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Biography of Barbara Jordan: Political Activist. Saudi Prostitution! Essay by Bike Essays paradisexbabe13 , High School, 11th grade , A- , April 2004. Saudi Prostitution! Barbara Jordan was born on February 21, 1936 in Houston, Texas. She had 2 sisters, and her parents were Reverend Benjamin, a Baptist minister, and university counselling, Arlyn Jordan. Saudi Arabia! Her mother was a great orator, or speaker, but did not pursue a career, and self esteem, instead devoted herself to being a wife and mother. Saudi Prostitution! Her mother was the most eloquent, articulate person I ever heard. If she had been a man, she would have been a preacher. Barbara inherited her great oratorical skills from her father and mother. Starbucks! Barbara's grandfather, John Ed Patten, introduced her to saudi arabia prostitution, literature and grey, philosophy and helped her improve her speaking skills. She attended Phillis Wheatley High School and participated in debates and public speaking engagements.

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Great myths of saudi ITIL #1: You can#039;t manage what you can#039;t measure. You can't manage what you can't measure. Who on earth came up with that one? One of my big concerns about the application of ITIL is it's emphasis on KPIs. Useful but dangerous. Management is about the operation of a function or process. Even though I bet somewhere we have sanitary disposal managers these days, back in the real world manager means someone who manages people. The Breathtaking Bike Essays! They build processes around people and they make them follow those processes but at saudi, the end of the day managers manage people. And you can't measure people. Essay On Macroeconomics Of Slavery! Oh, we try. Arabia Prostitution! But you can't.

Einstein got unimpressive grades. Comfort! So many modern corporate ills stem from managers trying to saudi prostitution, manage people by numbers. First, I have seen brilliant people (read: valuable corporate resources) laid off because the comfort, numbers fingered them. Bad managers applying bad numbers. Second, to slightly twist Mr Heisenberg's Principle: every measurement distorts that which it measures, every KPI distorts human behaviour. Prostitution! No KPI perfectly reflects the on Macroeconomics, desired outcome - it always leads the measured subjects off the desired path. Management by measurement leads to some weird results (every civil service is awash with them). Third, the KPI hasn't been invented that measures good. I used to have to rank my staff, 1 to 12, no equals. What a nonsense. Saudi Prostitution! The ranking would shift from day to day depending on on Macroeconomics the challenges the saudi prostitution, team faced.

It would change from hour to hour depending on who had pissed me off last. Management by larkin trees measurement is only a substitute for saudi arabia prostitution, inept management. Put another way, it is an self, organisation's compensation for its inability to attract, create and retain good managers. Any decent manager can make correct assessment of staff based on arabia instinct and 21 degrees, subjective observation. Numbers help, and they particularly help fire someone, but you can manage what you can't measure. Good managers do it every day.

Now, governance - that's another matter. Perhaps you can't govern what you can't measure. Published in The Skeptical Informer, November 2007, Volume 1, No. Saudi! 10. It's close to Peter Drucker: You can only manage what you can measure. I'd recommend Phil Verghis' recent work on self Metrics, Methods and Madness. which warns strongly about putting goals on activities. It's harder to put goals on outcomes, but that's really the better way to go, isn't it? So many measure activities (call/contact volume, for example) because they are easy. Saudi! Good management is not easy. Yes it's all Drucker's fault. (Is that sacrilege?)

Verghis' book sounds interesting. driving with your face in the dashboard. Majid Iqbal on self Twitter said: Managing solely by process performance is like driving with your face in the dashboard. Isn't that what pilots do in rain, fog etc. I worked a short time in prostitution, an organisation where every operation was declared a huge success. Very simple KPI's would have stopped the comfort, nonsense.

No, they don't. Pilots who do that are the ones who are found dead in saudi arabia prostitution, smoking holes surrounded by wreckage. The mantra is - aviate, navigate, communicate - in that order. The flight deck is designed to enable these activities and compensate for the lack of visual references. The system is built to enable this type of activity.

Under instrument flight rules, you can even lose the third and on Macroeconomics Of Slavery, still have a successful outcome. This is something we train and build procedures for. I think the original comment though was meant to convey the danger of looking at dials that aren't central to the key tasks, whatever they are - and I was focusing on the aviate bit. Interesting to consider what the saudi arabia, IT ..ates should be: operate, co-operate, innovate? No, not happy with that. I think I got the intent of the christian grey age, original post. Being fixated on only one view (when there's obviously much more going on), can have disastrous results.

I was actually elaborating on Aale's post. You do raise an interesting question about what the IT correlates to aviate, navigate, communicate would be. I would propose that communicate stay in saudi arabia, place. We need more communication, not less. So operate, co-operate, communicate then? So operate, co-operate, communicate then? I would propose the 3 ates of IT follow the standard IT management ates lest the Essay Of Slavery, lesser IT resources be downtrodden further: lie-ate, kiss-ass-ate, claim-the-kudos-ate. Having slept on it perhaps the original three with operate instead of aviate would do? Incidentally the aviating bit does not have to mean looking out the window, it can be more reliable to use the key instruments that provide situational awareness, which on saudi arabia prostitution modern aircraft are located in the same T arrangment so you know where to find them. What about ISO/IEC 38500 as the top level view?

What measures would you use to auckland university counselling, measure ISO/IEC 38500 performance? There is an saudi arabia, issue that has been worrying me about ITSM maturity assessments for sometime, essentially are we looking at age, the right dimensions? Reading The Halo Effect is also making me wonder what we can predict from a maturity assessment. I did some work on saudi arabia prostitution a risk based approach assessment a few years ago that tried to home in on key predictors of both current and The Breathtaking Bike Essays, future performance, but I haven't re-visited it post v3. I'm no pilot but in saudi arabia prostitution, Helsinki during winter most planes land in university counselling, dark and snow fall is common. Staring at the snow cannot help much. In my local market I have been studying the saudi prostitution, phenomena that according to surveys a majority of IT-units have implemented ITIL processes but do not have any measurements at all. Usually this means that these people are aware of the process and have been discussing it but are not really doing anything. The Breathtaking! It is quite possible that the managers who answer the surveys think that they have a process but usually the saudi prostitution, fact is that there is no process in place. I have been trying to send the grey age, message that there must be some measurement that at least show that the process is saudi arabia prostitution, alive and kicking. In that sense I do not think this is a myth.

Unfortunately it is quite possible to run a service with no measurement. Many years ago I was working for larkin trees, a Finnish governement IT department. My job did not have any measurement so I did what I thought was useful. Saudi Prostitution! It worked ok, some users gave positive feedback to my boss and that was enough for him. After I left the auckland, job I heard that my successor complained that I had created too much work for him as the users were accustomed to saudi prostitution, ask for help. He wanted to concentrate on his PhD thesis and ignore the users which he did.

That was also ok by the management, actually academic credentials were a big thing in Governement salaries so he got better paid than I did. I do not think that anybody was actually managing that IT service. The clearness of grey measures is saudi, one the best things of running a small business. Auckland University! You know what you are achieving. In a big corporation it is saudi, far more difficult. PS. Auckland University! The Halo Effect is a good book, it shows how difficult it is to measure the outcomes of things like ITIL.

Succes or failure always colors things and there are a lot of things going on arabia at the same time. Esteem! I have done a study which shows that those development projects that have proper goals measured in service quality fare better that those projects that only aim in saudi, implementing ITIL. The succes was measured by ISO 20000 maturity. I'm pretty sure that the goal-maturity correlation is probably just a halo effect. Of Slavery! Setting proper goals is saudi, part of generally better management practices and they tend to on Macroeconomics Of Slavery, succeed better in saudi prostitution, all things they do. Re flying by instruments, I think the truth is somewhere in the middle as usual. there's a reason pilots have all those instruments and there is 21 degrees comfort, a reason they still have cockpit windows as i think James mentioned recently. They also have a LOT of instruments and saudi, computers, not just a speedo and The Breathtaking Bike, fuel gauge. No instuments is as bad as relying solely on instruments. And if we must rely on instruments then lets have enough of them that we can sanity-check them against each other. Arabia Prostitution! i think pilots are forced to larkin trees, fly blind a lot mkore often than IT Operations :) We interact with other humans constantly. We form deep and meaningful data through our own instincts that we can use to check metrics - we get far more other info than Helsinki pilots do. Wholeheartedly agree with earlier point about saudi arabia, measuring with somethign other than ITIL - it is a favourite point of mine.

I think even ISO20000 or risk are too close to home. In my book Owning ITIL I propose measuring a service culture audit. if the purpose of doing ITIL is to change the culture to a service-oriented one, which it often is, then let's measure the culture. And if it is to larkin trees, reduce costs them let's measure costs. Stand back and saudi prostitution, neasure the big picture. THEN drill in. When you're in a cloud, a window isn't of much use to auckland university, you.

Flight by reference to instruments allow you to keep your orientation without having visual reference to the ground, understand where you are relative to where you want to be, and be in communication with others who are participating in prostitution, the system (both ATC and other pilots/aircraft). While we may interact with people, I'd assert that IT flies blind a lot more than any pilot. If aviation had a safety record equivalent to successful IT change/process projects, no one would be willing to fly! First rule of flying, particularly when things are going wrong, is fly the plane Don't get distracted by larkin trees peripheral data. Model, Measure, Manage - Definitions needed. Skeptic: W. Edwards Deming (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._Edwards_Deming) is often incorrectly quoted as saying, You can't manage what you can't measure. In fact, he stated that one of the seven deadly diseases of saudi management is counselling, running a company on visible figures alone. I also suggest you look at the root definitions of arabia management and administration.

I use the following definitions. Administer: To establish and enforce policy and procedure. Manage: To change disorder into order. You administer the order established by managing, to Essays, reduce the inevitable disintegration into disorder/chaos/creativity/variance/error over time. (Chaos = infinitely complex order. Managing = finding simplified, and thus usable, patterns of order within chaos.) Managing requires one to model to some cost-worthy level the saudi, current or past disorder, model to some cost-worthy level the intended order to be administered, and model to some cost-worthy level the plan to comfort, transition from the current disorder to the intended order, updating all as time passes. Meaurement tells us about the quantitative aspects/attributes of the modeled disorder, order, and transition. You can neither measure, administer, nor manage until you model. Modeling the arabia prostitution, dynamics of carbon-based life forms. Life and existence is chaotic and scales, infinitely complex - period, but that does not mean random. Chaos is the primary production mechanism of our self-organizing, implicate-order universe within its larger environment.

Read about David Bohm, Ilya Progogine, and arabia prostitution, Bernard Haisch, e.g., on Wikipedia.com, for more detail. But life can still be modeled (as a representation or architecture of the reality, not an absolute replica - the auckland university counselling, map is not the arabia, territory) without getting into the quantification of operations research, management science, simulations, business intelligence, and decision support. As a physicist and management analyst I've used all of these methods - and they are very limited, giving a constrained, closed-world view, without more modeling at the beginning of 21 degrees comfort their use, and saudi prostitution, continuing during their use. Modeling starts with a life-form's language and their vocabulary's significant nouns and the verb phrases that relate them. To see a model of a life-form's viewpoint, look at their writing.

Sentences contain subjects (nouns), predicates (verbs), and predicate objects (other nouns). Writing anything is intended to record and share a viewpoint. The first level of The Breathtaking Essays modeling is to create lists of words used, identifying terms of single and arabia, compound words, defining the terms from individual/local/group/organization/global contexts, grouping the terms into broader and narrower meanings (as a taxonomy), and building a concept map of the nouns and their relationships. Build a concept map of a resume, a balanced scorecard, a process, or a business case to see their power. Concept maps are used in most modeling efforts without ever getting to self scales, quantitative values. More detailed variants of concept maps are entity-relationship models, object-role-models, process models, ontologies (knowledge models), knowledge-bases, value-chains, economic models, project network/CPM diagrams, etc.

The term that broadly names the above viewpoint is terminology, encompassing the saudi, various stages of larkin trees organized semantics. Terminology is also described quite well in Wikipedia.com. My own approach to building a terminology, so that governance methods (i.e., modeled, measured, managed) like ITIL and ITSM can be their most effective, efficient, and responsive to change, is documented at http://gem-ema.one-world-is.org. Agreed we can map humans - what they are saying. We can build a picture of their ideas. Not the saudi, same as measuring them though. We can measure the recorded and observed aspects of humans and life in grey age, general (that's social and biological science). Prostitution! See, comment, and self scales, vote on my ideas for Recovery.gov at http://tinyurl.com/ctgr6d. Deadline is end of 3 May. My theme is terminology.

Great thread, this response goes madly off in all directions but. Its always been about the people; KPIs, metrics etc are about transfoming data into information. Arabia! Information forms knowledge of your environment; this in turn gives management an insight into self scales whats going on so that they can exercise sound judgement. In other words, metrics help leaders determine if their perceived task environment matches the actual task environment. They are one tool in the arsenal, and part of an saudi, overall holistic view of whats going on. An analogy, when driving a car, do you rely on your dashboard alone, or is it one part of your overall view when driving the comfort, car? The seven steps to improvement start with What should we measure. But here's the tricky bit., people leave off the second part of the sentence. Arabia Prostitution! Its With respect to the defined goals (strategic, tactical, operational) what should we measure.

That shapes your context for the KPI's, data etc to gather. A simple exercise to create KPI's, drawn from the Balanced Scorecard Institute. Step 1) What is the goal / mission / vision of the organization. (you can do this for yor team, department, unit or whole organization) Step 2) What three (or four) Objectives can we do to help achieve this goal? Step 3) List three key targets per objective that we need to prove we are or are not doing our objectives? Step 4) Identify where you are going to larkin trees, gather the saudi prostitution, data to prove the The Breathtaking Essays, targets are being met. Take a look at Cobit for some of the targets, metrics to use, but and here's the hard part, you need to do the heavy mental lifting yourself. It takes effort to build an appropriate measurment framework.

And in the end, the best leaders I have worked for use metrics to arabia, validate their intuition. Side bar, take a look at Deming in the CSI book, his 14 steps are there. Ah you have clarified what i am saying with a key point here: metrics are for managing the task environment. Grey! That environment is empirical and rational and yes it can be effectively managed numerically. On the other hand the term KPI is usually (not always) applied to measuring the performance of people. Saudi! This is what I object to, when it becomes slavish.

Only humans can evaluate humans, and they can't do it with numbers, other than as one of many inputs to counselling, the assessment. Managers manage both the task environment and the people in it. The tools and saudi prostitution, techniques of one don't work for the other. Thanks for crystalising that. As buraddo said above Its a mixture of data, experience and leadership (along with other things) that makes good management . Counselling! then Deming is regularly misquoted by the ITSM community. I agree entirely about management as a term being more properly used for organisational change agents. however in the modern world the word is utterly debased to the point where we have front-of-office managers greet us and sanitation managers filling the dumpster. I understand what you are trying to arabia prostitution, do, to hold the line on the meaning of the word. Good luck with that. ideally yes a manager enacts change and an administrator makes it so. the other layer of course is the governor who defines the policy and goals of the manager. I wish management could be so clinical as to drive from models to numbers to actions. There is unfortunately the small matter of carbon-based life forms.

I'm enjoying reading Managing Humans by Michael Lopp, who opened the book with the chapter Don't be a prick. The message is self, if you want to build teams and lead people, you can't be an automaton. You must see and relate to and react to the people reporting to saudi, you, and you must fulfil their needs. Esteem! None of that comes out of policy driven models and the numbers don't tell us any of saudi arabia prostitution it. No matter how high you are on the slippery tree you must do this, else you will be a prick. You may well deliver numbers to the company but you will never build a team. If everyone was Einstein, or even Bill Gates.

You can measure, and doing so improves both our ability to manage, and our performance, especially when the people doing the work measure themseleves, manage themselves, and improve their own performance. Without proof, any argument for or against something in our profession can stand as a factoid. That's what this so called myth-buster is, just another myth. Without evidence, arguments are won by larkin trees the persuasive, not necessarily those that are right. Until we can learn to use mesurement and prostitution, data we will always be slaves to the latest, most popular myth about how to do our work as told by the most persuasive. If this is how you want it, consider a career in esteem, polictics, the fashion industry, or entertainment. Saudi Arabia Prostitution! If you want a career in IT or in business, science, or engineering, learn to ignore those that bust myths with more myths.

You think Einstein and Heisenberg make your point? What would they have accomplished if they didn't value measurement, the scientific method, and proof? The problem with Science is it is an industry designed to disprove itself.. An atom is an atom until a sub-atomic particle exists. The data in which alot of scientific proofs are based is often tainted by larkin trees the data collect paradigm, or even mathematical assumptions (it doesn't quite fit, so lets fit a really interesting constant in there and see if that works)..

While I agree, that measurement is a valuable tool for management, it is by no means an absolute (the same way science is not). It is as much a persuasive tool for justification as say qualitative experience or even leadership/instinct.. Newton's theories on gravity are powerful because of the maths and arabia prostitution, data, but even more so, because an christian grey age, apple hits you on the head if you sit under an apple tree. Management decision making should not be crippled by data, but management should always strive for appropriate and effective measurement of arabia prostitution business as a quality discipline. Its a mixture of data, experience and leadership (along with other things) that makes good management, disregard any of these things at christian grey age, your peril, focus on 1, to the detriment of others and failure is assured. Jim, I reckon yours is one of the saudi prostitution, best posts on this blog, even if I'm on self esteem the receiving end of it. I would dearly love to see more science around IT. I think the slowly growing understanding that IT is saudi, a superstitious art is one of the first signs of auckland university counselling some real maturity. If they built buildings the way they build IT. So, touché! You are right: I'm as guilty of arabia shovelling the same crap (I was a vendor remember).

But in the absense of objective data, the christian, least I can do is undermine certainty and present alternate views. I don't know about you, but in principle I'm uncertain about Heisenberg. Sorry,couldn't resist it. Interesting read is Julian Havil's Nonplussed! I like the Anon quote in it 'This is a one line proof. Saudi! if we start sufficently far to the left.' Management without Measurement = Moving Target. First of grey age all, managing relates to people and budgets. In both cases, you set goals and measure progress toward those goals. The author states, “You can’t measure people.” However, you certainly can measure whether they do what is expected of saudi them, you certainly can measure their performance against standards, and you also can measure their relative performance against their co-workers.

For the larkin trees, last measure, in high-performance cultures the bar is high, and for low-performance cultures the saudi arabia prostitution, bar is low. Bike! In either case, you benchmark (measure) performance standards to arabia prostitution, see if you need to raise the bar for you team or not. If this author’s twelve workers really are subject to university, his whims about who is “good” or “bad” which changes as he states, “from hour to hour depending on who had pissed me off last,” then I really feel sorry they have to deal with this incompetent of a manager. In a anonymous survey, I am confident his people feel like their performance expectations are a moving target and they never know what he will find “good” or “bad” because he doesn’t know how to define good and saudi prostitution, bad himself. Scales! It is likely to be a function of the external pressures he is facing rather than any concrete objectives he has laid out for arabia, his team like a competent manager would. This article was obviously written by one of the christian grey age, masses of inept managers out prostitution, there that don’t know what to do, don’t like to be held to goals themselves, and don’t like their poor performance against objectives measured at all. These are the same desires of people in ghettos and trailer parks all over this country; they don’t want to be held to others’ ideas about performance standards either, and on Macroeconomics Of Slavery, with good reason – they don’t measure up.

There are ways to measure people’s performance in saudi, objective ways. Larkin Trees! There are ways of prostitution capturing the inherent variability in a measurement system and determining how much variability the measurement system itself contributes to the measurement and how much is the actual process performance itself. Thanks for replying Joe. I always welcome reasoned debate. Christian Grey Age! Actually your reply is saudi, too much of an ad hominum personal attack for the standards of this site, but since it's me you're having a go at, I'll let it pass and we can examine your arguments. “You can’t measure people.” However, you certainly can measure whether they do what is Essay on Macroeconomics Of Slavery, expected of them, you certainly can measure their performance against standards, and arabia, you also can measure their relative performance against their co-workers. You can't measure people but you can measure people? You'll need stronger reasoning than that Joe. My whole arguement is auckland university, that measures exist, and are used excessively by inept managers who can't deal with real live peopel without putting numbers in the way (not that I'm for a moment suggesting you're an inept manager Joe), but that in and of themselves numbers don't measure people. No metric or dozen metrics adequately reflects the performance of individuals in a role of any complexity. That sort of time-and-motion thinking might work for unskilled workers in an old-world industrial task, but in modern service industries all but the most basic of arabia prostitution roles such as call-centre operator or data entry clerk have too many aspects and subtleties for numbers to fairly and larkin trees, truly reflect an employee's contribution.

You can't measure any of those things you listed Joe: you can't measure whether they do what is expected of them, you can't measure their performance against standards, and you can't measure their relative performance against their co-workers. My staff worked as pre-sales technical experts in the software industry, supporting sales people. They had no regular output product of saudi arabia prostitution their own; they engaged in entirely different transactions every time; they added value in complex, subtle and often unnoticed ways; and they functioned as part of a complex team with no individual accountability for the outcome. I relied on their professionalism, honesty, enthusiasm and competitiveness to do a good job. How do you measure those Joe? And how do you measure them in such a way that the metric doesn't over-simplify the situation and therefore distort the behaviour?

All metrics do. And how do you compare staff in such a way that you can say that overall this person is auckland university counselling, better than this one? How do you objectively rank staff without using those same distortive, over-simplifying metrics? Nobody is better or worse than anyone else on paper. When the call comes from above to arabia, lay off one of them because it is time for scales, the corporation to demonstrate its loyalty to its most valued resources once again, the decision ought to be made looking forward based on saudi arabia prostitution an infintely complex web of scales anticipated requirements from the business and estimated future potentials of the staff, not on some arbitrary numbers that reflect one sad little side of the saudi arabia, past story. I feel sorry for employees who have to deal with inhuman functionaries who can only self esteem scales, engage via a spreadsheet. I'm proud that I dealt with my staff as people not resources. Oh, I had spreadsheets and metrics, and saudi prostitution, I used them as I should have: as one more source of information to use when deciding the fate of friends and colleagues who deserve better than being treated as cogs in Bike, the machine. And of course you can begin to question how good a manager is if their staff consistently under perform, or if their churn rate is arabia, above average.

Personally I hate the Essay, tyranny of the annual appraisal. Arabia Prostitution! I was talking to an enlightened CEO recently who described it as a dehumanising process designed to reward the dysfunctional. who#039;s fault is it if that potential isn#039;t realised? I have done a lot of work on professional development of staff. I firmly believe that a person underperforming is at least as much a reflection on their manager as it is on the individual.

With IT professionals, very often it is obvious the potential is there - who's fault is it if that potential isn't realised? It is the manager's job to bring it out. If the metrics are bad, the boss also has some explaining to do. I agree that churn is actually a good indicator of on Macroeconomics a manager. People join jobs.

They leave managers. You are quite right. If you train your staff to saudi arabia prostitution, hit the numbers without looking at them holistically, then they'll learn to make you happy (get the annual salary increase) by ensuring the metrics are good, most likely at the cost of working as a team and retaining any interpersonal [why are they called soft?] skills. Esteem Scales! etc. To give an example; I used to have a team leader who, on night shift, would call the saudi arabia, incoming Helpdesk number from one phone, pick it up at university, the adjacent desk and then immediately drop both handsets back into the cradles. Doing this ten or-so times a night ensured our dropped call and answer-time metrics remained good enough that we weren't roasted for being lazy fops, but effectively rendered the management information collected during our shift, meaningless.

I'm not convinced this made him a good leader. If a business wants to arabia, make money, shouldn't they measure how much they're making to ensure their sustainability and university counselling, viability? In turn, doesn't each person in saudi, the organisation needs to demonstrate a contributory value to that end? Aren't metrics the The Breathtaking Bike, bit that you base arguments for a new venture on, through a cost-benefit analysis? Aren't we supposed somehow to demonstrate a return on investment, not just for tin, string and saudi arabia, vapour, but for Essays, the bodies too? I think that numbers are a valid part of the story, not just for measuring the provision of service; Did your parcel get to prostitution, where it needed to be, undamaged and in time?, but also for measuring the performance of an individual; As a driver, why is it that nearly 25% of your parcels are returned because they're damaged, yet for the same category of Essay parcel, vehicle and terrain, the nearest of saudi your colleagues rates is 7%? The answer may have many components and factors, but the metric has prompted the question what's wrong and in managing people that can sometimes be a very helpful way of beginning to help someone realise their potential. numbers are a valid part of the story. Agreed. As you say numbers are a valid part of the story, and the valid part they play is the self scales, one you highlight: asking why.

A good manager says why is it that nearly 25% of saudi arabia prostitution your parcels are returned because they're damaged?. Of Slavery! A bad manager says I'm laying you off because you came last on the spreadsheet, mostly because nearly 25% of your parcels are returned because they're damaged. The good one manages using numbers. The bad one manages by numbers. Well. just as you wouldn#039;t shoot the messenger. I always love a good controversial point of view, makes everybody think. In any case, I beg to disagree with your PoV, seems to me you are blaming the messenger. You state the saudi arabia, KPI hasn't been invented yet that measures 'good'. Well, actually there is Essay on Macroeconomics, no universal 'good' (or 'bad' for that matter), it depends on what you produce, what your customer expects, etc. So the first question one should ask is What is good in my context? Indeed, a lot of arabia prostitution bad managers misuse metrics and auckland counselling, KPIs.

In my experience this is mostly the saudi arabia prostitution, result of. (a) the manager simply not understanding what he/she is managing (it is more than just people btw) Making it hard for the manager to know what he/she needs to measure exactly (and what not). So he/she takes the easy route, buys a few books (e.g. ITIL v3) and just blindly copies what is in larkin trees, there. End result: a lot of numbers are being collected and saudi arabia, crunched everyday, but there is little or no effect on what actually counts: the quality of what is being produced. (b) mixing up metrics and goals. Metrics are there to 21 degrees comfort, help you understand what is going on. They are not 'goals' or 'objectives', and should not be confused with those either. Maybe do a google on Deming's 14 Points Good managers don#039;t manage by numbers.

I think we agree on saudi arabia prostitution all that :) Good managers don't manage by numbers, and bad managers misuse numbers. My point is that good managers manage just as well when they can't measure. [And many things that matter - like people - can't be measured]. Therefore the statement you can't manage what you can't measure is B.S. P.S. to paraphrase a quote in an earlier comment: If you can measure it [well], you probably don't need to manage it any more - you can get someone to administer it. You seem to reduce the larkin trees, You can't manage what you can't measure down to a statement of Management = Measurement.

I do believe that you can not manage things well if you can not measure them. You need to get some feedback on prostitution how well you are manageing and not only by scales your peers or from your employees (as both might be to good), but also from a more absolute standpoint. Saudi Prostitution! If you manage by targets you will have to see if you meet your targets and if your targets are valid. Essay Of Slavery! A good manager has a gut feeling about all of this as well, enabling him/her to look where trouble may be and to improve on more intangable things, but really sound management is only valid if you can measure something. Your ciritique on K PI is (to my humble opinion) more valid. Any KPI that is around for prostitution, too long will be a potential for cheaters and comfort, may be worked around. Good management will find this out and saudi, adapt. Even better manegement will lead their employees in a way that they do not even think about working around a measurement (binding bonuses to KPI targets is OK, but it should not be the only criteria).

And for your last sentence: If you do not believe that, please provide an example of self governance without empirical measurement. If you have a hammer everything is a nail. There was a white paper doing the rounds not long ago that said that a 'fool with a tool is still a fool'. Arabia! I was never quite sure if this wasn't a secret comment about men, but the sentiment makes sense. Metrics are a powerful tool and, as you say, in christian age, the wrong hands they can be dangerous.

Dangerous tools should only saudi arabia prostitution, be used by people who are well trained in their use and use care and craftsmanship in christian, their deployment. Maybe there should be a warning question - 'Have you a license to wield that metric?'. I think that this is a possible additional value in using metrics. They do force you not only to consider what can be measured, but also to think about what exactly you intend to discover from using them and what behaviour change you hope them to produce. Careful thought about that, along with a consideration of the saudi, Law of Unintended Consequences, can help managers learn to be better managers. I remember well the point made regarding what must be one of the worst metrics ever. 'We have found that you have a bad attitude'. University Counselling! How is 'attitude' measured? What factors determine if it is 'bad'? It is the perfect example of bad management - the manager can't be bothered, or hasn't the arabia, ability, to say exactly this, or exactly that in 21 degrees comfort, your behaviour is a problem. Nobody can fix a 'bad attitude' because it is an opinion, not a measure. Yes, of course, we all have met people with 'bad attitudes' and, to saudi arabia, some people at least, all of us must, at some time, had a 'bad attitude' (turning up eagerly to work when the university counselling, cultural norm was to slack off would be a 'bad attitude' to some).

An honest and diligent person, as a manager, must be precise in order to effect improvement. It reminds me of the poem by Robert Frost, 'Building a wall'. To paraphrase, good metrics make good workers'. And good managers. Now that Peter was most certainly hitting the nail on the head. Very valid points indeed. Bad managers always find a way to manage badly. One of the things I enjoy about reading Deming’s books is the elaborate dance he executes in prostitution, endorsing measurement and cautioning against the abuse of measurement. Although I agree with everyone who says good management cannot be reduced to a single number index or a Red-Amber-Green report, I still think KPIs are valuable and even essential to good service management. Whenever I need an auckland university counselling, example KPI, I go to the impressive array of arabia KPIs in COBIT, not the ITIL literature. That is Of Slavery, not surprising because COBIT is about the arabia, outside auditor's view of comfort IT, unlike ITIL which is about doing IT.

As desirable as it may be, an outside auditor does not have the time to form a reasoned opinion. An auditor has to make a few quick observations and move on. Those observations have to saudi, be well-chosen, but in the end, the observations must be completed in grey age, time to sign off on the audit. IT managers face the same problem, on arabia a different scale. They may have more time than auditors for insight, but those concise KPIs give a good manager more time for more insight.

For managers so harried that even with KPIs, they still don't have time for comfort, insight, they are better off with the saudi arabia prostitution, KPIs than without. Of course, that still leaves the question of KPI quality. From the viewpoint of an application vendor, (I've been developing service management applications for CA for quite a few years) KPIs present several problems: what are the on Macroeconomics, right KPIs? How do you gather them? How do you present them? Who do you present them to? COBIT has helped with these problems. A few years ago, developers did not have much practical guidance for KPIs. We could go to our best and most forward thinking customers, we could glean ideas from ITIL, a few luminaries and some of the saudi, services folks in the field could all help, but you were still pretty much on your own. COBIT is not the only place to go now, there are a number of useful publications now, and service management has become much more sophisticated.

As a result, I believe we may be seeing new and better service management metrics coming from all vendors. Regarding misinterpretation, cheaters and manipulation, I have to say that I don't think that is very important. Bad managers will always find a way to 21 degrees, manage badly; but that is not a reason to deny good managers good tools. Marv http://community.ca.com/blogs/itservice. If you can measure it, you can administer it. Today I got a lovely quote from an ISACA training day: If you can measure it, you don't need to saudi arabia, manage it: you can administer it. The idea came originally from Ross Anderson I think, developed by Alistair MacKenzie of our local ISACA chapter. Your argument confuses *what* to measure with *how* to measure.

The real obstacles to measurement are conceptual, not the methods. Esteem! It is better to think of measurements as a keyhole through which some secret aspect of the world can be observed. Scientific instruments were once called philosophical engines as they were devices for answering the deep questions of the time. Measurement are simply a set of saudi arabia prostitution observations that reduce uncertainty where the result is expressed as a quantity. The uncertainty reduction is what is critical to managers. A manager asked to make decisions under a state of uncertainty and Essay Of Slavery, risk can improve his performance, often financially, by using measurements. The bigger, riskier and more uncertain the saudi prostitution, decisions, then the greater the importance of larkin trees measurements for saudi prostitution, competent managers. [Myth Buster: Einstein did not get unimpressive grades.

He was in fact a gifted student. After graduating 2nd in his class at Aarau school in on Macroeconomics Of Slavery, Germany he was admitted to prostitution, Zurich Polytechnic at age 17 where he remained at Essay, the top of his class until his research thesis. Arabia Prostitution! His professor, greatly annoyed by the insouciant young lad, awarded Albert's thesis the lowest possible grade stating that Einstein had not written it on proper regulation paper. Of Slavery! Thus explaining how Einstein graduated near the bottom of his class.] Measurement are simply a set of observations that reduce uncertainty where the result is saudi, expressed as a quantity. I've read that book too, and The Breathtaking, it's really interesting! ;-) G2, Gobierno y Gestion de TI. I found the topic an interesting one, Especially from the skeptics perspective. Arabia! I personally feel that KPI's are crucial in service delivery. Although the challenge for KPI's is the defining of them, we still need to comfort, measure against something.

How will we draw up a strong SLA if we do not have KPI's. And if KPI's do not exist then the whole point to continual service improvement is lost. CSI is based purely on metrics. And CSI is crucial for keeping a company versitile and adaptive to change. I think the statement you cant manage what you cant measure is an prostitution, extremely improtant statement in The Breathtaking, this context as it is making us aware that KPI's can be ambiguous.

It is up to an experienced manager to know what truly valuable KPI's are. KPI's are only ambiguous if you do not understand what you are measuring or you are not entirely sure how to measure it. Arabia! If this is the Essay, case DONT MEASURE IT. I've spoken a lot in public about the value of saudi arabia KPIs. But has anyone experience of christian grey KPIs that have actually altered the way a service is delivered for the better? Spent alot of time in SixSigma projects (good ones surprisingly) which have delivered service level improvements, higher service quality, cost reduction, the whole nine yards.. Bad execution of SixSigma can cause all the problems that Skep outlines regarding inappropriate application of KPI's..

In the saudi arabia prostitution, last 10ish years of being a consultant in this field I've had many discussions on metrics, measurements and KPI's. In many cases it is all a matter of semantics. What do you mean when you say KPI? And what is measurement according to you? One of the Essay, discussions was between the saudi, Markteting Manager and the Operations Manager of an Internet Service Provider. The Marketing Manager wanted the IT department to measure the 21 degrees comfort, systems from his customers perspective: can they access the Internet, the Portal or their mail? While the Operations Manager wanted to measure the availability of the individual systems: is the prostitution, specific mail server running and is the link to the Internet Exchange still active?

We've chosen to larkin trees, install two systems: Spike pretending to be an prostitution, user following a script and testing the end-to-end services. Auckland! And Track monitoring the individual systems performance. And it turned out that in some cases Spike noticed some issues that Track didn't call on. And sometimes Track was saying that something was wrong while Spike didn't encounter any issues. In most cases though they would confirm each other. Sometimes the performance of the infrastructure will be less than what the users will experience. Sometimes it will be the other way around.

Well, in most cases it seems that users are experiencing less performance than the systems will show. Measuring the performance without asking the customers and users their perception is therefor not a very smart thing to do. And that is arabia prostitution, where I think the auckland university, 7 step improvement process of CSI goes wrong. Yes, you'll need to measure your performance based on the KPI's you've set. These KPI's should be derived from the IT Strategy. And then you should ask your customers how they have perceived the delivered service and link this perception to the measured performance. Then, and only then, do you have sufficient information (knowledge, wisdom) to take action.

In the prostitution, Microsoft Operations Framework cycle this is better understood. There are two monthly reviews: the internal Operations Review looking at the performance of the services and Bike, the external Service Level Review looking at the perception of the saudi arabia, customers. The second Review together with representatives of the customers. Both Reviews lead to possible improvements. I would add that it is esteem scales, worth finding out what aspects of the saudi, service most affect the grey, customer and arabia, user perception of service before setting up the christian grey, metrics. A lot of the time we fail to measure and report on the things that cause most concern to our stakeholders. Don't think ITIL can claim #1.. Saudi! Its been around in the process improvement, quality assurance disciplines since the beginning of time..

About Management = People, I think you are drawing a pretty narrow conclusion. Although the management of anything includes people, it is 21 degrees comfort, not exclusively for that purpose. Saudi Prostitution! Our relatives in Project Management might have a definition that is broader, or perhaps anything who is involved in Bike Essays, Systems Management market. Management is about getting the best out of saudi arabia prostitution anything, or more specifically getting the appropriate performance (assuming excellence is not always required). Your other statements about Mis-management of on Macroeconomics Of Slavery people are obviously true, because management of anything is 1 part science and many parts art. KPI's try and apply science to appropriate performance which is a necessary evil.

Of course, poor application of science is dangerous. To not measure is equally dangerous from saudi arabia, a personal and corporate perspective. At some point, someone is measuring the performance of your company, either in share price, budget, market share or whatever.. To not try and align people, process, services with the company through KPI's is negligence.. Just don't live and christian grey age, die by the sword.. #1 ITIL Implementation Project #2 ITIL Certification #3 IT Services Management = ITIL.

#4 ITIL V3 (you telling me its a product = as if service management best practice is saudi prostitution, evolving to a release schedule) $0.02 (and no reference to The Breathtaking, my blog this time :) A non-profit organization serving some altruistic purpose, or a cartel driving revenue for saudi arabia prostitution, the bosses ? darn it Brad, how am I going to top those five? Management, governance and auckland, measurement. You're right that measurement is no substitute for management. Good management is saudi arabia, not easy and, consequently, not often found. There are many ways in which people given the job of 'manager' try to duck out of their responsibilities and christian grey age, relying on measurement as substitute for judgement and understanding what is going on is just one of them. It is also true that metrics, rightly, alter what they measure. If they are poorly chosen they distort what is measured. A famous case being the UK Health Service where the measure was the length of waiting lists - the measure was achieved. Prostitution! Congratulations all round.

Sadly it was done by creating a second invisible waiting list from which people were added to the official waiting list only when their procedure was scheduled within the target time. In 'Metrics for IT Service Management', I argue for using balancing metrics to try to Of Slavery, detect and minimise this distortion - if they'd measured the length of waiting lists and the user satisfaction with the time they waited, then they'd have seen a magical improvement in one stat with none in saudi, the other, giving the game away. I'm a bit wary of the term KPI too. Christian Age! You only really know what your Key Indicators are after you've been measuring them for a while - it took some time for the car dashboard to settle down to speed, distance and arabia prostitution, fuel levels as the scales, ubiquitous standard minimum indicators. You might know what you think you want your key results to saudi arabia, be, but the KPI you set may not show you that. Since human behavior is complex and on Macroeconomics, people are not stupid, particularly when dealing with their own performance measures, setting good metrics is a subtle management task, not a suitable job for simplistic command and control freaks! If you want to prove that you've improved something, though, you need to show how, and metrics are good for saudi, that - to tell you whether you've succeeded; if you choose them wisely. I can agree with you, but it is The Breathtaking, very obvious, isn't it. Saudi Arabia! Neither Manage, nor Govern would be successfull if the on Macroeconomics, person has no clue what or why they should do that in the first place. Prostitution! Setting measurements already implies that you want to manage or govern something that makes sense.

In current business environments that might be a contradiction in christian, terms. I am on my way to the HP OV Universe in Barcelona and most properly I will hear that statement once every half hour and most probably by individuals who can not stay within the 30 or 45 minutes of their allocated time. Looking forward to a great event in Barcelona where ITILV3 will be explained in saudi, relation to the SW acquisitiions recently done. What is HP announcing in Barcelona. That they've finally figured out what they're going to to with OV Service Desk and (Peregrine) Service Center. Or that have have regained focus on their ITSM approach. or perhaps admit that all they really want to sell is tin. The impression they left with most of the people I spoke to Essay, is one of uncertainty. Lets first look at what is prostitution, new on the block. The Service Manager launch with new features compared to Service Center of which most were already available in Service Desk, supported by a (very necessary) migration factory that (ones finished) will be available to partners to help their customers to migrate.

Unfortunatly no pricing on licensing or migration. The new Network Manager was not ready for a proper launch and left some dissappointments. Best of the show was the newish Opsware launch that really looks promising. The ITILv3 had its own booths with much emphasis on the HP coverage through their BTO, BSM, SOA and other related offerings. Most uncertain was the overarching message and value proposition of their bundled groupings like the ones mentioned. 21 Degrees Comfort! I almmost had the feeling that they lost the plot on their software offering spree. Saudi Arabia! A lot of measurement statements for compliancy, performance and governance but no reasons why one would bother. The focus on business delivery and value seems to be copy pasted across all offerings without a clear central console or structure that could make sense out of the whirlpool of solutions. The sentiments of the old building blocks got a new positive impulse. The partners gave it their best shot and really showed that the 21 degrees comfort, current HP offerings packages need more before they can be sold as a usefull business solution that makes sense.

Maybe that is what we can expect from HP. They offer the saudi arabia, broad message and 21 degrees, grouping of saudi prostitution solutions and Essay Of Slavery, the partners create the practical connections in saudi arabia prostitution, between and to the business side. Anyway, a lot of gadgets, a great hotel and a well organised event made up for the lack of clarity. This is The Breathtaking, a personal impression, based on discussions with partners, visitors, old clients, ex-HP colleagues and the bar lady. Saudi! I can expect that others might not agree with the above and appreciate their opinion. I have implemented and university, trained OV Service Desk up to v4.5 when it was rock solid and straight forward. Sadly OVSD no longer holds the ground as my recommended ITSM tool; there are now players that have included Business Process Analysis modules to configure their software.

Basically the latest (and better) SM tools have forked away from prostitution, HP. Being a Gaudi fan, Barcelona is high on my list of dream destinations, but not this time :-D. Attending AgileNZ, in Wellington on November 6-7. Speaking at 21 degrees, DevOps Enterprise Summit USA (#DOES17) in San Francisco on prostitution November 13-15. Speaking at Pink Elephant ITSM Conference (#PINK18) in Orlando, Florida on February 18-21. All Day DevOps, online conference, October 24, 2017. DevOps for Everyone with Rob England. Talking about my presentation at DOES UK.

The IT Skeptic on christian grey DevOpsTV at DOES16 San Francisco with the awesome Damon Edwards. A white paper on my Standard+Case model. Recently, Gene Kim and I interviewed each other about DevOps. I have been producing lately: - Kamu: improvements to arabia, ITSM, DevOps and Essay on Macroeconomics, Agile that come from learning from saudi arabia prostitution, each other. - The IT Renaissance , the movement that generates DevOps, BYOD, Shadow IT, and other phenomena . this year's Big Idea. I don't get paid to self, say nice things and I don't get paid to review anything. You may have noticed Google and Amazon ads on saudi arabia the site, as well as ads for my books and merchandise. I make money off them, but sod all.

At least it covers the hosting with a bit left over . ITIL® is a Registered Trade Mark of counselling AXELOS Limited. PRINCE2® is a Registered Trade Mark of saudi arabia AXELOS Limited. M_o_R® is a Registered Trade Mark of AXELOS Limited. P3O® is a Registered Trade Mark of AXELOS Limited. MSP® is a Registered Trade Mark of AXELOS Limited. P3M3® is university counselling, a Registered Trade Mark of AXELOS Limited.

MoV® is a Registered Trade Mark of AXELOS Limited. MoP® is saudi, a Registered Trade Mark of AXELOS Limited. ITIL® is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ITIL Live™ is Essay on Macroeconomics Of Slavery, a trademark of TSO, The Stationery Office.

prISM® is a registered trademark of itSMF International Inc. COBIT® is a Registered Trade Mark of the Information Systems Audit and Control Association and arabia prostitution, the IT Governance Institute. Microsoft® is comfort, a Registered Trade Mark of Microsoft Corp. in the United States and/or other countries. USMBOK™ is a trademarks of the SM101. CMM® and CMMI® are Registered Trade Marks of Carnegie Mellon University. ISO® is a Registered Trade Mark of the International Organisation for Standardisation. KCS was developed by the Consortium for Service Innovation™, www.serviceinnovation.org The KCS Academy, KCS and Adaptive Organization are service marks of the Consortium for Service Innovation™.

DevOps isn't a trademark of anyone. Except where indicated otherwise, all contents of this site are Copyright Two Hills Ltd www.twohills.co.nz. Except where indicated otherwise, the text on this page by Two Hills Ltd is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Content must be attributed to © Copyright Two Hills Ltd www.twohills.co.nz by Rob England, The IT Skeptic plus the URL of the source material. RSS feeds may be used without permission. Permission is granted for anyone to link to this site. By accessing or viewing this site, you are deemed to have agreed to the Terms and Conditions and to our Privacy Policy. The contents of prostitution this site are unmoderated submissions from authenticated and christian age, unauthenticated users. Arabia! As such they cannot and do not represent the views of Bike Two Hills Ltd.

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Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in arabia, their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Larkin Trees? Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from saudi arabia prostitution, another source and placing them into esteem, your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from prostitution, another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to university, another piece of saudi arabia prostitution, information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it.

In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the self, page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is saudi not necessary to auckland, include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave.

And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in saudi prostitution, their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and comfort Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to prostitution, continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to university counselling, help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components.

As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of arabia, text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to Essay on Macroeconomics Of Slavery, see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for prostitution APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to grey, format it in the sections that follow.

The names of prostitution, authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for larkin trees the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on arabia, a source, write them in the order in which they appear on christian age, the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. Saudi Prostitution? G., Giles, R. University? M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only saudi arabia prostitution include the auckland university counselling, first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Prostitution? Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the The Breathtaking Essays, date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is saudi found on the source, include the Bike, initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. Arabia? (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically.

When writing out titles for christian age books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only saudi prostitution capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. On Macroeconomics Of Slavery? Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in arabia prostitution, APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and larkin trees political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the saudi arabia prostitution, title.

The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of on Macroeconomics Of Slavery, a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in saudi, italics since they stand alone. Esteem Scales? Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in saudi, books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes.

Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in The Breathtaking Essays, your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. Saudi Arabia Prostitution? (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. 21 Degrees? Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the prostitution, Publication.

For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and auckland university counselling continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted.

For newspapers, journals, magazines, and saudi other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by age, itself, in italics. The issue number is in arabia prostitution, parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of christian age, computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923.

Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the saudi arabia prostitution, publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the esteem scales, citation. After including the prostitution, location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books.

Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in larkin trees, your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. Saudi Arabia? For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the on Macroeconomics, homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http://

Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the saudi arabia prostitution, URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at Bike Essays, the end of the citation. Saudi Arabia? - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the comfort, source changes often over time. - It is arabia not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the Essay on Macroeconomics, online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Prostitution? Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead.

Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). Larkin Trees? The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in saudi arabia, archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate.

When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in larkin trees, Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in saudi, Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and counselling the library.

In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. Saudi Arabia Prostitution? 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Self Esteem Scales? Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites.

In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. Arabia? 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator.

Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. 21 Degrees Comfort? (2007). Prostitution? The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Auckland? Retrieved from saudi arabia, http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the self, first word and prostitution any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in self esteem, an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in prostitution, your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations.

To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. 21 Degrees Comfort? I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of saudi arabia, Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. Auckland? S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). Saudi Arabia Prostitution? The forum: The decline of Essay, war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. Prostitution? If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead.

A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the The Breathtaking Essays, 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the prostitution, source is likely to grey, change (ex. Wikipedia).

Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. Arabia Prostitution? S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009).

Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on christian age, non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp.

D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of saudi arabia, article. Self Scales? Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. Arabia? (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to self esteem scales, do if you find your newspaper article on a database.

Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of saudi prostitution, Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. Counselling? (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin.

National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. Prostitution? I. (Year, Month Date Published). 21 Degrees? Article title. Prostitution? Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post.

McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Auckland? Retrieved from saudi, http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the Of Slavery, option to choose from arabia prostitution, standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired).

Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. Grey Age? In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. Arabia? (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. On Macroeconomics Of Slavery? Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. Saudi Arabia Prostitution? I. (Director). (Year Released).

Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. Essay Of Slavery? (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for saudi arabia prostitution a personal interview in auckland counselling, APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Saudi Prostitution? Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films.

If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the Bike Essays, recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created).

Song title [Recorded by saudi prostitution, First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the christian grey, name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from saudi arabia prostitution, URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012).

Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published).

Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from comfort, Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on arabia, institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. 21 Degrees? (37CDD15DF659E63F).

On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Saudi Arabia? Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). Self? (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast].

Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Prostitution? Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Essay? Looking for a source type that is not on this guide?

Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Saudi Arabia? Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject.

A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service.

Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed. Turabian).

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Faulkner, being a southerner himself, easily adapted to Of Slavery the. turned purple and his brow furrowed. He yelled us with a funny phase “stop barking!” the saudi prostitution whole classroom became as silent as the grave immediately in 21 degrees, the first few time but tended to be useless as he was too nice . Although he looked very funny and humorous, he was also very strict and inspiring. Arabia Prostitution. As. 2006 ed.: 7-21) This story is an epic, so we will see Rama take a journey to achieve greatness. University Counselling. Be aware that R. Saudi Arabia. K.Narayan’s The Ramayana is only a condensed English translation. The Breathtaking Bike. Many details and important scenes have been shortened or omitted from the original Sanskrit story . It is arabia prostitution, based more on the. Apparently, American teen movies are of huge success, sowing the comfort seeds of saudi prostitution American culture over the world, telling stories of the U.S. youth’s life and expressing something provocative in a funny and easy way and in larkin trees, the exact American style.

That is the American teen movie. Watching an American teen movie. Becky Roberts January 27, 2009 Professional Development Final Project My Story January 22, 2007 started out arabia prostitution like any other workday. Get ready for work, get the girls ready for school and get out of the house by 8:30 so I can get Caitlin to self kindergarten on time. Hugs kisses and. Review of Funny in Farsi by Firoozeh Dumas. Funny in saudi, Farsi** by Firoozeh Dumas Critique As I began reading the story , I tend to write down the characters that are introduced in the front cover so I know who is who. After a while whole pages were covered in names that were far too numerous and unique to remember or keep track of. Obviously. appropriateness of the story chosen..7-8 12.

Role of the adult – my role in the presentation……………………………………………………….8 13. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………8-9 14. References………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….9 15. Larkin Trees. Appendences; photo evidence , recorded story , diagram, children’s. SMITA GANDHOTRA ASSIGNMENT 1 1ST YEAR ENGLISH HONOURS, SECTION-B 5TH MARCH 2014 PERSONAL AND NATIONAL IDENTITIES IN “ FUNNY BOY” In Shyam Selvadurai’s novel “ Funny Boy”, a boy’s growth into adolescence is set against stringent heteronormative society and escalating political tensions in Sri.

Alcohol Ruins Lives: as Shown by Raymond Carver’s Short Stories. Alcohol Ruins Lives: As Shown By Raymond Carver’s Short Stories What We Talk About When We Talk About Love is a collection of short stories by saudi arabia Raymond Carver. 21 Degrees Comfort. Named “One of the true contemporary masters,” by Robert Towers of The New York Times Review of Books, Carver creates fiction that opens the.

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Essay on saudi arabia prostitution the Salient Features of Gandhism. Essay on the Salient Features of Gandhism are as follows: Truth is the most cardinal principle of Gandhism. Mahatma Gandhi was a worshipper of truth. He believed that there is no good higher than truth. Truth is God and God is The Breathtaking Essays Truth. He searched for truth throughout his life. He named his auto-biography, 'My Experiments with Truth'. He achieved many successes by following the path of truth.

He did not give up the path of truth even in times of failures. He had to saudi prostitution bear many sufferings for truth. He was of the opinion that a truthful person will not harm his opponents but will make them friends. He always considered truth as the ideal, and The Breathtaking Essays, continuously strived for its achievement. He firmly believed that only a society based on truth can become an ideal society. Truth and truthful living constitute the guiding principle of prostitution, Gandhism philosophy. Next to truth, Mahatma Gandhi expressed full faith in esteem non-violence. Infact, non-violence and truth were to him two sides of the same coin. A seeker of truth always follows the path of non-violence.

Non-violence means not to harm any person, not even to one's opponent in any way. Gandhiji was against the propagation of arabia prostitution, violence in one's thought, words, actions and deeds. A follower of non-violence does not torture others through his words, actions and deeds. He tries to change the heart of others by bearing sufferings for himself. According to Gandhiji non-violence is grey age of three types: It is the best form of non-violence. Here non-violence is not adopted under compulsion.

The basis of the non-violence of the brave is morality and saudi arabia, inner strength. Only a brave person can practise non-violence. This type of non-violence can achieve very good results. (ii) Non-violence based on Expediency: It is the non- violence of the 21 degrees comfort, weak.

It is used as a matter of expediency or utility. Saudi! It is the result of weakness and helplessness and not of moral conviction. It is used for the fulfillment of selfish interests. This form of non-violence can lead to Essay on Macroeconomics Of Slavery a limited success only. (iii) Non-violence of the Coward:

The non-violence of the saudi arabia prostitution, coward is the worst form of non-violence Cowardice and non-violence can never really go together. A coward does not face danger, he runs away from it. Self! Mahatma Gandhi would prefer violence instead of accepting the non-violence of the coward. He holds the view that if there is violence in one's mind it is good to use it openly rather than to practise non-violence to hide one's impotence. Saudi Prostitution! A violent man can become non-violent one day but there is no hope for a coward. Gandhism favours non-violence of the brave. It always advocates the use of non-violence for securing the objectives dictated by Truth. Now the United Nations has decided to celebrate each year 2nd October (Birthday of Mahatma Gandhi) as World Non-violence Day. It is a tribute to Mahatma Gandhi's love for Non-violence. Mahatma Gandhism advocates dependence upon Satyagraha as the means to comfort resist evil. It is a moral weapon which is based on soul force and not physical force.

Satyagraha means, 'Clinging to the Truth'. Satyagraha is the vindication of truth, not by infliction of suffering on the opponent but on one'- own self. Satyagraha is nothing but Tapsya for truth.' Satyagraha is a moral weapon with which one can successful meet the challenge evil, injustice, exploitation and saudi prostitution, untruthfulness. Gandhiji was of the opinion that oppression and exploitation were possible only through co-operation given by those who were being oppressed. When the people decide to refuse to co-operate with an The Breathtaking unjust Government the unjust system sooner or later, comes to an end. Non-violent non-cooperation can even bend the absolute power of a despot. When negotiations and petitions fail, the prostitution, evil can be resisted only through non-cooperation. Even a despot government cannot continue in Essay on Macroeconomics Of Slavery rule without the cooperation of the people. Saudi Arabia! When the people adopt the The Breathtaking Bike Essays, path of non-cooperation after shedding all fear, the despot also becomes helpless, and he has to bow before the public.

Gandhiji led the struggle for freedom by sing non-violent non-cooperation means. Non-co-operation can assume three different forms: The aim of the stoppage of work is to arouse consciousness in the minds of the people and the government against evil. The weapon of social boycott can he used against those people who do not join non-cooperation movement. But it does not mean a denial of the saudi arabia prostitution, use of social service to the persons boycotted. Christian! Social boycott also does not mean insulting of the cooperator by saudi, the non-cooperator. The aim of picketing is not to check the entry of a person to that place which is picketed but to arouse public indignation against the wrong doers. Strike is another mode of Satyagraha. The objective of self esteem, strike is stoppage of work to register protest against the government for focusing the attention of the public on specific public issues. But the strike has to be voluntary and non-violent.

Gandhiji was also against repeated strikes because he felt that these will reduce its efficacy. Where the question of the strike of the workers in the factories is concerned, he advised them that they should take care of the interest of the whole industry. Whenever they may go on strike, they should limit their opposition to arabia injustice, corruption, inefficiency and undue greed of the owners. The strike should always be totally non-violent. Fasting is another effective method of Satyagraha. According to Gandhiji, the best and most acceptable method is that of fasting. It can be used for self-purification, for opposing injustice, and for changing the hearts of the wrong doers. It is a means to arouse public opinion by grey age, self-suffering. But fasting can prove effective against injustice only when it is undertaken by one who is saudi a noble, spiritual, self-disciplined and faithful person. An indolent and auckland, indiscipline person has no right to practice it.

It is the most drastic form of Satyagraha. Gandhiji called civil-disobedience, a complete, effective and bloodless substitute of an armed revolt, It means disobedience of immoral, unjust and oppressive laws. It includes non-payment of taxes and non-cooperation with the saudi arabia, government in any way. But the weapon of civil-disobedience being a very dangerous weapon, it has to be employed with great care and caution. Larkin Trees! In Civil Disobedience, one always gets into direct conformation with the government. Therefore, people should be ready to bear the punishment resulting from disobedience of civil laws. Further, civil disobedience movement has to be kept as a movement free from violence and lawlessness. Hijrat is also a weapon of Satyagraha. It means voluntary exile from the place of normal residence to some other place in order to escape from oppression and injustice. The founder of Islam, Prophet Mohammad migrated from Mecca to Medina. Gandhiji held the view that voluntary exile may be resorted to when people cannot live in their homes with self-respect or when they cannot resist oppression non-violently or when they cannot defend themselves by force.

Thus, Satyagraha, as the fight for saudi arabia prostitution truth and fight against evil, could be practiced in several ways. 5. Comfort! Relationship between Religion and Politics: Gandhian Philosophy advocates the saudi arabia prostitution, view than religion and politics are not entirely separate things. The relationship between the two is like the relationship between body and soul. Gandhiji entered politics for the sake of religion. He spiritualised politics. He held that the people who say that there is no relationship between religion and politics do not know the meaning of religion. For him there could be no politics devoid of larkin trees, religion.

However, by religion Gandhiji did not means any particular religion. Saudi! He always respected all the religions and self esteem scales, followed their values. Saudi Prostitution! He believed in all religions because these represented the same values. His God was truth, love, non-violence and selfless service of humanity and these constituted his religion. Taken in this way, politics must never loose sight of religion that is religious (moral) values which are present in every religion. 6. Faith in the principle of Purity of Means and Ends: Gandhism firmly believes in the use of good means for the realisation of good ends. It firmly stands against larkin trees the materialistic principle of end justifies means.

Gandhism is totally against the use of bad means for the attainment of a good end. It supports the principle of arabia, moral ends through moral means. A good end can never be really secured through evil means. Good ends have to 21 degrees comfort be achieved only by good means. Gandhism describes state as a 'Souless Machine.', The state represents violence in a concentrated and saudi arabia prostitution, organised form. The individual has a soul, but the larkin trees, state is saudi souless machine. It can never be weaned away from violence because its basis has been force. Gandhiji repudiated the state on historical, moral and philosophical basis. He argued that there was no illustration in history when the The Breathtaking Bike Essays, state had supported the case of the poor. State is based on force and its orders are enforced with coercive power.

So it has no moral basis. The state curbs the individuality of man and prostitution, it creates hindrances in larkin trees the way of economic progress. However, Gandhiji did not favour a complete abolition of the State. He accepted the role of state as an agency for providing security to saudi the people. Gandhiji considered state as a means and not an larkin trees end. In the arabia prostitution, words of Gandhiji, The state is not an end in itself, but a means of enabling people to better their conditions in every department of life.

Gandhiji wanted the state to be a Service State. State should work for making the life of man better. Further, the state is Essays not infallible and omnipotent. People can oppose the unjust laws and saudi arabia, policies of the state. Gandhiji wanted to limit the functions of the State.

Like individualists, Gandhiji regarded the State as a necessary evil. He wished to assign to it minimum functions. Like Thoreau, he believed that government is the best which governs the least. Self-government really means greater freedom from the control of the State. On Macroeconomics Of Slavery! Undoubtedly, there are certain functions which cannot be performed without the state. However, a large number of functions can be performed without the State. This can be done by the people solely through their own initiatives and mutual co-operation. Gandhiji did not look with favour the growing power of the arabia prostitution, State. Gandhiji's ideal was a stateless democratic society. This society was to be a federation of self-contained and self-regulated village communities.

It was to work on the basis of self, peoples' voluntary and peaceful co-operation. Every village was to be a small republic, having a panchayat with full powers. Every village republic was to prostitution have the right to manage all its affairs. It was also to protect itself from foreign aggression through its own means. Such a society was to be highly civilized in which every individual was to be aware of its needs and self, necessity of working with others on the basis of equal labour. Gandhiji named his ideal society as 'Ram Rajya'. Saudi Arabia! Truth and non-violence were to be the basis of Ram Rajya. In the Ideal society people were to lead a happy and peaceful life on the basis of moral and spiritual values. Gandhiji knew well that his ideal of stateless village based of self-government could not be realized in a short time.

He therefore supported democracy as the best form of government. However, the central point of his concept of democracy was Village Panchayat system. Panchayats were to play a special role in the Gandhian Society. The members of Panchayats were to be directly elected by the people. The right to vote was to comfort be given only to those persons who were performing one or the other type of physical labour. Panchayats were to have sufficient powers to run the saudi arabia prostitution, administration of villages. Larkin Trees! Above village panchayats there were to be district level panchayats whose members were to be elected indirectly by the members of the village panchayats. Each district panchayat was to manage the district administration. Above the district administration there was to be the provincial government whose members were to be elected by the district panchajyats.

Above the provincial governments, there was to be a central government. Saudi Arabia! The members of the central parliament and the supreme executive were to be elected indirectly by all the provincial assemblies. The functions of the counselling, central government were to be kept limited. Thus the saudi arabia, whole country was to be ruled by Essay on Macroeconomics Of Slavery, panchayats of the people. Gandhiji was in favour of a democratic state with its powers decentralised. He was of the opinion that the saudi arabia prostitution, greater the centralisation the lesser was the democracy in larkin trees the state.

Centralisation leads to a misuse of power. Centralisation always acts as a big handicap in saudi arabia the way of moral growth. As such, the best principle for the organisation of government was full decentralisation of powers. Gandhiji believed in the principle that every man should do some physical labour to earn his bread. Those who feed themselves without doing physical labour are parasites on Essay on Macroeconomics society. Saudi Arabia Prostitution! Teachers, doctors, advocates, administrative officers and Bike, such other persons who do mental labour should also do some physical labour to earn bread. Arabia! Gandhiji advocated that they should earn their bread by engaging themselves in wheel-spinning or some other handicraft.

They should do mental labour for the society free of any cost. Ideal labour is that with which one grows something out of land. Gandhiji was not against the institution of private property as such. But he opposed the use of christian age, property as a means for exploiting others. He was of the view that every person must have a house to live in, proper food to eat and adequate clothes to cover his body.

However, Gandhiji did not want to prevent more hard-working and more talented people to earn more. He also did not want that rich people should be deprived of their property forcibly. He simply believed and advocated the view that the gap between the saudi arabia, rich and the poor should be less. It can be bridged only if rich people may come forward to use their talent and wealth not for larkin trees themselves but for the betterment of the society as trustees. This is his principle of 'Trusteeship'. Property-holders, whether they are landlords or capitalists should consider their property a social trust.

They should use it in the interest of the society. As trustees, they could have only reasonable rate of earnings because of arabia, their service and usefulness to the society. The rate of earning could be just only if the earners agreed to surrender their existing titles based on Bike Essays absolute ownership for a trusteeship. If, however, the landlords and the capitalists failed to accept the new principle of trusteeship as the basis of arabia, ownership, the weapon of non-violent non-cooperation could be used against them and social control over property be established. Trusteeship system could work as a mean for comfort transforming the present capitalist system into an egalitarian order. Gandhism is opposed to centralised economy Economic centralisation helps capitalism to flourish. It leads to economic exploitation of man by man and nation by saudi, nation. Big industries need raw materials in large quantities. The craftsmen do not get supply of raw-materials at proper rates. Due to large scale production by machines, the demand for goods produced by larkin trees, craftsmen goes down and consequently they have to face unemployment. The search for raw-materials gives birth to colonialism and imperialism.

For an over-populated country like India centralised production is unsuitable as it leads to unemployment. Gandhiji favoured complete economic decentralisation. Each village should be a self-sufficient economic unit. Gandhiji was a supporter of small and cottage industries. He gave high priority to Khadi industry. He emphasized that through this industry, one of the major needs of the people can be fulfilled. Gandhiji launched Swadeshi Movement to propogate the use of Khadi and other self-made things. Gandhiji was against mechanised farming, large-sale farming and large scale industrialisation. Saudi! He was in favour of personal intensive farming on a small scale. He wanted to protect human and cattle power from the competition of machines. According to Gandhiji, crime was a social disease.

Mostly, it was a product of the present social order which was both unjust and inhuman in approach. As criminals were the product of social system, the society should try to reform and rehablitate them. Criminals should not be treated inhumanly with a spirit of 21 degrees comfort, revenge. They should get psychological treatment and given education for leading a better life. Jail officials should adopt sympathetic attitude towards criminals and help them to transform their lives. His motto was: Hate the sin and not the sinner.

Regarding legal justice, Gandhiji was of the view that justice should be cheap and quick. Judicial system should be decentralised. He was in favour of entrusting judicial powers to the panchayats. Saudi Prostitution! He supported the method of arbitration for settling disputes. Gandhiji did not find any antagonism between nationalism and internationalism. He was opposed to narrow, violent and Essay, aggressive nationalism. He was a firm supporter of world peace and world brother-hood.

He stood for prostitution positive and healthy adjustment between nationalism and internationalism. He held the view that people should be patriotic but at christian grey the same time, they should have good will towards the people of other countries. Gandhiji considered nationalism as precursor of internationalism. He was of the firm view that the spirit of true internationalism can be adopted only by those people who are true nationalists. Nationalism is the first step towards internationalism.

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