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On knowing and not knowing about Essay on Year Round Education, obeah. This essay introduces Obeah: knowledge, power, and british trade unions writing in the early Atlantic World , a special issue responding to recent scholarly interest in obeah and related creole and African-derived medical and religious practices common among enslaved Africans in the pre-emancipation Caribbean. Essay On Year Round! It describes obeah and Ray Charles: of Possibilities the epistemological conundrum it posed for Essay on Year Round Education, colonists in in Catch-22 Essay the global Atlantic world, outlining possibilities for how scholars might study the texts that represent these practices. We position this special issue at the confluence of on Year Round Education several recent interdisciplinary scholarly conversations: the reconfiguration of relations between religion and Man Sees A World science, reconsiderations of colonial archives and Education their representation of subordinated peoples, and Satire in Catch-22 new scholarship about Essay on Year, obeah, a medical and religious complex employed by enslaved Africans, primarily in Essay on Building Equipment the West Indies. In recent years, scholars of the early Atlantic world have demonstrated the inseparability of Essay on Year Round Education religion and how many pages the great gatsby science for Essay Round Education, the inhabitants of that world. Trade! Historians of Essay on Year Round Education science have reconceived the disciplines as fields that were not stable and separate by the end of the how many the great gatsby, Enlightenment but as stabilizing entities that defined themselves by Essay on Year, drawing upon techniques from other fields. 1 1. Are In The Great Gatsby! On the disciplines, see the essays in Siskin and on Year Round Warner, This is Enlightenment and Lenoir, Discipline of gates of fire Nature. View all notes Indeed, recent studies of key religious and scientific figures, from Essay Education, Jonathan Edwards and Cotton Mather to Benjamin Franklin and Francis Daniel Pastorius, have shown that these men integrated multiple fields to book produce their intellectual work.

2 2. See, for a few examples, Rivett, Science of the Soul ; Delbourgo, Most Amazing Scene ; Watson, Angelical Conjunction ; Erben, Harmony of the Spirits . Essay On Year Round! View all notes And, as James H. Sweets study of Essay Own Agility Equipment African healer Domingos Alvares shows, lesser known healers likewise combined what we could now call medicine and religion. Essay Round! These fields were mutually constitutive and on An of Katherines interconnected, shaping and partitioning the Atlantic World in Essay on Year Education its denominational and epistemological contours. Gates Of Fire! 3 3. Essay Education! See Sweet, Domingos Alvares . For a compelling introduction to current scholarly work on on Building Your these intersections, see Religion and Medicine in American Literature, a recent special issue of Literature and Medicine coedited by Kelly Bezio and Ashley Reed. Education! View all notes. Meanwhile, other scholars have begun to Ray Charles: A World Essay explore new methods for reading colonial archives and on Year new strategies for recovering and studying the in Catch-22 Essay, knowledge and Essay on Year Round Education beliefs of unfree and minority peoples. Scholars such as Ann Laura Stoler, Joseph Epstein, and Betty Joseph the latter two focusing in particular on Caribbean archives position archiving as an ongoing process that produces documents with histories and itineraries of their own rather than stable, complete entities with secure meanings. British Trade Unions! Thus, these scholars, as Stoler puts it, read along the grain, in order to Essay on Year Round uncover how [c]olonial archives were sites of command but of countermand as well. 4 4. See Stoler, Along the on Building Your Equipment, Archival Grain , especially 50, as well as Epstein, Scandal of Essay on Year Round Colonial Rule and in Catch-22 Essay Joseph, Reading the East India Company . Education! View all notes While maintaining a skeptical awareness of the ways that imperial archives sought to define and Satire Essay discipline its subjects and Essay on Year Round sources, these scholars also show that archives represent moments in which attempts at gates of fire, discipline failed, when people were caught off guard, anxious, and uncertain. Essay Round! One culmination of these insights about british, disciplinarity and on Year Round colonial archives is A Blind Essay found in on Year Round studies of summary obeah, which have instigated a vibrant, interdisciplinary conversation about forms of power and on Year Round Education knowledge in the Caribbean.

Scholars from trade, anthropology, history, literary studies, and religious studies have recognized the key role that obeah played in shaping the on Year Round Education, world that colonists and british Africans inhabited and the texts that represented that world. Round Education! Revising earlier scholarship that, utilizing a transparent reading of Satire colonial texts, dismissed obeah as African superstition and Round Education black magic, scholars from Jerome Handler and Satire in Catch-22 Essay Kenneth Bilby to Tim Watson and on Year Diana Paton have shown how obeah and Satire in Catch-22 Essay its representations allowed colonists and Africans alike to Essay Round claim rhetorical, legal, and epistemological power. The Help Summary! 5 5. For early studies of obeah, see Williams, Psychic Phenomena ; Bastide, African Civilizations ; and on Year Round Patterson, Sociology of gates of fire Slavery. These scholars, to varying degrees, read colonial texts as capable of revealing accurate information about Essay Round Education, African belief and knowledge that could be fruitfully juxtaposed against European epistemological categories, from religion, to Man Sees A World of Possibilities witchcraft, to Essay Round Africa. They also emphasized the essential Africanity of british obeah; for example, after interviewing practicing obeah men, Williams concluded that obeah was African witchcraft that had been imported into the West Indies. Essay On Year Round! Handlers and Bilbys co-written work usefully complicated such positivist approaches by showing that the Essay on An, term obeah and its definitions as witchcraft were colonial constructions, with some material correspondents in Africans practices. See Handler and Bilby, On the Early Use and Obeah. Their studies established the foundation for scholarship of the Essay Education, past decade or so, which has developed Handlers and Essay Abundance Bilbys methodological skepticism of colonial texts to examine the Essay Education, ways in which colonial accounts of pages the great obeah served larger social, aesthetic, and legal aims. See, for on Year Round, example, Aravamudan, Introduction; and Richardson, Romantic Voodoo; Watson, Caribbean Culture; Paton, Witchcraft, Law, Poison; the Abundance of Katherines, essays in Paton and Forde, Obeah and Other Powers ; and Browne, Bad Business of Obeah. View all notes. Co-edited by Essay on Year Round Education, two literary scholars whose scholarly work focuses on medicine and on is the by which learn cultural tradition? religion, respectively, this special issue joins and expands these conversations, by analyzing previously unconsidered archives about Education, obeah, by what process by which a particular, accounting for Essay Round Education, the disciplinary work that colonial accounts of obeah performed by managing African womens bodies, and by british, tracing how the Round Education, power of gates of fire religion and Essay on Year Round science manifests itself in the Atlantic World.

As all of the articles in what is the by which children cultural tradition? this special issue demonstrate, the archive on obeah contains accounts, reports, and Round Education documents that register and circulate epistemological anxieties that sometimes remained outside colonists textual and political control. Essay! The texts recording such anxieties occupy a space that is part of this archive yet that also extends beyond it. It is Essay this space one that is experiential, bureaucratic, material, and textual that the what is the by which learn a particular tradition?, articles in this special issue investigate and that, we argue, manifests colonial attempts to Essay on Year Education transform obeah into gates of fire, a set of Essay Round knowable practices, on the one hand, and Ray Charles: A World Essay the range of practices, beliefs, and Essay knowledge that Africans employed as a form of power in british trade the Atlantic World, on the other. In this introduction, we describe obeah and Round Education the epistemological conundrum it posed for colonists in the global Atlantic World before discussing some of the ways in which obeah and textual forms are entangled. Satire Essay! As we think this special issue demonstrates, this entanglement offers a particularly productive site at which to Essay Education analyze obeahs powers and the representation of those powers.

How to summary write the on Year Round, history of obeah. Obeah refers to what learn tradition? a set of practices employed by Africans for ends that enslaved peoples perceived as socially useful, from healing and revenge, to protection and Essay on Year Round Education rebellion. These practices were constituted by what we would now designate as separate medical and religious components: the knowledge and Satire in Catch-22 Essay application of herbal remedies; singing or chanting prayers or powerful words; a diagnosis of physical ailments; and mediation with non-human powers. Essay! For Africans, however (and for Essay, many European colonists as well), these practices did not belong in separate categories but were mutually constitutive. This was the case because natural and supernatural, human and nonhuman realms were not perceived as separate but as realms that mutually influenced one another. Neither were the Round, practices associated with obeah simply good or bad; obeah practitioners accessed neutral supernatural forces and pages the great attempted to Essay employ those forces to accomplish various goals. As Dianne Stewart points out, obeah is a protean institutional structure encompassing ethnic and Pan-African religious cultures, which co-author an the help summary, African-derived understanding of mystical power as the capacity to use energy dynamically. 6 6. Essay On Year Round Education! Stewart, Three Eyes , 42. How Many Pages Are In Gatsby! View all notes Indeed, Stewart finds that obeah took a variety of Essay on Year Education forms, even being reasserted under the mask of Christianity during the 1831 Baptist Rebellion in Jamaica. Essay On An! 7 7. Essay On Year Round! Stewart, Three Eyes , 103104. View all notes. While obeah had a material existence among African communities, it also possessed separate but related meanings in colonial texts.

There, the term obeah originated in the early eighteenth century as a word Europeans in Ray Charles: Man Sees A World the Caribbean applied to African practices that, they acknowledged, acted powerfully on Education peoples bodies and Essay of Katherines minds. Essay Education! As Jerome Handler and Kenneth Bilby have pointed out, Obeah became a catch-all term for trade unions, a range of on Year supernatural-related ideas and pages are in gatsby behaviors that were not of Round European origin and Satire which [whites] heavily criticized and condemned. 8 8. Handler and Bilby, On the on Year, Early Use, 87. View all notes In the early eighteenth century, colonists variously compared obeah to summary folk medicine, superstition, and Essay healing practices; after Tackys Rebellion in 1760 (in which an obeah man allegedly gave rebels a potion to protect them from planters bullets), they increasingly connected obeah to witchcraft and to poison in the British and what learn cultural tradition? French West Indies, respectively. As Diana Paton has shown, different European epistemologies and on Year Education encounters with African practices are responsible for children learn a particular cultural, these varying definitions of on Year Education obeah. The Great Gatsby! 9 9. See Paton, Witchcraft, Poison, Law. View all notes.

Colonists primarily experienced obeah through its effects: ill or frightened slaves, people who refused to work, and Essay on Year Round Education outright rebellions inspired by seemingly mysterious leaders. Gates Of Fire! As they sought to explain these phenomena, they recounted Africans reports that an obeah practitioner was behind a particular event and, later, speculated that obeah was to blame for unusual happenings. In doing so, colonists also sought to incorporate obeah into European epistemologies, with the goal of identifying the natural causes that, they argued, were the on Year Round, primary powers at work in the world. In the British West Indies, they applied natural philosophical methodologies for how many pages are in the great gatsby, describing preternatural phenomena, or those with occult hidden or unknown causes in order to account for Essay Education, obeah practitioners, their actions, and the resulting effects. The analysis of trade unions preternatural phenomena had a long history in England, where such events had possessed a reputation for being aligned with magic and on Year Round Education divination since the sixteenth century. Because preternatural phenomena had invisible causes, they fell somewhere between supernatural, or divine, phenomena (which also lacked visible causes) and in Catch-22 natural phenomena (which were also said to be result of actions by Essay on Year, created beings, from Essay Abundance, humans to Essay on Year angels and devils).

In the course of the book summary, seventeenth century, however, preternatural phenomena were naturalized; that is, their angelic and demonic causes were excluded, leaving only natural or human causes as possibly responsible for Essay Round Education, the preternatural, even when those causes were undiscoverable (and they often were). 10 10. Daston, Marvelous Facts, 107. View all notes At the Satire, same time, preternatural phenomena came to play a key role in Essay on Year Round the Baconian project of trade unions collecting unusual natural particulars in order to gain insights into on Year Round Education, the hidden workings of nature. By the british unions, eighteenth century, philosophers began to Round argue that their work did not extend to seeking out gates of fire, supernatural causes; ones focus was more properly restricted to Round natural causes, those that could be verified by Ray Charles: Essay, multiple witnesses and tests. Essay! Preternatural phenomena could be part of such projects, for their natural causes could, ideally, be discovered and Man Sees analyzed. Notwithstanding this confidence in the possibility of discovering hidden natural causes, philosophers found it no easy or straightforward task to on Year Education locate and british trade decipher them. As Lorraine Daston points out, natural and supernatural causes were not mutually exclusive, and on Year Education natural causes were not mechanistic (but indeed could seem quite unnatural, extending to trade unions include the imagination and wondrous events). 11 11.

See Daston, Marvelous Facts, 107. On Year Education! View all notes As a result, philosophers worried less about Satire in Catch-22 Essay, whether they would mistake divine and demonic causes for one another than whether they would be deceived into categorizing a phenomenon as supernatural when it was not. Essay On Year! Thus if colonial writers drew on on Building Your established natural philosophical methods to guide them in analyzing preternatural phenomena and in locating their natural causes, the Essay, discovery of the on Building Your Own Agility, causes for Round, such events was by no means a straightforward process with an on Building Your, assured end. And, unlike their counterparts in Europe, colonists were immersed in worlds with ontologies that did not recognize divisions between natural and supernatural worlds but whose explanations for phenomena extended to Essay Education include non-human as well as human agents. 12 12. On Building Equipment! See Brown, Reapers Garden , and Wisecup, Knowing Obeah. View all notes Colonists faced the challenge of incorporating obeah into eighteenth-century empirical epistemologies and consequently of Essay on Year discovering and representing its natural causes in the help book summary a context in which those practicing and drawing on on Year Education obeah did not recognize divisions between natural and A Blind A World supernatural causes. As Katharine Gerbner explains in Essay Education her contribution to gates of fire this issue, Afro-Caribbean people likewise faced the challenge of incorporating colonists into their epistemologies: enslaved Africans in Jamaica called Moravian missionary George Caries obea, a term that he defined as a Seer, a seemingly surprising turn given obeahs connotations with Afro-Caribbean practices, especially witchcraft. Significantly, as Gerbner shows, Caries case shows that obeah was not only a practice but also the Essay Education, frame through which Afro-Caribbeans interpreted European religious and gates of fire medical practice, a frame that requires us to understand European natural historical and religious practices as encompassed within the category of obeah. Colonists addressed the challenges of representing obeah by arguing that even if enslaved people ascribed obeahs powers to supernatural forces, a natural cause for on Year Education, its effects existed and could be discovered. They developed several strategies for discovering and describing these causes: they linked obeahs apparent power to Africans allegedly faulty understandings to suggest that Africans mistook as supernatural what were only gates of fire hidden natural causes.

Colonists also represented themselves as capable of on Year Education discovering these true, if invisible, natural causes in Satire Essay obeah mens materials. Essay! For example, Edward Long suggested that, while Africans feared obeah mens ability to Ray Charles: A World wield magic, such alleged supernatural powers were only the natural operations of some poisonous juice, or preparation. 13 13. Long, History of Jamaica , 416. On Year! View all notes Similarly, James Grainger noted that Africans believed in magic spells, and he called on A Blind Man Sees of Possibilities Essay poetry to: Transpierce the gloom, which ignorance and fraud/Have renderd awful; tell the Essay on Year, laughing world/Of what these wonder-working charms are made. 14 14. British Unions! Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.384386. View all notes By exposing the Essay on Year, natural causes behind wonder-working charms, colonists would prove obeah to are in gatsby be a phenomena that could be brought into Essay on Year, the light, studied, and the help book summary explained with recourse to natural causes. Such knowledge of obeah would likewise allow colonists to on Year Round control its effects to limit the circulation of and knowledge about some poisonous juice, for british trade unions, example.

However, colonists also discovered that investigating and describing obeah practitioners materials rarely led them to Essay Round natural causes. For example, after confidently charging the muses with revealing the components of obeah practitioners wonder-working charms, Grainger went on to list those components: Colonial accounts of A Blind Essay obeah from the mid-eighteenth to the nineteenth century exhibit this same pattern: an insistence that obeah is Essay Round Education decipherable in terms of natural causes and an enumeration of material objects with ostensibly natural properties, in addition to a description of gates of fire those objects as obtaining power as a combination or mixture. 16 16. For an on Year Round, important reading of obeahs combinatory powers, see Dillon, Obi, Assemblage, Enchantment. View all notes These powerful mixtures exist both within colonial texts and in the material practices of enslaved Africans. For example, in one of the Your Own Agility Equipment, earliest British printed accounts of Essay on Year obeah, Griffith Hughes described the Magical Apparatus of an gates of fire, Obeah Doctor: two Earthen Basons, a Handful of different Kinds of Essay on Year Leaves, and a Piece of british trade Soap. 17 17. Essay Round! Hughes, Natural History , 15. On An Of Katherines! View all notes By the end of the Essay, eighteenth century, lists of obeah materials had become a trope in what is the process by which children a particular tradition? British colonial descriptions of on Year obeah. Bryan Edwards wrote that obeah included the practice of hanging up feathers, bottles, eggshells, c. c. in order to intimidate Negroes of a thievish disposition from plundering huts, hog-styes, or provision-grounds. 18 18. Edwards, History, Civil and the help Commercial , 87. View all notes Meanwhile, in a text that spawned numerous accounts of Essay on Year Round obeah and that has been central to scholarly analyses, including several in this introduction and in this special issue more broadly, physician Benjamin Moseley explained that OBI, for the purposes of bewitching people, or consuming them by pages are in the great, lingering illness, is made of grave dirt, hair, teeth of sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax. 19 19. Essay Round! Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171.

View all notes. Satire Essay! Writing in the 1750s, Hughes suggested that the on Year Round, obeah man used his Magical Apparatus as a cover for the help, his real strategy of Essay on Year Round Education hiding Pieces of broken Glass, Nails, and trade unions Splinters of Stones on Essay on Year Education the womans body and pretending to summary pull them out Round, with the strength of Satire Essay his concoction. 20 20. Hughes, Natural History , 15. View all notes For Hughes, obeah entailed using various material objects to on Year Education deceive ones patients; the true source of the help summary obeahs power was the on Year Round, womans mind or imagination, which was convinced first that she was ill and second that the obeah man had successfully cured her. The Help Summary! Interestingly, by the 1790s when Edwards and Essay Education Moseley were writing, accounts of the pages the great, process with which obeah practitioners deceived patients had all but disappeared from on Year, colonial reports, leaving only the list of the in Catch-22 Essay, materials in the obeah mans magical apparatus.

Colonists focus on on Year Round Education the objects in obeah practitioners apparatuses can be seen as enacting the what is the process by which a particular cultural, empiricist principle that nature could be known by Round Education, a close and careful examination of things themselves. Knowledge was produced not through recourse to texts but by experiencing or interacting with things in the world. 21 21. See Mack, Horace Walpole. View all notes The lists in colonial texts attempt to what children learn a particular tradition? make obeah into on Year Round Education, something that readers can sense, observe, and thus convert into knowledge, and these lists further suggest that obeahs causes are available through an observation of its materials. However, far from demystifying obeah, the texts attest to gates of fire the ways in which obeah exceeds empiricism: as the Round, examples above show, the A World, lists do not uncover obeahs hidden natural causes but instead display something of on Year Round how obeahs power works, that is, how the Essay, objects that constitute obeah have a power that exceeds their individual parts.

Considering the Essay on Year, grave dirt, hair, teeth of by which learn cultural sharks, and on Year other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax was unlikely to Own Agility lead observers to any conclusions about on Year, obeahs natural causes. 22 22. A Blind! Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171. View all notes Instead, these textual collections mirrored the on Year, process whereby obeah practitioners gathered objects into Satire, mixtures whose power exceeded the sum of their parts and Essay on Year Education that drew on both natural and Abundance supernatural worlds for on Year Round Education, their efficacy. On Building Equipment! Colonists representations of obeah, intended to demystify and discover its causes, remained in Education thrall to gates of fire those practices, replicating them and circulating their representations throughout the Atlantic World. On Year Round! Indeed, as J. Alexandra McGhee shows in book summary her article, obeah could infect colonial minds, texts, and Essay Education performances, and these representations of obeah highlighted concerns about the book, effects of tropical climates on colonial bodies and minds and about the difficulties of maintaining order on plantations. Writers attempted to allay these fears by aligning obeah with multiple physical diseases, including yaws and yellow fever, even as doing so further transmitted dangerous representations of obeah and on Year Round Education indicated obeahs power over colonists.

Colonists failure to locate obeahs natural causes is manifested formally, in on An hybrid texts whose generic mixtures reflect the assemblages out of Essay Education which obeah was constituted its collections of natural objects, chants, jargon, and ceremonies. 23 23. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.392. Gates Of Fire! View all notes In The Sugar-Cane , for example, Grainger added scientific footnotes to Round his poetic text, in Essay Abundance of Katherines which he stated that obeah men carried a staff marked with frogs, snakes, c. The blacks imagine that its blow, if not mortal, will at on Year Round Education, least occasion long and troublesome disorders. 24 24. What By Which Children! Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 143144. View all notes Grainger attributed the power of the Education, obeah mans staff to of Katherines Africans belief in magic, thus contradicting his poetic description of obeah as composed of Essay Round natural and supernatural elements to support instead the what is the by which children a particular, argument that obeahs powers could be attributed to Africans imaginations. Essay On Year Education! But Grainger also admitted that obeah men could do good on plantations as long as they were supervised by plantation owners. 25 25.

Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 144. View all notes By placing prose footnotes that acknowledged obeahs usefulness and that attributed it to Africans imaginations alongside his poetic list of obeahs materials and description of how many pages their preternatural powers, Grainger formally represented the debate over obeahs powers and Essay Education the ways in which obeah escaped Euro-colonial epistemological categories. The poetic and scientific forms in Essay Abundance The Sugar-Cane register colonists attempts to on Year Education discover obeahs natural causes and to british trade unions categorize obeah as irrational knowledge that preyed on unsuspecting or naive Africans even as these forms also represent colonists recognition that obeah was a powerful, valuable phenomena constituted out of Round Education mixtures of Essay on Building natural and preternatural powers. Similarly, in Education his 1800 novel Obi: or the the help book summary, History of Essay on Year Three-Fingered Jack, William Earle mixed the form of the on An Abundance, epistolary novel with footnotes, in order to represent multiple explanations of Round obeahs powers. The novel depicts the Satire Essay, capture and execution of an on Year Round Education, obeah man, and Earle inserted 11 pages of footnotes below the obeah mans story. How Many Are In! 26 26. See Earle, Obi , 72. The Broadview edition omits some of Earle's original footnotes; scholars interested in these should consult the 1800 London edition (published by Essay on Year Round Education, Earle and Hemet) or the 1804 Worcester edition (published by british, Isaiah Thomas).

View all notes These footnotes include a long description of obeahs qualities copied from the Essay on Year Education, accounts of historians Bryan Edwards and Edward Long. While the footnotes allow the narrative of Euro-colonial triumph over obeah to the help proceed undeterred, they also represent moments when colonists failed to Essay on Year Round Education categorize obeah or to explain it in terms of A Blind Man Sees of Possibilities natural causes, thus introducing preternatural powers into the novel. On Year Round Education! In Earles novel, the obeah man is successfully captured and british trade unions executed, and obeah is a practice that can be eradicated by killing its practitioners. On Year Round Education! However, in the footnotes, which recount instances in which colonists failed to Own Agility Equipment control or explain obeah, it remains a power that exceeds and escapes colonial epistemologies, one that cannot be controlled by attending to Essay on Year Round Education natural causes. As Janelle Rodriques argues in her contribution to Essay this issue, obeah appears in colonial narratives as a strongly disruptive force, one that unravels the categories and forms of social authority it often is invoked to support. Finally, we might see the novels in which obeah plays a key role, such as Maria Edgeworths gothic novel Belinda (1801) and romances such as Victor Hugos Bug-Jargal (1826) and Round Education Cynric Williamss Hamel, the in Catch-22 Essay, Obeah Man (1827) as evidence of colonists failure to account for obeah in natural or civil histories or legal reports. Essay On Year Education! As Tim Watson has pointed out, the attempt to Ray Charles: Man Sees A World Essay narrate the Caribbean from the point of Essay Round Education view of plausibility, verifiability, and reason realism, in other words turns into the very forms it seeks to avoid: romantic narrative and its cognates, the gothic, the is the process by which learn a particular tradition?, sentimental, and Essay the melodrama. 27 27. Satire! Watson, Caribbean Culture , 6. View all notes As obeah moved from Essay on Year Round, medical treatises and natural histories into what process by which tradition?, gothic novels and romances, its formal trajectory attested to Essay on Year colonists failure to Satire in Catch-22 Essay locate natural causes for the forms of Essay power they encountered in Ray Charles: A World the Caribbean. The formal mixtures that define the Essay Round Education, literatures of Essay obeah replicate textually the on Year Round, ontological mixture that constituted obeah for the help, both colonists and enslaved peoples.

For colonists, combining poetic verses or the novel with footnotes allowed them to on Year Round Education represent the are in, confusing set of practices they confronted in Essay on Year Round obeah: the trade unions, presence of objects with properties that could be identified in terms of Essay on Year Education natural causes alongside practices and british trade powers that they categorized as preternatural. Essay! Africans bodies were central to these contests over power: as Jeffrey Cottrells contribution shows, colonial writers responded to the material practices and Essay of Katherines powers of African womens bodies by Essay on Year Round, imagining obeah as an increasingly powerful force and by developing ever more complex strategies for maintaining control over enslaved womens bodies. Essay Your Own Agility Equipment! As each text imagines the removal of obeah from the on Year, Caribbean, it both acknowledges obeahs immense power and attempts to subordinate it by book summary, exercising control over Essay Round Education African bodies. So, too, did writing about obeah offer colonial authors the on Building Your Own Agility, chance to meditate on Round Education the vulnerability of white bodies; as Justine Murison demonstrates in gates of fire this issue, representing obeah forced these writers to confront the conflicted relation between the on Year Education, disenchanted minds they imagined themselves to possess and Your Own Agility Equipment the unsettling openness that marked the bodies of those inhabiting the Essay, pre-emancipation Caribbean world. The literatures of A Blind Man Sees Essay obeah represent and recirculate, for their readers in Essay on Year Education Europe and for colonists in the Caribbean, some of those powers even as they seek to identify and categorize (and thus reduce) them. How Many Are In The Great Gatsby! The power of obeah in Essay on Year Round Education the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Atlantic World thus resided both in the natural and Abundance of Katherines supernatural worlds that Africans accessed with material and Essay Round spiritual practices and in the formal mixtures of colonial texts. Indeed, for colonists and for European readers, obeahs power was located precisely in the assemblage of obeah practices and colonial representations of how many pages the great gatsby obeah at on Year Round Education, a point that Stephan Palmie describes as a singularly dense mesh of social praxis with its representation. 28 28. British Trade Unions! Palmie, Other Powers, 317. Essay On Year Round! View all notes. How Many The Great Gatsby! What, then, does it mean to try to account for obeahs power in on Year the eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Atlantic World, located as it is at the great gatsby, the intersection of social practice and Essay literary and cultural representation?

Like other subaltern formations, obeahs early history was largely chronicled in how many are in the great gatsby print by Essay on Year Round, colonial writers, 29 29. Discussions of obeah could be found in are in the great colonial histories, medical treatises, governmental documents, and missionary writings, many of Essay on Year Education which circulated in excerpted forms in newspapers, novels, and book summary chapbooks and served as the on Year Round Education, basis for fictional and theatrical works about obeah in the colonies. Many of gates of fire these discussions figured within larger accounts of the Essay Round, escaped slave turned bandit Jack Mansong; for a detailed survey of the many iterations of A World Jacks story, see Paton, The Afterlives of Essay Round Three-Fingered Jack. Srinivas Aravamudans introduction to William Earles Obi (Broadview Press, 2008) also offers an extensive overview of book summary literary accounts of obeah. Diana Patons online archive Obeah Histories ( also offers an on Year Education, essential introduction to obeahs textual record, past and present. View all notes many of whom had complex, limited, or frankly hostile relations to the practices they described. The Great! 30 30. While obeahs colonial chroniclers often used discussions of Essay Round obeah to advance stridently negative ideas about enslaved Africans, we would also note that some natural historians also treated enslaved Africans knowledge of herbal and medicinal preparations which were often classed with obeah with respect and gates of fire even deference. Colonial dismissals of Essay Round obeah took multiple and gates of fire varied forms in the late eighteenth and Essay on Year early nineteenth centuries, from Satire, knowing dismissal of enslaved Africans supposed credulity, to panicked fear of a well-camouflaged poison, to open respect for what Susan Scott Parrish describes as the slave fully initiated into Round Education, the secrets of nature, persons who could skillfully negotiate the West Indies natural and sometimes supernatural worlds.

See Parrish, American Curiosity , 262. View all notes Any attempt to Satire access the social practices that colonial observers called obeah, then, has to contend with the limits of Round these source materials, the ways in which their dense mesh of practice and representation entangles historical fact in colonial fantasy. In Catch-22! As Palmie puts it, much of what our evidence actually tells us is that their masters or social superordinates (including anthropologists) strongly believed that slaves, peasants, and workers might believe in such things. 31 31. Palmie, Other Powers, 326. View all notes Seeking evidence of obeah in the historical record, in Essay Round Education other words, scholars find instead a prototype of the Satire in Catch-22 Essay, colonial mind and Essay Round the fears that animated it. This enmeshment of practice and book representation enjoins those who would seek to Essay on Year Round trace obeahs powers to adopt a radical modesty; since those who believed in of Katherines and practiced obeah did so in ways that largely escape the documentary record, 32 32. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 326. View all notes Palmie argues, one of the most important things we can learn about obeah is Essay on Year Round Education what we, in fact, do not (and possibly cannot) know about it. 33 33. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 333.

View all notes. We find ourselves in gates of fire full and enthusiastic agreement with Palmie, and Essay on Year Round with others like him, in his insistence that we not take the source materials that record obeahs presence in the eighteenth- and Essay on An Abundance of Katherines nineteenth-century Atlantic as transparent accounts of Essay on Year Round Education obeah practices or the Ray Charles: A Blind Man Sees A World of Possibilities Essay, beliefs that motivated them. Yet we are also motivated by Essay, recent scholarly work that insists, as Simon Gikandi does, that the figure of the slave could come to complicate what an of Katherines, archive meant. 34 34. Quoted in on Year Education Aljoe, Dillon, Doyle, and Hopwood, Obeah and Essay on Building Your Equipment the Early Caribbean Digital Archive, in this special issue. View all notes As the founders of the on Year, Early Caribbean Digital Archive observe in their contribution to this issue, we must attend both to the knowledges these sources seek to create and the ones they seek to on An make inaccessible.

We think that it might be possible to work modestly with these sources while also recognizing their limits to turn to on Year this archive for something other than an the help book, account of on Year praxis that can stand apart from the representation that harbors it. If these representations do not offer direct transcripts of the social practices they claim to chronicle, their formal failures register the pressure of gates of fire obeahs powers, the ways in Essay which genres such as natural history and gates of fire romantic and Essay on Year Round Education gothic fictions were pushed to in Catch-22 their epistemological limits as colonial authors tried to render social formations they only Essay on Year Round Education dimly understood. Pages Are In Gatsby! 35 35. Essay Round Education! Here we think of Christopher Ianninis insistence that genre forms have an epistemology. See Iannini, Fatal Revolutions, 2325.

View all notes Likewise, the british unions, fact remains that the source materials that remain for contemporary scholars also served as loci at Essay Round Education, which European, Caribbean, and Ray Charles: Essay American audiences came into relation with obeah and on Year Round powers like it. As they read about obeah in medical treatises, newspaper articles, and gates of fire chapbooks, or saw it travestied in pantomimes or cartoons, audiences throughout the Education, Atlantic found their bodies assembled together with obeahs unfamiliar powers, through the conduit of the medium that brought obeah to them. Holding a newspaper or a chapbook in Essay their hands, or joining the audience of one of the pantomimes that told of slave revolutions fueled by obeah rituals, readers and Essay Education viewers opened themselves, if only for a moment, to experiencing obeah as part of the material world in the help summary which they read and that they shared with others. Essay On Year Round Education! 36 36. Here were interested in the way in which obeah works like the is the process by which learn cultural tradition?, empowered assemblages Jane Bennett describes crucially, ones that may enlist their members without their consent. See Bennett, 2122.

We are aware, as well, that there are as many possible relations with texts (and pantomimes) as one can imagine uses; for one important account of the on Year Round Education, many misuses to which Britons put their books, see Leah Price, How to Essay of Katherines Do Things with Books . On this world-sharing, see Jaudon, Obeahs Sensations. View all notes Obeah may have been something they rejected or accepted, something to which they turned for on Year Round Education, practical knowledge of West Indies life or simply for gothic amusement, but in are in each of these cases coming to Essay on Year Round Education know it meant enacting the habits and postures and summary behaviors that fit newspapers and pantomimes into Essay on Year, their worlds. Essay Own Agility! If these sources can never give us obeah practices in pure, unadulterated form obeah in its own right, in its intimate connection to Essay Round the historical actors who used it, revised it, and believed in it what they may offer us is a portrait of how those practices and gates of fire beliefs registered within the Atlantic World, of the entanglements and Education affiliations that grew up around them. On An Abundance Of Katherines! We can find in Essay Round Education these sources, in other words, the outlines of the british, assemblages they sought to generate the Essay on Year Round Education, felt texture of the common world into how many pages are in, which they imagined readers, colonial authorities, and Essay on Year Education obeah practices and practitioners. 37 37. Ray Charles: Of Possibilities! Our thinking on this point has been spurred by the scholarly turn toward the Essay on Year, new materialisms and Essay on Building Own Agility actor-network theory, especially as it has figured in work by Jane Bennett and on Year Education Bruno Latour. This second form of how many assemblage generated by the errand to write about obeah shares with Bennetts assemblages the Essay Round Education, sense that its members might not be willingly enlisted (for instance, her suggestion that the book, agency of an assemblage might arise from the collaboration, cooperation, or interactive interference of many bodies and forces; see Vibrant Matter , 21), as it also follows Latours insistence that sociality consists in an ever-changing network of associations (see, for Education, instance, Reassembling the Social ). View all notes. Man Sees Of Possibilities! We would suggest, then, that the assemblages that grew up around and through these colonial accounts might themselves offer one way to learn more about obeah and powers like it. Round! Here we think that literary and literary-historical scholarship of the kind this special issue presents has something distinctive to trade offer interdisciplinary-minded scholars who are interested in these questions. 38 38. Literary scholars who have written extensively about Round Education, obeah include Srinivas Aravamudan, Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Alan Richardson, Candace Ward, Tim Watson, and trade unions both of the editors of this special issue, among others. View all notes Our turn in Essay Education this direction is by which learn tradition? motivated, at least in on Year Round Education part, by on Building Equipment, the by Essay on Year Round, now well-recognized asymmetries between historians and trade literary scholars treatment of each other's work.

Eric Slauter has argued that the differences between literary scholars and historians and, in recent years, the willingness of Education literary scholars to cite historians compared to on Building Your Equipment the general paucity of citations from Essay Round Education, historians to literary scholars, a differential he terms the the great, trade gap depend at least in part on a differing approach to source materials (they historicize different things). Essay Round Education! Yet Elizabeth Maddock Dillon insists that whats really at play here is a large area of noncoincidence between the aims and Essay desires of literary studies and historical studies, one that focuses literary scholars attention on an essential aspect of the community generated by Essay on Year Round, the advent of an how many gatsby, Atlantic World: namely a set of on Year signifying practices (and erasures) that shaped the world we inhabit today. 39 39. Dillon, Atlantic Practices, 185. View all notes Dillons insistence on gates of fire the primary concern of literary scholars with aesthetics in particular, with the analysis of form and genre registers her insistence on two twinned principles: that the political realm in which we come to on Year Education live together is strongly shaped by the help book, signifying practices, and that literary scholars are particularly well positioned to on Year Round explain these practices power and significance. Gates Of Fire! 40 40. Dillon, Atlantic Practices, 185. Essay On Year Education! View all notes For Dillon, as for many other literary scholars, the structures and patterns that guide representation matter because they shape the terms on Own Agility which people sensed and perceived the Round, world they shared in common, the sites at which they could become social beings. Satire In Catch-22 Essay! As Cindy Weinstein and Essay on Year Round Chris Looby put it: aesthetic [becomes] a usable term precisely because its history involves the discipline of a careful attention to children learn a particular surfaces and appearances, to Round Education the sensible textures of things, and Satire in Catch-22 Essay its history also preserves the conviction that social and political life always has a sensory and Essay Education perceptual dimension. 41 41. In Catch-22! Weinstein and Essay Education Looby, Introduction, 8. View all notes. In Catch-22! We are interested, then, in Essay on Year Round the ways in Satire Essay which these archives record how colonial writers sought to Essay on Year Education make obeah sensible to british unions weave it into Essay Round, the Atlantic World readers and practitioners shared. Take again, for instance, one of the gates of fire, most widely circulated late-eighteenth-century accounts of obeah and its powers, Benjamin Moseleys description of on Year Round Education obeah in his 1799 Treatise on Sugar . Abundance Of Katherines! 42 42.

In addition to on Year Round Education its appearance in the Jamaican newspaper The Royal Gazette and in multiple iterations of longer works published in London, excerpts of Ray Charles: A Blind Man Sees Moseleys discussion of obeah appeared in Essay on Year Round newspapers in Boston ( Boston Gazette , 26 March 1801), Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania ( The Gleaner , 21 January 1814), New York City ( New-York Courier , 9 October 1816), Albany, New York ( The Albany Advertiser , 12 October 1816), Washington, D.C. A Blind A World! ( Washington City Weekly Gazette , 19 October 1816), and Newport, Rhode Island ( Rhode-Island Republican , 30 October 1816), sometimes as reprints from on Year Round Education, The Royal Gazette . See Carey and Paton, Histories of Three-Fingered Jack and Your Own Agility Equipment Jaudon, Obeahs Sensations, 737 n. 21. View all notes As we discuss above, Moseleys account offers a classic representation of obeah-as-assemblage, listing the ostensibly natural objects that an Essay Round Education, obeah might contain and making visible the ways in which obeahs powers confound empiricist modes of observation. Moseleys text also , and Essay on An Abundance of Katherines paradoxically, opens up the Round Education, possibility that we can see how colonial authors sought to orient their readerships to the phenomenon they were describing the process tradition?, way that the tenuous project of making obeah knowable, with all its limits, also sought to teach audiences how to Essay on Year understand how obeah figured into gates of fire, the world in Essay Education which they lived. Essay Of Katherines! Here is the full passage in which Moseleys list of an obeahs contents appears: OBI, for the purposes of bewitching people, or consuming them by lingering illness, is made of grave dirt, hair, teeth of sharks, and Essay Round Education other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax, the hearts of birds, and some potent roots, weeds, and the help bushes, of which Europeans are at this time ignorant; but which were known, for Essay Round Education, the same purposes, to the ancients. In Catch-22! Certain mixtures of on Year Round Education these ingredients are burnt; or buried very deep in the ground; or hung up a chimney; or laid under the threshold of the what process by which learn a particular tradition?, door of the Essay on Year, party, to suffer; with incantation songs, or curses, performed at midnight, regarding the of Katherines, aspects of the moon A negro, who thinks himself bewitched by OBI, will apply to Education an Obi-man, or Obi-woman, for the help, cure. [] I saw the OBI of the famous negro robber, Three fingered JACK, the terror of Essay Jamaica in british trade 1780 and on Year Education 1781. What Is The By Which Children A Particular! [] His OBI consisted of the Essay, end of a goats horn, filled with a compound of is the children learn tradition? grave dirt, ashes, the blood of a black cat, and human fat; all mixed into a kind of Essay on Year paste. Ray Charles: Man Sees! A black cats foot, a dried toad, a pigs tail, a slip of parchment of Education kids skin, with characters marked in blood on it, were also in Equipment his Obian bag. 43 43. Moseley, Treatise , 171173.

View all notes. In moments such as these we see not what obeah was in its own right, but rather the web of Essay on Year Round relations to Essay on Building Your Own Agility which colonial authors thought it belonged. Turning an Essay Round Education, eye toward these texts aesthetic properties shows how they seek to Ray Charles: A Blind Man Sees A World of Possibilities Essay invest their audiences in Essay on Year what is, at its heart, an the help summary, orienting project: one in Essay on Year Education which the Ray Charles: A Blind A World, powers that these texts struggle and sometimes fail to trace back to Essay Round Education the natural world are still brought into their readers everyday lives in some form. When he lists the raw ingredients that compose an gates of fire, obeah, Moseley asks his readers to see the on Year Round, single objects he has extracted from in Catch-22 Essay, it a slip of parchment, an Essay on Year Education, eggshell, a feather as individual representatives of larger categories of summary familiar objects. Education! As he makes the on An of Katherines, obeahs disaggregated components available to sense perception, Moseley renders obeah, in some senses, ordinary part of the background of Essay on Year Education objects one encounters in ones everyday life. Man Sees Essay! Yet mixed into Essay, these moments of recognition are a set of descriptions that cannot be directly verified through the senses: one has no way to know that what Moseley describes as the blood of a black cat came from a cat that was not brown or gray, or that it came from Abundance of Katherines, a cat at Essay on Year Round, all. These are the moments at Abundance of Katherines, which, as weve noted above, the text veers toward the Essay Education, romantic and especially gothic modes that Tim Watson discusses. And they are the moments in which obeahs recognizability as a part of the in Catch-22 Essay, material world metropolitans and colonials shared relied both on Essay on Year Round Education the familiarity of material objects and unions the legibility of particular genres and tropes: the mythical powers of grave dirt, the magical efficacy of a black cat.

Reading obeah, in other words, meant knowing it as a part of on Year other stories, as something that could be recognized in the fictions and narratives that circulated in ones culture. As they cross-pollinated obeah with the Satire, gothic, in particular, these texts aligned it with a cluster of Essay Education possibly-real, possibly-imaginary dangers, horrors, and thrills that, when they appear in fictive texts, become at what is the process learn tradition?, once part of how the world might be and on Year Round Education something that might be imaginary, unreal. In other words, they teach readers to adopt an attitude of provisionality, to Satire perceive obeah as something of interest that may or may not be real. On Year Education! At first glance, this provisionality might appear to gates of fire be something obvious, something secular moderns can take for Round, granted. Yet here we do well to remember that the forms of recognition and A Blind orientation Moseleys text chronicles had to be brought into being. And this, we think, is part of Essay Round Education what a distinctively literary take on Abundance of Katherines obeah may offer scholars interested in the legacy of Round Education these and other powers a better understanding of the social formation and embodied orientations that grew up, tenuously and imperfectly, to is the process children learn a particular cultural tradition? try to integrate them into the Atlantic World. If we agree with Palmie that the other powers wielded by Essay on Year Round Education, the subaltern other do not easily yield to Abundance of Katherines objective knowledge, unless the observer herself agrees to Essay Round come under its influence, then one way we might begin to gates of fire apprehend those powers is within the web of influences, literary and on Year Round otherwise, that shaped those who would have encountered them in the past. Summary! 45 45. Palmie, Other Powers, 325. View all notes To do so may be to recognize, as the contributors to this special issue do, that our knowledge of obeahs past may be a particularly entangled history one in which praxis and on Year representation can never stand fully apart. We thank the editors of is the process learn tradition? Atlantic Studies for on Year, fostering and supporting this special issue, as well as Kelly Bezio, Tim Cassedy, Gabriel Cervantes, Nora Gilbert, Melissa Gniadek, Lucia Hodgson, Giffen Maupin, Dahlia Porter, Debapriya Sarkar, and Daniel Walden for their feedback on this introduction.

No potential conflict of interest was reported by Essay on An, the author. Toni Wall Jaudon is an assistant professor of English at Northwestern University. Essay Education! Her essays have appeared in A Blind Man Sees American Literature and Education American Literary History . Currently, she is at work on a study of the Essay on An of Katherines, liveliness of religious objects in the nineteenth-century Americas. Kelly Wisecup is an assistant professor of Essay on Year Education English at Northwestern University. She is the pages are in, author of Medical Encounters: Knowledge and Essay Round Education Identity in Early American Literatures (University of Massachusetts Press, 2013) and what process by which learn tradition? the editor of Good News from New England by Edward Winslow: A Scholarly Edition (University of Essay Round Massachusetts Press, 2014). Gates Of Fire! 1. Round! On the disciplines, see the Essay Own Agility, essays in Siskin and Warner, This is Enlightenment and Lenoir, Discipline of Round Education Nature. 2. Book Summary! See, for a few examples, Rivett, Science of the Soul ; Delbourgo, Most Amazing Scene ; Watson, Angelical Conjunction ; Erben, Harmony of the on Year Education, Spirits . 3. On Building Equipment! See Sweet, Domingos Alvares . Essay Education! For a compelling introduction to current scholarly work on the help book these intersections, see Religion and Essay on Year Round Education Medicine in trade American Literature, a recent special issue of Literature and Essay on Year Round Education Medicine coedited by on Building Equipment, Kelly Bezio and Ashley Reed. On Year! 4. Is The Process By Which Children Learn A Particular Cultural! See Stoler, Along the Archival Grain , especially 50, as well as Epstein, Scandal of Essay on Year Round Colonial Rule and british unions Joseph, Reading the East India Company . 5. For early studies of obeah, see Williams, Psychic Phenomena ; Bastide, African Civilizations ; and Patterson, Sociology of Slavery. These scholars, to varying degrees, read colonial texts as capable of Essay Round Education revealing accurate information about by which children, African belief and knowledge that could be fruitfully juxtaposed against Essay Education European epistemological categories, from religion, to witchcraft, to is the process by which cultural Africa. They also emphasized the essential Africanity of on Year Round Education obeah; for example, after interviewing practicing obeah men, Williams concluded that obeah was African witchcraft that had been imported into the West Indies. Handlers and in Catch-22 Bilbys co-written work usefully complicated such positivist approaches by showing that the term obeah and its definitions as witchcraft were colonial constructions, with some material correspondents in Essay Education Africans practices. See Handler and in Catch-22 Bilby, On the Early Use and Obeah. Their studies established the Essay Round, foundation for what process children learn, scholarship of the past decade or so, which has developed Handlers and Bilbys methodological skepticism of Round Education colonial texts to examine the ways in which colonial accounts of obeah served larger social, aesthetic, and legal aims.

See, for Satire in Catch-22, example, Aravamudan, Introduction; and on Year Richardson, Romantic Voodoo; Watson, Caribbean Culture; Paton, Witchcraft, Law, Poison; the essays in gates of fire Paton and Essay Education Forde, Obeah and Other Powers ; and what is the process by which cultural tradition? Browne, Bad Business of Obeah. 6. Essay On Year Round Education! Stewart, Three Eyes , 42. 7. On Building Your! Stewart, Three Eyes , 103104. 8. Education! Handler and Bilby, On the by which cultural, Early Use, 87. 9. Essay On Year Education! See Paton, Witchcraft, Poison, Law. 10. Summary! Daston, Marvelous Facts, 107. On Year! 11. See Daston, Marvelous Facts, 107. 12. See Brown, Reapers Garden , and Wisecup, Knowing Obeah. 13. Long, History of Jamaica , 416.

14. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.384386. 15. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.387392. Trade! 16. Essay On Year! For an what tradition?, important reading of Education obeahs combinatory powers, see Dillon, Obi, Assemblage, Enchantment. 17. Hughes, Natural History , 15. The Help Book! 18. Edwards, History, Civil and Essay Round Education Commercial , 87. 19.

Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171. 20. Hughes, Natural History , 15. 21. See Mack, Horace Walpole. 22. Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171. Ray Charles: A Blind Man Sees A World Of Possibilities Essay! 23. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.392. 24. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 143144. Essay On Year! 25.

Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 144. 26. How Many Are In Gatsby! See Earle, Obi , 72. The Broadview edition omits some of Earle's original footnotes; scholars interested in these should consult the 1800 London edition (published by Earle and on Year Hemet) or the 1804 Worcester edition (published by Isaiah Thomas). Book! 27. Watson, Caribbean Culture , 6. 28. On Year Round Education! Palmie, Other Powers, 317. 29. Discussions of A World Essay obeah could be found in Essay on Year Round Education colonial histories, medical treatises, governmental documents, and what process by which children a particular cultural tradition? missionary writings, many of Essay Round Education which circulated in unions excerpted forms in newspapers, novels, and chapbooks and served as the basis for on Year, fictional and theatrical works about book, obeah in the colonies.

Many of Round Education these discussions figured within larger accounts of the escaped slave turned bandit Jack Mansong; for the help book, a detailed survey of the many iterations of Essay on Year Round Jacks story, see Paton, The Afterlives of Three-Fingered Jack. Srinivas Aravamudans introduction to William Earles Obi (Broadview Press, 2008) also offers an how many are in the great, extensive overview of literary accounts of Essay on Year obeah. British Trade Unions! Diana Patons online archive Obeah Histories ( also offers an Essay, essential introduction to obeahs textual record, past and gates of fire present. 30. While obeahs colonial chroniclers often used discussions of Essay on Year Round obeah to advance stridently negative ideas about A Blind Man Sees A World of Possibilities, enslaved Africans, we would also note that some natural historians also treated enslaved Africans knowledge of on Year Round herbal and Ray Charles: A World of Possibilities Essay medicinal preparations which were often classed with obeah with respect and Essay Round Education even deference. Colonial dismissals of obeah took multiple and varied forms in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, from knowing dismissal of enslaved Africans supposed credulity, to panicked fear of the help book summary a well-camouflaged poison, to open respect for Essay on Year Round Education, what Susan Scott Parrish describes as the slave fully initiated into the secrets of on An nature, persons who could skillfully negotiate the Round Education, West Indies natural and pages are in sometimes supernatural worlds. See Parrish, American Curiosity , 262. 31. Education! Palmie, Other Powers, 326. By Which Children A Particular! 32.

Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 326. On Year Round! 33. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 333. 34. Trade Unions! Quoted in Aljoe, Dillon, Doyle, and Hopwood, Obeah and the Early Caribbean Digital Archive, in this special issue. Essay On Year Round Education! 35. Here we think of Christopher Ianninis insistence that genre forms have an Essay Your Equipment, epistemology. See Iannini, Fatal Revolutions, 2325. 36.

Here were interested in the way in on Year Education which obeah works like the gates of fire, empowered assemblages Jane Bennett describes crucially, ones that may enlist their members without their consent. On Year Round Education! See Bennett, 2122. We are aware, as well, that there are as many possible relations with texts (and pantomimes) as one can imagine uses; for one important account of the many misuses to which Britons put their books, see Leah Price, How to Do Things with Books . On this world-sharing, see Jaudon, Obeahs Sensations. 37. Our thinking on book summary this point has been spurred by the scholarly turn toward the Round, new materialisms and what process by which learn cultural tradition? actor-network theory, especially as it has figured in Essay on Year Round work by gatsby, Jane Bennett and Education Bruno Latour. Ray Charles: A Blind Of Possibilities Essay! This second form of assemblage generated by the errand to Essay write about obeah shares with Bennetts assemblages the sense that its members might not be willingly enlisted (for instance, her suggestion that the agency of an assemblage might arise from the collaboration, cooperation, or interactive interference of the help many bodies and Essay on Year forces; see Vibrant Matter , 21), as it also follows Latours insistence that sociality consists in british unions an ever-changing network of associations (see, for instance, Reassembling the Social ). 38. On Year Round Education! Literary scholars who have written extensively about A Blind A World, obeah include Srinivas Aravamudan, Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Alan Richardson, Candace Ward, Tim Watson, and both of the editors of Essay Round Education this special issue, among others. Learn! 39.

Dillon, Atlantic Practices, 185. 40. Dillon, Atlantic Practices, 185. Essay Round! 41. Weinstein and Essay on Building Equipment Looby, Introduction, 8. 42. On Year Round! In addition to gates of fire its appearance in Round Education the Jamaican newspaper The Royal Gazette and in multiple iterations of are in gatsby longer works published in Essay on Year Round London, excerpts of Moseleys discussion of Essay Abundance obeah appeared in newspapers in Boston ( Boston Gazette , 26 March 1801), Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania ( The Gleaner , 21 January 1814), New York City ( New-York Courier , 9 October 1816), Albany, New York ( The Albany Advertiser , 12 October 1816), Washington, D.C. ( Washington City Weekly Gazette , 19 October 1816), and Newport, Rhode Island ( Rhode-Island Republican , 30 October 1816), sometimes as reprints from The Royal Gazette . See Carey and Paton, Histories of Three-Fingered Jack and on Year Education Jaudon, Obeahs Sensations, 737 n. 21. 43. Moseley, Treatise , 171173. 44. Trade! Writing about the minkisi used among the BaKongo, Wyatt MacGaffey underscores how ritually empowered African objects garnered their force from deliberate processes of Essay assemblage.

See African Objects, especially 126, and pages the great gatsby Fetishism Revisited, 173. For an Essay on Year Round Education, account of the Your Own Agility, cross-pollination between Kongo minkisi and conjuring practices among Atlantic Africans in the Georgia and South Carolina Lowcountry, see Young, Minkisi . Essay Round! Note also, however, the concerns Stephan Palmie raises about the help book, attempts to Essay Education divine the African origins of the Essay on Building Own Agility Equipment, diverse and historically specific practices that evolved among enslaved Africans in the Americas (see, especially, the introduction to Africas of the Essay on Year, Americas ). What is clear from Essay Your Own Agility Equipment, Moseleys account is Essay on Year how deeply invested he was in Ray Charles: Man Sees disassembly as a way of working against the power that the Essay on Year Education, obeah seemed to bear. 45. Palmie, Other Powers, 325. Essay Own Agility Equipment! Registered in England Wales No.

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Problems and Aspirations of Youth Essay. Violent crimes such as murder, armed robbery, kidnapping and terrorism are the most inhumane crimes that continue to plague Nigeria. Lately, kidnappings for ransom and terrorism have taken the Essay, centre stage leading to bloodshed and Man Sees of Possibilities economic set -backs. Essay Education. The causes are not farfetched as studies have associated rising youth unemployment to the increase in violent crimes. By using the deprivation theory proposed by Ted Gurr, this study has explored the unions, proximate and ultimate causes involving the youths in violent crimes.

If factors that create the feeling of deprivation and frustration created by unemployment are addressed, Nigeria?s youths will not engage in violent crimes. Keywords: Youth; unemployment; poverty; violence; crime. Creativity and high energy are the characteristics of young people in any nation and if the energy is channelled positively, it will greatly benefit not only the economic prosperity of nations but also enhance the moral values of the youth. When the same energy is used negatively, it will lead to social unrest and economic instability. Labour force of a country is used to measure unemployment and Feyisetan (1991) defines as a set of people or citizens of a country who are willing and are able to make available at any given point in time their efforts for gainful employment. Therefore unemployment is a situation where people are willing to work but could not find employment. According to the International Labour Organization people who are without work but available for and seekin g work; including those who have lost jobs and those who have voluntarily left jobs (World Bank, 1998). On the other hand, violent crime is defined as a crime in Essay Round which the offender uses or threatens to use violent force upon the victim. This entails violence including robbery with and without arms (Wikipedia, 2010). Global unemployment remained stable at 8% between 2010 and 2011, according to Gallup surveys of how many gatsby, 148 countries.

Unemployment was highest in the Middle East and North Africa (22%) and sub-Saharan Africa 17% (Marlar, 2012). However, Nigeria?s unemployment rate is above the sub-region?s average that increased to 23.9% in 2011 compared with 21.1% in 2010 and 19.7% in 2009 (National Bureau of Statistics, 2012); and is projected to hit 25% by the end of 2012 (USA Embassy in Nigeria, 2012). According to the National Bureau of Statistics (2009:238; 2010:2; 2012), the national unemployment rates for Nigeria between 2000 and 2011 showed that the number of unemployed persons constituted 31.1% in 2000 and it reduced to 11.9% in 2005 but again increased to Essay Round Education 23.9% in 2011. Abundance. Nigeria has a youth population of 80 million, representing 60% of the total population with a growth rate of 2.6% per on Year, year and the national demography suggests that the youth population remains vibrant with an average annual entrant to the labour force is Satire, 1.8m between 2006 and Essay on Year Round Education 2011. Yet, majority of the youth has been either unemployed or under -employed between 2006 and 2011. The overall unemployment rose from 12.3% of Labour force to 23.9% (Awogbenle and Iwuamadi, 2010). A surge in unemployment was witnessed in how many pages the great gatsby 2009 due to global/local economic meltdown. The World Bank estimates that 74 million people between the ages of 15 and 24 are unemployed, which accounts for Essay Round Education 41% of Man Sees A World, all unemployed person s (UNHabitat, 2008). From 1990-2000 youth unemployment data showed that the largest group of the Essay on Year Education, unemployed were secondary school graduates.

Also, 40% of unemployment rate were among urban youths aged 20 24 and pages 31% of the rate were among those aged 15-19. Two-thirds of the urban unemployed ranged from 15-24 years old. Essay. Moreover, the educated unemployed tended to british trade be young males with few dependents (Okafor, 2011). In 2011, the situation became even more critical with 37.7% of Nigerians aged 15-24 and 22.4% of those between ages 25-44 were willing to work but did not get jobs. Round. On average, youth unemployment rate in Nigeria is 46.5% in 2011 (BLG, 2012). As of 2009 when National Bureau of Statistics published unemployment rate at 19.7%, Issa Aremu the Deputy President of the National Labour Congress said, Find out about the number of people who applied for the last recruitment by the Nigeria Immigration Service and the Customs Service. When more than a hundred thousand people apply for just about 3000 vacancies, then you should know whether the figures are true (Ekott, 2010). Unemployment appears to be the the help summary, root cause o f violence in Nigeria.

Research suggests that unemployed youths are disproportionately more likely to be perpetrators, as well as victims of crime and violence (Okafor, 2011). The growing gap between the rich and poor affects the society through increased violence. The self employed are in quandary as scant infrastructure makes it impossible for them to ply their trade (Okafor, 2011). This is Essay on Year, exac erbated by political corruption, poverty, poor governance, increasing population, and lack of policy initiatives and implementation to some extent encouraged criminal groups to thrive across Nigeria. This paper examines how youth unemployment contributes to of Possibilities Essay violent crimes across Nigeria. Deprivation Theory of Ted Gurr. This classical theory explains why people engage in violence (riots, rebellion, coups, criminal activities etc.).

It examines the psychological causes involving frustration and aggression as the primary source of human capacity for Essay Education violence. Frustration is neither necessary nor sufficient ly leads to violence but greed may drive to violence. Frustration is a much stronger motivating force and prolonged frustration may cause greater probability for aggression. Relative deprivation is the discrepancy between what people think they deserve and what they actually think they can get (Gurr, 1970). It is noteworthy that Gurr does not look to a more absolute or objective indicator of deprivation as the source of violence. People can get used to a bad state of affairs, even one that offers so little access to life-sustaining resources that members of the group are starving or dying of remediable diseases or exposure.

However, if there is a significant d iscrepancy between what they think they deserve and what they think they will get, there is a likelihood of british, rebellion. Gurr posits this to be the case because there is a feeling that their expectation cannot be met if the current statuesque is maintained. The first situation may be a desperate one, but it is the se cond that will be frustrating. So frustration produces aggression at individual, group and societal levels. This theory could be used to link rising number of unemployed youths and violent crimes in Nigeria.

A country that produce thousands of Education, university graduate every year without commensurate employment opportunities may be creating a fertile ground for a feeling of frustration among these unemployed graduates. Naturally, there is a feeling of joy and great expectations when a student graduates from a university- these expectations gradually fades away and is replaced by feeling of frustration after some years of joblessness caused by little opportunity the society offers the young graduate. As frustration prolongs and the feeling of deprivation of what that is expected increases, there is a greater probability that the individual or people can resort to illegitimate activities in order to actualise their expectations in the society. The rise in british trade unions violent crimes (robbery, kidnapping, thuggery, terrorism) committed by youths is a sign of Essay on Year Round Education, gap? in the society. The society already has expectations for individuals and established means of achieving them. When the means are limited as the youth unemployme nt is 46.5% in 2011, people are forced to achieve the Essay on An, goals through illegal means to fulfil societal expectations. Kidnappings are on the increase across Nigeria and the unemployed youths view the business lucrative. They are available for recruitment by p oliticians.

In the Northern part, they are recruited both by politicians and religious groups to be used in political, religious and terrorism acts. On Year Education. In the SW Nigeria, they find easy employment in the help book petty criminal activities. The culture must at least accept , if not approve, violent action as a means to Round Education an end. This could be the reason why suicide bombing is exclusive to the Northern part of the country as violence is encouraged by some Islamic sects. Political violence is british trade, also likely if the current leadershi p and or the socio-economic and political system are seen as illegitimate. Causes of Youth Unemployment in Nigeria. The level of unemployment is highly dependent on Essay Round Education the overall status of the economy (Awogbenle and Iwuamadi, 2010). Despite its riches from o il economy, employment in Nigeria is actually falling. The years of corruption, civil war, military rule, and mismanagement have hindered economic growth. Nigeria is endowed with diverse and infinite resources, both human and the help book material but years of Round, neglige nce and adverse policies have led to the under-utilization of the help book summary, these resources. These resources have not been effectively utilized in order to yield maximum economic benefits.

These are primary causes of on Year Education, unemployment; however s cholars have identified other causes of unemployment as well ( Adebayo, 1999; Alanana, 2003; Echebiri, 2005; Ayinde, 2008; Morphy, 2008; Awogbenle and Iwuamadi, 2010; and Anyadike et al, 2012) . The first is population growth (140,431,790 as per 2006 census) and is projected to be over 1 80 million by 2020 if the annual growth rate of 3.2% continues (National Population Commission and ICF Macro, 2009). While the population increases, the number of industries growth is dwindling and if nothing serious is done, both population and unemployme nt will continue to rise. The second is Ray Charles: A Blind Man Sees A World of Possibilities Essay, outdated school curricula and Essay on Year Round lack of employable skills: Some scholars have argued that as far as the formal sector is concerned, the average Nigerian graduate is Satire in Catch-22, not employable therefore, does not possess the skill s needed by the employers (Anyadike et al, 2012). Education. This is due to the curricula of most Nigerian schools that do not include entrepreneur skill acquisition to benefit job seekers. The third is adoption of untimely economic policy measures that contributed to the demise of small scale and cottage industries operated in both formal and informal sectors. Following the introduction of Structural Adjustment Program in book summary September 1986 that ushered in Essay on Year Round liberalization, deregulation and unions devaluation program of the domes tic currency, many of the teething domestic firms collapsed that resulted in serious job losses (Bello, 2003). The fourth is over emphasis on university certificates and Essay on Year Round Education neglect of skill acquisition trainings that contributes to youth unemployment. According to gates of fire Manning and Junankar (1998), the total number of graduates produced in Nigeria was 73,339 in 1986/1987 that rose to 131,016 in 1996/1997. Over 97 universities occur in Nigeria with a demand for Education higher education while there is problem of unemployment.

The reality is that the economy does not have the Man Sees, capacity to absorb all unemployed graduates because over 800 industries and Essay Round 37 factories were closed down in 2009 alone (Anyadike et al, 2012). Nigerias Unemployment and Crimes. Security is a contextual issue which no state in the international system consigns to the periphery; it is a core-value that makes the Essay of Katherines, state relevant in the international system (Ndifon, et al. 2012). Death rate attributable to Round violence in Africa is estimated at 60.9 per 100,000 p eople more than twice the how many the great, global rate (WHO 2004a). Crime and violence have been increasing in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa among unemployed young people.

The causes are not farfetched as studies have associated rising youth unemployment to Essay on Year Round increase of violent crime in Nigeria. The accelerating level of prostitution, armed robbery, rape, terrorism and all facets of violence can be largely attributed to unions the incidence of unemployment. Growth has not been in line with the aspirations of the people and has not been driven by higher productivity. The public perception is Essay Round Education, that there has been little job creation. Satire In Catch-22. Many young people who fail to gain employment have become a burden to the employed that bear the Round, responsibility of meeting the needs of millions of educated but increasing frustrated group, a wasting generation. The problem of violent crimes in Nigeria has been exacerbated by the help summary, the high rate of unemployment and on Year Round Education economic hardship which has pushed many jobless youths some of whom are graduates into gates of fire, various deadly crimes (Edward, 2011). Essay Round Education. A 2009 World Bank report on Employment and Growth, warned that, The share of young people between the ages of 15 and 24 outside the labour force is growing, despite the countrys strong growth performance over the years. Mass sacking in the Central Bank of Nigeria affected 7,500 banking jobs (Allafrica, 2010). The Help. The UN-Habitat study on crimes and Essay on Year Round violence stressed that socio -economic inequality and the lack of opportunities for social advancement and employment are some of th e root causes of crime and violence. Children and youth from disadvantaged families are vulnerable to fall prey to trade criminal networks. Of the estimated 1 billion people living in slums, over half are under the age of 25, and 40% are estimated to be under the Essay on Year Round Education, age of 19.

They are the primary victims of social exclusion through unemployment, lack of access to health and education (UN -Habitat, 2008). Furthermore, an empirical survey of Children and Youth in the help summary Organized Armed Violence in Nigeria, reported that disenchantment and frustration of young people due to mass poverty and unemployment, has increased the number of Essay Round Education, aggrieved youths and resulted in how many pages are in the great gatsby the emergence of area boys? and Almajiris who target the on Year Round, very society that alienated them (Ibrahim, 2006). The survey concluded that armed militant groups in Nigeria namely Bakassi Boys, O? odua Peoples Congress (OPC) and on An of Katherines Egbesu Boys were made up of youths within 16 17 years (40%), 18 19 years (10%), 20 21 years (20%), and on Year Round 20 23 years (20%). Approximately 60% of them were unemployed (Awogbenle and Iwuamadi, 2010). Bennel (2000) argued that urban society is becoming increasingly criminalized, especially with the proliferation of youth gangs. Neither homes, nor markets are safe in Nigeria because of frequent o ccurrence of Essay, armed robbery incidents. Unemployment problem, which now seems beyond remedy, has produced army of idle hands and some of them have decided to Essay on Year Round punish the society that fails to provide them with means of livelihood and dignity by robbing its members of their property at gunpoint (Ideyi, 2005). The police cannot perform effectively because they are overstretched by the amount of cases that awaits them daily, and Satire Essay is worsened by outdated instruments they use that are no match to the modern sophisticated weapons used by the criminals. The Research Director of the Nigerian Economic Summit Group (NESG), Dr Sope Wiliams Elegbe revealed that: The increasing poverty in Nigeria is accompanied by increasing unemployment. Unemployment is Essay Round, higher in the nort h than in the south. Summary. Mix this situation with radical Islam, which promises a better life for martyrs, and you can understand the growing violence in the north.

Government statistics show that the Round Education, northern states have the highest proportion of uneducated persons. If you link a lack of education and attendant lack of opportunities to a high male youth population, you can imagine that some areas are actually a breeding ground for terrorism (Oxford Research Group, 2012). The Inspector General of Essay, Police, Muhammed Abubakar, has called on the three tiers of government to tackle unemployment in order to reduce crime rate in the country. He expressed concern at Essay on Year Education, the rate youths were resorting to crime as an alternative means of survival due to unemployment: We have a lot of how many pages are in gatsby, graduates and even those who have not attended any school who have nothing to do. It becomes worrisome, when you go round this country and you see the faces of Essay on Year, unemployed persons. You begin to wonder that we just have to do what we have to Satire Essay do at the level of federal, state and local governments to begin to plan and put policies in place for the employment of these persons. (Cruise news, 2012) No nation can achieve growth in an atmosphere of violent crimes.

The role of Nigeria?s government must include the formulation of policies and laws that could help improve the economic and social wellbeing of its citizens and deter criminality. There is a need to increase jobs through small enterprises and poverty alleviation schemes. Economic gr owth in on Year Round Education Nigeria is not the only solution to curb unemployment as the official statistics illustrate that previous unemployment did not decline economic growth. Other solutions such as the provision of right skills to youth should be given an importance. On An. The study concludes that feeling of deprivation produce frustration and Essay could be expressed through aggression.

Therefore if factors that are responsible for youth unemployment in Nigeria are addressed, violent crimes will be reduced. Adebayo A (1999). Essay Abundance Of Katherines. Youth Unemployment and Essay on Year Round National Directorate of Employment Self Employment Programmes. Niger. Unions. J. Essay. Econ. And Soc. Stud. 41(1): 81-102. Alanana OO (2003).

Youth Unemployment in Nigeria: Some Implications for the Third Millennium. Global J. Soc. Sci. 2(1):21-26. Anyadike Nkechi, Emeh Ikechukwu EJ and Ukah Finian Okechukwu (2012). Entrepreneurship development and employment generation in Nigeria: Problems and prospects. Journal of Education and unions General Studies Vol. 1(4) pp. 088-102. Awogbenle, A.C.

Iwuamadi, K.C. (2010). Youth Unemployment: Entrepreneurship Development Programme as an Intervention Mechanism. African Journal of Business Management, 4(6), 831-835. Ayinde OE(2008). Empirical Analysis of Agricultural Growth and Unemployment. in Nigeria. Afr. J. Agric.

Res. 3(7):465-468. Cruise news, (2012). To fight crime in Nigeria, we must first fight Unemployment. Available on Bello, T. (2003). Essay On Year. Attacking Unemployment Hurdles in Satire in Catch-22 the Fragile Economies of the Sub Saharan Africa: The Experience of Nigeria. A Paper Presented at the Economics for the Future Conference; On the Occasion of the Celebration of 100 Years of Cambridge Economics; Cambridge, United Kingdom. Bennel, P, (2000).

Improving Youth Livelihood in SS.A Report to the International Development Center. BGL, (2012). Economic Note: The Nigerias Paradox of Growth amidst High Poverty Incidence. Retrieved from Echebiri, R.N. (2005).

Characteristics and Determinants of Urban Youth Unemployment in Umuahia, Nigeria: Implications for Rural Development and Essay on Year Round Education Alternative Labor Market Variables. A Paper presented at the ISSER/Cornell/World Bank conference on Shared Growth in Africa held in A Blind Accra, Ghana, July 21-22. Edward Uzoma Ezedike, (2011). Violent Crimes, Economic Development and the Morality of Capital Punishment in Nigeria: A Retentionist Perspective. Retrieved from Ekott, I. (2010). Statistics Bureau puts Nigeria unemployment rate at 19.7 percent . Next News.

Retrieved from Feyisetan BJ (1991). Population growth and the labour force, a study of relationships. Paper presented at a seminar on population and development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Essay On Year Round. Nigeria June 25-28. Ideyi, N. (2005). The Root Cause of Violence in Nigeria: The Niger Delta Crisis, a Reference Point. Manning, C. Junankar, P.N. (1998). Choosy Youth or Unwanted Youth: A Survey of Unemployment. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 34(1), 55-93. Marlar Jenny, (2012). Global Unemployment at 8% in unions 2011.

Retrieved from mployment2011.aspxclient=msucwebq=Unemployment+rate+in+Africa+and+sub+S aharan+Africasa=Xei=GHEOUPHUDmw2wW_j4HYCAved=0CCQQFjAJ. Morphy R. (2008). Nigeria: Youth Unemployment, Poverty a Time Bomb for Country. Leadership, Wednesday, 27 August. National Bureau of Statistics. (2009). Social Statistics in Nigeria. Abuja: The NBS Publication. Retrieved from National Bureau of Statistics. (2010).

Statistical News: Labor Force Statistics No. 476. Essay On Year. Abuja: The NBS Publication. Retrieved from National Bureau of british, Statistics, (2012). Essay On Year Round. Labour Force Statistics. Retrieved from National Population Commission and ICF Macro. (2009).

Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2008. Abuja, Nigeria: National. Ndifon, C.O, Apori, K.A and Ndifon, R.A. (2012). Human Traffickin g in Nigeria: A Metaphor for Human Rights, Crime and Satire Security Violations. American Journal of Social Issues Humanities (ISSN: 2276 6928) Vol.2(3) pp. 84-99.

Available on Essay Education Okafor, E.E. (2011). Youth Unemployment and Implications for Stability of Democracy In Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. Vol. Satire. 13, No.1, 2011 ISSN: 15205509.

320 | A j a e g b u. AJSIH Vol.2 No.5. (September 2012) 315-321. American Journal of Social Issues Humanities Vol.2 No.5. (September 2012) Oxford Research Group, (2012). Nigeria: The Generic Context of the Boko Haram Violence. Monthly. Population Commission and Essay Round ICF Macro, (2010). Nigeria: Unemployment Paradox of Growth. Retrieved from Ted Gurr . Why Men Rebel.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Pages Are In The Great Gatsby. 1970. UN-Habitat, (2008). Essay Round Education. Crime and violence versus employment opportunities in cities and towns. 2nd African Minister ial Conference on Housing and the help Urban Development. On Year Education. Abuja, Nigeria. Retrieved from United States Embassy in Nigeria, (2012). British. Nigerian Fact Sheet. On Year Education. Retrieved from WHO (World Health Organization), 2004a.

African Leaders Call for Increased Efforts to Essay Abundance of Katherines Prevent Violence. Press release, July 26. Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville. Retrieved from Wikipedia, University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 7 November 2016.

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We are proud of the designs weve created, and have seen that they are effective at landing interviews. But were not finished yet well be adding template designs to this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, thats fine too. Readability is king when creating a good template it is the Abundance most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on Essay on Year Education, the Internet that its inappropriate to use a resume template. Youll hear these arguments: 1. It shows youre lazy and uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows youre efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template wont cut it.

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If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on the help book, your resume. Good luck on Essay on Year, the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for Essay on An, manufacturing careers. On Year Round Education? Best of luck! Ive worked in the same industry for the past 13 years.

Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. Trade Unions? The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. Round? I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578;

I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on of Katherines, my resume? Perhaps the Essay Round Education Company name and then all the related roles under that and Abundance, the times I did those jobs? I was always the Essay on Year Round Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is on An Abundance, correct. Essay Round Education? Start with the book summary company name and on Year Round, included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the Job Hopper or the Executive. They should able to fit all your jobs nicely.

Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the pages gatsby templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Essay Round Education Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. ( Best of luck! We suggest using the the help summary Gatsby Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our Professional template. Essay Round Education? In terms of Essay on An of Katherines format, if you want to Essay include your restaurant experience, then you might want to A Blind A World of Possibilities consider using a functional format: Hope this helps! We suggest using our Entry-Level template.

Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.Im a midwife by on Year Round, profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. Im trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since Im from the medical profession, Im having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. A Blind Man Sees A World Of Possibilities? What template should I use? Try the Murray template. Good luck! Hello.

Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education?

Check out our teacher resume samples: You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the Essay on Year Education Freeman template. Gates Of Fire? Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to on Year Education apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University?

Sound like the Entry-Level template would be a good fit for Satire in Catch-22, what youre trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and Essay on Year Education, accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the Entry-Level template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to Ray Charles: A Blind Man Sees A World Essay get back into Round Education, the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and Essay Abundance, socialize.

What resume do you suggest? Try the Essay on Year Round Education Job Hopper template. On An Of Katherines? Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for Essay on Year Round Education, a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is gates of fire, our project for Essay on Year, the fourth quarter this year. I couldnt find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the Elegant 2.0 template. Good luck on your project.

Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the british download link for the template pack of your choice. If youve never written a resume before, Id recommend checking out Essay on Year Round, our How to Ray Charles: A Blind Write a Resume guide to Essay on Year Round get a clearer idea (its much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read well see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, its a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. All of the templates were created by A Blind, professional resume writers, so its hard to go wrong with any of them it just depends on your preference. Good luck!

It really depends on what job youre applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036,

This way, you can focus on Essay on Year Round Education, your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into on An of Katherines, whether youre qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and Essay Round Education, rules change over the years it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but Im not certain. If that doesnt seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Gates Of Fire? Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, Id recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our Classic template on this page should do the on Year Education trick: Good luck at the help, the job fair!

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By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to Essay on Year Education the Resume Genius Terms of Use and of Possibilities Essay, Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Education? Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why.

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Analysis of Gender Representations in the Movie Shrek. Clearly displaying its difference, Shrek was the first film to win an Academy Award for Best Animated Feature in 2001. Looking at all the three movies that have been produced so far, on can see that the characters of Shrek, who is an ogre and his love Fiona, who is originally a beautiful princess but then becomes an ogre herself, as well as other characters of the movie, go against the expectations of society regarding gender and its representation on screen. On Year Education. We will write a custom essay sample. on Analysis of Gender Representations in the Movie Shrek or any similar. topic specifically for you. In this essay, I would like to discuss some aspects of this alienation in describing gender dimensions, and by showing that this alienation is not necessarily negative, I also would like to display how I believe Shrek really had a deep impact on british unions society, as well as it encouraged reflection on what it really means to on Year Education be a certain gender in todays world. Shrek is a movie about this ogre called Shrek who lives by himself in a swamp and does everything that is basically not considered decent by society when it comes to of Katherines proper behavior, including being dirty and picking his earwax to use it as a candle for Education, the dinner table.

One day, his swamp becomes invaded by fairly tale characters that have nowhere to Essay go, so Shrek decides to Essay look for Lord Farquaad who can nullify his choice to exile the characters of Shrek finds Fiona, the beautiful princess and unions rescues her and brings her back to Lord Farquaad. Of course, as fairytales go, Shrek rescues Fiona and falls in love with her but this love seems to Round Education be impossible until we find out that Fiona herself is an ogre who changes her appearance every night due to a curse. In Catch-22 Essay. On their way back to the palace, they both behave rather differently from what one could get used to in other fairytales as far as the rescuer and the princess goes, which difference then brings them together and they end up getting married in forms of ogres. In the further parts of the movie, they continue to meet obstacles because of their. On Year Round Education. Page 2 Analysis of Gender Representations in the Movie Shrek Essay. appearance, such as expectations of Fionas parents and the whole kingdom, as well as they go through difficult times fighting against the stereotyping of people and others around them.

At the en, however, their ove and devotion and their way of being who they are, no matter whether that is an ogre or a human, they become the viewers favorites, gaining respect both from them and the rest of their fairytale world for simply who they are, and for how they look or behave. In fact, the gender representations in Shrek are what make the audience and Ray Charles: A Blind Man Sees of Possibilities Essay the rest of the characters fall in love with the on Year Round Education main characters, such as Shrek, Fiona and Donkey. The text itself is gendered around the stereotypes of what is viewed acceptable in our world, as far as gender goes. What is does, however, it turns around those stereotypes and applies them in ways that allows one to reflect on their meaning, realizing that sometimes what is in Catch-22 Essay normal in society, what is masculine and feminine, might not always be true. Looking at Education Shrek, he is represented as a huge, very unattractive ogre who has a very dirty look, and inappropriate way of behaving.

Though this is gates of fire so, he has a great heart, and Essay on Year Round some very masculine characteristics, such as pride, and competition when it comes to trying to win back his swamp and Fiona at the end. His non-verbal communication tells a lot about his character, mainly when it comes to his attire and his way of acting towards others. When he first meets Donkey, for instance, he takes more space, and has less physical contact with contact with him then he does with Fiona, which clearly displays that he as a man displays masculine gender characteristics. British Trade Unions. These, however, because of his attire and behavior, including his rescue of Essay on Year Fiona as an exact opposite of what one would call Prince Charming, go against some expectations of society of what masculinity should be like or should behave. Fiona, starting out as a beautiful princess and turning into an ogre herself, gives the same example of gender representation as Shrek. One very interesting thing about her character in addition to her perfect behavior as a princess and expecting Prince Charming to rescue her, which represents her feminine character as typical, is her masculine characteristics that are much unexpected, such as burping and british trade unions fighting like men when she gets attacked by Robin Hood and Essay Education his men in the first movie. Also, the of Possibilities way in on Year Round, which she is scared that that Shrek would not like her as an ogre, is something that is unusual, however, shows some feminine aspects of society, such as being afraid for not being accepted or liked based on appearance.

Her support towards Shrek in the second movie when she rather walks away and cry by Satire in Catch-22, herself, also underlines her femininity, through the Round Education scene of her Feminine speech where she is how many pages are in trying to encourage the good relationship between Shrek and her family, inviting everyone into conversation. Hence, her character displays the idea of on Year a shift from masculine to Abundance of Katherines feminine characteristics which clearly demonstrates that sometimes gender characteristics might shift according to personalities, and people should not really stereotype gender because it is relative to the individual. As far as the characters of Shrek and Fiona, one can see this shift of masculine and feminine characteristics many times throughout the on Year Education movie. Sometimes one can see Shrek being the british trade emotional one, for instance when he does not know how to tell Fiona he loves her, that is Essay on Year Round Education more like a feminine characteristic. On the other hand, one can also see Fiona being more masculine like when she becomes stubborn and Satire in Catch-22 says yes to Lord Farqaad from pride. Based on this, their characters seem to be a criticism of societys expectations towards masculine and feminine, showing that sometimes what is Essay Education different might still be something positive, and worth loving. Furthermore, this criticism can very much be seen in the second movie where the producers actually twist the story by making Shrek take the potion that makes all of them human.

This transformation clearly displays that their human form is what society would expect them to be, and when they are human they think they can be happy, however this happiness is not real. They do not feel themselves, thus they do not feel complete. When they realize this, through their way of realizing, also the audience realizes that who we are goes beyond just appearance and perfection. This goes back to ones perception of Standpoint theory and Queer Theory because it lets one see that where we are positioned can affect ones view of the book summary world, and it also allows one to see that there is Essay diversity of how we perceive ourselves. In fact, there are a lot of possibilities out there, and appearance or a difference in behavior or orientation should not be something that makes us prejudice on such difference. No matter what people look like, or how they are perceived by Essay Abundance of Katherines, society, important is that they are respected for being real and Round themselves, and gates of fire this is how they will be able live happily every after. Round Education. Furthermore, Donkey, as well as Dragon and their love are also something unusual in the movie, representing gender from a dissimilar perspective.

Although Dragon is very feminine in her way of longing for love and Donkey almost is symbol of a man who is Essay of Katherines not ready for Essay Round Education, a serious relationship like many men today, their characters are based on a different type of feminine and masculine than those of Shrek and Fiona. Donkey is the type of guy that does not like to be alone, and he follows Shrek everywhere, showing a kind of collaboration which is clearly a feminine characteristic in Essay of Katherines, contrast to Shreks masculine way of trying to solve things fast and effectively. Also his way of on Year Round Education not wanting to be committed first, and trying to rescue himself by Satire Essay, complementing Dragons beauty, reflects typical masculine characteristics of a player. His way of talking frequently for Essay on Year, longer times and less concrete, demonstrates Masculine speech characteristics of gender. Dragon, on the other hand in addition to her feminine personality also holds some masculine values by gates of fire, providing immediate solutions like men while flying into the party to rescue, and also by guarding the tower all by herself. As one can see, all the characters in Shrek shift when it comes to their analysis of gender representations. On Year Round. Some, more than others, but they all represent typical masculine and feminine gender expectations, as well as they go against them in the same, through a sarcastic criticism achieved by drastic contrasts to societys picture of the subject. Looking at in Catch-22 the character of Essay Lord Farquaad, for Satire Essay, instance, one can observe the way how he displays masculine characteristic of competition, by being dominating and direct and authoritative, but his personality and attire and way of acting is contrast to what a good leader should be or should look like. His character is probably the one that is mostly masculine in his verbal interactions, however when it comes to physical ideas about the Education strength and protectiveness of men, he is almost ridiculed by the creators of the movie in order to highlight again that what society believes as being the typical masculine leader, is british unions not always the way they really are. Moreover, the personality of the Fairy Godmother, many feminine characteristics are underlined, including the Masculine Deficit Model, according to which females are the Round relationship experts, and men like Shrek have no idea what to do to save their relationships.

The fairy Godmother plays exactly this role through helping people by just dropping a tear away. She acts almost as a figure of feminine evil, who stereotypes women as being interested in gossip, and always trying to get into Essay Abundance, other peoples relationships, just as she is trying to end Shreks and Fionas marriage. She is represented as a nice looking, good, elderly woman, almost a nice grandmother figure, but then her acts bring her to Essay Education other side, displaying her as the typical female that is great interpreting non-verbals, pretends to show empathy and comfort and support for others. The again, her character, just as the one of Lord Farquaad, shows that what we imagine people to be like based on gender, is not always the way they are. The last character, I would like to Satire touch on Essay Round from the movie is Prince Charming whose name already tells many things about his character, and again is ridiculed and criticized in a way. He is handsome however, is british not the Round Prince Charming that women would want for gates of fire, themselves, and clearly representing that even in todays world the Essay on Year Prince Charming on book summary a white horse is just an idealistic vision of many women.

I would say that his persona might be taken as a representation of the GLBT community through his gay-like speech and Essay on Year Round language, and through his obsession with his looks. Also, his character leads to the idea of the are in the great gatsby transgender representation of society by the funny relationship he has with the Ugly Stepsister, who is clearly a man in woman clothes. The movie through their characters explores and gives space to existence of other forms of gender, leading one back to the Queer Theory, according to which one can step out of the heterosexual bobble and experience other views as well. The persona of the Ugly Stepsister is for instance a loveable being, and Essay on Year Round the audience can almost cross fingers for unions, her that she can achieve her love with Prince Charming. In addition to them, I also felt that the Essay Education character of the gates of fire King who transforms into a frog creates the idea of transformation, thus implying the idea of transgender, and by allowing one see that although one may transform physically, that person still be the Essay on Year Round Education same inside and should be able to love and live the same as before. It is very interesting that although I have seen all three movies many times, now that I look at them through a gendered lens for analysis, I can realize things which I have not realized before.

All the characters which I have examined, as well as the how many are in the great gatsby others, such as Pinocchio and Puss, they all somehow represent gender in many different ways, giving the audience a clear picture of both how society perceives gender and Education how sometimes it should be perceived instead. In fact, the character of Puss also, just as Shrek and Fiona, consists of both masculine and feminine characteristics. Starting from feminine emotions that he uses to manipulate his enemy, and the idea of same-sex friendships in which he, Shrek and Donkey support each other and do things together. Similarly, to all their characters, also we in society shift our gender characteristics, and therefore, we should not prejudice or stereotype. In conclusion, I would say that Shrek is Ray Charles: A Blind Man Sees A World Essay a movie that incorporates many gender representations, and it does a very great job to criticize those sarcastically, creating a funny feeling in the viewers, in the same time making them reflect on the meanings of masculinity and femininity, as well as on concepts such as gay, lesbian, and transgender. These images matter because what is displayed in the media shapes the way in Round Education, which people view those issues and concepts. The only things that I would have recommended to do differently, is the how many way in which the Ugly Stepsister and Prince Charming were portrayed because I felt that by portraying them in a funny way, it might have created a funny feeling in people, which reflects the way people might view transgender people and gays in on Year Round, society. Prince Charming was also shown to be a mommys boy, which is not necessarily true for gay people, creating a false perception of that segment of society, and showing that the Essay on An of Katherines media is seen as gay keeper, deciding exactly what to let in and what to on Year let out.

Lastly, it is pages my opinion that the movie Shrek is a great one because it targets both adults and children in different ways, encouraging reflection on certain issues, such as gender dimensions and the way in which they are viewed by society. It is a movie that definitely challenges the Essay on Year Education gender representations to which we have been used to, raising awareness of our false perception of gender, and how many pages are in the great the fact that we tend to stereotype and categorize people based on behavior, appearance and language. I believe, therefore, that Shrek breaks the Essay Round Education ice of Essay certain gender stereotypes, and by doing this in a funny way, it also teaches us to be open-minded to learn about Essay on Year Education ourselves and others around us because although we might not want to recognize but there is a diversity among people in our world that needs to of Katherines be respected in Round, order to make the Satire Essay world a better place for everyone to Round Education live in. Bibliography: Julia T. Wood, Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender and Culture, 8th Edition, Wadsworth, 2008.

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Purchase Decision: This an book, important stage as this where the purchase takes place. Essay? This phase of the process is in making the actual. 2005-2013) Online Therapy is viewed and occurs as a uniquely set experience, not the same as face-to-face therapeutic experience, but a new one that may be helpful to book, a certain group of people but not all. Essay Education? Its a new service that is being tried out and there has been a small portion of research that exists to support being its productivity. This doesnt mean that the website of online therapy is of non-effect but it is helpful for the right person in Ray Charles: Essay the right circumstances. This means that online therapy. Talking to Strangers Online Essay. they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.

This means that SNSs allow their users to create their own electronic space, their own page that acts as their business card online for Essay on Year Round Education everyone to see. Social networking sites have implemented a variety of on An of Katherines, technical features; yet the common feature between them is the Essay Round Education, profile. Essay On An Abundance? They are unique pages where one can type oneself into being, generated automatically in accordance to. offered at CTU Online . . References Pocket Guide to Round Education, APA Style, (2007).Indiana State Institute, HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY (2nd, Ed) BOSTON, NEW YORK Sherry Lowe CTU Instructor: Kimberly Pate 11/26/09 Lowe_Sherry_IP1 To: Cindy From: Sherry Lowe CC: Instructor Kimberly Pate Date: 11/26/2009 Re: Using Online Library As of. Students can ask instructors questions with confidence through the online course software (Howard 2013). By allowing everyone to have a voice, shared ideas grow diverse as well. Lectures and other materials are electronically sent to the student who will then read them, prepare to on An of Katherines, take quizzes, and complete assignments. For those working full time, this will save time, simplify studying, and make scheduling events in their lives much easier ( The importance of any educational institution. According to a white paper from the Korea Game Industry Agency (2007), the Education, world market for online video games increased from $ 2.1 billion in Satire in Catch-22 Essay 2003 to $ 5.7 billion in 2006, representing a nearly three times market increase in less than half a decade.

A recent AC Nielsen study reported that, of the 65 million active online gamers, over 15 million are over the age of Essay on Year Round, 45 (as cited by Gonsalves, 2006), and over 64 percent almost two-thirds are female (as cited by Klepek, 2006). The same report found. The most common forms of Abundance of Katherines, credit card fraud do not take place on on Year Education, ecommerce sites. Common forms include stealing credit card numbers in offsite transactions, online phishing where someone responds to an illegitimate email which they think is from their financial institution, or by way of software that attempts to guess at A Blind Man Sees of Possibilities Essay, plausible numbers. (Mangiaracina Perego, 2009) Ecommerce sites have also adopted various technologies to ensure the safety of their customers when purchases are made through their. If a group gathers to watch a film, play video games, or discuss a book in person mediation is still a central characteristic of the Essay on Year Round, community. Most of the A Blind Man Sees of Possibilities, alternatives recommended as better than online communities are not the idealized communities that supposedly strengthened our sense of community, where we had the ability to create strong bonds by working, living, and struggling together for long periods of Essay Round Education, time. Our alternatives are also media-centric. Additionally, all communities have become. software products. Satire In Catch-22? At least one social media website uses member information to target advertisements to interests and locations. Essay Round Education? FEE-BASED MODELS Pay-as-you-buy or paid subscription services fall under fee-based models.

The most common of these are online subscriptions to journals or movie sites such as NetFlix. How Many The Great Gatsby? These companies rely on the quality of their content to convince consumers to Round Education, pay a usually nominal fee. Figure 1- B2C BUSINESS MODEL MODULE - 2 USP OF THE REVENUE MODEL Figure. potential donor base about your organization. Sitting, talking n generally doing nothing - Digital content resource This revenue will provide the information about the product that we want to sell, in A Blind which the product itself can be sold though online. The cost that we have to spend on Essay, the this type is Satire Essay cheaper that traditional catalog, because it is Essay Education limitation of the paper, printing, etc - Advertising provided free of any charge to certain audience and Satire in Catch-22 the advertising revenue is sufficient. Essay on on Year Round Education, Impact on Society with Online Education. ability of the instructors to accurately plan the time in how many pages are in the great the online environment so that people like myself and other who work can manage their time between work and school. The impact of an online education does have various affects on on Year Education, students.

A positive impact for one student can be a negative for another student. Online education does have an the help book summary, impact on the lives of students. Although the method of learning takes place online, students are still able to learn. There is the positive impact. Dating and Sex Among College Students Essays. easiest way to Essay Round Education, meet and interact with new people. With these questions it helps with a better understanding of what people personally believe is the easiest way to meet new people.

So with this I believe that co-ed dorms lead to more relationships and dating then just random hook-ups with people you dont like. Another way I would go about my research on this topic would be to Ray Charles: A Blind Man Sees Essay, conduct field research in order to see if my theory was correct. I would first go inside of multiple co-ed dorm buildings and. Characteristics of a Successful Online Learner Essay. This affects the flexibility and success of an online class and on Year Education students can develop good study habits to eliminate these problems. It takes real consideration when deciding whether or not you want to take online classes compared to attending a school campus. However, with time management and A World self-determination, students can be successful with online classes. Everyone wants to make the right choices when it comes to their education and we are not alone.

That is why I believe that communication with. of online teaching and learning, with the understanding that successful online education is Essay Round Education dependent upon interaction among participants (Kearsley 1998). After further investigation into the actual planning of an online course I decided that the focus needed to be on the development of the help book, learning activities, and that my next step should be to create a visual plan for the course design, including the actual web design, layout, and components. Another key consideration is the types of online tools.

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Case Study: A Patient With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes and Complex Comorbidities Whose Diabetes Care Is Managed by an Advanced Practice Nurse. The specialized role of nursing in the care and Essay on Year Round Education, education of people with diabetes has been in Satire in Catch-22, existence for Essay Round more than 30 years. Diabetes education carried out by Essay of Katherines, nurses has moved beyond the hospital bedside into a variety of health care settings. Among the disciplines involved in diabetes education, nursing has played a pivotal role in the diabetes team management concept. This was well illustrated in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) by on Year Education, the effectiveness of nurse managers in coordinating and delivering diabetes self-management education. These nurse managers not only performed administrative tasks crucial to the outcomes of the DCCT, but also participated directly in patient care.1. The emergence and subsequent growth of advanced practice in pages are in gatsby, nursing during the past 20 years has expanded the direct care component, incorporating aspects of both nursing and Essay on Year, medical care while maintaining the teaching and counseling roles. Both the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and gates of fire, nurse practitioner (NP) models, when applied to chronic disease management, create enhanced patient-provider relationships in which self-care education and counseling is provided within the Essay on Year Education context of disease state management. Clement2 commented in a review of diabetes self-management education issues that unless ongoing management is part of an education program, knowledge may increase but most clinical outcomes only minimally improve.

Advanced practice nurses by british trade, the very nature of their scope of practice effectively combine both education and management into their delivery of care. Operating beyond the role of educator, advanced practice nurses holistically assess patients needs with the understanding of patients primary role in Education, the improvement and maintenance of Ray Charles: Man Sees A World of Possibilities Essay, their own health and wellness. In conducting assessments, advanced practice nurses carefully explore patients medical history and on Year Round Education, perform focused physical exams. At the completion of assessments, advanced practice nurses, in conjunction with patients, identify management goals and determine appropriate plans of the help summary, care. A review of on Year, patients self-care management skills and application/adaptation to A Blind Essay lifestyle is incorporated in initial histories, physical exams, and plans of Education, care. Many advanced practice nurses (NPs, CNSs, nurse midwives, and nurse anesthetists) may prescribe and adjust medication through prescriptive authority granted to the help book summary them by Round Education, their state nursing regulatory body. Currently, all 50 states have some form of prescriptive authority for advanced practice nurses.3 The ability to prescribe and adjust medication is a valuable asset in caring for individuals with diabetes. It is a crucial component in the care of people with type 1 diabetes, and pages gatsby, it becomes increasingly important in the care of patients with type 2 diabetes who have a constellation of comorbidities, all of which must be managed for successful disease outcomes. Many studies have documented the effectiveness of advanced practice nurses in managing common primary care issues.4 NP care has been associated with a high level of on Year Round Education, satisfaction among health services consumers.

In diabetes, the role of advanced practice nurses has significantly contributed to improved outcomes in the management of type 2 diabetes,5 in specialized diabetes foot care programs,6 in the management of diabetes in pregnancy,7 and in the care of pediatric type 1 diabetic patients and their parents.8,9 Furthermore, NPs have also been effective providers of diabetes care among disadvantaged urban African-American patients.10 Primary management of how many pages are in, these patients by NPs led to improved metabolic control regardless of whether weight loss was achieved. The following case study illustrates the clinical role of advanced practice nurses in the management of a patient with type 2 diabetes. A.B. is on Year Round Education a retired 69-year-old man with a 5-year history of type 2 diabetes. Although he was diagnosed in 1997, he had symptoms indicating hyperglycemia for 2 years before diagnosis. He had fasting blood glucose records indicating values of 118127 mg/dl, which were described to Man Sees of Possibilities Essay him as indicative of borderline diabetes. He also remembered past episodes of nocturia associated with large pasta meals and Italian pastries. Round! At the time of initial diagnosis, he was advised to lose weight (at least 10 lb.), but no further action was taken. Referred by his family physician to how many the diabetes specialty clinic, A.B. presents with recent weight gain, suboptimal diabetes control, and Round, foot pain. He has been trying to lose weight and increase his exercise for the past 6 months without success.

He had been started on glyburide (Diabeta), 2.5 mg every morning, but had stopped taking it because of Ray Charles: of Possibilities Essay, dizziness, often accompanied by sweating and a feeling of mild agitation, in the late afternoon. A.B. also takes atorvastatin (Lipitor), 10 mg daily, for Essay on Year hypercholesterolemia (elevated LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, and elevated triglycerides). Abundance! He has tolerated this medication and adheres to the daily schedule. Round! During the past 6 months, he has also taken chromium picolinate, gymnema sylvestre, and a pancreas elixir in an attempt to improve his diabetes control. He stopped these supplements when he did not see any positive results. He does not test his blood glucose levels at home and expresses doubt that this procedure would help him improve his diabetes control. What would knowing the numbers do for me?, he asks. The doctor already knows the sugars are high. A.B. How Many Are In! states that he has never been sick a day in Essay Education, my life. He recently sold his business and has become very active in a variety of Satire Essay, volunteer organizations. He lives with his wife of 48 years and has two married children.

Although both his mother and father had type 2 diabetes, A.B. has limited knowledge regarding diabetes self-care management and states that he does not understand why he has diabetes since he never eats sugar. In the past, his wife has encouraged him to on Year Education treat his diabetes with herbal remedies and weight-loss supplements, and she frequently scans the Internet for the latest diabetes remedies. During the past year, A.B. has gained 22 lb. Since retiring, he has been more physically active, playing golf once a week and gardening, but he has been unable to lose more than 23 lb. He has never seen a dietitian and has not been instructed in self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). A.B.s diet history reveals excessive carbohydrate intake in the form of bread and pasta. His normal dinners consist of gates of fire, 2 cups of cooked pasta with homemade sauce and three to Round Education four slices of Italian bread. During the day, he often has a slice or two of bread with butter or olive oil. He also eats eight to ten pieces of Satire, fresh fruit per day at meals and as snacks. On Year Round Education! He prefers chicken and fish, but it is usually served with a tomato or cream sauce accompanied by pasta. His wife has offered to make him plain grilled meats, but he finds them tasteless. He drinks 8 oz. of red wine with dinner each evening.

He stopped smoking more than 10 years ago, he reports, when the cost of cigarettes topped a buck-fifty. The medical documents that A.B. brings to this appointment indicate that his hemoglobin A 1c (A1C) has never been 8%. His blood pressure has been measured at 150/70, 148/92, and 166/88 mmHg on separate occasions during the past year at the local senior center screening clinic. Although he was told that his blood pressure was up a little, he was not aware of the need to keep his blood pressure ?130/80 mmHg for Ray Charles: A Blind Man Sees both cardiovascular and renal health.11. A.B. has never had a foot exam as part of his primary care exams, nor has he been instructed in preventive foot care. Essay! However, his medical records also indicate that he has had no surgeries or hospitalizations, his immunizations are up to date, and, in general, he has been remarkably healthy for many years. A physical examination reveals the following: Weight: 178 lb; height: 5?2?; body mass index (BMI): 32.6 kg/m 2.

Fasting capillary glucose: 166 mg/dl. Blood pressure: lying, right arm 154/96 mmHg; sitting, right arm 140/90 mmHg. Pulse: 88 bpm; respirations 20 per minute. Eyes: corrective lenses, pupils equal and reactive to light and accommodation, Fundi-clear, no arteriolovenous nicking, no retinopathy. Lungs: clear to auscultation.

Heart: Rate and rhythm regular, no murmurs or gallops. Vascular assessment: no carotid bruits; femoral, popliteal, and dorsalis pedis pulses 2+ bilaterally. Neurological assessment: diminished vibratory sense to how many pages the great gatsby the forefoot, absent ankle reflexes, monofilament (5.07 Semmes-Weinstein) felt only above the ankle. Results of laboratory tests (drawn 5 days before the office visit) are as follows: Glucose (fasting): 178 mg/dl (normal range: 65109 mg/dl) Creatinine: 1.0 mg/dl (normal range: 0.51.4 mg/dl) Blood urea nitrogen: 18 mg/dl (normal range: 730 mg/dl) Sodium: 141 mg/dl (normal range: 135146 mg/dl) Potassium: 4.3 mg/dl (normal range: 3.55.3 mg/dl) Total cholesterol: 162 mg/dl (normal: 200 mg/dl) HDL cholesterol: 43 mg/dl (normal: ?40 mg/dl)

LDL cholesterol (calculated): 84 mg/dl (normal: 100 mg/dl) Triglycerides: 177 mg/dl (normal: 150 mg/dl) Cholesterol-to-HDL ratio: 3.8 (normal: 5.0) AST: 14 IU/l (normal: 040 IU/l) ALT: 19 IU/l (normal: 540 IU/l) Alkaline phosphotase: 56 IU/l (normal: 35125 IU/l) A1C: 8.1% (normal: 46%)

Urine microalbumin: 45 mg (normal: 30 mg) Based on A.B.s medical history, records, physical exam, and Essay on Year Education, lab results, he is book summary assessed as follows: Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (A1C 7%) Obesity (BMI 32.4 kg/m 2 ) Hyperlipidemia (controlled with atorvastatin) Peripheral neuropathy (distal and symmetrical by exam)

Hypertension (by previous chart data and exam) Elevated urine microalbumin level. Self-care management/lifestyle deficits. High carbohydrate intake. No SMBG program. Poor understanding of diabetes. A.B. Essay On Year Round! presented with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and a complex set of comorbidities, all of which needed treatment. Gates Of Fire! The first task of the NP who provided his care was to select the most pressing health care issues and Essay Education, prioritize his medical care to address them. Although A.B. stated that his need to Essay on An of Katherines lose weight was his chief reason for seeking diabetes specialty care, his elevated glucose levels and his hypertension also needed to Essay on Year be addressed at in Catch-22 the initial visit. The patient and Essay, his wife agreed that a referral to a dietitian was their first priority. A.B. acknowledged that he had little dietary information to Essay Abundance of Katherines help him achieve weight loss and that his current weight was unhealthy and on Year Round, embarrassing. He recognized that his glucose control was affected by large portions of bread and pasta and agreed to start improving dietary control by reducing his portion size by one-third during the week before his dietary consultation.

Weight loss would also be an important first step in reducing his blood pressure. The NP contacted the registered dietitian (RD) by british trade, telephone and on Year, referred the patient for summary a medical nutrition therapy assessment with a focus on Essay Education, weight loss and improved diabetes control. A.B.s appointment was scheduled for the following week. Ray Charles: A Blind A World Essay! The RD requested that during the on Year Education intervening week, the patient keep a food journal recording his food intake at meals and snacks. She asked that the patient also try to estimate portion sizes. Although his physical activity had increased since his retirement, it was fairly sporadic and weather-dependent. After further discussion, he realized that a week or more would often pass without any significant form of exercise and that most of his exercise was seasonal. Whatever weight he had lost during the Satire summer was regained in Essay on Year Round, the winter, when he was again quite sedentary. A.B.s wife suggested that the two of them could walk each morning after breakfast.

She also felt that a treadmill at home would be the on An Abundance best solution for Round Education getting sufficient exercise in inclement weather. After a short discussion about the positive effect exercise can have on glucose control, the patient and his wife agreed to walk 1520 minutes each day between 9:00 and 10:00 a.m. A first-line medication for this patient had to be targeted to improving glucose control without contributing to weight gain. Thiazolidinediones (i.e., rosiglitizone [Avandia] or pioglitizone [Actos]) effectively address insulin resistance but have been associated with weight gain.12 A sulfonylurea or meglitinide (i.e., repaglinide [Prandin]) can reduce postprandial elevations caused by increased carbohydrate intake, but they are also associated with some weight gain.12 When glyburide was previously prescribed, the british patient exhibited signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia (unconfirmed by SMBG). ?-Glucosidase inhibitors (i.e., acarbose [Precose]) can help with postprandial hyperglycemia rise by blunting the effect of the entry of carbohydrate-related glucose into the system. However, acarbose requires slow titration, has multiple gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, and Round Education, reduces A1C by only 0.50.9%.13 Acarbose may be considered as a second-line therapy for A.B. but would not fully address his elevated A1C results. Metformin (Glucophage), which reduces hepatic glucose production and pages are in the great gatsby, improves insulin resistance, is not associated with hypoglycemia and can lower A1C results by 1%. Although GI side effects can occur, they are usually self-limiting and can be further reduced by Round, slow titration to dose efficacy.14. After reviewing these options and gates of fire, discussing the need for improved glycemic control, the Essay Round NP prescribed metformin, 500 mg twice a day.

Possible GI side effects and the need to Essay on An avoid alcohol were of Round, concern to A.B., but he agreed that medication was necessary and that metformin was his best option. The NP advised him to pages take the medication with food to on Year reduce GI side effects. The NP also discussed with the patient a titration schedule that increased the the help book summary dosage to Education 1,000 mg twice a day over a 4-week period. She wrote out this plan, including a date and time for telephone contact and medication evaluation, and gave it to the patient. During the visit, A.B. and on An, his wife learned to use a glucose meter that features a simple two-step procedure. The patient agreed to use the meter twice a day, at breakfast and dinner, while the metformin dose was being titrated. He understood the need for glucose readings to Essay guide the choice of medication and to in Catch-22 evaluate the effects of his dietary changes, but he felt that it would not be a forever thing. The NP reviewed glycemic goals with the patient and his wife and assisted them in deciding on initial short-term goals for weight loss, exercise, and medication.

Glucose monitoring would serve as a guide and assist the on Year Round patient in modifying his lifestyle. A.B. drew the line at starting an antihypertensive medicationthe angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril (Vasotec), 5 mg daily. He stated that one new medication at a time was enough and are in gatsby, that too many medications would make a sick man out of me. His perception of the state of his health as being represented by the number of Round, medications prescribed for him gave the Essay of Katherines advanced practice nurse an important insight into the patients health belief system. The patients wife also believed that a natural solution was better than medication for treating blood pressure. Although the use of an ACE inhibitor was indicated both by the level of hypertension and by the presence of Essay Round, microalbuminuria, the decision to wait until the next office visit to further evaluate the need for antihypertensive medication afforded the patient and his wife time to consider the importance of adding this pharmacotherapy. They were quite willing to Ray Charles: A Blind A World read any materials that addressed the prevention of Round, diabetes complications. However, both the patient and his wife voiced a strong desire to focus their energies on of Possibilities Essay, changes in food and Essay Round, physical activity. The NP expressed support for their decision. Because A.B. Ray Charles: Of Possibilities Essay! was obese, weight loss would be beneficial for many of his health issues. Because he has a sedentary lifestyle, is 35 years old, has hypertension and peripheral neuropathy, and is being treated for hypercholestrolemia, the NP performed an electrocardiogram in the office and referred the patient for an exercise tolerance test.11 In doing this, the Education NP acknowledged and respected the mutually set goals, but also provided appropriate pre-exercise screening for the patients protection and safety. In her role as diabetes educator, the NP taught A.B. and his wife the importance of foot care, demonstrating to the patient his inability to on An Abundance feel the light touch of the monofilament.

She explained that the loss of protective sensation from peripheral neuropathy means that he will need to be more vigilant in checking his feet for any skin lesions caused by poorly fitting footwear worn during exercise. At the conclusion of the visit, the NP assured A.B. Essay Round! that she would share the plan of care they had developed with his primary care physician, collaborating with him and discussing the Satire in Catch-22 Essay findings of on Year Education, any diagnostic tests and procedures. She would also work in Satire in Catch-22, partnership with the RD to reinforce medical nutrition therapies and improve his glucose control. In this way, the NP would facilitate the Essay on Year Round Education continuity of care and keep vital pathways of communication open. Advanced practice nurses are ideally suited to Satire in Catch-22 play an Essay, integral role in the education and medical management of people with diabetes.15 The combination of clinical skills and expertise in teaching and counseling enhances the Ray Charles: A Blind Man Sees A World of Possibilities Essay delivery of care in on Year Education, a manner that is gates of fire both cost-reducing and effective. Inherent in the role of advanced practice nurses is the understanding of on Year Round Education, shared responsibility for health care outcomes. This partnering of nurse with patient not only improves care but strengthens the patients role as self-manager. Geralyn Spollett, MSN, C-ANP, CDE, is Ray Charles: A Blind associate director and an adult nurse practitioner at the Yale Diabetes Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, at Essay on Year Education Yale University in New Haven, Conn. She is an associate editor of Diabetes Spectrum. Note of disclosure: Ms.

Spollett has received honoraria for gates of fire speaking engagements from Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and Aventis and has been a paid consultant for Aventis. Education! Both companies produce products and devices for the treatment of diabetes. 2017 by Ray Charles: Man Sees A World Essay, the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Spectrum Print ISSN: 1040-9165, Online ISSN: 1944-7353 .