Finally, the EU feared that negotiation on partial issues prior to the triggering of Article 50 would undermine the unity of the EU 27. However, now that Article 50 has been triggered, there is no reason why a separate agreement on is wuthering citizens rights cannot be negotiated prior to all other issues.

The moral argument in favor of that remains as strong as ever before. The strategic argument of the EU that it would encourage cherry-picking is also hardly convincing. The EU has by now set out its institutional framework, priorities and strategy for small island states the negotiations. It is no longer unprepared, and has the institutional mechanism in place to ensure unity in response to what, the UK in negotiations. Moreover, arguments that a separate citizens rights agreement opens the eyes metaphors way for cherry-picking are based on the wrong assumption. Accepting ring-fencing for citizens rights does not create any obligation to do the same for other issues.

There is a strong moral argument to state: a separate agreement will only be done on what is wuthering heights about citizens rights given the human costs involved. Model? As will be shown below that does not create any legal precedent for the EU to accept separate agreements on other issues. The only remaining question then is whether it is legally possible. More precisely, the question is whether the what is wuthering about rights of eyes metaphors, post-Brexit EU citizens can be legally ring-fenced from other negotiation topics and be safeguarded prior to what is wuthering heights about, the end of the withdrawal negotiation, and in a way that it stands even in failure of the latter. To show whether ring-fencing is legally possible we need to address three questions: Is it possible to of Artemisia Essay, adopt a separate agreement on citizens rights signed under Article 50? How to ensure procedurally that the negotiation of these citizens rights, and of this separate agreement, is not mixed up with other Brexit negotiation issues (ring-fencing in the strict sense).

How to ensure that the what is wuthering agreement comes into force even if other aspects of the The Effects Weight Perception Brexit negotiation fail (safeguarding) Is a separate agreement legally possible under Article 50 TEU? As confirmed in Article 5 of the Negotiation Guidelines, Article 50 TEU confers on the Union an exceptional horizontal competence to is wuthering, cover in solow-swan model this agreement all matters necessary to arrange the withdrawal. This exceptional competence is is wuthering heights about, of a one-off nature and strictly for the purposes of eyes metaphors, arranging the withdrawal from the Union. There is no doubt that addressing the rights of the 4.5 million is inherently an what is wuthering heights issue of withdrawal, and can thus be dealt with via Article 50. These are issues on of Artemisia Artwork which the what EU has been able to act on behalf on the Member States so far, and this competence extends (thanks to Article 50) to dealing with all withdrawal aspects related to it.

However, Article 50 TEU talks about a withdrawal agreement in the singular. The question is then whether a separate agreement on citizens right under Article 50 is possible. I will argue that the use of the singular in relation to agreement does not exclude legally that the withdrawal could be composed of several agreements, as long as the objectives and spirit of Article 50 TEU are respected. Continue reading → For the first time since sending the Article 50 Letter, the Gentileschi Prime Minister met with European Council President Tusk in is wuthering heights what was described as a positive meeting where it was agreed to de-escalate the row over Gibraltar. Wider response to the activation of Article 50 has been dismissive. In Germany, a Bundestag debate about Brexit was hardly reported. In the European Parliament, EP President Verhofstadt described Brexit as a catfight in eyes metaphors the Conservative party that got out of hand a loss of time, a waste of energy and a stupidity. Unity and is wuthering, the future of the 27 remaining member states was stressed as the EP endorsed the European Council draft negotiation guidelines. The Commission launched its Brexit website this lays out the eyes metaphors organization of the Taskforce that will conduct negotiations with the what heights UK. General enquiries about the work of the taskforce can be sent to tf50-contact@ec.europa.eu. Head of the The Effects of Negative EU Taskforce, Michel Barnier, presented his three pre-conditions for a Withdrawal Agreement unity of the 27, removal of uncertainty and finally doing things in the right order and putting them into what about perspective ie. agreeing the exit before the future relationship.

In an about Dark Tower King interview during her trip to is wuthering heights about, Jordan, Theresa May confirmed this, saying that a final trade deal between the UK and of Artemisia and Her Artwork Essay, the EU will only take place after the about UK has left and is a non-EU country. Thus within the first seven days of Brexit, the UK retreated from key aspects of its negotiating position. All seem agreed however that negotiations must be completed by March 29 2019. Mays claim that no deal is vs legal, better than a bad deal was also challenged by the Parliamentary Brexit Committee. It published a Report which asked for an impact assessment of what the economic fallout would be. It seems that the Treasury has not carried out a detailed economic forecast of Britains Brexit options since the referendum. Regardless, the Government has agreed to underwrite Erasmus+ programme contracts signed while the UK is still in is wuthering the EU. Beyond 29 March 2019 is The Effects of Negative Perception Essay, uncertain UK participation in the programme may continue subject to negotiation between the is wuthering heights about Government and the EU. Finally, dont be surprised if there are delays at solow-swan, some borders: EU plans to about, start border checks on eyes metaphors everybody entering and leaving the EU came into force on April 7. Now EU and non-EU citizens will be checked in a bid to increase security. EU Commissioner for Security, Julian King, is is wuthering, also pushing for the introduction of a fingerprint identification service for inclusion in the increasingly used Schengen Information System 4 billion queries were made to SIS in 2016, a 40% increase from 2015.

Competition Law : AG Opinion in Case C-671/15 President of the Autorite? de la concurrence v Association des producteurs vendeurs dendives (APVE) and Others. Agricultural producer organisations and their associations may be held liable for agreements, decisions or concerted practices contrary to island, EU competition law. That is the case, in particular, where concertation on prices or on the quantities placed on the market and exchanges of information occur between several (associations of) producer organisations or between such bodies and other types of operators on the market. Area of Freedom, Security and Justice : Case C-544/15 Sahar Fahimian v Germany. National authorities may refuse, for is wuthering heights about reasons of public security, to grant a visa for study in a sensitive field such as information technology security to an Iranian national with a degree from a university subject to restrictive measures.

Although the national authorities enjoy a wide discretion determining the eyes metaphors existence of a threat to public security, the decision to refuse a visa must state proper reasons. The phoney war is over. Theresa May has triggered Article 50. What Is Wuthering Heights About? The clock is Biography of Artemisia and Her Artwork, ticking. But clarity and legal certainty remain elusive. Prof Phil Syrpis , Professor of EU Law (University of Bristol Law School) In her letter to Donald Tusk the Prime Minister outlined the UKs starting position in negotiations with the EU. The EU Council of Ministers responded by producing draft negotiating guidelines (to be confirmed by the European Council at the end of April). These guidelines create the framework within which negotiations on heights about withdrawal, and those on island developing states the future relationship between the UK and the EU, will occur.

Meanwhile, a White Paper on the Great Repeal Bill was presented to what heights, Parliament, promising on the one hand to repeal the European Communities Act (ECA) and end the of Negative Weight Perception Essay supremacy of EU law in the UK, and on the other to convert the acquis communautaire into UK law, so that EU-derived rights (as we will need to what about, get used to calling them) will, as far as possible, be unaffected. The opening exchanges between the UK and vs legal, EU have generated a lot of what heights, comment. Much of it has focused on the unlikely subject of Gibraltar (Michael Howards crass evocation of the Falklands conflict will have done nothing to lower simmering tensions). In relation to the White Paper, most attention has been devoted to Essay Tower by Stephen King, the role of Parliament and the devolved assemblies. Rather less attention has been paid to many of the EU law aspects. Is Wuthering Heights? In this short note, I focus on eyes metaphors those. I first consider what new light has been shed on what is wuthering the way in which the Article 50 negotiations will proceed, drawing attention to the host of issues which remain unanswered.

I then consider the EU law questions raised by the repeal of the ECA, and the conversion of the acquis into UK law. Michael Ford has already commented on this blog on Weight Perception the applicability of judgments of the European Court of Justice in the post-Brexit era; so there is no more on that subject here. My overarching concern is what is wuthering about, that the Government, in particular in model the White Paper, has failed to provide a clear sense of the size of the task which lies ahead. It is what heights, impossible to know whether this is because the Government itself does not appreciate the magnitude of the challenge, or because it is trying to conceal the difficulties. The Government has, for months, struggled to articulate just what Brexit might mean, and has made a series of disparate promises which a range of different constituencies have, if so minded, been able to ethical, rely on, or cling to. What Is Wuthering? It will now start making hard choices.

It has not prepared the ground well. Theresa Mays letter set a conciliatory tone, using much more constructive rhetoric than hitherto. She emphasised her desire to build a new deep and special partnership with the EU. She expressed the belief that it is necessary to agree the terms of our future relationship alongside those of our withdrawal from the EU. And she made it clear that the no deal scenario is not the of Negative Perception Essay outcome which either side should seek. This is not the tone avid Brexiteers had been expecting. The EU responded with a draft of the negotiating guidelines which are to define the about framework for negotiations under Article 50 (though note that the European Council, a little ominously, reserves to itself the vs legal power to update these guidelines in the course of the negotiations as necessary). Article 50 does not afford a role to the withdrawing state in the drafting or scope of is wuthering heights about, these guidelines; like them or not, the UK will have to Biography Gentileschi and Her Essay, abide by them. Is Wuthering About? The Council repeated its wish to ethical, have the UK as a close partner in the future. About? But it is immediately clear that the solow-swan relationship will be very different to the one we have all become used to.

In the what is wuthering heights about very first paragraph of the draft guidelines there are references to the integrity of the of Negative Perception Essay Single Market and to the fact that there can be no cherry picking, and a clear statement that a non-member of the Union cannot have the same rights and enjoy the same benefits as a member. The guidelines go on to say that withdrawal negotiations will be conducted as a single package; individual items cannot be settled separately; and what is wuthering, there will be no separate negotiations between individual Member States and the United Kingdom on matters pertaining to its withdrawal. The disagreement relating to the sequencing of the negotiations will be one to watch over the coming weeks and months. Article 50 provides some guidance here, with paragraph 2 providing that the withdrawal agreement with, in this instance, the ethical UK, shall be negotiated and concluded taking account of the framework of its future relationship with the Union. On the what heights about basis of this wording, I have argued that the European Council should have agreed to commit to negotiations with the UK in relation not only small, about a narrow withdrawal agreement, but also about a broader agreement on the future relationship between the what is wuthering heights UK and the EU (so that the substantive reality of Brexit is known by the end of the two year negotiating period). The EU has, however, opted for The Effects of Negative Weight Perception Essay a phased approach to the negotiations, seeking first to ensure that there is an orderly withdrawal. Is Wuthering? In the light of the wording of Article 50, perhaps reluctantly it has conceded that an overall understanding on the framework for the future relationship could be identified during a second phase of the negotiations, adding that the EU and its Member States stand ready to engage in ethical vs legal preliminary and preparatory discussions to this end in the context of negotiations under Article 50 TEU, as soon as sufficient progress has been made in the first phase (see para.4). In this instance it appears as though the UK has the law on what heights its side; but there is little it can do to force the EU to broaden the scope of the negotiations before it is ready to do so. Continue reading → The Five Crises in Europe and the Future of the EU.

Annual Lecture by Jean Claude Piris. 28 October 2013, Strand Campus, King's College London.