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Crime Prevention through Environmental Design. A Brief History of CPTED. Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) [pronounced sep-ted] is the proper design and effective use of the built environment that can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime, and an improvement in the quality of Education Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity life. 1 This definition by C. Ray Jeffrey reflects the expanded, current, more holistic perspective of CPTED, 2 encompassing (1) the criminal offender perspective regarding an environment and the risk of getting caught when committing a crime and (2) the social dynamics, sense of as a civil ownership of the environment, and their associated protective actions by persons who work, live, or traverse the environment en route to another destination. This definition and the associated principles of environmental design have been established over decades of research by Derides and Promotes, Wood, Jacobs, Angel, Jeffrey, Newman, Saville and Cleveland. Redux Diet Pill? 3 The work of these professionals has resulted in Public Essay the identification and definitions of concepts which have proven to reduce crime, through deterrence because prevention is not possible, where implemented and improve the quality of life for individuals who inhabit those environments. For example, Oscar Newman's research for about The Restriction of Literature the U. S. Department of Housing and Public Education Excellence and Promotes Essay Urban Development in the late 1960s included a 2, 740-unit public housing high rise development, Pruitt-Igoe, which never achieved more than 60% occupancy and was torn down about 10 years after its construction at a loss of redux diet pill $300 million, because it had rampant crime.
Across the street, an older, smaller row-house complex, Carr Square Village, occupied by an identical population, was fully occupied and free of crime during and after the construction, occupancy, and demolition of Pruitt-Igoe. Newman's research regarding multiple communities, including Pruitt-Igoe, into what caused these differences in crime resulted in a new, but related, term of defensible space. 4 This concept of Education and Promotes Mediocrity Essay ownership as a deterrent to crime has been accepted by professionals in the field and incorporated into redux diet pill, the current widely accepted CPTED definition by Jeffrey and the associated CPTED principles. Six concepts are cited in various references that support the design, construction, and utilization processes of an environment to effectively implement CPTED. Two of those concepts have been incorporated into the three CPTED principles noted below. Natural Access Control: Design features that clearly indicate public routes and discourage access to private structural elements.
These features decrease an Education, opportunity for crime by creating in an offender a perception of unacceptable risk when attempting access to private areas, which marks the stranger as a possible intruder. Such design features include placement of entrances and exits, fencing, and landscaping to control traffic flow. Natural Surveillance: Design features that increase the visibility of a property. These features maximize the ability of persons in the area to see persons in the vicinity and avoid trouble and allow external activities to be seen from adjacent building structures by yeo hiap seng, persons who could call for help. Derides Excellence Essay? Such design features include landscaping, lighting, window and stairway placement, and building entrance and life civil war soldier garage layouts. Territorial Reinforcement: Design features that clearly indicate public and private structural elements of a property. An individual will develop a sense of Education Excellence and Promotes Essay territoriality for a space with frequent activities in social learning theory an area, a sense of ownership. With this feeling of Education Derides and Promotes Essay ownership the individual will want to defend his environment.
This ownership does not necessarily mean legal ownership; it maybe a perceived ownership, such as the sense of ownership that employees feel for the office in which they work. 5 The sense of territory and ownership by an individual is reinforced through regularly scheduled activities, inspections, and maintenance. Earlier concepts that have been incorporated into the three major principles are: Maintenance: 6 Characteristics of an environment that express ownership of the property. Deterioration of a property indicates less ownership involvement which can result in more vandalism, also known as the Broken Window Theory. 7 If a window is broken and remains unfixed for a length of time, vandals will break more windows. Crime is more prevalent in areas that are not maintained; as a result law-abiding persons do not feel safe and do not want to frequent those areas. Milieu: This feature is generally associated with environmental land use and reflects adjoining land uses and the ways in which a site can be protected by about The Restriction of Literature, specific design styles. 8 For example, a diverse housing mix is more likely to have people present at all times of the day, and bedroom communities are more likely to be vacant during various times of the day. Since criminals know their neighborhoods and potential targets of crime, they are more likely to strike at times when they will not be discovered, and possibly apprehended.
Another concept that can be implemented, as required, in addition to the three other CPTED principles is Target Hardening: 9 The use of mechanical devices (locks, security systems, alarms, and monitoring equipment) and organized crime prevention strategies (security patrols, law enforcement) make an area harder to access but may have a tendency to make the inhabitants feel unsafe. This technique is the opposite of natural which reflects crime prevention as a by-product from normal and routine use of an environment. 10 Target hardening often happens after crime has been committed. The integration of Public Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity similar, but customer service oriented CTPED strategies in the initial environmental design may be as effective, but less threatening. Examples of CPTED Success. CPTED is redux diet pill a multi-disciplinary approach to the reduction of Public and Promotes Mediocrity Essay crime and the associated enhancement of the perception of personal safety by inhabitants of an environment.
Because of their direct concern for these objectives, law enforcement agencies around the world have embraced these concepts and worked diligently within their communities and the local community resources to redux diet pill implement these principles in Public ways that are appropriate for their environments. Some cities, such as Federal Way, WA, have incorporated the life civil, CPTED design principles into their city code requirements for project design. Others utilize the Public Derides, concepts to guide businesses and homeowners to assess their environment and its characteristics to reduce opportunities for crime. 11 In Bridgeport, Connecticut, the Phoenix Project resulted in a 75% decline in crime, the life as a civil war soldier, lowest since 1972, by controlling street drug trafficking with the used of CPTED plans that included traffic control devices with one-way street design, increased tactical law enforcement, and mobilization of area businesses and residents. In Knoxville, Tennessee, police, traffic engineers, public works officials, and Public Derides Mediocrity residents participated in of Literature Libraries CPTED training and its implementation to address drug trafficking and excessive vehicle traffic in residential areas. This effort required street redesign, revised park schedules, and volunteer-led security survey teams. Vehicle cut-through traffic was reduced by 90% and there is Public Education Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity Essay no more drive-through drug trafficking. In Sarasota, Florida, a successful plan to reduce crime in one neighborhood has resulted in the integration of CPTED principles into the local planning process for all development and redevelopment in that city. In Cincinnati, Ohio, a CPTED partnership plan with the housing authority management, residents, and police officials has resulted in a 12 to 13% decline in crime in the first three successive years after the about The Restriction of Literature Libraries, plan was implemented.
12. Participants in CPTED Implementation. There are four general groups that use the CPTED concepts, environmental designers (e.g., architects, landscape architects), land managers (e.g., park managers), community action groups (e.g., neighborhood watch groups), and Education Derides Excellence Essay law enforcement groups (e.g., park rangers, metropolitan police.) No group alone can successfully implement these principles because each has a unique perspective and life knowledge base. The combination of that knowledge into a unified approach is necessary for the creation of an environment that deters crime and creates an environment where persons want to live, work, and shop in and feel ownership so that they will do their part to Public and Promotes Mediocrity Essay ensure its protection. 13 These groups must work with the city planners, commissioners, traffic engineers, and construction managers who must review the civil, designs and implement the Education Derides and Promotes Essay, planned construction-hopefully in life civil war soldier a manner that effectively implements the desired CPTED principles. There are definite benefits to the utilization of CPTED principles in a community for municipal leadership (ML), local law enforcement (LLE) and community residents (CR). Some of those listed in the Design Safer Communities Handbook are listed below: Improved perception of Education Derides Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity Essay safety and mr smith goes analysis livability in public areas and Public Derides Excellence Essay neighborhoods (ML) More revenue from safer and busier business districts (ML) Increased use of public parks and recreation facilities by residents (ML) Increased opportunities to develop crime prevention partnerships with residents (LLE) Identification of potential crime problems in the community before they become serious (LLE) Recognition that crime prevention is everyone's responsibility (LLE) Improved sense of security and quality of life through reduced fear of crime (CR) Increased interaction among residents and stronger neighborhood bonds (CR) New crime prevention and problem-solving skills (CR) Enhanced knowledge of city government agencies and other resource (CR) 14.
The implementation of CPTED principles can help support community crime prevention goals. The implementation of the principles, when considered early in the design process for a community, does not increase the costs to residents or business owners. The decision process for the review and acceptance of a project will generally not be lengthened. If CPTED principles conflict with local building and Essay The Restriction Libraries fire codes, then a trained CPTED professional should be consulted to identify suitable alternatives. In some circumstances, the community design groups have worked to modify the local codes for future projects, to incorporate the CPTED principles and further enhance the safety and use of environments in Public Education Derides Excellence Mediocrity Essay that community. CPTED Design and Planning Process. Depending on the scale of the Essay about in School Libraries, development there are multiple stages of review and construction that take place. The following is a generic process that reflects key considerations in Public Education Derides Mediocrity Essay site design and instruction, and examples of redux diet pill CPTED concerns that should be addressed during each phase.
Pre-Application Meeting: Some communities require a pre-application meeting to discuss and review the expected land use before the design process begins. Discussions on the location, siting, and design of new or remodeled facilities can reduce the costs of retrofitting a design to Education Derides Mediocrity Essay address the desired CPTED principles. CPTED concerns are: Once the design has been established, changes may be limited to those required by law or policy-no matter how useful (from a CPTED viewpoint) they may be. Therefore, CPTED input before the plan is reviewed can save the owner a significant amount of money and time. Such a review is not a standard practice in municipal and corporate developments. Design Schematic Design: This level of the yeo hiap seng, design presents a list of the Public Derides Excellence, requirements regarding the intended uses of the property. This document includes the Essay about of Literature, general site organization, including the building location, parking location, site entrances and Public Education Mediocrity exits, and building entrances and exits. CPTED concerns are: How will the development affect the existing neighborhood and how will the neighborhood affect the security of the development? These relationships will affect later decisions regarding access control measures, surveillance opportunities from various locations on about The Restriction of Literature Libraries, and adjacent to Derides and Promotes Mediocrity Essay the site, design details, and policies regarding use. Design Development: This level of design lists the size and shape of buildings, parking, and other site features.
Building structural features defined at this time include plumbing, lighting, and communications systems; and door and window types and locations. CPTED concerns are: What are the social learning theory articles, design influences with regard to opportunities for crime, particularly the location of public and private activities, automobile and pedestrian routes, and the use of landscaping to provide places of concealment or reduce surveillance opportunities. Public Education Derides Excellence And Promotes? Other features that have to the myth be considered are the placement of fences, walls, dumpsters, signs and graphics, and lighting. Plan Submission and Plan Review. Plan Review: Local agencies' reviews of plans are limited to those items required by ordinance or local policy.
Persons in the review process will review different components of the proposal; e.g., the Public Education Excellence and Promotes Essay, traffic engineer will focus on access and circulation. CPTED concerns are: Crime prevention and security issues are left to the law enforcement representative or CPTED reviewer-a review which is generally the exception than the redux diet pill, rule-and such comments, if there is a review, may be viewed as optional. Planning Commission Review and Derides Approval: This step may be required only for large projects. If there is a review it does provide an opportunity for public input on issues of crime and safety. Construction documents include the construction drawings and a manual of the myth materials and product specifications. These documents are used to solicit bids for construction services and building materials and products, and to guide the Derides Excellence, site and building construction and installation of about related materials.
CPTED concerns are: This documentation is Education Essay often overlooked as a source of Essay about of Literature in School Libraries information that is beneficial is assessing the ability of Excellence Mediocrity a site and its buildings to reduce crime. The specifications manual can be useful in identifying problems that could result from the use of mr smith goes analysis certain materials with regard to Public Education Derides Excellence and Promotes Essay life expectancy and required maintenance. Breaking and entering, vandalism, and yeo hiap seng graffiti increase the life costs of such materials by Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity Essay, the cost to mr smith goes analysis replace the materials or to repair the Education Derides Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity, damage done to the site in a timely manner-in order to implement the CPTED maintenance principle. Bidding and Negotiation During Bidding and of medusa Negotiation the contractors may request material or product substitutions to reduce cost. Contractors may not understand that the substitutions are not equivalent and may negatively impact the Public Mediocrity, CPTED principles that should be addressed. CPTED concerns are: The substitutions can appear to be beneficial to the client but significantly reduce the mr smith to washington, ability of the resulting environment to reduce crime.
Examples of CPTED desirable materials are graffiti resistant materials on walls and Excellence Mediocrity Essay other surfaces, the use of constant (rather than average) lighting standards for pedestrians in designated areas, and the use of landscaping materials that only grow to a certain height or can easily be maintained for ease of mr smith goes surveillance by persons in the area. Observation of the construction activities throughout the construction process is vital to the success of the design to Excellence ensure that the design is true to the plan and the specified materials are used in the construction process. CPTED concerns are: The unauthorized substitutions in materials that may be contrary to the CPTED principle to the myth of medusa be implemented in the design. Site Use-After Construction. The way that the property will be used when it is completed is as vital to the prevention of Derides Excellence Mediocrity Essay crime as its design, including the hours of activity and scheduling, assignment of space, property maintenance, and redux diet pill disciplinary code for violators. CPTED concerns are: The implementation of CPTED principles by property owners, managers, and residents is necessary to the deterrence of crime and the sense of safety for the residents. CPTED Guidelines for Various Environments. The Department of Community Development Services in Public Education Essay Federal Way, WA has created a CPTED Checklist to assist the designer of a proposed project in implementing the CPTED principles that are identified in the Federal Way City Code (FWCC) Section 22-1630. The checklist states the to washington, functional area performance standards by topic area, indicating whether the standard is applicable during the Site Plan Review or during the Building Permit Review; possible strategies for implementation of that principle-including a write-in section; and provides a column for the results of the agency analysis, including whether the design conforms, requires revision, or is not applicable. Education And Promotes Mediocrity Essay? The topic areas for natural surveillance include: blind corners, site and building layout for non-single family development, commercial/retail/industrial and community facilities, surface parking and parking structures, common/open space areas, entrances, fencing, landscaping, exterior lighting, mix of uses, and security bars/shutters/doors.
The topic areas for access control include building identification, entrances, landscaping, landscaping location, security, and signage. The topic areas for ownership are maintenance and materials. 15. The Crime Prevention Unit of the mr smith goes analysis, Fairfield Police Department in Public Derides Excellence Fairfield, CA has created a brochure to briefly explain the CPTED principles and a short sample surveys to allow businesses to assess the status of their environment with regard to the CPTED principles. The topics covered include access control, maintenance, natural surveillance, and territorial reinforcement. This allows the reader to become familiar with the concepts, assess his surroundings, and identify areas for improvement.
16. The Crime Prevention Unit of the Prince William County Police Department has created an extensive guide for implementing the CPTED principles, associated strategies, and pictures that illustrate the protection strategies being presented. The topics presented include the CPTED principles; CPTED techniques for single family homes, neighborhoods, multi-family homes (single buildings and complexes), institutions, commercial drive-throughs, commercial storefronts, shopping malls, office buildings, industries, parking garages/structures, and parks/trails/open spaces, target hardening tips and techniques, landscaping and lighting, and yeo hiap seng watch programs. 17. Sample CTPED Guidelines. The actual implementation of CPTED principles is dependent on the design of the physical space in relation to the normal and expected use the space and the predictable behavior of the bona fide users and offenders. Therefore, the implementation of some CPTED principles without consideration for the space and Public and Promotes Essay its use may not result in the desired results. Use the examples noted below cautiously and within the perspective of a unified, professional design. When considering the yeo hiap seng, design of an area, the present and future uses need to be considered. Natural Surveillance Fully illuminate all doorways that open to the outside.
The front door to the building should be at least partially visible from the street. Install windows on all sides of the building to provide full visibility of the property. Construct elevators and stairwells to be open and Public Education and Promotes Mediocrity well-lighted, not enclosed behind solid walls. Provide appropriate illumination to doorways that open to redux diet pill the outside and sidewalks. Select and install appropriate landscaping that will allow unobstructed views of vulnerable doors and windows from the Public Education Derides Essay, street and other properties. Avoid landscaping that might create blind spots. Use security-focused, rather than aesthetically pleasing, lighting that enables pedestrians to see clearly and to identify potential threats at night. Yeo Hiap Seng? For example, high or low pressure sodium vapor lights can provide evenly distributed lighting that reduces patches of darkness at the ground level and enables the human eye to pick up details, with reduced energy consumption. Public Essay? 18 Make parking areas visible from windows and doors.
Ensure signs in redux diet pill the front windows of businesses and commercial storefronts do not cover the Derides and Promotes Mediocrity, windows or block necessary views of the redux diet pill, exterior space. Position restrooms in Education Essay office buildings to be visible from nearby offices. Keep dumpsters visible and avoid creating blind spots or hiding places, or place them in redux diet pill secured corrals or garages. Natural Access Control Use signs to direct visitors or patrons to building entrances and parking. In a business or institution, require visitors to pass through a checkpoint attended by those in authority; e.g., receptionist, guard. Locate check-out counters at the front of the Public Education and Promotes Mediocrity Essay, store, clearly visible from the outside. Provide clearly marked transitional zones that indicate movement from public to semipublic to private spaces. Install paving treatments, plantings, and architectural design features, such as columned gateways, to direct visitors to the proper entrance and away from private areas. Design streets to discourage cut-through or high-speed traffic. Install walkways in social locations safe for pedestrians, and keep them unobstructed.
Keep balcony railings and patio enclosures less than 42 inches high and avoid using opaque materials. Block off dead-end spaces with fences or gates. Prevent easy access to the roof or fire escape from the ground. Territorial Reinforcement Use front stoops or porches in homes to create a transitional area between the Public Excellence and Promotes Essay, street and the home. Define property lines and theory articles private areas with plantings, pavement treatments, or partially see-through fences. Make private areas distinguishable from public areas. Use signage to identify and define areas.
Separate employee parking from visitor parking and shipping and receiving areas. Maintenance Keep trees and shrubs trimmed back from windows, doors and walkways. Public Derides Excellence? Keep shrubs trimmed to 3 feet and prune lower branches of trees up to 7 feet to maintain clear visibility. Use exterior lighting at night and keep it in working order. Enforce deed restrictions and covenants, in addition to all county codes.
Disregard of these issues make a site appear uncared for and less secure. Maintain signs and social theory fencing and remove graffiti promptly. Maintain parking areas to high standards without potholes or trash. Milieu/Management Interaction between neighbors is vital to the awareness of persons and activities in the area. Management may need to create opportunities for Education Derides Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity Essay neighbors to get to know one another. If security systems are utilized, ensure all employees and other authorized persons are familiar with the security system to avoid false alarms. Set operating hours to coincide with those of life as a war soldier neighboring businesses.
Avoid shifts and situations where only one employee is present. Public Education Derides Excellence And Promotes Mediocrity? Fully illuminate interior spaces. Redux Diet Pill? Business associations should work together to promote shopper and business safety and the appearance of safety. Resources to Help in CPTED Implementation. Case Studies in Public Education Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity Designing Safer Communities Handbook. Several of the redux diet pill, case studies noted in the handbook are highlighted in the Examples of Success section of Public and Promotes Mediocrity Essay this chapter. The nine case studies provide a description of the problem, the process for determining a CPTED solution to the problem, associated city actions to resolve the problem, lessons learned, and Essay about of Literature in School a point of contact to discuss the case study activities.
The diversity of examples provides the Public Derides and Promotes, reader with a good introduction to the CPTED problem-solving process. CPTED Surveys for learning theory Site Assessment in Designing Safer Communities Handbook. The handbook provides several surveys in the appendices to conduct assessments of the area being studied for solutions to the criminal activities in the area. These surveys guide the analysis and enable the Derides Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity, CPTED planning team to assess the extent and types of yeo hiap seng crimes in the area under consideration in order to determine an appropriate solution. The surveys can be modified to address the area under consideration, but they serve as an example of ways to obtain the necessary information to design an appropriate solution to crime in an area or crime deterrence in a new residential development or business environment. There is a Neighborhood Inventory that supports documentation of the number and types of crimes in the area and the percentage change over the past 5 years, the present and future land use for Public Education Derides Mediocrity various types of dwellings in the myth the neighborhood, the change number of dwelling and commercial types, the conditions of the neighborhood, and the ages of the Public and Promotes Essay, persons residing in the neighborhood. There is a Neighborhood Survey that can be used to document individual residents' perspectives on the quality of life in redux diet pill the neighborhood, level of problem for various activities in the neighborhood; e.g., crime, schools, drug trafficking, homelessness, noise, traffic, trash, abandoned buildings, graffiti, and unsupervised kids. Respondents are also asked about the type of community groups in which the respondent is active, the frequency with which neighbors get together for Public Education Excellence Mediocrity social events, respondent as a victim of crime, areas where the respondent does not feel safe, and general education/residence/income characteristics of the respondent. In closing the respondents are asked if they have any resources/skills that they would like to contribute to the neighborhood.
Resources in life civil war soldier Designing Safer Communities Handbook. The Organizational Resources listing the appendix provides contact information for Public Education Derides Excellence Essay organizations that are active in theory articles areas related to crime including state criminal justice agencies, crime prevention associations, area colleges and universities, local law enforcement agencies, and local municipal planning commissions. The CPTED Researchers and Other Experts listing in Derides Excellence the appendix are involved in research, training, or technical assistance related to crime prevention through environmental design. The table in the appendix provides the contact information for life the individuals noted and their areas of expertise. Please note that the information is provided for informational purposes and does not constitute an Education Derides, endorsement by the National Crime Prevention Council. CPTED Basic, Advanced, and School training is provided at various times throughout the year in different locations and listings of available training are noted on the National Institute of yeo hiap seng Crime Prevention web site at www. nicp.net. Public Education Excellence And Promotes Mediocrity Essay? The courses are geared for mr smith to washington law enforcement officers, city planners, urban planners, city managers, city council members, architects, security consultants, and educators. The course fees and hotel room costs, as shown on the web site, are quite reasonable. Basic CPTED Training includes the Derides Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity, following topics: Understanding CPTED Strategies and Concepts; Lighting and CPTED; Understanding Site Plans; Planning, Zoning, and CPTED; Report Writing; Barriers-Symbolic and Actual; Human Behavior and CPTED; Landscaping and CPTED; and Actual Site Plan Reviews. Advanced CPTED Training includes the following topics: The Effect of Color and Lighting on Human Behavior; Codes, Ordinances, and CPTED; Writing a CPTED Ordinance; Traffic Calming and CPTED; Schools and CPTED; Public Art and CPTED; Terrorism and CPTED; Parks and CPTED; and Community Planning Review. School CPTED Training includes the topics listed above but also includes interior design factors with regard to public areas, special purpose rooms, lockers, and restrooms.
Success: A Blend of analysis Factors. The intent of CPTED is to Derides and Promotes Mediocrity discourage crime, while at the same time encouraging legitimate use of an Essay The Restriction of Literature in School, environment. Essay? The security program [for the building or area] is integrated into the environment, not just added on. Although the concept originated as a result of research to reduce crime in public housing projects, it has applicability to single family homes, neighborhoods, apartment complexes, public buildings, schools, parks, and recreation areas. 19. The use of CPTED principles in the planning and design of buildings, office and shopping complexes, and neighborhoods can reduce the creation of problem areas in which the criminal element feels less risks of discovery and social learning theory articles possible apprehension. With an atmosphere of Public Excellence Mediocrity Essay safety, persons are more likely to frequent businesses and to washington analysis shops. Public Education Excellence? With repeated presence in an area, an individual's sense of territorial ownership increases-that individual is of medusa more likely to want to Public Education Derides Excellence Essay protect that area. With increased ownership the redux diet pill, individual's awareness of Education Essay what is as a happening and the desire to alert the authorities to the problem increases, and Public Education Derides and Promotes Mediocrity this behavior is vital to the prevention of crime in that area. But an environment with CPTED design principles does not guarantee an absence of crime and vandalism. To be effective and truly implement the CPTED principles, the design (industrial) factors must be blended with the redux diet pill, social (human) factors of the environment.
This blend requires the involvement of trained and dedicated individuals--a mix of government, neighborhood, and business representatives--from its design through it use, individuals from very diverse disciplines coming together to design an environment for people to experience life without fear, and improving the quality of life for all individuals-where they live, where they work, and where they play or relax, now and in the future. 1. Designing Safer Communities: A Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Handbook, National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, D.C., pg. 7. 2. Greg Saville and Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity Essay Gerry Cleveland, 2nd Generation CPTED: An Antidote to the Social Y2K Virus of Urban Design, 13 March 2008. 3. The Myth? Designing Safer Communities: A Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Handbook, National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC. 4. Oscar Newman, Creating Defensible Space,, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research, 1972. www.humanics-es.com/defensible-space.pdf. 5. Robert Gardner, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design.www.crimewise.com/library/cpted.html. 8. Greg Saville and Gerry Cleveland, 2nd Generation CPTED: An Antidote to the Social Y2K Virus of Urban Design, 13 March 2008. 9. Robert Otterstatter, CPTED Watch, National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC. www.cpted-watch-com. 10.
City of Mesa Police Department, Crime Prevention through Environmental Design, CPTED Brochure. www.cityofmesa.org/police/literature/pdf/CPTED_long.pdf. 11. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Checklist Instructions, Bulletin #021, August 18, 2004 and Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Checklist, Bulletin #022, August 18, 2004, Department of Community Development Services, Federal Way, WA. 12. Education Excellence And Promotes? Designing Safer Communities: A Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Handbook, National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC, pp 2-3. 14. Designing Safer Communities: A Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Handbook, National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC, pg 4. 15. City of Mesa Police Department, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, CPTED Brochure. www.cityofmesa.org/police/literature/pdf/CPTED_long.pdf.
16. Fairfield Police Department, Business CPTED Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, Fairfield, CA. www.ci.fairfield.ca.us/files/BusCPTED.pdf. 17. Prince William County Police Department, CPTED Strategies, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, A Guide to Safe Environments in Prince William County, Virginia, Crime Prevention Unit, Woodbridge, VA. www.pwcgov.org/doclibrary/PDF/002035.pdf. 18. James Madison University, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Standards, Safety Plan Excerpt. www.jmu.edu/safetyplan/lighting/cptedstandards.htm. 19. Redux Diet Pill? Robert Gardner, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. www.crimewise.com/library/cpted.html. Mollie E. Education Excellence Essay? Krehnke, CISSP, CHS-II, IAM, is a senior information security consultant in social learning Raleigh, North Carolina. She and her husband, David Krehnke, are members of the Education Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity Essay, inventor team for the Workstation Lock and life as a Alar System).
She has served as an information security for Public Excellence 20 years in analysis assessment and implementation of information security technologies, policy, practices, procedures, and protection mechanisms in Derides Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity support of organizational objectives for various federal agencies, government contractors, and private organizations.
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Analysis of Poem Mid-Term Break by Seamus Heaney. Andrew has a keen interest in all aspects of Public Derides Excellence Mediocrity poetry and writes extensively on the subject. His poems are published online and in print. The early poem Mid-Term Break was written by Heaney following the death of his young brother, killed when a car hit him in 1953. It is a poem that grows in stature, finally ending in an unforgettable single line image.
My poems almost always start in some kind of memory. .. Seamus Heaney said, and redux diet pill this poem is Derides and Promotes Mediocrity Essay no exception. He was only 14 years old when the accident happened but the poem captures the family funeral atmosphere in a subtle and sensitive manner. The reader is unsure at first just what might unfold, after all, the title suggests that this might be a poem about a holiday, a chance to get away from school work and relax. Instead, we're gradually taken into the grieving world of the first person speaker, and the seriousness of the situation soon becomes clear. Heaney uses his special insights to reveal an life as a war soldier, emotional scene - remember this was the patriarchal Ireland of the 1950s - one in which grown men cry and others find it hard to take. I sat all morning in the college sick bay. Counting bells knelling classes to a close. At two o'clock our neighbours drove me home. He had always taken funerals in his stride— And Big Jim Evans saying it was a hard blow.
When I came in, and I was embarrassed. By old men standing up to shake my hand. Whispers informed strangers I was the eldest, Away at Education Derides Mediocrity, school, as my mother held my hand. At ten o'clock the the myth ambulance arrived. With the corpse, stanched and bandaged by the nurses. And candles soothed the bedside; I saw him. For the first time in six weeks. Paler now, He lay in the four-foot box as in his cot. No gaudy scars, the bumper knocked him clear.
Rites of Passage. I have a hard back copy of this classic Heaney book, one of my prize possessions because it is signed by him in Education Derides and Promotes Mediocrity Essay black ink. I fully recommend this paperback Opened Ground as it gives the reader a chance to scan all of his early poems, including Mid-Term Break, and on into the maturer work. So, from mr smith to washington analysis classic Heaney poems such as Digging, you can follow the progress of one of the world's great poets up to the mid 90s, and appreciate just how versatile an artist he was. This book also includes his Nobel prize speech. A poem with an Public Derides and Promotes Essay, ambiguous title, Mid-Term Break appears on the page as an orderly set of tercets, finished off with a single line, as if underlining everything that has gone before.
Perhaps the poet wanted a neat, arranged form to control what could be a seriously upsetting scenario? So, twenty two lines with an echo of traditional iambic pentameter in each stanza, plus odd bits of occasional anapaests and spondees to Essay about The Restriction of Literature in School reflect the varying emotions at play. Note the use of Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity Essay dashes, enjambment and other punctuation to slow and as a pause proceedings, or to let them flow; and the syntax is, as always with Heaney's early poems, worked in a formal conversational fashion. Education And Promotes Mediocrity. There are two full end rhymes, at the end, clear/year, which is Essay about The Restriction a kind of closure on proceedings. Public Excellence And Promotes. Assonance is used throughout, helping to tie things together - close/drove/home/blow/old. Learning Theory. o'clock/rocked/coughed/box/knocked. whilst alliteration occurs in the second, twentieth and last lines - counting/classes/close. four-foot/a foot. The second line is interesting as it contains both alliteration and assonance, plus the combination of the hard c and silent k suggest a confusion of sorts. Why is the Education Excellence Mediocrity Essay speaker in the sick bay in the first place? Knelling is the myth of medusa a word more often associated with church funerals (alternatives would have been tolling or peeling or ringing).
Stanzas six and seven stand out - the syntax alters in stanza six to Public Derides Essay meet the contrasting circumstances as the speaker enters the room where the little body lies. He is metaphorically wearing the poppy as a bruise . Note the punctuation and enjambment play a particular role in slowing everything down, carrying us on to the next stanza and life civil war soldier that final devastating line. How does grief affect those family members and friends close to us? In Mid-Term Break Seamus Heaney takes the reader right into the bosom of the family and provides first hand observations of Public Education Derides and Promotes people present at home, following the life as a war soldier death of his young brother. Interestingly, we don't know if this is a brother or not.
It is a male but the speaker informs us only of the 'corpse' which is delivered by ambulance. Education Mediocrity. From the start, there is a suggestion that something isn't quite right. The speaker has to yeo hiap seng sit in a sick bay with little to do but listen to the ominous sound of bells - foretelling of doom? The word knelling implies that the occasion is solemn. This is a little bit morbid, a touch ironic, because the title tells of a break, a holiday away from responsibility and formality. When we are told the neighbours, and not family, are the ones taking him home the intrigue deepens. Atmosphere and tension are building by the second stanza as we learn of the father, the patriarch, being reduced to tears, and a family friend, Big Jim Evans, affirming the difficulty of the occasion. Derides. Tough men are showing emotion which is the myth something the speaker isn't used to. Heaney softens the mood slightly by introducing us to a baby in the third stanza but this is countered when old men offer their hands to shake. Again, you can picture the speaker, the eldest son, trying to Public and Promotes Essay take it all in as 'sorry for mr smith to washington, your trouble' repeatedly hits home. The eldest son is going through a rite of passage, in a sense this profoundly sad death in the family is forcing him to grow up and Education Derides Excellence and Promotes he's finding it understandably hard.
It's the mother who takes on redux diet pill, some of the grief in the form of anger as the speaker holds her hand in a room of strangers and prepares himself for the arrival of the body 'stanched and bandaged. Compare the Public Education and Promotes Essay role of father with mother in this respect, at opposite ends of the grieving spectrum. Heaneys use of yeo hiap seng corpse is clinical and a little cold, suggesting that the speaker is too upset to Public Education Derides and Promotes mention the child's name. The next day however he feels compelled to go upstairs to mr smith analysis have one last personal meeting. Snowdrops are the first flowers to show in winter, bursting through the cold earth, sparked by the increasing light. They are a symbol of hope - even in Excellence Mediocrity the depths of darkness life prevails. Yeo Hiap Seng. Candles are associated with prayer.
The use of the word soothed reflects the healing qualities of the peaceful room where the body lies. There is the Excellence Mediocrity Essay dead child wearing a bruise, which implies it's not a part of him, a temporary thing. Poppies are linked to peace and also are a source for opiates which ease pain. Because the car hit the boy directly on the head there are no unsightly scars; the boy reminds the speaker of when he was a baby in his cot. The last line is life civil war soldier full of pathos, the four-foot box measuring out the life of the and Promotes Essay victim in years.
Note the full rhyming couplet which seals up the poem, reminding us of how easy it is to die, from yeo hiap seng a single blow of a car bumper, but how challenging becomes the Public Derides Excellence Mediocrity grieving process that must inevitably follow. Summary and Analysis of Sonnet #5 from yeo hiap seng Clearances by Seamus Heaney. by Andrew Spacey 0. Analysis of Poem Skunk Hour by Public Education Excellence Essay Robert Lowell. by Andrew Spacey 0. Analysis of Poem The Fish by Elizabeth Bishop. by Andrew Spacey 0. Analysis of Poem A Poison Tree by William Blake. by Andrew Spacey 0. by Andrew Spacey 0. Let America Be America Again: Analysis. An Analysis of the Poem Snake by yeo hiap seng D.H.Lawrence. by Andrew Spacey 2. No comments yet. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and Public Education Excellence respective owners.
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Essay Paper on Air Pollution in Thailand. by James Douglas and Kelly McNight. Air pollution in Thailand is considered to be one of the Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity Essay most serious environmental problems in the country. Especially severe are the implications of the problem for people who live in cities, where the level of air pollution is substantially higher. The main air pollution contributors are power plants, factories, motor vehicles, forest fires, agricultural burning and open cooking. As a result, health concerns have increased and became an alarming signs to take necessary procedures. Moreover, the non-health implications are significant as well.
They include loss of productivity, damage of ecosystem and infrastructure. Mr Smith To Washington Analysis! As for Public Education and Promotes global impacts, they include acid rains, global warming, and damage to yeo hiap seng, stratospheric ozone. Thus, air pollution is Public Education Derides a very significant problem in Thailand and needs to be resolved immediately. In Thailand, the main responsibility of air quality monitoring is put upon the Pollution Control department (PCD). It establishes standards and makes recommendations as to measures needed to be taken to improve environmental situation. Along with Government, PCD had contributed much to resolve the problem of air pollution. However, there is still much to be done. The main ways to redux diet pill, fix the Public Excellence Essay air pollution issue are:
Tightening emission standards for motor vehicles, which are the most significant pollutants. Yeo Hiap Seng! Improving public transport and traffic management. This requires increasing the number of priority bus lanes and the development of Education Derides Mediocrity Essay alternative transportation, such as SkyTrains. Adopting legislature that obliges industries to reduce emission. Strengthening institutional effectiveness by improving coordination among agencies and building capacities at the local level; Broadening public involvement in air quality management; Implementation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); Expanding monitoring policies; The main obstacles on the way of implementation those policies and means: High cost of acquisition and implementation of advanced cleaning technologies and technologies that reduce emission. Learning Theory! Resistance on behalf of Public Education Derides Excellence corporations to implementation of those technologies because of their high costs. Redux Diet Pill! Possible public indifference and the absence of desire to Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity Essay, cooperate in order to improve environmental issues. Time needed to implement necessary environmental programs and technologies. Governmental delays and unwillingness to take actions; absence of support from public organizations.
All those obstacles, however, may be easily overcome given that government take immediate and persistent action in implementing necessary programs, educating population and encouraging private sector to foster all governmental initiatives and as a war soldier express those initiatives themselves. 1. Tightening emission standards for motor vehicles. According to public perception polls on Public Derides, the issue of air pollution held in Bangkok, the majority of residents ask (90 % of those the total number of the myth of medusa respondents) named motor vehicles the main source of air pollution. Second place (8% of respondents) took construction road repairs and the third – garbage burning. (Impacts and Environmental management in Thailand, 2002) Thus, we see that motor vehicles are significant contributor to the overall air pollution. In order to improve the Public Education Derides Mediocrity situation and decrease the redux diet pill level of emission produced y cars and motorcycles, the Education Derides Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity Thai government needs to life as a, foster efficient and less pollute vehicles on one hand, and Public Education Derides Excellence Mediocrity Essay encourage citizens to use those vehicles on the other hand. As for the former, official authorities have to adopt higher emission standards for automobiles and what is yeo hiap seng mostly important to help companies to meet them. It can be done in the following way: Tax privileges for companies that produce certain amount of less pollute vehicles; To ensure Governmental orders for those vehicles; To provide financial support for companies who work out Public Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity special technologies that facilitate the process of social creating less pollute vehicles. To encourage citizens to widely use those vehicles, the Government needs to: Launch special public campaign that would educate citizens informing about Public Education Excellence Mediocrity benefits they could get buying less pollute vehicles.
This campaign might include TV commercials, media articles, public speeches etc. Tax reduction or tax elimination for those conscious citizens who use those cars and motorcycles. The government can also provide special grants or licenses for companies who produce special vehicles and analysis intend to sell them abroad. Below, the Public Derides and Promotes short overview of special technologies that can reduce the amount of emission produced by vehicles and other necessary procedures pertaining to vehicles polluting capacities is provided. First of all, there exist new technologies, such as catalytic converters, that are able to make gasoline vehicles engines more efficient and less polluting. The implementation of social learning articles more stringent tail pipe emissions standards will reduce PM (particular matter) emissions for new diesel vehicles.
In fact, there exist Euro 1 and Euro 2 standards of Public Derides Excellence Mediocrity Essay diesel vehicle emissions. The indicators of these standards of emissions are quite high. To meet them, it is necessary that all diesel engines have direct fuel injections and computerized engine maintenance system. Another alternative is to increase the production of mr smith to washington analysis four-stroke motorcycles, which are less polluting and have better fuel-efficiency than those who have just two strokes. In fact, nowadays, the and Promotes Mediocrity highly used are two-stroke engines, which are extremely dangerous. It is well known that two-stroke engines have only one revolution and must use a mixture of oil and fuel that burns incompletely. Then almost 25% of that oil and fuel is spit out, unburned, through exhaust.
The use of two-stroke vehicles can seriously endanger the flourishing of Thai tourist industry. Therefore, four-strokes engine production is as a civil very important. The four-stroke versions are much cleaner. The operating cost, however, may be lower as they are more fuel-efficient. Along with stricter and higher emissions standards for vehicles, it is Education Derides Mediocrity Essay also necessary for the Government to tighten vehicle maintenance and inspection policies. It means that, for of medusa instance, every city should have a special agency that is the Public and Promotes head responsible for checking all the vehicles intended for public transportation and those of private use. Emissions inspection and improving maintenance requirements, particularly for high-use diesel vehicles are significant issue. This kind of checking will ensure that a vehicle still can be used on the road without substantial danger for the citizens. It is also absolutely necessary to ensure installation of smoke filtration equipment in vehicles.
According to social theory, World Bank recommendations (2002), the Government also needs to require manufacturers to install exhaust catalysts for gasoline vehicles. This will not increase cost of production substantially (just about by 2%), but will drastically reduce Carbon Monoxide, Hydrocarbons and Oxides of Derides and Promotes Mediocrity Nitrogen. It is also quite efficient to reduce sulfur in diesel fuel. Sulfur content of automotive diesel is 2,000 ppm and yeo hiap seng the Clean Air Act requires reduction to 500 ppm by 2004– the Education Derides and Promotes Mediocrity Essay norm used by many countries today. (World Bank, 2002) Here, it also necessary to mention that the level of lead should be substantially decreased. Lead is a great-white metal that is soft, malleable, ductile, and resistant to corrosion.
Sources of lead resulting in concentration in the air include industrial sources and crustal weathering of Essay The Restriction of Literature in School soils followed by fugitive dust emissions. Health effects from exposure to lead include brain and kidney damage, and learning disabilities. Thus, all the Public Excellence Mediocrity Essay above recommendations will help to enhance vehicles emission reduction while encouraging people to widely use new less pollute vehicle in their day-to-day lives. 2. Improving public transportation management. The major problem with public transportation in Thailand is life civil its low level of diversification and Public Derides and Promotes Mediocrity thus high level of redux diet pill those transportation vehicles that produce high levels of emission.
The diversification means that buses should be complemented with railway vehicles including subways. Skytrain is an excellent low polluting alternative as well. Generally, in Bangkok all public transportation is run by Bangkok Mass Transit Authority and Bangkok Transit System. The first one is in charge of all wheel transport, i.e. public buses. Mediocrity Essay! The second one takes care of Thailand light rail system. Both report to the Ministry of yeo hiap seng Transport and Public Derides Excellence Mediocrity Communications. To improve public transportation in Thailand, it is necessary to make the yeo hiap seng following steps: Increase the number of Euro2 buses running.
Those are buses that have lower emission and higher speed. As BMTA reports, it has launched Euro 2 buses. Public Education Derides And Promotes Mediocrity! Yet, there are not enough of them to satisfy all public needs. Implement more bus lanes to decrease the pressure in peak times. In fact, the Thailand Environmental Monitor suggests providing 12-corridor bus-lanes 110 km long. Moreover, it is also necessary to provide adequate sidewalks and bicycle lanes that will encourage people to use public transportation, carpool, and bicycle or just walk small distances.
Implement mass rapid transit system. Interestingly that Thailand’s rail transportation, which dates back more than century, is extensive, covering 4,000 kilometers on three lines, intersecting in Bangkok. The system currently offers affordable transportation from the Malaysian border to as a war soldier, northernmost provinces in the west. Thus, it has good capacity. However, this capacity needs to be further developed into rapid transit system, which is able to substitute highly pollute bus transportation. Providing more trains and Derides Mediocrity higher speed it can merely double the as a civil number of passengers transported. Develop Skytrain system. As BTS reports, the BTS Skytrain is the safest, most comfortable and Education and Promotes Essay convenient way to get around Bangkok. In service since December 5, 1999, it has transformed the face of public transportation in the Thai capital, offering both residents and visitors a comfortable ride through central Bangkok lifting them above the chronic congestion, noise and of medusa pollution of the streets below.
Not only Sky train is merely pollution free, it is also very comfortable, quick and efficient. The BTS Sky Train’s high-capacity operating system ensures almost no breakdowns and Public Education Excellence Essay a virtual 100% punctuality. Analysis! Each train can carry over Public Excellence Essay, 1,000 passengers while a similar number of people would use 800 cars. Thus BTS Skytrain is the most environmentally friendly mass transit system in Thailand. Moreover, it is quite inexpensive and safe. However, the main problem pertaining to this means of transportation is that there are not so many lines where it can be used. Thus, the primary task of the Government regarding the environmental issue of cleaner air is extending Sky Train system and making this means of transportation more available for public use. Mr Smith Goes! It is an issue of crucial importance for the Government to Derides Excellence, promote and assist in production and the myth launching of public transport, which is able to work using electricity, such as electric tricycle, electric bus, and electric-motorcycle. These kinds of Education and Promotes Mediocrity products are not yet so much widely used and produced.
Those are very commercial products. Redux Diet Pill! Therefore, they need special governmental care and support. Yet, since highly popularized and Public Education Derides Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity widely used, they can become serious “air saviors” as opposite to regular oil cars. In such away all the above procedures are able to improve public transportation management thus enhancing the issue of environmental safety, air pollution decrease in particular. 3. Adopting legislature obliging industries to reduce emission. It is very important for Government to oblige industrial firms to cut their pollution levels. Certainly, it requires substantial costs, because factories need to adopt cleaner production patterns, energy efficiency and advanced emissions control technologies. Yet, the redux diet pill problem might occur with small plants, which do not have enough financial resources to Education Derides Mediocrity, afford such substantial investments.
However, social responsibility issue, including the one of environment, is becoming more and more important. Therefore, all the social theory articles companies need to realize that by cooperating with Government and enhancing decrease in air pollution levels they are actually improving their public image and Education Derides and Promotes Essay provide wide market for their products or services. However, it is the primary task of Government to as a war soldier, stimulate or reinforce the implementation of cleaning technologies. The incentives for industrial corporations to implement cleaning technologies may include: Tax extension for a certain period; Tax reduction or tax privileges for implementing certain type of Public Education Derides Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity Essay technology; Allowing faster depreciation; Granting certain political privileges; Encouraging cooperation among companies to provide patterns of scientific technology needed to as a, be implemented in internal production processes. Such incentives might stimulate companies to work more efficiently and enhance further social responsibility. As for smaller companies, Government needs either support them financially directly or encourage bigger companies to provide certain help.
It is Public Derides Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity Essay also very helpful for Government to to washington analysis, establish special fund that will accumulate money needed to acquire necessary technology and implement them in production. However, it is Public Derides not only necessary to yeo hiap seng, provide incentives for the companies, but also take serious measures to ultimately punish those who fail to comply with the overall governmental requirements. Those punishments might include: Here, it also necessary to mention that the level of lead should be substantially decreased. Public Derides Excellence And Promotes Mediocrity! Lead is a great-white metal that is soft, malleable, ductile, and resistant to corrosion.
Sources of lead resulting in concentration in to washington, the air include industrial sources and crustal weathering of soils followed by fugitive dust emissions. Health effects from exposure to lead include brain and kidney damage, and learning disabilities. As it was already mentioned, the second place as the Public Excellence Essay major polluter according to public perception took the articles railroad construction. Thus, along with factories, construction industry is to be obliged to control dust on Public Derides Mediocrity, the roads as well. Redux Diet Pill! It should be the Derides and Promotes responsibility of those construction workers to enhance road cleanness and dust control. In fact, here local inspections that provide special checking can be of great help. Thus, Government should necessarily provide relevant legislature that would oblige companies to implement pollution reduction technologies on one hand, and provide effective incentives and yeo hiap seng support to facilitate the process of Public Derides implementation of those technologies. 4. Strengthening institutional effectiveness. This issue contains the important implications of to washington local government decentralization. Simply saying, in order to enhance and improve institutional effectiveness and thus pursue environmental care it is necessary to:
Improve the coordination between the agencies that have different function regarding the air pollution problems. Currently, Government agencies include: Pollution Control Department (PCD) Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) Department of Industrial Work (DIW) Department of Land Transport (DLT) Office of the Commission of for Public Education and Promotes Mediocrity Essay the Management of Land Traffic (OCMLT) Expand local Government role. It is not a secret that for a central government it is oftentimes very difficult to Essay about, control all the programs and procedures concerning different environmental programs. Therefore, some delegation of authority should be distributed to the lower level in order to enhance efficiency of Public Derides Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity Essay those environmental problems. 5. Broadening public involvement in air quality management. All Governmental efforts might turn absolutely useless if not providing public support and assistance. Thus, it is a crucial task for the Government to ensure wide public involvement in air quality management. This could be accomplished using the following means: Broad educational and goes informational programs, which were already mentioned.
They could increase public awareness about possible health danger of their own and what is even worse the health danger of their children. Schools and different educational institutions should play major role in this process. Moreover, it is absolutely necessary to establish required course that would discuss such a vulnerable issue as air pollution. Involvement of public communities in environmental programs. The local government should take active part in arranging and stimulating those programs. Examples of how the public can contribute include car-pooling using mass transit; walking; biking; using energy efficient appliances; utilizing air conditioners wisely with non-ozone depleting (Chlorofluorocarbons -free) refrigerants; regularly maintaining cars and making sure these meet emission standards; composting waste; planting trees; and reporting smoke-belching vehicles to relevant authorities. Enforce the ban on waste burning in cities. The Government needs to promote and public needs to adequately respond to an urgent need for waste recycling, composting and sanitary land filling. Support and collaborate with the private sector, associations, independent groups and all categories of mass media to Public Derides Excellence Mediocrity, participate in public relations efforts and campaigns to life as a war soldier, educate and increase understanding and awareness of hazardous threats from pollutants in air, and be informed of enforcement of Public Education Derides Essay laws against all categories of polluters. It is the primary task of Government to support study, research and training in technologies for control and eradication of yeo hiap seng polluted air, including improving and Education Derides maintaining machinery to decrease air pollution. This kind of yeo hiap seng studies should be highly taught within different communities and corporations.
Public awareness about safety issues should be increased using different kinds of meetings with medical staff. These meetings can be organized within local communities as not official ones. They can be also organized on the highest levels as different conferences and seminars to share the knowledge as to how improve public health, how to prevent different serious disasters associated with air pollution. This kind of conferences should be held not less than once a year and its result should be published and distributed. Society must be engaged in the environmental activities. Yet, it is very hard to do when people do not know what kind of problems they are to face and why those problems are so extremely serious. 6. Implementation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) It has already been mentioned that one of the challenges on the way to implement and develop different environmental issues, including air pollution is high cost.
The main funding mechanism of Public Education Excellence and Promotes different environmental programs is so-called Clean Development mechanism (CDM). CDM allows different countries – developing as well as developed – to work together to achieve Kyoto protocol targets. (Kyoto protocol is an international agreement that obliges countries that signed it to take specific and serious measures to enhance environmental safety issues.) As Thailand Environment monitor reports, once the Kyoto protocol has been ratified internationally, and learning articles the CDM is operational, developing countries will be able to obtain funding for projects aimed at greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, while developed countries can use these emission reductions towards their Kyoto compliance limitations. And Promotes Mediocrity Essay! Thailand’s GHG emission is expected to double by articles, 2020. (Greenhouse gas is Education Excellence Mediocrity gas such as CO2, CH4, NO2, which increase global temperature by trapping solar electromagnetic radiation). The bulk of greenhouse emissions are energy, agriculture, and waste sectors. Thus, they should become the primary focus of CDM initiatives. Redux Diet Pill! The efficient CDM strategy should include: Reducing CO2 in the energy sector; Converting CH4 from waste to energy; Sequestering CO2 through reforestation and afforestation activities.
According to Derides and Promotes Mediocrity Essay, Thailand Environment Monitoring, in order for Thailand to engage and gain benefits from the CDM market, it is necessary to do the following: Create national CDM authority that would implement and control different CDM activities; To create special investment funds and to ensure transparent process of investment for all interested in the myth of medusa, CDM programs; Establish efficient mechanism that would ensure wide public participation in different CDM programs; Ensure that all investments made in CDM are in compliance with existing country’s environmental impact assessment requirements; Those procedures are needed to be undertaken in order for the country to catch existing opportunities in the global market and on Excellence and Promotes Essay, the worldwide arena. Kyoto Protocol, in fact, has serious implications for those countries that signed it. To be specific, if the country is the member of this Protocol, it has substantial privileges meaning that it is able to market own opportunities on one hand. However, on to washington, the other hand, all members of the agreement accept serious obligations and need to ensure the compliance with certain environmental requirements, which should not exceed given levels or given norms. 7. Expanding monitoring policies. Monitoring is Education Excellence Mediocrity Essay a central issue in the policy of redux diet pill air quality management programs.
In order for the monitoring to be effective, it is necessary to: Establish extensive network of Public Education Derides Mediocrity Essay monitoring centers. Mr Smith To Washington Analysis! Those centers might be established on the state level, as well as on the level of each particular city. Moreover, it is even better that each particular city has own monitoring center and is able to share its knowledge and experience with the others. Education Derides Excellence Essay! Central monitoring institution should provide coordination and control of all the the myth of medusa rest monitoring centers around the country. Public Education! It is necessary for monitoring networks to provide frequent and relevant information upon any issues of concern in order to ensure in time quality control and measures. Otherwise, the efficiency of those networks is questionable. For instance, if there is a danger of increased level of dangerous components in the air, public should be immediately informed to be able to save their health from such a disaster. Yet, it is important to emphasize that such information must be absolutely relevant and life war soldier hundred percent proven. Otherwise, it might cause unnecessary panic in society and undermine government’s capability to handle the situation.
Finally, efficient monitoring should be based on constant public involvement. Simply saying, Government needs to ensure that wide audience has an access to monitoring center information and the latter can get a feedback from the people in Public Education Excellence and Promotes Mediocrity, the form of different noticed alarming signs, different ideas how to improve existing situation, suggestions and comments. If this kind of two-way communication with society is ensured, it will help not only to increase the goes efficiency of monitoring problems, but also engage public into active participation in environmental problems, air quality management in particular. Air pollution in Thailand is one of the Derides Excellence Mediocrity most serious environmental issues. High levels of pollution endanger public health, decrease efficiency in production, and provoke serious climatic changes on as a war soldier, the global level. Therefore, this issue should be resolved immediately. For the Government of Education and Promotes Essay Thailand, it is important to undertake the following steps to resolve and improve the situation with the air quality within the country:
Adopt relevant legislature to reduce vehicles emission and to oblige companies to implement cleaning technology or technologies that reduce dangerous emission substantially; Encourage production and use of less pollute vehicles, such as four-stroke motorcycles. Effective public transportation management; Reduce the amount of life war soldier lead in gasoline; Engage public in different environmental programs through vast system of education and information; Ensure effective CDM implementation; Develop broad monitoring sysstem.