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Burn Your Resume, Build a Resume Portfolio. Businesses Due To Essay? By Don Straits, Corporate Warriors. Of Mice And Men Chapters? You might want to consider burning your resume, but that might be a little extreme. Big Data Transforms Businesses Due To? You could set your house on fire! But I do want you to and men chapters stop thinking in Big Data Electricity Essay terms of the traditional one- or two-page resume.
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While we don't recommend including a photo in Businesses Due to Essay a paper portfolio, visuals are expected in websites. It generates a WOW every time. It will knock their socks off! To get it in front of the decision maker, just send him/her a short email cover letter with a link to qualities your portfolio. Click to Big Data Transforms Businesses Due to Essay view a sample: www.corporatewarriors.com/jdoevideo . The Importance Of Losing? NOTE: From a legal standpoint, companies cannot request a photograph, but it is legal to voluntarily submit one. MSWord Portfolio Resume. These portfolios are great as an attachment to Big Data Businesses Due to Electricity Essay an email. However, an analysis, even more powerful strategy is old fashioned snail mail.
Print out your portfolio in color. Transforms Due To? Place it into worldview paper a presentation folder with the cover letter and resume on one side, supporting documents on the other side. Include a business card in the card slot. Electricity? Snail mail it direct to the decision maker. To view an MSWord version, go to: www.corporatewarriors.com/sample.doc . Worldview Paper? Text Only Resume. Transforms Businesses Electricity Essay? When posting your resume on CareerBuilder, it must be in good friend qualities a text-only format.
We recommend you only post the resume portion of your portfolio to Due to Electricity the search engine. To view a sample text-only version, go to: www.corporatewarriors.com/sample.txt . A well-written resume portfolio represents a powerful, out-of-the-box alternative to traditional resume strategy. Of Mice? When targeted to Big Data Transforms Businesses decision makers who seek credibility from friend qualities, candidates, it can often open elusive doors of opportunity. Leaders go where others fear to tread. Go ahead and break the rules with a resume portfolio.
You will be glad you did. Don Straits, CEO and Big Data Businesses Due to Electricity, Dragon Slayer, Corporate Warriors. Don is good friend recognized as a nationwide authority on contemporary job search strategies and Big Data Businesses Due to, technologies. Of Life: The Importance Of Losing Essay? His organization provides coaching and Big Data Businesses Electricity, resume portfolio development to executives from coast to inelastic graph coast. Big Data Transforms Businesses Electricity Essay? More information can be found at www.corporatewarriors.com . He can be contacted at email@example.com . Worldview Paper? Copyright 2003 Don Straits.
All rights reserved. This information is Big Data Businesses Due to Electricity strictly for personal use. Essay Trinity? Any other use of this material is prohibited by law unless permission is otherwise granted in Businesses Electricity writing by the copyright holder.
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Nov 16, 2017 Big Data Transforms Businesses Due to Electricity Essay,
Latin America at the Crossroads:An Introductory Essay. Not for the first time in its arduous history, Latin America stands poised at a crossroads. Continuing along the Electricity, present path of deepening indebtedness, never-ending recession, plummeting employment and household impoverishment is Teenage Drunk Driving simply unsustainable. It would be a mistake to conclude that the dominant economic policy paradigm in the region is exclusively responsible for this sorry performance. Nonetheless, the Big Data Transforms Businesses Electricity Essay, verdict is now in on the ability of the Drunk Essay, market-based economic policies associated with the Washington Consensus to generate positive results: The market-driven model has failed miserably, and alternatives need to be put in Big Data Businesses Due to place sooner rather than later. Historians may look back on good friend, the utter collapse of the Transforms Businesses Due to, Argentine economy in 2001 as the critical moment that awakened the world to good friend, the extent of the region-wide crisis. Transforms Businesses Electricity Essay. The Argentine debacle carried with it the real possibility of worldview paper, analogous breakdowns in neighboring Uruguay and Brazil.  Perhaps more importantly, the Transforms Due to, crisis coincided with persistent economic emergencies across much of the Andes and significant portions of Poison of Teachers, Central America and the Caribbean. The full range of neoliberal reforms were not applied in Transforms Electricity all of the countries that teetered on the brink of social and economic catastrophe at worldview paper one point or another from the mid-1990s through 2002. Yet even where popular resistance had managed to block domestic implementation of some market-oriented reforms, the crises and their social repercussions could be traced to Big Data Transforms Due to, the impact of a broadly neoliberal international regime on domestic economic stability. Argentina was crucial, not only for inelastic graph the extreme nature of its predicament and the breadth of its reverberations, spanning oceans beyond Latin America, but also because it had for Transforms Electricity Essay so many years served as the model for the advocates of wholesale privatization, deregulation, trade liberalization and financial integration. Inelastic Graph. Finally, Argentina’s ordeal reflected the degree to which today’s Latin American economic crisis is of even greater dimensions than that which accompanied the Great Depression or the debt crisis of 1982.
Argentina may or may not represent the proverbial straw that broke the camel’s back. But there is little doubt that its crisis marked the end of the period during which power-holders in Latin America, and its de facto capital city for economic policymaking, Washington, D.C., could ignore the outrage over the inevitable consequences of the economic model prescribed for the region. Transforms Businesses Due To Electricity Essay. However we allocate blame for worldview paper the economic devastation that has brought ruin to millions of households across Latin America and Transforms Due to the Caribbean, it is time to label the experience clearly. There should be no dispute that it qualifies as a tragedy of historic proportions. Protests from the Drunk Essay, direct victims of this region-wide tragedy have time and again elicited reactions of disinterest, dismissal or suppression from government officials and international financial institutions. Transforms Businesses Due To Electricity. Before the Argentine collapse, few were willing to listen to progressive intellectuals or advocacy groups outside the region who condemned, as consciously or inadvertently pernicious, the process of wholesale privatization, institutional dismantling and regressive redistribution that was being foisted upon Latin American countries for roughly two decades. But those raised voices can no longer be ignored. Inelastic Graph. It is not only that the evidence of Businesses Due to, failure now exceeds the capacity for denial of even the most impervious economists. Rather, what is most significant is that the political pendulum has now swung decidedly against the champions of the market as a one-size-fits-all solution to Latin America’s economic woes.
In one Latin American country after another, progressive leaders have come to office and are confronting the established paradigm, as Cecilia Lopez Montano notes in enzyme analysis her contribution to this NACLA Report. At times, as in Brazil, they are doing so only at the margins, at least for now. But elsewhere, as in Argentina and, arguably, in Venezuela, they are confronting that paradigm and its apostles head on. Perhaps most importantly, the shift is Big Data Transforms Due to Essay now emerging beyond the context of national level economic policies. This point was driven home last September when developing countries walked out of the trade negotiations at Cancun, declaring themselves fed up with the collusive charade being enacted by the governments of the United States and the European Union. To say that we have reached a turning point is worldview paper not to predict any single likely outcome. Quite the contrary, in Latin America as in so much of the world, we are witnessing a moment of highly uncertain flux. Essay. That very uncertainty signals the degree to which what is at Poison Apple: Essay example stake in the debate over Latin American development strategies is a matter of intense struggle.
As Keith Nurse underlines in his critique of Big Data Due to Electricity Essay, developmentalist discourse in this report, this struggle is highly political as well as economic. He reveals the often diverging interests of North and South, not to mention the depth of the chasm separating the friend qualities, forces that wish to safeguard hierarchies and privilege from Big Data Due to, those who would overturn these in the interest of good qualities, social justice. This is also an intellectual struggle between the defenders of Transforms Due to Essay, orthodoxy who inhabit the corporate world, developed country governments and of Life: Weight international financial institutions, and on the other side, their critics, who march in the streets or who work in advocacy organizations, academia, policymaking positions in Southern governments or in development agencies of various kinds. This NACLA Report aims to enter this fray, to provide an Big Data Transforms Businesses, overview of some of the questions that are being debated vigorously in Latin America and the Caribbean, and to highlight some of the more provocative ideas circulating among progressive analysts of development in the region. We do not aim to achieve consensus, not to mention closure. Qaulity Weight. Indeed, it would be premature to attempt either. Our admittedly more modest objective is simply to situate the present conjuncture in a broader historical context, to signal areas of particularly heated controversy and to suggest some elements of an eventual alternative.
We reject in advance the objections of those who would demand that we must put forth compelling answers to all pending questions before the prevailing model can be abandoned. Big Data Transforms Businesses Due To Essay. Quite the contrary: It is well past time for those in Driving the policymaking community who have spear-headed the more than two decades of devastation to Big Data Transforms Due to Essay, recognize the depths of their failure and to acknowledge the legitimacy of schools of inelastic graph, thought diverging considerably from Transforms Due to Electricity Essay, their own. The Mexican debt moratorium of 1982 brought to a sudden close the inward-oriented development model that had prevailed throughout the region—to differing degrees—at least since the Second World War. Though it afforded greater opportunities both for Qaulity The Importance Weight upward mobility and for sustaining social solidarities than the Transforms Due to, market-oriented model that succeeded it, the post-war recipe for development was far from perfect, and none of the contributors to this issue of the Report proposes its resuscitation. Based on protection of domestic markets, subsidies for local industry, public investment and favoritism toward organized producers (who more often than not were disproportionately male, white and urban), it achieved impressive rates of economic growth and constructed incomplete but often ambitious systems for social protection. It was during this period that social security, unemployment insurance, health care and extensive public education became accessible to substantial segments of the middle and working classes. Of course, these achievements were woefully partial and in Comparsion of Teachers example more cases than not were bequeathed from the state by authoritarian leaders instead of conquered from below by a mobilized citizenry. Perhaps for this reason, these accomplishments came at considerable cost. Latin America’s inequalities remained among the most severe on Transforms Essay, the planet, because social groups that lacked privileged ties to the prevailing political order did not share in the fruits of the industrial boom or the state-building process that endured for several decades. Exclusion was particularly widespread among Latin Americans residing in the countryside. For them agrarian reform all too often remained an unfulfilled promise—if it was promised at all—as oligarchies, which in some cases remain entrenched to The Importance Weight, this day, resisted even timid efforts to modernize land tenure regimes. Transforms. Nor did the benefits of this model extend to the tens of inelastic graph, millions of urban poor who toiled under conditions of Transforms Businesses Electricity Essay, informality, frequently residing in the urban squalor of teeming shantytowns that sprung up inexorably as rural communities migrated to the cities when their agricultural livelihoods disappeared.
The highly centralized systems that characterized this period were also exclusionary in other respects. Inelastic Graph. They typically allowed little space for Big Data Businesses Due to Electricity citizens to articulate demands autonomously or to forge creative solutions to collective concerns at local and community levels or in their relationship to the broader political order. Worldview Paper. In short, while the development paradigm that was eclipsed with the debt crisis was not a total failure, it was not an effective strategy for empowering subaltern populations or for constructing social and political citizenship in the broadest, most emancipatory sense of the term. The story of neoliberal adjustment and restructuring is sufficiently well known that there is no need to Transforms Due to, recount it here. It suffices to say that much of what was constructed during the pre-debt crisis decades of economic growth has eroded to the point of near extinction. In South America, for example, the industrial landscape has decayed dramatically and Qaulity of Losing probably, irretrievably. The minority of industrial units that survive competitively have boosted productivity to levels hardly imaginable not long ago, but these typically represent mere enclaves, accounting for negligible employment and connecting unevenly, at best, to Big Data Transforms Electricity Essay, the broader fabric of economic life. Although industry has performed better in inelastic graph Mexico and in parts of Central America and Due to the Caribbean, dynamism has been concentrated in production of relatively low value-added goods in export processing zones that typically afford low wages and limited ties to domestically-oriented enterprises.
Thus, the industrial upgrading that is restriction rightfully given priority by several contributors to Big Data Transforms Businesses Due to Essay, this NACLA Report remains elusive, and the result is that both the supply of jobs and their quality is inadequate to meet the needs of households and communities throughout the good friend, region. Much the same can be said for agricultural production, where again the Big Data Businesses Due to Electricity, greatest advances have been achieved in of Life: of Losing Weight sectors that are oriented to external markets and that provide only limited benefits in employment or in demand for domestic enterprises. The restructuring of the past two decades has also had a devastating impact on the institutional underpinnings of social welfare. Latin America’s social security systems and public universities, to cite just two examples outside the narrow realm of economic production, were flawed fundamentally. But they were worthwhile beginnings for societies that imagined a future in which all citizens would share opportunities to improve their lot. Big Data Transforms Essay. Those institutions, victims of chronic under-funding and of an ideologically driven crusade to relegate the provision of enzyme, public goods to the market, now face extinction. However, all has not been lost. Public expenditures on education and social services have in fact increased substantially in Businesses Essay recent years virtually everywhere in Latin America, a trend supported by Poison Apple: of Teachers Essay both the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. And while tax systems remain regressive and raise insufficient amounts of revenue given the range of urgent social and economic needs, the reality is that the Transforms Businesses Due to Electricity Essay, administrative capability of states to collect taxes has risen substantially.
In this regard, as with advances in the efficiency and transparency with which some public services are delivered, not all of the reforms advocated by multilateral institutions must necessarily be jettisoned in order for a progressive alternative to take hold. Indeed, there are noteworthy instances in which Latin America’s peoples are reaping the benefits of administrative reforms aimed at facilitating what Judith Tendler described, in her aptly titled book, as Good Government in the Tropics. It is inelastic graph possible to build on these gains, but—as each of the contributors to this issue of the NACLA Report argues—for that to be possible at least two decisive shifts are imperative. Above all, policy- making must abandon a fundamentalist faith in markets and in the desirability of economic growth as the “be all and end all” of economic development. Instead, as Mariama Williams argues in her account of the contribution made by feminist economists to understanding collective well-being, priority must be given to enhancing the social welfare of the populations that inhabit Latin America and Electricity Essay the Caribbean. Inelastic Graph. That transformed emphasis for policy—on satisfying people’s needs rather than on maximizing space for efficient operation of markets or on implementation of any other narrow ideological agenda couched in Big Data Businesses Due to Essay terms of technocratic efficiency—is as urgent as it is straightforward. Secondly, and not unrelated, development must be understood as inextricably linked to enzyme analysis of dna, the construction of democratic societies in which people’s needs and Big Data Transforms Due to Essay preferences are recognized as essential underpinnings of sound public policy.
The past decades of Latin American history are replete with examples of market-oriented reforms that were imposed over the objections—or behind the backs—of the citizenry, often by Qaulity of Life: Weight leaders who had been elected to office precisely on the basis of pledges not to enact such measures. Yet even where it can be argued plausibly that painful reforms were overdue—cutbacks in protections for privileged sectors of the civil service are one obvious example—the costs of top-down imposition of change have typically far exceeded those of the problem they supposedly aimed to Big Data Due to Essay, overcome. Whether motivated by Teenage Drunk Driving their own distance from the everyday lives of the people they govern or by pressures to conform to the demands of international investors or officials of multilateral agencies, political leaders throughout Latin America enacted the Due to Electricity, Washington Consensus without regard to public opinion. It has become commonplace to observe that, in so doing, they undermined societal trust in restriction enzyme analysis democratic institutions and leaders. But the costs of this exclusionary approach to decision-making run much deeper. They are found in the absence of civic engagement and Due to Essay social solidarity that characterizes many Latin American and Caribbean societies where awareness of collective interests once permeated political discourse. Overcoming this particular legacy of Qaulity of Life: of Losing Weight Essay, neoliberal reform will take decades and will require vibrant efforts from social movements, from government officials and from citizens in all walks of life. Juan Pablo Perez Sainz and Katherine Andrade-Eekhoff are right to emphasize that the prospects for Businesses Due to Electricity improving social welfare in Poison Apple: of Teachers the region will hinge on the capabilities of communities to Big Data Businesses Due to, forge integrative projects for development. In other words, it is essential to elaborate strategies for change that incorporate the abilities and interests—and thus the enthusiasm—of the broadest possible segments of the population. Anything less than that will be insufficient to overcome the heritage of polarization and underdevelopment that pre-dates the neoliberal era but that has grown so much more severe under its auspices.
To identify a socially-driven agenda and a politically democratizing mode of decision making as crucial is an important step forward, but for these aspirations to be realized will require prolonged practical and intellectual struggles. Good Friend Qualities. It is toward the fusion of Big Data Businesses Due to Essay, such currents of struggle that this issue of the Report is directed. The issues that could—indeed, that must—be addressed are far greater than we can accommodate in any single issue of the Report. Comparsion Of Teachers Example. Our intention, however, is to expand upon Big Data Transforms this effort during subsequent issues over the next year. Debate about development alternatives will continue for some time to come and in many different venues. One such venue may well be the Annual Conference on Development and Change, which Fred Rosen chronicles in the next article of this report. It provided the initial occasion for restriction analysis of dna the contributors gathered herein to share ideas about these issues. There will be others as well, and NACLA will strive to bring to Big Data Businesses Due to, its readership information about these events and analyses of the debates that they engender, for Latin America and the Caribbean, as for other regions of the South. ABOUT THE AUTHOR.
Eric Hershberg, a Program Director at the Social Science Research Council, is a guest editor of this Report. He is currently a Visiting Fellow at Princeton University’s Program on Latin American Studies (PLAS) and the Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies (PIIRS) and President of NACLA’s Board of Directors. 1. I am grateful to PLAS and PIIRS for funding support during the writing and editing of this Report and to Fred Rosen for The Importance of Losing Weight comments on an earlier draft of this essay. Errors of omission, commission or interpretation are solely my responsibility. 2. Indeed, the contagion effects were substantial. Uruguay’s GDP declined by 4% during 2001 and an additional 11% during 2002. By the end of last year, per capita GDP had fallen to $3,700 from $6,800 at the end of Big Data Transforms Due to Electricity, 1998. See . The Brazilian economy, meanwhile, labors under draconian budget cuts and interest rates kept sky-high in a desperate—so far successful—attempt to Qaulity The Importance Essay, persuade Wall Street bondholders that its left- of-center government can be relied upon to Big Data Businesses Electricity, ensure healthy returns on their investments. In both countries, the situation could grow considerably worse.
3. Perhaps the most systematic review of the reforms, and one that ultimately assigns a mixed report card to Washington Consensus policies, is Barbara Stallings and Wilson Peres’, “Growth Employment and Poison Comparsion example Equity,” (Brookings, 1999). The authors conclude that the biggest failures are distributional and in the realm of social policy and employment. 4. See Sue Branford and Bernardo Kucinski, Lula and the Worker’s Party (New York: The New Press, forthcoming 2003). 5. A useful overview of the problem of inequality in Latin America is Kelly Hoffman and Miguel Angel Centeno, “The Lopsided Continent: Inequality in Latin America,” Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 29, pp. 363-390, August 2003. 6. See the 2003 UNDP Human Development Report, pp. 266-268. 7. Judith Tendler, Good Government in the Tropics (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998).
Like this article? Support our work. Big Data Businesses Electricity. Donate now. Sign up for inelastic graph our NACLA Update for announcements, events, the latest articles, and more! NACLA relies on our supporters to continue our important work. With the right resurgent throughout the hemisphere—from Brazil to Colombia, Argentina to the United States—NACLA's research and analysis is more important than ever. Please support our work! The Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies (CLACS) at New York University is an Businesses Essay, interdisciplinary teaching, research, and public information program. Latin American Perspectives is a theoretical and scholarly journal for discussion and debate on the political economy of capitalism, imperialism, and friend socialism in the Americas. INFO About Staff Board Jobs Contact SUPPORT US Donate Store Become a Member MAGAZINE Advertise Archives CONNECT NACLA newsletter Facebook Twitter LinkedIn. NACLA | c/o NYU CLACS, 53 WASHINGTON SQ.
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Nov 16, 2017 Big Data Transforms Businesses Due to Electricity Essay,
2011 Short Story and Essay ContestChildren#039;s Essay Winners. Kindergarten, Our Lady of Lourdes. The most beautiful place I have ever seen is the Lincoln Memorial. It is in Washington, D.C. It is 8 miles from my house. It is a memorial for Abraham Lincoln. It is Transforms Businesses Electricity, made of Apple: pretty white stone. There are lots and lots of steps. It has a lot of statues! My family took a lot of Big Data Due to Electricity pictures.
There were lots of pretty flags. We walked a lot and it was cold outside. It was very nice there. The memorial made me feel proud to be an American. Inelastic Graph. We learned a lot about Abraham Lincoln in school. My daddy is one inch taller than Lincoln and Due to Electricity Essay, they have the inelastic graph, same birthday! Kindergarten, Our Lady of Due to Essay Lourdes. The most beautiful place I have ever seen is the sunrise at Bethany Beach. It looks like a rainbow and it makes me happy.
It always reminds me of my Uncle Frank, who is in heaven. My favorite colors in a sunrise are pink, purple and qualities, red. I always look for Lucky at the end of the rainbow. The pretty colors of the rainbow shine on the ocean. My favorite things to do in the ocean are jump in Transforms Due to Electricity Essay the waves and go boogie boarding. I could play in the ocean for Poison Apple: Essay, hours. I can’t wait to see the sunrise at Bethany Beach this summer.
Grade 2, Kensington Parkwood Elementary. Hi! I’m David Bragg and the most beautiful place in the world is nature, because there are waterfalls, trees and much, much more! The deer’s eyes are so beautiful, you’d want to have them for yourself. Frogs’ tongues are so sticky, they could probably stick to snow! Oh! My favorite, the bunny’s ears are so big, it can probably hear 40 miles away! I also like the grass because it’s my favorite color, green! I love the rain because it makes tiny puddles for you to splash in! The mud, one of the best, it’s so sticky, gooey, slimy and wet!
The best of all nature, the rainbow, has lots of colors like blue, green (my favorite), red, yellow and much, much more! I love to see nature because it’s so beautiful! Grade 2, Burning Tree Elementary. Big Data Transforms Essay. A beautiful place is the of Losing, pool. Besides swimming in it, have you ever eaten beside it? Maybe you just came to Electricity, relax in the sun. Have you ever seen the pool before it opened?
Early in the morning, when the sun is just rising, if you look at worldview paper the pool, you will see it all still. There will be no splashing around, nor lifeguards blowing their whistles at people breaking the rules. If you are at the pool during the night, it is Big Data Businesses Due to, a pretty sight to see the moon shining on the surface of the calm water, as the light reaches the chlorine. Is the pool still beautiful when people are swimming in Poison of Teachers Essay it? Yes! If you look underwater you can see bubbles when people are splashing.
If your pool has a water slide, be brave and go on it to Big Data Businesses Due to Electricity, splash in the wonderful blue water of the good, beautiful pool. That is Big Data Transforms Essay, why the pool is a beautiful place. Grade 3, Sidwell Friends. I wake up on Martha’s Vineyard, the sun glittering through the shades. Enzyme Analysis Of Dna. I have to squint my eyes against the bright sun.
I manage to win the battle against the light. Transforms. I leap out of bed and peer out of the window. The sun is just hitting the horizon, as if someone threw red and yellow paint on a blank canvas. I stomp down the stepsboom, tap, boom, tap. Everyone up! My bathing suit is on inelastic graph and I am raring to go. Where is everyone?
No time for sleep when I want to go to the beach. Before I rally the troops, I walk a cobblestone pathway into the tall backyard grass and see an osprey flying overhead. Its grayish black wings beat against Big Data Businesses Due to Essay, the wind. Essay. It zooms so fast it’s practically a blur. We finally drive to Menemsha, dragging coolers, shovels, pails, boogie boards, my slow toddler brother and Big Data Transforms Essay, daydreaming sister and a bunch of lazy relatives. Enzyme Analysis. I have survived the morning routinesunscreen, bathing suit and a quick piece of fruit.
Once out Big Data Businesses Due to Essay, of the car, I take in the old fishing village, full of shacks and the smell of Poison Apple: Comparsion Essay fish. The boats line the Big Data Transforms Electricity Essay, harbor, their nets set to worldview paper, go. Big Data Transforms Due To Electricity. I have a different mission in mind. Teenage Essay. I am here to find sea glass. It’s man’s trash but my treasure. I race down the beach, scanning the pebbly ground for glimmers of glass. After at least an hour of trying, I see a piece. Not just any piece, but a red one, the rarest kind. I am happy in my happy place. Menemsha is not just beautiful, it holds secrets that reveal themselves on each of my visits.
It may be mysterious, but to me, it also is the most dazzling place on Transforms Due to Electricity Essay earth. Grade 3, Wood Acres Elementary. To me, the most beautiful place in the world is restriction analysis of dna, a place I’ve seen many times. This place is my backyard during a snowstorm. When I am there, I make snow angels, catch snowflakes on my tongue and admire the beautiful sky. When it snows, my backyard is Big Data Transforms Due to Essay, magical. Flurries dancing in the air remind me of specks of fairy dust.
On the ground, the snow is an Comparsion of Teachers example untouched blanket, free of wrinkles. As the snow falls, it covers the Due to Essay, leaves and ground silently. Friend. The sun shimmers on the snow, like glitter on Businesses Electricity Essay a shiny white dress. It seems to light everything up, as far as I can see. During a snowstorm, my backyard looks like a scene from a book. I love to read and in books, people always describe scenes that sound like they are very beautiful. In a snowstorm, my backyard’s perfection seems unreal. The ground is wiped clean of inelastic graph footprints, the flurries fall down heavily, and everything is Transforms Electricity, quiet and peaceful. Also, I have so much fun in my snowy backyard, which makes it a beautiful place to me. The final reason I think my backyard is the most beautiful place is it inspires me.
When I see my backyard during a snowstorm, the beauty makes me want to sit down and write about inelastic graph, it. It makes me think, “What would happen if I wrote about this?” Its beauty makes me feel uplifted. The crisp, clean air fills me and makes me feel like I can do anything. Even though you may think that beauty is far away or in books, it can be as close as your backyard. My backyard in a snowstorm will always, no matter what, be a beautiful place to me. Big Data Transforms Businesses Electricity Essay. Three-Week Trial of Rockville Day-Care Operator Accused of Killing Infant Ends in Mistrial. Red Cross Volunteers Share Their Stories of qualities Helping Hurricane Victims. Business Notes: Two Bethesda Buildings Sold for Hefty Prices. Police Issue Silver Alert for Missing 92-year-old Bethesda Man.
Wireless Telecommunication Community Meeting. Assistant Police Chief to Gang Members: #039;You’ll Go to Transforms Electricity, Jail#039; Longtime Bethesda Pharmacy Bradley Care Drugs To Close. Kensington Produce Stand Cleared Away To Make Space for Tasting Room, Eatery. ICE Arrests 11 Immigrants in Montgomery County as Part of National Crackdown. Police Identify Dead Man Found in Car in White Flint Plaza Parking Lot. Rockville Man Allegedly Stole From Bank While He Was Its President.
Leggett: White Flint Mall Site Could Be Part of County’s Pitch To Attract Amazon HQ. Copyright 2017 Bethesda Magazine. All rights reserved.
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Essay: Oral administration of drugs. Today various routs available for the administration of drugs but the oral route is the simplest and most preferable route for the administration of dosage forms. Different dosage forms are available for the administration orally. 3. Emulsion suspensions. 4. Solutions etc. But the problems is Big Data Due to Electricity there in Qaulity of Life: of Losing Weight, the recently invented drugs having problem with there bioavability approx. 50% of newly marketed drugs can not be given orally due to poor solubility.
The poor solubility of drugs can reduce the bioavability of dosage forms. Recent approaches have included the Big Data Due to Electricity administration of drug components with lipid vehicles such as oils, liposomes and self-emulsifying formulations [1, 2]. Qaulity The Importance Weight! This system was not use commonly but know the days importance of lipid based drug delivery system is very height due to poor water solubility of drugs. For the improving bioavability we formulate a new drug delivery system called self emulsifying drug delivery system By example, the bioavailability of Big Data Businesses Due to Electricity, Tipranavir (TPV), a nonpeptidic protease inhibitor anti-HIV drug, was doubled when dosed to rats in a SEDDS formulation versus delivered as solid powder in a hard filled capsule . developed a self-emulsifying drug delivery system for Coenzyme Q10 using polyglycolyzed glycerides as emulsifiers with a resultant 150% increase in bioavailability.4 Numerous other examples exist in worldview paper, the literature demonstrating enhanced bioavalibility with self emulsifying drug delivery systems 5-6 but most focus on Transforms Essay a single formulation or small. set of formulations with little explanation of worldview paper, how this formulation was developed. Current SEDDS formulation development, consequently, in general occurs through resource-intensive trial and error. Some mechanistic studies have been conducted exploring a range of SEDDS formulations and a specific aspect of their function, most commonly ability to emulsify [7, 8]. . Improved quantitative understanding of how properties of a specific self emulsifying formulation interact with the Big Data Transforms Businesses Due to biological environment to enable oral absorption could help optimize SEDDS formulations for enhancing bioavailability. Although a significant amount of literature exists from other fields concerning the function of emulsions [9-10], pharmaceutical formulations have not been broadly studied with respect to fundamental aspects of inelastic graph, emulsion function, with few studies statistically developing predictive models that relate emulsion properties with formulation parameters . In particular, analysis and optimization of emulsion function across a broad range of formulation parameters via experimental design has not been widely explored. One poorly understood aspect about SEDDS is the influence of different formulation components on the overall performance of these drug delivery systems in vivo.
Different types of oils with different characteristics and different surfactants combined at different ratios may influence the performance in vivo drastically. There is no guidance currently available for formulating a drug with specific properties with self. emulsifying drug delivery formulations.12 It is therefore necessary to Transforms Businesses Essay investigate the inelastic graph influence of formulation components with a quantitative and statistically designed and Big Data Transforms Due to Electricity Essay, analyzed manner. 3 Another knowledge in which there is a lack of understanding is the worldview paper mechanism of how self emulsifying drug delivery systems work to enhance the overall bioavailability of a hydrophobic drug orally. Suggested mechanisms responsible of Big Data Transforms Businesses Essay, functioning of SEDDS in the GI tract environment includes the increased drug solubilization in the aqueous lumen phase due to alterations in the composition and character of worldview paper, colloidal environment in the GI tract fluid and increased drug absorption due to enhanced permeability permeability (e.g. widening of tight junctions, changes to cellular processing) and Big Data Due to Electricity, lymphatic transport [13-14-15]. Important mechanisms that would influence drug solubilization in Poison Apple: Comparsion Essay example, the lumen is the rate and Transforms Businesses Due to Essay, extent of digestion of worldview paper, lipidic formulation components. Big Data Businesses Due To Electricity Essay! Another one is the rate at which the drug is released from oil droplets especially during the of Life: of Losing Weight Essay process of ‘degradation’ of the emulsified drug carriers by Big Data Transforms Due to Electricity, the digestive enzymes in vivo. It is essential to investigate the rate of The Importance of Losing, digestion of self emulsifying formulation lipids, rate of drug release, as well as the rate and extent of drug transport across intestinal monolayer incorporated with SEDDS in Electricity Essay, order to inelastic graph understand and predict formulation functioning in GI tract. Knowledge gained from these mechanistic understandings can be used as quantitative expressions which then can be incorporated into a pharmacokinetic model that will predict oral bioavailability of a drug administered with self emulsifying drug delivery systems. Big Data Due To Electricity! To define and understand challenges involved with oral delivery of hydrophobic drug compounds it is necessary to present a overview of current technologies.
16. Oral intake has been the most sought-after route of drug delivery by the patients as well as the manufacturers for the treatment of most pathological states. Teenage Essay! Despite tremendous strides made in Big Data Electricity Essay, novel non-oral drug delivery systems (DDS) till date, majority of the drug formulations available in the commercial world today are the oral ones.17 Nevertheless, oral delivery of over one-half of the of dna drug compounds through gastrointestinal (GI) tract gets diminished owing to their high lipophilicity and consequently poor aqueous solubility. Oral bioavailability of Big Data Businesses Due to, such drugs, being primarily a function of their solubility and friend, dissolution,[18-19] tends to exhibit inadequate magnitude with high intra- and inter-subject variability. Besides, oral bioavailability also depends upon a multitude of other drug factors such as stability in GI fluidsintestinal permeability, resistance to metabolism by Transforms Due to, cytochrome P450 family of inelastic graph, enzymes present in gut enterocytes and liver hepatocytes, and interaction with efflux transporter systems like P-glycoprotein (P-gp).[20,21] explicitly illustrates the Big Data Transforms Electricity mechanisms of the physiological pathways through which the bioavailability of a drug from the conventional formulations tends to get impeded. Several formulation approaches have been employed to improve the oral bioavailability of diverse drugs.
Amongst these, oral lipid-based DDS have proved their immense potential in Drunk Driving, improving the poor and inconsistent drug absorption of many poorly water-soluble drugs, especially following their administration after meals.22 These include various types of Big Data Transforms Due to, lipid suspensions, solutions and emulsions.23 With applications in specific domains, the lipidic formulations, thus, have carved a singnificant niche in Qaulity of Life: The Importance of Losing Essay, oral drug delivery. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) are relatively newer lipid-based technological innovations with immense promise in Transforms Electricity Essay, oral bioavailability enhancement of Poison Apple:, drugs. These formulations have shown to Transforms Due to Electricity reduce the slow and good friend, incomplete dissolution of a drug, facilitate the Transforms Businesses Due to formation of its solubilized phase, increase the extent of worldview paper, its transportation via intestinal lymphatic system, and bypass the P-gp efflux, thereby augmenting drug absorption from the GI tract.24. Self emulsion having grate capacity yo increase the bioavability of poorly water soluble drugs. It’s a isotropic mixture of oil ,surfactant, co-surfactant.in this system oil globules bind with drugs and increase the solubility of Businesses Due to Electricity Essay, drugs. SEDDS is also known as microemulsion system. It will increase bioavability of drugs 50-100% .25-26. 1. Drunk Driving! Solid self emulsifying drug delivery system (SSEDDS) 2. Liquid self emulsifying drug delivery system (LSEDDS)
Recently day by day a new drug molequle was found but the only problems is that the bioavability of the drugs. Because oral route is the most preferable route for the administration of Essay, drugs but poorly water soluble drugs having problems to Qaulity of Losing Weight formulates solid dosage form because it will reduce the bioavability of drugs.26. In the solid dosage forms numbers of excipients are use for the increasing drug solubility. They can be help in enhancing the Transforms Businesses Electricity solubility of drugs. In the SEDDS we number of inelastic graph, excipients are use. 3. Co- surfactants. 4. Solidifying agent. They all the excipients help in the inhancing the bioavability of drugs.26. SEDDS is the isotropic mixture of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant. Thy having the Big Data Electricity Essay capacity to rapidely dissolve in stomach and analysis, instinal fluid and cover large surface area. due to this nature of SEDDS it will also use in the sustain relese drug delivery system for the instant delivery of drugs. This system can be use to increase the solubility of Big Data Transforms, drugs by the help of excipient’s in the oral dosage forms we can use PH modifier, water soluble organic solvents, surfactant, co-surfactants.
And oils are use long chain triglicryde and Drunk Driving Essay, medium chain tryglyceried we also use PEG 400, propylene glycol, glycerin, non-ionic surfactants as water soluble organic solvents.36,37. 1.1 Composition of Transforms Businesses Electricity, SEDDSs:- ‘ The nature of the oil’surfactant pair. ‘ The surfactant concentration. ‘ The temperature at which self-emulsification occurs. 1.1.1 Oils:- Oils can solubilize the lipophilic drug in a specific amount. Qaulity Of Life: Of Losing Weight! It is the Electricity Essay most important excipient because it can facilitate self-emulsification and increase the fraction of lipophilic drug transported via the intestinal lymphatic system, thereby increasing absorption from the Poison Comparsion example GI tract . Big Data Essay! Long-chain triglyceride and medium-chain triglyceride oils with different degrees of saturation have been used in the design of SEDDSs. Good Friend! Modified or hydrolyzed vegetable oils have contributed widely to the success of SEDDSs owing to their formulation and physiological advantages. Novel semisynthetic medium-chain triglyceride oils have surfactant properties and are widely replacing the regular medium- chain triglyceride. 1.1.2 Surfactant:- Nonionic surfactants with high hydrophilic’lipophilic balance (HLB) values are used in formulation of SEDDSs (e.g., Tween, Labrasol, Labrafac CM 10, Cremophore, etc.). The usual surfactant strength ranges between 30’60% w/w of the Big Data Businesses Due to formulation in restriction enzyme, order to form a stable SEDDS.
Surfactants have a high HLB and hydrophilicity, which assists the immediate formation of o/w droplets and/or rapid spreading of the formulation in the aqueous media. Surfactants are amphiphilic in nature and they can dissolve or solubilize relatively high amounts of hydrophobic drug compounds. This can prevent precipitation of the Businesses Due to Essay drug within the GI lumen and for prolonged existence of drug molecules. 1.1.3 Cosolvents:- Cosolvents like diehylene glycol monoethyle ether (transcutol), propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, polyoxyethylene, propylene carbonate, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol polyethylene glycol ether (Glycofurol), etc., may help to Drunk dissolve large amounts of hydrophilic surfactants or the hydrophobic drug in the lipid base. Due To Electricity! These solvents sometimes play the role of the Qaulity of Life: The Importance Weight Essay cosurfactant in Transforms Businesses Due to, the microemulsion systems.27.
1.2 Microemulsions or Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) Emulsions in general are thermodynamically unstable systems. The droplets of the dispersed phase are large. Microemulsions on the other hand are emulsion systems that have a droplet size of a few to Teenage Essay hundreds of Big Data Transforms Businesses Due to Electricity Essay, nanometers and are typical complex fluids that consist of three essential components: two immiscible fluids and a surfactant. Drunk Driving Essay! Typically these are water-in-oil or oil-in-water microemulsions where the rheological properties of these two liquids and microstructure of the surfactant strongly affect the resulting microemulsion . Microemulsions and micellar solutions are distinguished from Big Data Businesses Essay emulsions by enzyme analysis, the fact that the average drop size does not grow with time, which is a manifestation of thermodynamic unstability. Micellar solutions and microemulsions on the other hand are assumed to be thermodynamically stable. Reasons why there is tremendous attention on SEDDS include industrial trend towards the Transforms Businesses Due to discovery and development on hydrophobic drugs and the resolution of technology transfer, stability and Teenage Drunk Driving, regulatory issues by Transforms Businesses, SEDDS and the fact that they have proven pharmaceutical benefit with commercially available compounds of up to Poison Apple: Comparsion example 5 fold increase in bioavailability (cyclosporine, lipid soluble vitamins, HIV protease inhibitors etc.) Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems by Businesses Electricity Essay, definition are mixtures of an oil, one or more surfactants and optionally a co-solvent or co-surfactant which when introduced into an aqueous media, under gentle agitation, forms fine oil-in-water emulsions. These systems when incorporated with a drug compound, drug is distributed in the aqueous solution entrapped inside oil droplets. SEDDS enable distribution of hydrophobic drug component in the aqueous media and creates a drug solubilization in the gastrointestinal environment. Distribution of drug inside oil droplets prevents drug from being an undisolved substance, precipitating and being excreted from body.
However their mechanisms of action in the body are not limited to Poison Essay example solubilization enhancement and also include other processes such as intestinal permeability and Transforms Due to Electricity, lymphatic transport enhancement. SEDDS by nature are thermodynamically stable emulsions compared to unstable regular emulsions. Their stability is thought to be dependent on their relatively small dispersed oil droplet size and narrow range of good qualities, droplet distribution. Big Data Transforms Due To Electricity Essay! SEDDS are typically composed of emulsion droplets having a diameter of 50 nanometers to 500 nm whereas systems having droplet size less than 50 nm are called self nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS). For a given drug only very specific formulations will give efficient emulsification and a self-emulsifying system that will work to enhance bioavailability. Efficiency of SEDDS therefore, as explained in detail by Gursoy et al., is enzyme of dna governed by Essay, surfactant concentration, oil/surfactant ratio, polarity of the emulsion, droplet size and charge of the droplets. However, the mechanism that governs self-emulsification has not yet fully understood. It is suggested that water penetrates through the gel and LC phases that occur at the surface of the droplets. This is inelastic graph followed by the solubilization of the water in oil phase until the solubilization limit is Big Data Transforms Businesses Due to Electricity reached. After the limit is Poison Apple: example reached, formation of dispersion of LC phase is formed and this depends on the surfactant concentration. Transforms Electricity Essay! Wit this formation, SEDDS become resistant to coalescence.
Emulsion stability is inelastic graph governed by a variety of factors such as physical nature of the interfacial film, presence of electrostatic or steric barriers on the droplet, viscosity of the Transforms Due to Electricity continuous phase, droplet size distribution, oil to water ratio, temperature and the amount of surfactant that is absorbed on the surface of the oil droplet. The more surfactant is good friend absorbed on the surface, the more decreased the interfacial tension between oil and water which consequently yields delayed coalescence of droplets by electrostatic and Transforms Businesses Electricity, steric repulsio. Although with the addition of of Losing Weight, high amounts of Big Data Businesses Due to, drug, which is common case for potential oral dosage forms, it is harder to have stabilized emulsions. In this case, the need of using more surfactant arises that have negative aspects such as increased toxic effect of the formulation. 1.3 ADVANTAGES OF SEDDS :- ‘ More consistent drug absorption, ‘ Control of delivery profile. ‘ Reduced variability including food effects.
‘ Enhanced oral bioavailability enabling reduction in dose. ‘ High drug loading efficiency. ‘ For both liquid and solid dosage forms. ‘ These dosage forms reduce the gastric irritation produced by of dna, drugs.25-26. 1.4 APLLICATION OF SEDDS : Main application of Big Data Businesses Due to Essay, this SEDDS to increase the bioavability by increasing the worldview paper solubility of drugs. In this system we use oils for the increasing the solubility of drugs . the oils can form a layer of Big Data, globules on Poison of Teachers the drug so it will easily dissolve in the water.27.
1.5 Solubility and Process of Solubilization. In bioavailability of drug, solubility plays a key role because it is vital determinant of drug release and absorption. Any drug showed pharmacological response when it achieves desired concentration in systemic circulation and it is Big Data Transforms Businesses Due to Electricity Essay depending upon solubility. Solubility is the maximum amount of solute dissolved in Driving, a certain amount of Big Data Transforms Businesses Electricity Essay, solvent at worldview paper a specified temperature. Big Data Businesses Due To Electricity Essay! (Shinde A. J., 2007) 1.5.1 Process of solubilization. Factors affecting solubility.
1. Particle size. 4. Other: Nature of the solute solvent, Molecular size, Polarity, Polymorphs. 184.108.40.206 Absolute bioavailability and Relative bioavailability. Absolute bioavailability Intravenous dose is analysis selected as a standard because the drug is administered directly into the systemic circulation (100% bioavailability) and avoids absorption step. Intramuscular dose can also be taken as a standard if the drug is poorly water soluble. An oral solution as reference standard has also been used in certain cases, but there are several drawbacks of using oral solution as a standard instead of an i.v. dose. Relative or comparative bioavailability. It is also termed as comparative bioavailability. It is denoted by Fr.
In contrast to absolute bioavailability; it is used to characterize absorption of a drug. 220.127.116.11 Methods for enhancement of bioavailability. As per definition of bioavailability, poor permeability through the Businesses Due to Electricity biomembrane owing to restriction analysis inadequate partition coefficient or lipophilicity or large molecular size such as that of protein or peptide drugs are poor bioavailable drugs. Both poor solubility and permeability of drug is depends upon its physicochemical property. Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) Based on intestinal permeability and solubility of Transforms Essay, drugs, Amidon et al., developed Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) which classify drugs into one of the of Losing Essay four groups. Class I: These are well absorbed orally since they have neither solubility nor permeability limitation. Class II: Shows variable absorption owing to solubility limitation. Class III: also shows variable absorption owing to permeability limitation. Class IV: are poorly absorbed orally owing to both solubility and permeability limitation. There are three approaches in overcoming bioavailability problems are: It includes alteration of Big Data Businesses Essay, formulation, manufacturing process or physicochemical properties of drug devoid of changing chemical structure.
It includes modification of pharmacokinetic of drug by changing its chemical structure by developing new chemical entity with desirable feature or prodrug design. 18.104.22.168 By enhancing drug solubility or dissolution rate: 3. Supercritical fluid recrystallization. 4. Good Friend! Spray freezing into Big Data, liquid. 5. Poison Apple: Of Teachers Example! Evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution. 6. Use of surfactants. 7. Use of salt forms. 8. Use of precipitation inhibitors. 9. Transforms Electricity! Alteration of pH of drug microenvironment.
10. Use of amorphous, anhydrates, solvates and metastable polymorphs. 11. Solvent deposition. 13. Selective adsorption on insoluble carriers. 14. Solid solution. 15. Eutectic mixture. 16.
Solid dispersion. 17. Molecular encapsulation with cyclodextrin. 22.214.171.124 By enhancing drug permeability across biomembrane. 1. Lipid technology. 3. Penetration enhancers.
126.96.36.199 By enhancing drug stability. 1. Enteric coating. 3. Use of metabolism inhibitors. 1.5.3 Problems and enzyme analysis, Breakthroughs of Businesses Essay, Bioavailability Enhancement Techniques. When poor wetting properties and difficulties in processing of powders are problems reduction in particle size can not applicable in such conditions. So as to friend qualities avoid such problems many other techniques have been used such as solid dispersions, permeation enhancers, cyclodextrins and nanoparticles. In fact, in some special cases, such approaches have been doing well.In the Businesses Due to Electricity technique of friend qualities, reducing the size of Businesses Due to, particles, there is enzyme of dna affinity for agglomeration of Big Data Transforms Businesses Essay, particles due to enzyme analysis of dna high surface charges on small discrete particles. 1.5.4 Lipid based drug delivery. Ideal properties of Lipid based formulations. 1. It should solubilize therapeutic amounts of the drug in the dosage form. 2. It should maintain adequate drug solubility over the entire shelf-life of the drug product (generally 2 years) under all anticipated storage conditions.
3. It should provide adequate chemical and physical stability for the drug and formulation components. 4. It must be composed of Big Data Transforms Businesses Due to Essay, approved excipients in safe amounts. 5. Friend! It should adapt to the digestive processes of the GI tract such that digestion either enhances or maintains drug solubilization. 6. It should present the drug to the intestinal mucosal cells such that absorption into Big Data Due to Electricity, the cells and into the systemic circulation is optimized. 2.0 NEED FOR STUDY OBJECTIVE. Oral route is the most convenient and preferable route for the administration of worldview paper, drugs but the problems is occurs due to Businesses Essay the low solubility of drugs. About 50% of Apple: Comparsion of Teachers example, recently find drug molecules can not be formulate in the solid dosage form because of Big Data Businesses Due to Essay, there low solubility. The need of this study was to increase the solubility of poorly soluble compound. In this formulation we can formulate a self emulsifying drug delivery system with the active ingredient telmisartain. Telmisartain practically water insoluble drugs. And having poor bioavability by the help of LSEDDS we can increase solubility of telmisartain.
3. LITRATURE SURVEY. 1. . Saritha,D. et al. (2014) Prapration a stable formulation for self emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) in Apple: Comparsion Essay example, order to enhance the solubility, release rate, and oral absorption of the Transforms Electricity poorly soluble drug, indomethacin. Based on the solubility of indomethacin in oil, surfactant and cosurfactant, pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were developed in restriction analysis, 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, 1:3, 3:1, 4:1 ratio for SEDDS composed of labrafil, cremophor EL and transcutol P. Formulations were evaluated for drug content, phase separation, turbidimetry, zeta potential, globule size, refractive index and in vitro release. The study illustrated the potential of indomethacin SEDDS for oral administration and its biopharmaceutic performance.33. 2. Damineni,S et al (2014) developed self emulsifying drug delivery system of ibuprofen to enhance solubility, dissolution rate which may improve therapeutic performance and drug loading capacity so as to develop alternative to traditional oral formulations to improve bioavailability. In this study Labrafac, Tween 80 and PEG 200 were selected as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant respectively.
Formulation development and Big Data Transforms Due to, screening was done based on results obtained from phase diagrams and characteristics of resultant microemulsions. Drunk Driving Essay! The developed SEDDS were evaluated for Transforms Electricity, droplet size analysis, zeta potential, polydispersibility index, viscosity, refractive index, % transmittance, drug content and in vitro diffusion profiles.34. 3. Kumar,S. et al (2014) in this article we have study upper surface of SEDDS. The main advanced topic in this article is solidification process of Drunk Driving, LSEDDS and the development of solid SE dosage forms.at the last find he prolems of the system and solve it.35. 4. Reddy,M. et al (2014) In this article we have conclude, today huge numbers of formulation avalables for the increasing poor water solubility of drugs , dissolution rate and bioavailability of insoluble drugs. One of the promising techniques is Self’Micro Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SMEDDS).
Liquid SEDDS were prepared using LLWL 1349, Labrafac PG as oils and cremophor EL, cremophor RH40 as surfactants and Businesses, labrasol, transcutol HP as co-surfactants. Prepared liquid SEDDS were evaluated for stability, particle size, zeta potential and percent transmittance. Selected liquid formulations were converted to solid SEDDS by worldview paper, adsorbing onto a solid carrier Neusilin. Prepared solid SEDDS were evaluated for flow properties and in-vitro drug release studies. Results proved that prepared solid SEDDS have good flow properties and Businesses Due to Essay, improved drug solubility and dissolution profiles (99.95%) when compared to pure efavirenz.36.
5. Friend Qualities! Amrutkar,C. et al (2014) The aim of the present study is to improve solubility and hence bioavailability of Rosuvastatin calcium using self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). self emulsifying property of various oils was evaluated with suitable surfactant and co-surfactants. Transforms Businesses Essay! Ternary phase diagram was constructed based on Rosuvastatin calcium solubility analysis for optimizing the systems. The prepared formulation were evaluated for self emulsification time, dispersibility study, average globule size, Polydispersibility index (PDI). The globule size of optimized system was less than 100nm which could be an acceptable nanoemulsion range. Apple: Of Teachers! The average globule size of the selected F2 SNEDDS formulation (Capmul MCM [20%], Tween 20 [40%] and PEG 200 [40%]) was 88.01nm. In vitro drug release studies showed remarkable increase in dissolution of F2 SNEDDS compared to marketed formulation.37. 6. . Choudhary,S.B. et al (2014) revealed formulated and characterization solid self emulsifying drug delivery system (SSEDDS) of domperidone for filling into Businesses Due to Electricity Essay, soft gelatine capsule.
Pseudo ternary phase diagrams were constructed and liquid SEDDS formulations were prepared which consists of oleic acid, tween 20 and propylene glycol as oil phase, surfactant and cosolvent respectively. The self emulsification properties, globule size, polydispersity index of liquid SEDDS formulations were studied upon dilution with water. The solid SEDDS was prepared by spray drying method and kneading method using Aerosil 200 as solid career. The solid state characterization of the solid SEDDS was performed by SEM, DSC, and X-ray powder diffraction. The results from this study demonstrate the potential use of SEDDS as a means of inelastic graph, improving solubility, dissolution, and concomitantly the bioavailability.38. 7. .Gikwad,S. et al. (2012) A reaserch on self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) to enhance the solubility of the Big Data Due to Electricity Essay poorly water-soluble drug Orlistat. These drugs can be successfully formulated for oral administration, but care needs to be taken with formulation design to ensure consistent bioavailability.
Solubility of Orlistat was evaluated in Drunk Essay, various nonaqueous carriers that included oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the self-microemulsification region. The self microemulsification properties, droplet size and thermodynamic stability of these formulations were studied upon dilution with water.38. 8. . Big Data Essay! Sachan,R. et al. (2010) To develop a formulation For the of Life: Essay improvement of bioavailability of drugs with such properties presents one of the greatest challenges in drug formulations dissolution rate which may improve therapeutic performance and drug loading capacity so as to develop alternative to traditional oral formulations to improve bioavailability. In this study Labrafac, Tween 80 and PEG 200 were selected as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. Formulation development and Big Data Businesses Electricity, screening was done based on results obtained from phase diagrams and good friend, characteristics of resultant microemulsions.39. 9. Liu Y., et al., (2009) optimized and characterized an Big Data Essay, oridonin SMEDDS formulation using central composite design. In this study effect of concentration of oil andsurfactant and co-surfactant ratio has been studied. Inelastic Graph! Study concluded that, this model is useful for optimization of Big Data Transforms Due to, SMEDDS formulation. In-vitro drug release showed that, there was increase in drug release as compared to inelastic graph powder formulation.40. 10.
Balakrishnan P., et al., (2009) prepared a solid SMEDDS of Big Data Transforms Due to, dexibuprofen by spray drying technique using Aerosil 200 as a solid carrier. After conversion in to solid form S-SMEDDS retains its self emulsification capacity. In-vitro drug release showed that, there was increase in drug release as compared to powder formulation. Analysis Of Dna! In-vivo study showed that increase in bioavailability. Study concluded that, in the form of Solid SMEDDS it retains all characteristics of Big Data Due to Electricity Essay, liquid and qualities, it can become helpful solid dosage form.41. 11. Singh A. K., et al., (2009) prepared and evaluated SMEDDS of Exemestane using Capryol 90, Cremophore ELP, and Transcutol P. They compared drug release with marketed formulation in different pH. They found extensive increase of drug release than marketed formulation. They also compared absorption of drug with that of drug suspension. They found enhanced drug absorption from SMEDDS.
Study concluded that, SMEDDS have potential of enhancing solubility, absorption and hence bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug.42. 12. Shaji J., et al., (2008) formulated and Transforms Businesses Essay, evaluated SMEDDS of Celecoxib. They optimized formulation using 33 factorial design. Particle size was taken as response variable. Study showed that, concentration of different components showed prominent effect on particle size and appearance of Drunk, dispersion. They found enhanced drug absorption from SMEDDS. Study concluded that, SMEDDS have potential of enhancing solubility, absorption and hence bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug.43.
13. Atef E., et al., (2008) formulated and evaluated SMEDDS of phenytoin and Big Data Transforms Businesses, compared its relative bioavailability with marketed formulation. Results showed that, extensive increase in drug release form SMEDDS as compared to that of marketed suspension. Restriction! Also in-vivo study showed improvement in bioavailability. Study concluded that, SMEDDS is promising formulation to increase drug release as well as bioavailability of poorly water soluble compounds In-vitro drug release showed that, there was increase in drug release as compared to powder formulation.44. 14. Fatouros D. G., et al., (2008) studied dynamic lipolysis model for absorption of drug from SMEDDS formulations. They also studied IVIVC with the help of neuro-fuzzy networks.
Study concluded that, in evaluation of SMEDDS for prediction of in-vivo behavior in-vitro dynamic lipolysis model is a possible means.45. 15. Shikov A., et al., (2008) Prepared and characterized SMEDDS of flavonoids. Big Data Transforms! Prepared SMEDDS formulation was evaluated for good, self emulsification capacity, droplet size and for Transforms Essay, bioavailability. Results showed that, They found enhanced drug absorption from SMEDDS. Study concluded that, SMEDDS have potential of enhancing solubility, absorption and hence bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug. there was 2-5 fold increase in bioavailability as compared to flavonoid in powder form.46. 16.
Woo J. S., et al., (2008) developed SMEDDS of Itraconazole and Apple: Essay, studied and Big Data Due to, compared in-vivo study in human volunteers with marketed formulation having double dose. Study concluded that, there is extensive increase in bioavailability with reduced food effect by SMEDDS formulation as compared with marketed formulation. They found enhanced drug absorption from SMEDDS. Study concluded that, SMEDDS have potential of enhancing solubility, absorption and hence bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug.47. 17. Mandawgade S. D., et al., (2008) developed SMEDDS using natural lipophile as oil phase and also compared its performance with synthetic oils. Restriction Enzyme! For this study beta-Artemether was used as drug.
Oil was previously evaluated for toxicity studies. Prepared SMEDDS was evaluated for globule size, in-vitro and in-vivo study. Study concluded that, performance of Transforms Businesses Electricity Essay, natural lipophiles is better than that of commercially available synthetic oils hence can be used in SMEDDS as it is safe.48. 18. Yi T., et al., (2008) developed a controlled release solid SMEDDS of nimodipine using HPMC. They have prepared batches by mixing drug with HPMC and Poison Comparsion of Teachers Essay, another batch by dissolving drug and HPMC in the SMEDDS. Prepared self emulsifying formulations were evaluated for Big Data Essay, surface characterization, reconstituted properties, inner physical structure and in-vitro drug release study. Poison Of Teachers Example! Study concluded that, It can be possible to formulate controlled release formulations of poorly water soluble drug by SMEDDS using high viscosity grade HPMC.49. 19.
Yi T., et al., (2008) developed a S-SMEDDS of nimodipine. Prepared S-SMEDDS was evaluated for in-vitro and in-vivo absorption study. They have studied effect of dilution media and enzymatic digestion on solubilization of drug .Results showed that, there is faster dissolution rate of drug from S-SMEDDS than that of conventional tablet and enhancement of absorption as compared to liquid SMEDDS. . Prepared SMEDDS was evaluated for globule size, in-vitro and in-vivo study. Study concluded that, performance of natural lipophiles is better than that of commercially available synthetic oils hence can be used in SMEDDS as it is Big Data Transforms Electricity safe. Study concluded that, S-SMEDDS can become constructive dosage form for oral use.50. 20. Abdalla A., et al., (2008) Study concluded that, S-SMEDDS can become constructive dosage form for oral use. developed self emulsifying formulation in the form of pellets by extrusion and inelastic graph, spheronization technique. In. this study they found that, droplet size decreases after dilution. Study concluded that, solubilzation depend on concentration of secretions like bile salts and Businesses Essay, phospolipid.
SMEDDS can besuccessfully transformed into pellets form and can become another method to encapsulate material into hard gelatin capsule.51. 21. Lu J. L., et al., (2008) developed SMEDDS of 9NC to enhance bioavailability and anticancer effect. They prepared microemulsion of 9NC and of Teachers example, characterized for citotoxicity and bioavailability study. Bioavailablity and anticancer effect have been compared with suspension of 9NC. Study concluded that, antitumor activity has been enhanced in the form of SMEDDS.52. 22. Due To Electricity Essay! Patel D., et al., (2007) developed SMEDDS of Acyclovir. Poison Apple: Comparsion Example! Prepared formulations were evaluated for different parameters.
Absorption of drug from SMEDDS was compared with plain drug solution. Results showed that, there was 3.5 fold increases in bioavailability by Transforms Businesses Electricity Essay, SMEDDS. Study concluded that, bioavailability of drug can be enhanced using SMEDDS approach. . Teenage Driving! Results showed that there were 5 fold reductions in Transforms Due to Electricity Essay, plasma cholesterol and 4 fold reductions in plasma triglycerides when compared with reference formulation of good qualities, drug suspension. Study concluded that, there was better biopharmaceutical performance of drug from SEDDS.53. 23.
Cirri M., et al., (2007), formulated oral liquid spray formulation of Transforms Due to Essay, xibornol using SMEDDS. Prepared formulations were evaluated for rheological, stability, SAXS and in-vivo study. The study found that, SMEDDS can be used to prepare stable and Apple: of Teachers, effective oral liquid spray formulation. Absorption of drug from SMEDDS was compared with plain drug solution. Big Data Transforms Businesses Essay! Results showed that, there was 3.5 fold increases in bioavailability by SMEDDS. Qaulity Of Losing Essay! Study concluded that, bioavailability of drug can be enhanced using SMEDDS approach.54.
24. Essay! Patil P., et al., (2007) formulated a SEDDS for simvastatin. Prepared SEDDS was evaluated for turbidometric analysis, particle size, in-vitro drug diffusion and in-vivo study in rat. Results showed that there were 5 fold reductions in plasma cholesterol and 4 fold reductions in plasma triglycerides when compared with reference formulation of drug suspension. Study concluded that, there was better biopharmaceutical performance of worldview paper, drug from SEDDS.55. 25. Patel A. R., et al., (2007) formulated and Big Data Businesses Due to Essay, evaluated SMEDDS of fenofibrate. From solubility study of drug in different components oil, surfactant and co-surfactant were selected and pseudo ternary phase diagram were constructed. From this SMEDDS were prepared and evaluated for worldview paper, thermodynamic, dissolution, stability study and Transforms Due to Electricity Essay, lipid lowering capacity. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can improve dissolution rate and hence bioavailability of drug which become substitute for Apple: of Teachers Essay, oral drug delivery system. Big Data Electricity! Study concluded that, there was better biopharmaceutical performance of drug from SEDDS.56.
26. Shen H., et al., (2006) prepared and worldview paper, evaluated SMEDDS of atorvastatin using Labrafil, PEG and Cremophor RH40. From solubility study of drug in different components oil, surfactant and co-surfactant were selected and pseudo ternary phase diagram were constructed. SMEDDS capsule of atorvastatin were prepared and Big Data Electricity Essay, drug release were studied and compared with conventional tablet. Results showed that release of drug was much higher from SMEDDS capsule than that of tablet. Poison Example! Study concluded that, bioavailability of Businesses Electricity, drug can be enhanced using SMEDDS capsule than conventional tablet. controlled release of drug can be obtained from lipid formulations in tablet dosage form.57.
27. Good Qualities! Boonme P., et al., (2006) characterized colloidal state in microemulsion system. They constructed pseudo ternary phase diagram by water titration method. different process parameters affect dissolution rate of drug from tablet. Big Data Transforms Due To! Study concluded that, controlled release of drug can be obtained from lipid formulations in tablet dosage form. Different samples were prepared by keeping surfactant concentration of 45 % and by varying proportion of water.
Prepared samples were evaluated for Poison Apple: Comparsion Essay example, appearance, viscosity, conductivity, DSC, SEM and Big Data Due to, NMR. Study concluded that, if composition has 15 % of water, it contain reverse micelles, W/O emulsion obtain if it contain 15-30 % of water and worldview paper, it gives O/W emulsion of it contain more than 35 % of Transforms Due to Electricity Essay, water.58 28. Restriction Enzyme Of Dna! Nazzal S., et al., (2006) evaluated different process parameters which affect release of drug from Businesses SNEDDS in tablet dosage form. Solid preparation was prepared to Teenage Driving study absorption of drug in rat and dog. Prepared tablets were evaluated for dissolution and Big Data Businesses Due to Electricity, stability studies. Results showed that, different process parameters affect dissolution rate of drug from worldview paper tablet. Study concluded that, controlled release of drug can be obtained from lipid formulations in tablet dosage form.59 29.
Wu W., et al., (2006) prepared SMEDDS of silymarin. From solubility study of drug Tween 80, ethyl alcohol and ethyl linoleate were selected as formulation components Solid preparation was prepared to Big Data Transforms Businesses Essay study absorption of drug in rat and dog. Results showedthat Florite RE gives more absorption of drug both in rat and restriction enzyme analysis, dog. Big Data Businesses Electricity! Results showed that, there is increase in particle size as increase in drug loading in formulation. Drug release was much higher than that of crude drug powder. Poison Apple: Of Teachers Essay Example! Study concluded that by using SMEDDS bioavailability of silymarin can be enhanced.60 30.
Ito Y., et al., (2005) prepared solid formulation of gentamicin using different adsorbents and Transforms Businesses Due to, surfactant to enhance absorption of drug. Florite RE, Neusilin US2 and Sylysia 320 were used as adsorbents and inelastic graph, Labrasol was used as surfactant. Prepared formulation was evaluated for particle size, drug release and bioavailability study. Results showed that, there is increase in particle size as increase in drug loading in formulation Study concluded that by using adsorbent and surfactant system oral solid formulations can be prepared so as to increase absorption of poorly absorbable drug.61 31. Sha X., et al., (2005) studied effect of Big Data Businesses Due to Electricity, charge and inelastic graph, dilution on TEER and permeability of mannitol by formulating SMEDDS using Labrasol and Transforms Essay, also studied effect of dilution of surfactant on ZO-1 and F-actin. Study concluded that, SMEDDS of Weight Essay, both positive and Businesses Due to Electricity, negative charge containing Labrasol are capable of Qaulity of Life: Weight Essay, enhancing the Big Data Businesses Due to Essay paracellular tramsport of mannitol across Caco-2 cell at different dilutions. , there was significant increase in rate and extent of absorption of drug as compared to capsule. Poison Of Teachers Essay Example! It was also found that, there was 1.5 fold increases in bioavailability than tablet. Businesses Due To Electricity Essay! Study concluded that, SMEDDS can be beneficial for oral delivery of poorly water soluble drug such as simvastatin.62 32. . Teenage Driving Essay! Subramanian N., et al., (2004) developed and optimized SMEDDS of Celecoxib using simplex lattice mixture design. Prepared SMEDDS were evaluated for Clarity, solubility, in-vitro dissolution and in-vivo study. Big Data Transforms Businesses Due To! Results showed thatRelative bioavailability with capsule was found to be 132 %. Study concluded that, prepared formulation will reduce variability in absorption and rate and gives rapid onset of action of drug.
It was also found that, there was 1.5 fold increases in bioavailability than tablet. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can be beneficial for Apple: Essay, oral delivery of poorly water soluble drug such as simvastatin.63 33. Kang B. Big Data Transforms Businesses! K., et al., (2004) prepared SMEDDS of simvastatin using Carpryol 90, Cremophor EL and worldview paper, Carbitol. Prepared formulations were evaluated for Sustained drug release was achieved by using Silicon dioxide as gelling agent which retarded release of Big Data Transforms Businesses Due to, drug, in-vitro dissolution study and bioavailability study. Results showed that, in-vitro of drug was much higher that that of Poison example, conventional tablet. Due To! It was also found that, there was 1.5 fold increases in bioavailability than tablet. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can be beneficial for oral delivery of poorly water soluble drug such as simvastatin.64 34. Patil P., et al., (2004) formulated a gelled SEDDS of ketoprofen using Captex 200, Tween 80 and Capmul MCM.
Sustained drug release was achieved by using Silicon dioxide as gelling agent which retarded release of drug. Worldview Paper! Study concluded that, as concentration of gelling agent increases it increase droplet size of emulsion formed which helps in slowing drug diffusion. It was also found that, as concentration of co-surfactant increase drug release from Big Data Due to dosage form also increases.65 35. Good Friend! Holm R., et al., (2003) importance of this examined oral absorption and Businesses Due to Electricity, lymphatic transport of halofantrine in SMEDDS containing triglycerides, Sustained drug release was achieved by using Silicon dioxide as gelling agent which retarded release of drug. Worldview Paper! Maisine-35-1 and Cremophor EL. Study verified that, after administration of halofantrine in SMEDDS lymphatic transport and Big Data Businesses, absorption was affected. Study concluded that, by using differentstructure of triglycerides it is achievable to enhance lymphatic transport of compound without affecting its availability.66 36. Apple: Comparsion Essay Example! Itoh K., et al., (2002) the aim of this present researched topic improved solubility of N-4472 by formulating self-micro emulsifying system using Gelucirei??i?? 44/14, HCO and SDS. Study concluded that, formulate sedds to enhance the bioavability and formed stable microemulsion droplets. SDS showed vital role in stability of microemulsion droplets.67 37.
Agarwal V., et al., (2000) investigated effect griseofulvin SMEDDS addition to silica and silicate on flow properties and in-vitro drug release. Results showed that, increase in surface area increases dissolution of drug. Study concluded that, nature and amount of adsorbent affect flow properties and Big Data Due to Electricity Essay, dissolution of drug in SMEDDS. In-vitro drug release showed that, there was increase in drug release as compared to inelastic graph powder formulation.68 38. Kim H. J., et al., (2000) developed SMEDDS of Due to Electricity Essay, idebenone using Labrafil 2609, Labrasol. Transcutol and Plurol oleique WL1173 so as to enhance bioavailability by Qaulity of Life: of Losing Weight, the increasing the solubility of the poorly water solublr drug. Results showed that, in-vitro dissolution rate of drug were increased 2 folds than that of tablet. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can be used as substitute for Big Data Essay, traditional oral formulations to enhance bioavailability of idebenone.69 39. Chen G. L., et al., (1996) the importance of Essay, this present researched study was validated bioanalytical method for Transforms Businesses Electricity, determination of Verapamil from plasma by HPLC for pharmacokinetic study of Verapamil. They also studied sensitivity, specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and sample stability of method. For the purpose of sedds evaluation.70 40.
Shah N. Qaulity Of Life: The Importance Of Losing Weight! H., et al., (1994) the aim of this study was investigated emulsification efficiency of polyglycolyzed glycerides (PGG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). They prepared SEDDS using different concentrations of PGG as emulsifiers,oils and different type of surfactant and co-surfactant. Big Data Transforms Businesses! Neobee M5 and Peanut Oil were selected as oil. Drug having good solubility in oil was selected for this study. Study showed that, PGG can be used as emulsifier for restriction of dna, preparation of SEDDS.71 MATERIAL METHOD 4. MATERIAL AND METHOD 4.1 MATERIALS Table 4.1: List of materials with sources S. No. Transforms Essay! Materials Source 1. Telmisartan Skymap Pharmaceuticals, Roorie 2. Tween 80 Loba chemic laboratory regents Mumbai 3. PEG 400 Nasco laboratory 4. Methanol Loba chemic laboratory regents Mumbai 5. Hydrochloric acid Loba chemic laboratory regents Mumbai 6. Drunk Driving Essay! Orange oil Burgone laboratory Mumbai Table 4.2: List of equipments with make S. No. Equipment Make 1. Analytical balance Fuji electronic balance 2. Melting point apparatus Jyoti digital auto melting apparatus 3. UV – Spectrophotometer Jasco japan-v630 4. Big Data Due To Essay! Dissolution apparatus Jyoti standard dissolution apparatus 5. Of Losing! FTIR Jasco-japan FT/IR/4100 7. Due To! mixing Jyoti lab gwl. INDIA 8. Hot air oven Jyoti lab gwl.
INDIA 9. Water bath Jyoti lab gwl.INDIA 4.1.1 Drug profile: Telmisartan72 Telmisartan is 4’-[[4-Methyl-6-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-propyl-1H-benzimidazol-1- yl]methyl]biphenyl-2-carboxylic acid. Structural formula ‘ Figure 3.1: Structure of telmisartan Molecular formula- C33H30N4O2 Molecular weight- 514.6 Definition 4’-[[4-Methyl-6-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-propyl-1H-benzimidazol-1- yl]methyl]biphenyl-2-carboxylic acid. Content: 99.0 per cent to 101.0 per cent (dried substance). Category: Antihypertensive. Dose: 20 to 80 mg. Qaulity The Importance Of Losing Weight! Half life: 24 hrs. Appearance: White or slightly yellowish, crystalline powder. Solubility: Practically insoluble in water, slightly soluble in methanol, sparingly soluble in methylene chloride.
It dissolves in 1 M sodium hydroxide. It exhibits polymorphism. Transforms Businesses Due To Electricity! Melting point: 261 ‘ 263oC. Storage: it should be stored at room temperature (15 – 30 i??i??C), away from moisture and light. Mechanism of action: It is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Telmisartan exhibits high affinity with the angiotensin II type one receptors in adrenal gland and in vascular smooth muscles. It works by Apple: of Teachers Essay, binding to the angiotensin II receptor. It inhibits the Transforms Businesses Due to Electricity Essay action of worldview paper, angiotensin which is a vasoconstrictor.
Angiotensin also stimulates the synthesis and release of aldosterone. By blocking the vasoconstrictor effect of the angiotensin and blocking the aldosterone, Telmisartan reduces the systemic vascular resistance. Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: After the oral administration peak concentrations (Cmax) of telmisartan are attained in Big Data Transforms Businesses Due to Electricity, 0.5 to 1 hour. Ingestion with food slightly decreases the bioavailability of Telmisartan. Inelastic Graph! Absolute bioavailability is Due to dose dependent. Of Teachers! At 40 and 160 mg the bioavailability was found to be 42% and Big Data Transforms Due to Electricity Essay, 58%, respectively. Distribution: Binding with plasma proteins is constant with the recommend doses. The Importance Of Losing Weight! It is highly binding with the plasma proteins (more than 99.5 %).
It has a volume of distribution of around 500 L. Metabolism: Telmisartan is metabolized by forming a pharmacologically inactive compound acyl glucuronide by conjugation. The only Big Data Businesses, identifiable compound in the human plasma and urine is the glucuronide. Elimination: Telmisartan has a half life of 24 hour and total plasma clearance of more than 800 mL/min. More than 97% of the orally/IV administered telmisartan is eliminated in the feces via biliary excretion, unchanged. Uses: It is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Worldview Paper! Adverse effects: The common reported adverse effects of telmisartan are upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (7%), Back pain (3%), Diarrhea (3%), Myalgia (3%), and Big Data Businesses, Sinusitis (3%).
Some rare adverse effects (1%) are abnormal ECG, anemia, angina, angioedema, bradycardia, eczema, epistaxis, gout, and hypercholesterolemia. Drug interactions: Telmisartan has found interacting with several drugs such as, benazepril, benazepril, benazepril, benazepril, benazepril, and benazepril etc. Caution is Driving Essay advised when combination will be used. Dosage forms: It is commonly used in the form of tablets of 20, 40, and 80 mg. 4.1.2 TWEEN 80 72-73 Chemical Name: Tween 80 Molecular Formula: C24H44O6 Formula Weight: 428.600006103516 Tween 80 Property Boiling point- 100i??i??C. Dencity – 1.08 g/mL at 20 i??i??C. Vapour pressure- 230 i??i??F. storage temp. : Store at RT. From- viscous liquid. Water Solubility : 5-10 g/100 mL at 23 i??i??C. EPA Substance Registry System: Sorbitan, mono-(9Z)-9-octadecenoate, poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivs.(9005-65-6)
Tween 80 Chemical Properties,Usage,Production. Yellow to amber liquid. Amber-colored viscous liquid. pH (5% aqueous solution) 5-7. Faint odor and bitter taste. Air Water Reactions.
Tween 80 is incompatible with strong alkalis and Businesses Electricity, oxidizers. Tween 80 is probably combustible. 4.1.3 ORANGE OIL 72-73:- It was the important and Poison Essay example, essincial oil can be produse by Transforms Businesses Essay, the cells in the fruits of oranges. They can also be extracted by orange juse it will compose mostely d-limonene. That will be extract to the oil by distillation. Odour- fresh and tangy smell, Coloue- yellow to good qualities orange in color. Self life- approximately 6 months.
Origin of Sweet orange oil. This evergreen tree has dark green leaves and white flowers and Transforms Electricity, bright orange round fruit with roughish skin. Drunk Driving Essay! The trees are native to China, but are now cultivated extensively in America. 1. Transforms Businesses Electricity Essay! It can be used many Curacao type liqueurs. 2. for the flavoring of food. 3. drink and confectionery. 4. when added to Poison Apple: of Teachers Essay furniture polish. 5. Due To Electricity Essay! helps to protect against worldview paper, damage from Businesses Due to Electricity insects. The orange oil are extracted by cold-pressing and yields 0.3 -0.5 %. It can also use for restriction enzyme analysis of dna, the medicinal perpose that will gives several therapeutic actions are antiseptic, anti-depressant, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, carminative, diuretic, cholagogue, sedative and tonic. The main chemical components of orange oil are a-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, linalool, citronellal, neral and geranial.
1. Big Data Transforms Due To! It is worldview paper a safe non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing oil, 2. yet care must be taken with it since it can have a phototoxic effect. 3. It should therefore preferably not be applied before going out into sunlight for prolonged periods. Iupac name – polyethylene glycol. – 90.0 cst at 25 i??i??C, 7.3 cst at 99 i??i??C.
PEG 400 properties. 1. Big Data Due To Essay! (polyethylene glycol 400) is a low-molecular-weight grade of polyethylene glycol. 2. It is a clear, 4. viscous liquid. 5. Worldview Paper! Due in part to Transforms Businesses Due to Electricity its low toxicity, PEG 400 is widely used in Poison Apple: Comparsion example, a variety of pharmaceutical formulations. 1. PEG 400 is soluble in water, acetone, alcohols, benzene, glycerin, glycols, and aromatic hydrocarbons, and Due to Electricity Essay, is slightly soluble in worldview paper, aliphatic hydrocarbons.
2. PEG 400 is Businesses Due to Electricity Essay strongly hydrophilic. 3. The partition coefficient of PEG 400 between hexane and water is 0.000015 (log ), indicating that when PEG 400 is mixed with water and The Importance of Losing Weight Essay, hexane, 4. there are only 15 parts of Businesses Electricity, PEG 400 in worldview paper, the hexane layer per 1 million parts of PEG 400 in the water layer. PEG 400 is soluble in water, acetone, alcohols, benzene, glycerin, glycols, and Big Data Transforms Businesses Due to Electricity Essay, aromatic hydrocarbons, and is slightly soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons. 4.2 Preformulation studies 72,73,74,75. To develop a safe, stable and therapeutically effective dosage form, preformulation studies are necessary to perform. The preformulation studies, which were performed in this project, include identification of drug, melting point analysis, solubility analysis, and worldview paper, quantitative estimation of drug.
4.2.1 Identification tests. ‘ Physical appearance: The drug was white, odorless crystalline powder. ‘ Melting point analysis: Melting point of Electricity, telmisartan was determined by capillary method using melting point apparatus (Rolex- Digital melting point apparatus). ‘ FTIR study: Drug sample was vacuum dried for 12 h before IR studies. IR spectra of pure telmisartan, PEG 4000, mannitol and solid dispersions of telmisartan were obtained by a Shimadzu IR Prestige-21 FT-IR spectrophotometer using KBr pellets. The scanning range used was 4000 to 400cm-1.
The observed peaks were reported for functional groups. 4.2.2 Loss on drying73-74. It was determined on 1 g drug by inelastic graph, drying it in a hot air oven at 105oC. The weight was determined at 15 min intervals till the difference was not more than 0.5 mg. The total difference in weight should not be more than 0.5%. 4.2.3 Determination of ‘max 73. Accurately weighed sample of 10 mg of telmisartan was dissolved in 50 mL of methanol in a 100 mL volumetric flask and Big Data, then the volume was made up to 100 mL with methanol.
Then, 1 mL of this stock solution was pipetted into a 10 mL volumetric flask and volume was made up to the 10 mL mark with methanol. Good Friend! The resulting solution was scanned between 200-600 nm using UV/Vis double beam spectrophotometer (UV-1700, Shimadzu, Japan). The same procedure was followed to determine the ‘max in HCl buffer (pH 1.2). The prepared solution was scanned between 200-600 nm using UV/Vis double beam spectrophotometer (UV-1700, Shimadzu). To determine ‘max in water, accurately weighed 10 mg sample of telmisartan was dissolved in 50 mL of methanol in Businesses Electricity Essay, a 100 mL volumetric flask and volume was made up to inelastic graph 100 mL with methanol. Then, 1 mL of this stock solution was pipetted into a 10 mL volumetric flask and volume made up to the 10 mL mark with distilled water. The resulting solution was scanned between 200-600 nm using UV/Vis double beam spectrophotometer (UV-1700, Shimadzu, Japan). 4.2.4 Quantitative estimation of drug73-74. Drug was estimated in the range of 3-15 mcg/mL for telmisartan in water (pH 7.0), HCl buffer (pH 1.2) and methanol.
Preparation of HCl buffer (pH 1.2): 50 mL of Big Data Transforms Businesses Due to, 0.2 M KCl was added in Poison Essay example, a 200 mL volumetric flask then 85 mL of Transforms Businesses Due to, HCl solution (0.2 M) was added in the flask and volume was adjusted to 200 mL with distilled water32. 4.2.5 Construction of calibration curve of telmisarta73. 188.8.131.52. Preparation of calibration curve in methanol: The 25mg of accurately weighed telmisartan was dissolved in 25 mL of methanol to give standard solution (1000 i??i??g/mL). From this standard solution, 3 mL was pipetted out and volume was made up to 100 mL with methanol referred as stock solution of inelastic graph, concentration 30i??i??g/ mL. Aliquots of 1 mL, 2 mL, 3 mL, 4 mL and 5 mL of stock solution were pipetted out into separate 10 mL volumetric flask. Transforms! The volume was made up to the mark with methanol.
This results in samples of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 ‘g/mL concentration, respectively. The absorbance of prepared solution of telmisartan in methanol was measured at 296.5 nm in Shimadzu UV-1700 spectrophotometer against an appropriate blank. 184.108.40.206. Preparation of calibration curve in HCl buffer (pH 1.2): Exact procedure was followed as described above by using HCl buffer (pH 1.2) instead of methanol. The absorbance was recorded at 296 nm. 4.2.6. solublity of telmisartain in different medium. Solubility of telmisartain was determine in the different medium by heand shaking method. 3.3 Formulation 76. 4.3.1 identification of microemulsion region : Determine solubility of telmisartain in different -2 medium then select three medium orange oil as oil, PEG 400 as surfactant and inelastic graph, tween 80 as co-surfactant. Micro-emulsion region was identify by constructing pseudo ternary phase diagram with the help of Businesses Electricity, different proportion of surfactant and co-surfactant (1:1, 2:1, 3:1). They are mix with oils at different proportion (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4, 7:3, 8:2, 9:1) and the complete mixture was titrate with water and noted the equbliurem point.
At which point the mixture will show clear. 4.3.2 preparation of liquid SMEDDS: Due to the higher microemulsion region in the 3:1 proportion (surfactant:co-surfctant) was selected for the preparation of LSEDDS. 1. Required amount of friend qualities, PEG 400 and tween 80 was take and Big Data Due to, mix with the help of stirrer until they compatibly mix. 2. Aquaretly weight telmisartain and take required amount of orange oil and mix il. 3. Drug mixture place on water bath until drug completely dissolve in oil. 4. Restriction Enzyme Analysis Of Dna! Both the mixture are mix togather on Transforms Businesses Electricity the magnatic stirrer untill they are compleately mix and friend, form a isotropic mixture. 5. Big Data Transforms Businesses Electricity! Store in the glass bottle.
Table 4.3 chemical requirements. Orange oil 50 ml. Tween 80 12.5 ml. Telmisartain 2000 mg. 4.4 CHARACTERIZATION :76-77. 4.4.1 stability study :76. 220.127.116.11 heating cooling cycle: for the stability study of LSEDDS pass six cycle between hot and cool temperature (40c-450c) with storing not less then 48hrs at worldview paper each temp. not seen any type of phase sapration. 18.104.22.168 centrifugation test: After passing heating cooling cycle it would be pass with centrifugation test. Businesses Due To Electricity! The sample of LSEDDS placed in centrifuge for 30min and show any type of precipitation. If not seen it would be go to the next stability test.
22.214.171.124 freeze thaw cycle: This test is again at cool and hot temperature (-210C to +250C) 48 hrs at each temp. If the LSEDDS pass all the stability parameter means the system becomes stable. 4.4.2 cloud point measurement : 76-77. Liquid SMEDDS was diluted with distilled water at 250 times LSEDDS : distill water(1:250), placed in a water bath and its temperature was increased slowely-2.
Cloud point was measured as the temperature at which there was a sudden appearance of inelastic graph, cloudiness visually. 4.4.3 solubility test .77-78. Solubility of LSEDDS was determine at buffer solution at 1.2ph, 7.4ph, and methanol by using standard paddle type dissolution test apparatus. 126.96.36.199 Preparation of Big Data Transforms Due to Essay, HCl buffer (pH 1.2): 50 mL of 0.2 M KCl was added in a 200 mL volumetric flask then 85 mL of HCl solution (0.2 M) was added in the flask and volume was adjusted to 200 mL with distilled water. 188.8.131.52 Buffer pH 7.4: Mix 50 mI of solution containing 1.944 per restriction enzyme analysis of dna cent w/v ofsodium acetate and 2.946 per cent w/v of barbitone sodium with 50.5 mI of Transforms Businesses Due to Electricity Essay, 0.1 M hydrochloric acid, add 20 mI of an 8.5 per cent w/v solution of sodium chloride and dilute with water to 250 mI.
4.4.4 efficiency of inelastic graph, self emulsification :76-77. Using USP- type-II dissolution test apparatus (Veego VDA-8DR). 1 mL of Liquid SMEDDS was added drop wise to 200 ml of 0.1 N HCl at 37i??i??C. agitate using by using standard stainless at rotating paddle at Big Data Businesses Due to Electricity 60 rpm. SMEDDS assessed visually according to the rate of Apple: of Teachers example, emulsification and final appearance of the emulsion. 4.4.5 Robustness to dilution :76. it can be studied by by diluting LSEDDS at different concentration with distill wate. 1. Prepare HCL buffer solution PH 7.4, PH 1.2. 2. Businesses Electricity Essay! Prepare dilution with both the inelastic graph solution at following concentration. 3. Store for 12 hrs.
4. Observe any type of phase saperation or pracipation. 4.4.6 % transmittance :76. For the determination of % transmittance take. 1. 1ml of LSEDDS and diluted till 100ml with distilled water. 2. Scan this sample in the uv spectroscopy. 3. Transforms Electricity Essay! observe any type of turbidity and % transmittance. 4.4.7 Dye solubility test : 76. This test can be perform for the conformation of oil in water nature of LSEDDS by Essay example, observing sopntenious dispersion. 1. Big Data Transforms Businesses Electricity! Take water soluble dye and sufficient quantity of LSEDDS. 2. Rapidly incorporate dye into the system. 4.4.8. in Qaulity of Life: The Importance Essay, vitro drug release:76-77.
In vitro dissolution study of Due to Essay, LSEDDS using type -2 dissolution test apparatus in buffer solution ph 1.2, ph 7.4 at 370 c. 184.108.40.206 Drug release in buffer solution at Drunk Driving 1.2 PH :- 1. Prepare buffer solution 1.2 PH by the help of indian pharmacopeia. 2. Fill in the type-2 dissolution test apparatus upto 900ml . 3. Palce 2ml sapmle of Transforms Due to Electricity, LSEDDS in the apparatus. Start the assumbaly. 4. Take sample after regular interwal. 5 min, 10 min,15 min,30 min,45 min,60 min,90 min,120 min. 5. The all sample was filtered with whatmant filter paper.
And dilute upto 10ml. 6. If there concentration is high then take again 1ml to all the samples and and dilute again upto 10ml. 7. The sample was scan into the uv spectroscopy at 296nm. 220.127.116.11 Drug release in buffer solution at 7.4 PH :- 1. Prepare buffer solution 7.4 PH by qualities, the help of Businesses, indian pharmacopeia. 2. Fill in the type-2 dissolution test apparatus upto 900ml . 3. Palce 2ml sapmle of LSEDDS in the apparatus. Start the assumbaly. 4. Take sample after regular interwal. 5 min, 10 min,15 min,30 min,45 min,60 min,90 min,120 min.
5. The all sample was filtered with whatmant filter paper. And dilute upto 10ml. 6. Poison Comparsion Of Teachers Essay Example! If there concentration is high then take again 1ml to all the Big Data Due to Electricity samples and and dilute again upto 10ml. 7. The sample was scan into the uv spectroscopy at 296nm. 4.4.9 drug contant:76-77-78-79. drug content of LSEDDS should be determine by diluting 1 ml sample of good friend qualities, LSEDDS with distill water.
Take there absorbance in uv-spectroscopy at296nm. 1. Take 1ml sample of LSEDDS and Due to Electricity, dilute with distill water upto 100ml. 2. If the concentration of sample was high then furthers 1ml sample dilute with distill water upto 10ml. 3. Scan this sample in uv-spactroscopy. 4. Calculate there percentage by the help of leaner line equation. RESULT AND DISCUSSION. Table 5.1: Melting point of telmisartan.
S. No. Restriction Analysis! Melting point Result. 5.1 LOSS ON DRYING: The results were within the acceptable limit which is 0.5%. Table 5.2: Loss on drying. S.No. Time (min) Weight (mg) Difference in weight (mg)
Total difference 2.9. 5.2 FTIR spectroscopy: FT-IR spectra of pure drug telmisartan and its solid dispersion which are shown in figure 7.1 and 7.4. There was not any significant interaction found between drug and carriers which confirms the stability of drug in the formulation. Table 5.3: Major peaks observed in FTIR spectrum of telmisartan. S. No.
Standard peak Observed peak Comments. 1. 3059.1cm-1 3080 cm-1 C-H stretching (aromatic) 2. 2958.8-2868.15 cm-1 2870-2738.92 cm-1 C-H stretching (aliphatic) 3. 1697.36 cm-1 1687.71 cm-1 C=O stretching. 5. 1521.84-1458.18 cm-1 1462.04 C=C stretching ring. Figure 5.1: FT-IR spectra of Electricity, pure telmisartan.
5.4 LEMDA MAX OF TELMISARTAIN IN DIFFERENT SOLVENT SYSTEM : Table 5.4: Solvent systems, their parameters and values. S.No. Good Friend Qualities! Solvent system Parameters Values. 1. Electricity! Methanol i??i??max 296.5 nm. Beer’s law range 3 – 15 mcg/mL. Regression line equation y = 0.050x + 0.007. Regression coefficient (R2) 0.999. 2. The Importance Of Losing Weight! Buffer 7.4 i??i??max 298 nm. Beer’s law range 3 – 15 mcg/mL. Regression line equation y = 0.043x + 0.004.
Regression coefficient (R2) 0.999. 3. HCl buffer (pH 1.2) i??i??max 296 nm. Beer’s law range 3 – 15 mcg/mL. Regression line equation y = 0.046x + 0.007. Regression coefficient (R2) 0.999. 5.5 CALIBRATION CURVE OF TELMISARTAN IN DIFFERENT SOLVENT SYSTEM. Table 5.5: Calibration curve of telmisartan in Electricity, HCl buffer pH 7.4 and HCl buffer pH 1.2 at of Teachers example ‘max 298 nm and 296 respectively. S.No. Concentration (i??i??g/mL) HCl buffer pH 7.4 HCl buffer pH 1.2. Absorbance Regressed Absorbance Absorbance Regressed Absorbance.
2. 3 0.139 0.133 0.153 0.145. 3. 6 0.270 0.262 0.294 0.283. 4. 9 0.401 0.391 0.423 0.421. 5. 12 0.537 0.520 0.567 0.559. 6. 15 0.657 0.649 0.706 0.697. S.No.
Concentration (i??i??g/mL) Methanol. Absorbance Regressed Absorbance. Table 5.6: Calibration curve of telmisartan in methanol at ‘max 296.5 nm. Figure 5.2: Calibration curve of telmisartan in buffer 7.4 ph at 298 nm. Figure 5.3: Calibration curve of telmisartan in HCl buffer pH 1.2 at 296 nm. Figure 5.4: Calibration curve of telmisartan in Big Data Due to Electricity, methanol at 296.5 nm.
5.6 SOLUBILITY OF TELMISARTAIN : Table 5.7: solubility of telmisartain in different medium. S.NO. MEDIUM SOLUBILITY. 1. Water Insoluble. 2. Hcl Springly soluble. 3. Methanol soluble. 5. Inelastic Graph! PEG400 Soluble. 6. Big Data Transforms Due To Electricity! Tween 80 Springly soluble.
7. Tween 20 Springly soluble. 8. Span 80 Springly soluble. 5.7 IDENTIFICATION OF MICRO-EMULSION REGION BY PREPAPE PSUDO TERATORY PHASE DIGRAM. In this formulation preportion of surfactant and co surfactant is 1:1. Table 5.8: identification of inelastic graph, micro-emulsion region. SMIX : OIL END POINT. In this formulation preportion of surfactant and co surfactant is 2:1. Table 5.9: identification of micro-emulsion region.
SMIX : OIL END POINT. In this formulation preportion of surfactant and Due to Essay, co surfactant is The Importance Weight 3:1. Table 5.10: identification of micro-emulsion region. Smix : OIL END POINT. Result- Best micromulsion was found to be In formulation 3 at Transforms Businesses Essay 5:5 proportion of Poison Apple: Essay example, oil and mixture of surfactant and co-surfactant denoted as smi. 5.8 FORMULATION OF LIQUID-SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (LSEDDS). 5.8.1 chemical requirement: Table 5.11: chemicals requirements . Orange oil 50 ml. Tween 80 12.5 ml. Telmisartain 2000 mg/2gm. 5.9 EVALUATION OF LSEDDS.
5.9.1 stability study. Physical stability was important parameter in the emulsion system it can be affected the performance of the system, it can be occurs due to the precipitation of drug. Due to the poor stability of system bioavability of drug also affected. For the thermodynamic stability study of LSEDDS was perform by following perameater. 1. Heating cooling cycle.
2. Centrifugation test. 3. Freeze thaw cycle. When system can not show any type of phase separation during heating cooling cycle then syatem can be tested in the centrifugation for Big Data Transforms Businesses Electricity Essay, the drug pricipation then apply freeze thaw cycle for worldview paper, the stress test. 18.104.22.168 heating cooling cycle : 40c No separation. 450c No separation. 40c No separation. 450c No separation. 40c No separation. 450c No separation. 40c No separation.
450c No separation. 40c No separation. 450c No separation. 40c No separation. 450c No separation. Table 5.12: six cycle of heating cooling temp. Result ‘ not seen any type of phase saperation. 22.214.171.124 Centrifugation test:
Result- LSEDDS was centrifuge for Transforms Due to, 30 min there was not seen any type of precipitation and phase saperation. 126.96.36.199 freeze thaw cycle. Table 5.13: three cycle of -210c to +250c. Cool temp. No change.
Hot temp. No change. Cool temp. No change. Hot temp. No change. Cool temp. No change. Hot temp. No change. 5.9.2 cloud point measurement. Table 5.14: Cloud point. Sample Cloud point.
Result- cloud point of this emulsion system was found to be more then 860c. which indicates that our LSEDDS was stable at the physiological temperature without any risk of phase separation. 5.9.3 solubility study: Table 5.15: solubility of LSEDDS. Medium Solubility time. Buffer solution PH 1.2 Less than 5min. Buffer solution PH Less than 5min. 0.1 N HCL Less than 5min.
Result ‘ solubility of this system was found to be less than 5min which indicates that the qualities formulation also use in the sustain release drug delivery system with maximum bioavability. 5.9.4 Efficiency of self-emulsification. Sample Efficiency of LSEDDS. 1 Less than 1min. 2 Less than 1min. 3 Less than 1min. Result ‘ this system rapidly form micro emulsion with in 1min it was clear and appearance was slightly blush. 5.9.5 Robustness to dilution : Table 5.15: dilution with different solvents. Concentration Water Buffer solution.
PH 1.2 Buffer solution. 50 times No change No change No change. 100 times No change No change No change. 500 times No change No change No change. 1000 times No change No change No change. Result ‘ in the robustness dilution not seen any type of Big Data Transforms Electricity, phase separation and pracipation. Result- % trasmittance of this system was found to friend qualities be 93.5. 5.9.7. dye solubility test.
Result- type of emulsion was conform by Big Data Transforms Businesses, using dye solubility test in which a water soluble colourfull dye rapid incorporate in the LSEDDS and observe. Which indicates that the worldview paper continuous phase in this system is water. so it was conform that the LSEDDS was o/w micro emulsion. 5.9.8 in-vitro drug release profile. 188.8.131.52 drug release in buffer solution PH1.2. Table 5.16 in-vitro drug release of SEDDS. % cumulative drug release. Plain drug LSEDDS. 10 min 7.35 42.43. 15 min 11.63 61.36. 30 min 1.83 75.45.
45 min 18.64 83.33. 60 min 23.31 89.02. 90 min 27.15 95.26. 120 min 29.48 95.56. Figure 7.4 commulative % drug release of SEDDS and plain telmisartain in PH 1.2. 184.108.40.206 drug release in buffer solution PH 7.4.
Table 5.17 in-vitro drug release of SEDDS. % cumulative drug release. Plain drug LSEDDS. 10 min 11.38 47.39. 15 min 14.92 54.43. 30 min 19.61 73.13. 45 min 24.48 81.68. 60 min 28.29 90.83. 90 min 32.62 96.54. 120 min 33.46 98.12.
Figure 7.6 % commulative drug release of LSEDDS and plan telmisartain in PH 7.4. 5.9.9 drug content estimation. Table 5.18 drug content: The oral route is the most preferred method of administration of drugs. Unfortunately, this route is not possible for 50% of Big Data Transforms Businesses Essay, currently marketed drug compounds due to their low solubility in Driving, water and low oral bioavailability. We study that self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) can be used for the improvement of Big Data Transforms Due to Essay, bioavailability of the drug. In the preparation of this system containing with telmisartain as active pharmaceutical ingredient. To increase bioavailability solubility of inelastic graph, this drug. Due to poor solubility of telmisartain it cannot be formulate in the oral drug delivery system. But with the help of Big Data Transforms Due to Essay, LSEDDS it’s possible to give telmisartain via oral drug delivery system.
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Shah N.H., Carvajal M.T., Patel C.I., Infeld M.H., Malick A.W. (1994), Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) with polyglycolyzed glycerides for Businesses Electricity Essay, improving in vitro dissolution and oral absorption of lipophilic drugs, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 106: 15-23. 74. Indian pharmacopeia. 75. British pharmacopeia. 76. Bhagwat durgachara, D. souza I. development of Teenage Drunk, self micro emulsifying drug delivery system.to inhance dissolution rate of telmisartain, IJDDR 2012,02(04);398-407. 77. Big Data Businesses Electricity! Gaikwad G, Godbole M, potnos V, Daud A. Formulation and evaluation of self emulcifying drug delivery system of orlistat, Americal Journal Of Pharmtech Research 2012; 2 (6): 297-31. Search our thousands of essays:
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car essay hybrid Conserving Energy with Hybrid Cars. The preservation of the environment and conservation of energy are dynamic topics in the political world of today and actions to be taken are discussed everyday. It is time to advance beyond the ordinary gasoline engine automobile that has polluted our environment for several decades. Big Data Due To Electricity! The recurring problem that hasn’t been solved is the pollution from automobiles that harms the environment and uses fuel that won’t be around some time in the future. Neglect for the preservation of the environment has spread like an infection over the years, and automobiles are major players in worldview paper, the pollution of the environment. A change is vital, and hybrid cars have begun to lead the way to Big Data Transforms Businesses Due to Electricity Essay that change, besting regular car in cost-effectiveness and hardware that helps with protecting the environment where regular automobile would pollute and destroy it. Before addressing the current benefits of hybrid cars, it is necessary to first learn the adverse effects of the automobiles on the environment to support the facts the public needs to adapt to hybrid cars for the betterment of the environment. Hybrid vehicles greatly reduce the inelastic graph negative impact of automobiles on air quality.
An article explains that, “When traditional gasoline is Big Data Businesses Essay used as fuel, the combustion and evaporation of fuel from the vehicle results in pollutants being released into the environment including carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, particulate matter and nitrogen oxides, according to worldview paper the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency” (Sherwood). Carbon monoxide is highly dangerous and Businesses high exposure has been known to cause permanent physical damage or death. This lethal gas and other gases that come from cars are shredding our atmosphere and making it weaker everyday bringing drastic changes to our environment such as global warming (Sherwood). Worldview Paper! Hybrid cars also benefit the environment by lowering noise pollution levels. This article reassures us that “Hybrid car engines go about Big Data Businesses Due to Essay churning the required amount of inelastic graph, horsepower without any excessive roaring because when switched onto electric power mode, these cars are virtually silent” (Tintin). Switching to Due to Electricity Essay hybrid cars will be a big step to benefit the environment and tackling the issue of global warming.
The environmental impacts from automobiles come in the dozens ranging from Comparsion of Teachers example, brake and tire debris to Transforms Electricity the toxicity of the lead-acid batteries in friend qualities, cars. These problems are also not to Big Data Businesses Electricity Essay be taken lightly. For example, the “debris from tires and braking raises the toxicity levels of restriction analysis of dna, nearby soils and leads to the formation of black carbon. Both pollutants have been shown to cause lung toxicity and significant portions of particulate matter in urban areas” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). Painting and coating cause discharges of harmful materials such as nickel, copper, and hexavalent chromium into the atmosphere. Batteries are a more critical part of the automobile, and Big Data Businesses Due to even though they can be recycled they account for the release of 42,000 tons of unwanted lead release into the environment (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). The plethora of environmental problems from automobiles today is affecting the lifespan of Apple: Essay, our atmosphere and causing a downward spiral that is exponentially increasing. With all of these problems, the transportation revolution is knocking on the door and as the guardians of our planet, humanity needs to find a way to Transforms Due to Electricity decrease pollution and that way has been opened with the hybrid car. Hybrid cars are more beneficial to the environment than their traditional counterparts, but not all hybrid vehicles function exactly the same way (Richard 1).
To decrease emissions all hybrid cars run on enzyme analysis of dna, some form of electricity, whether it run on pure electricity or splits power with gasoline. Richard goes on to inform us that “Full hybrids also known as strong hybrids can run on either just the gasoline engine, or just the electric motor and they can also run on a combination of both.” (2) Another example would be the mild hybrids, which have stronger engines that allow them to turn off their engines when at a stop, like at Big Data Businesses Due to Essay a red light, to save gas and quickly restart when needed (Richard 2). These new features to the drivetrains allow hybrids to save gas and reduce many of the emissions that automobiles release that pollute the atmosphere. In addition to the reduced need for crude oil would be the reduced need for mining and drilling for fossil fuels. The adverse effects that mining and drilling have are in the several, but the main focus is oil spills and the destruction and wildlife. Chris Sherwood reminds us that, “These mining and drilling techniques can have a devastating effect on the environment, as seen in Comparsion of Teachers Essay, the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill” (1). The demand for gasoline to power automobiles is rising and so is the price. The domestic sources of fuel are slowly drying up, “but with the Big Data Transforms reduction in Qaulity The Importance of Losing, gasoline use by hybrids, the overall need for Due to Electricity, crude oil is reduced helping reduce the need to depend on friend, other countries for fuel. Although hybrids still partially rely on gasoline, the time spent running on electricity reduces the Essay overall production of pollutants from the car, resulting in a healthier environment” (Sherwood).
With potentially so much harmful pollution combatting our environment, there has to be a change made for the traditional ways of transportation. Hybrids reduce adverse effects on the environment, which is qualities definitely a huge benefit, enough to convince the average person to support the green transportation revolution. Yet in addition to Big Data Transforms Businesses Due to Essay benefiting the habitat for humanity, services for hybrid cars such their cost-effectiveness and fueling/plug-in stations are improving and increasing in number. Hybrid cars have gone from literally almost unknown to seen everyday in local parking lots or just driving around the street. Hybrids have become mainstream vehicles due to the voice of the environmentalists and the cost-effectiveness. The cost-effectiveness of hybrid cars is a highly disputed argument.
Some believe that hybrids hold little worth and analysis of dna will not be around for long, but the truth is hybrids save thousands of dollars and are likely to become the most popular way to travel in Transforms Businesses Due to Electricity, the years to come. As explained before, there are different types of hybrids and each are variously equipped depending on Apple: Comparsion Essay example, the model and all are beneficial to the driver and atmosphere. The strongest element of the hybrids is obviously the Transforms Businesses Due to Electricity option of an electric motor. Electrically powered drivetrains reduce the need for the absurd amount of gasoline that each automobile consumes each year on the road. It is restriction enzyme of dna estimated that “the amount of money you save per year from buying a hybrid will be around $3,750, and after years of Big Data Transforms Businesses Electricity Essay, driving a hybrid over its gasoline counterpart, the money saved can reach up to numbers such as $13,500” (Richard). This is a result of the electric motor.
Whether the worldview paper electric motor is the supreme source of Essay, power or a shared power source accompanied with a gasoline motor, the Qaulity of Life: The Importance of Losing Weight Essay miles per gallon ratio on a hybrid car is drastically increased. Businesses Due To Essay! Hybrids are evolving each year with the future cars averaging 40 mpg with some recent models even reaching numbers so high as 60-70 mpg on the highway (Richard). Thousands of pounds of gasoline are saved each year from inelastic graph, just a few drivers going green and driving a hybrid instead of a gas-guzzler and this is made possible by the improved equipment inside the hybrid car that regular automobiles lack. Hybrid cars contain advanced equipment such as regenerative braking, stop-start system, low-rolling resistance tires and other power conservative hardware (Richard). These features allow the hybrid car to recycle energy or not use energy when a regular automobile would require it.
This greatly expands the lifespan of all hybrids and contributes to Big Data Transforms Electricity Essay their cost-effectiveness and Qaulity of Life: Weight Essay environmental preservation. To power electric motors, hybrids must keep their batteries charged and one way to Big Data Transforms Due to Essay do this is by capturing energy that would otherwise be lost as heat when braking (Richard). Instead of blasting toxic fumes into the atmosphere, energy is recycled from the brakes and good friend qualities used in acceleration. This feature accompanied with low-rolling resistance tires minimize the effort that the vehicle’s engine has to deploy to make them roll (Richard). Big Data Due To Essay! Richard compares the advantage of the enzyme analysis of dna low-rolling resistance tires of the hybrids as, “the difference between an under-inflated tire and a well-inflated one” (4). Hybrid cars have advanced exponentially through the years and are constantly improved each day and this is proven by the evolution of the gasoline and electrically powered motor to the “plug-in” hybrids of today that have increased all-electric driving range with the ability of recharging the batteries through plugging in and regenerative braking. Even though hybrid cars may seem like the smartest choice to save energy and gasoline, there are flaws within the Big Data Transforms Businesses Electricity cars that point to mass transportation being the best option to Driving conserve energy and reduce pollution. Transforms Businesses! Mass transportation means public shared transportation, which includes buses, trains, ferries or other means of transportation that can carry a large number of passengers from place to place in a shorter amount of time (Mass Transit System). The article further explains that “it is potentially more economical, eco-friendly, and less time consuming as well as the most competent way of reducing the ever growing traffic congestion of the cities” (Mass Transit).
Private vehicles emit twice as much carbon monoxide and harmful elements into the environment than public vehicles and drastically reduce the amount of traffic on the road that people who use the mass transit systems would normally cause by driving. Another point is that anyone is able to travel on mass transit systems regardless of their financial status because the amount of money a person needs per trip is restriction of dna very low. Big Data Transforms Due To! This is opposite of the hybrid which, price-wise, can cost a bit more than their regular gasoline-powered counterparts (Richard). A major problem with hybrids is also the Comparsion of Teachers beefed up batteries that are more harmful to Due to Essay the environment than normal size car batteries. Hybrid cars typically use nickel metal hydride batteries which release more toxic chemicals as well as these huge batteries being so cumbersome to restriction analysis of dna handle (Tintin) With advantages such as reduced traffic congestion, less time between destinations and cost-effectiveness that beats most other modes of transport, the mass transit system is a very reasonable way to save money and reduce pollution (Mass Transit). However, wherever there are advantages in a situation, there are likely to Big Data Transforms be disadvantages as well. The main drawback of the mass transportation system is that these public vehicles operate on restriction of dna, a fixed schedule and travels only to certain destinations. Big Data Businesses Due To Essay! Another huge problem for the argument of friend qualities, mass transportation is the initial cost for building the system is Big Data Businesses Due to Electricity very high and involves construction on a massive scale (Mass Transit). These disadvantages are small when compared to the fact the restriction analysis of dna mass transportation systems can only be incorporated in highly populated cities.
This is a huge problem for Big Data Transforms Essay, the switch from worldview paper, private vehicles to mass transportation. A large amount of America’s population reside in large cities, but it is simply not enough to start a revolution to mass transportation systems. Mass transportation is Transforms Businesses Due to Electricity Essay more cost-effective than hybrid cars, but both conserve energy and reduce pollution along with hybrid cars having the flexibility to be driven anywhere at anytime. This can be attributed to the current fueling flexibility of the hybrid cars. Most hybrids run on both gasoline and electricity so fuel can either be pumped at a local gas station or power can be gained by plugging in Essay, the car at home or at a public charging station (U.S. Department of Energy). Hybrid cars may also be a good bit more expensive than their counterparts, but with a longer driving lifespan and with thousands saved on gasoline that isn’t used when the electric motor is running, the cost-effectiveness is easily shown. The United States also imports more that 60% of its petroleum, most of which is used by the transportation sector (U.S.
Department of Energy). This is a vast amount of money being spent on vehicles that is paid to other countries. The reliance on other nations is not needed if hybrid cars become the Big Data Essay mainstream vehicle. The conservation of Qaulity The Importance of Losing Essay, energy and Big Data Businesses Electricity the reduction of pollution into our natural environment has been an everyday issue for our government for years and it will still be a major issue for years to come. Hybrid cars can end this dependence on other countries for worldview paper, crude oil and reduce the amount of debris and pollution that comes from the gasoline-powered automobiles of today. This change would save enormous amounts of money in the long run, but the main reason the hybrids have posed to Due to Electricity be such a fantastic idea is that a future energy crisis would be averted if automobiles ran on some type of power source besides gasoline, such as electricity. As the article from inelastic graph, All Hybrid Cars states, “hybrid cars are often referred to as the ‘car of the era.’ The change from gasoline to electricity must begin soon if this nation is going to Transforms Businesses Electricity Essay stop the potential threat of Essay, global warming. The cost-effectiveness and the eco-friendliness of the Big Data Transforms Due to Electricity Essay hybrid cars have been proven along with the potential future benefits of the green transportation revolution.
Hybrid cars are the first choice when it comes to finding a way to help out with the preservation of the environment or just looking to save money in the long run. Our atmosphere has suffered from the years of pollution that has been deployed into the atmosphere since the invention of the first automobile. Restriction Enzyme! This problem has been ongoing and relentless, and although it could be such devastation for humanity if this pollution continues, the people have the power to stop it but for the main part have chosen not to act or to even further harshen the situation. Big Data Transforms! Hybrid cars are the first step to this change for good, this change towards the green transportation revolution. Advantages of Teenage Drunk Driving, Hybrid Cars. All Hybrid Cars . 12 Apr. 2012. Web. 12 Apr.
2012. Benefits of Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles. AFDC . Businesses Due To Electricity! U.S. Department of Energy, Oct. 2011. Good! Web. 23 Mar. 2012. Environmental Impacts from Automobiles. EPA . United States Environmental Protection Agency, 23 Mar.
2012. Web. Businesses Due To! 23 Mar. 2012. Mass Transit System - Impacts, Advantages Disadvantages. EngPedia - The Engineering Encyclopedia . 12 Apr. 2012. Web. 12 Apr. 2012. Richard, Michael G. How to Go Green: Hybrid Cars.
Treehugger . Discovery, 9 Feb. 2007. Web. 23 Mar. 2012. Sherwood, Chris. What Are the Effects of Hybrid Cars? LIVESTRONG . Lance Armstrong Foundation, 17 May 2010. Web. 23 Mar. 2012.