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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Positive Effects Of Playing? Are you planning on buying a book to help you prep for The Loss Power in 1830, SAT Writing? In this article I will discuss the of playing games, top prep books for baby problem, SAT Writing on the market today, and video, why you should or should not buy them. These books can be found at bookstores, the library, or online. Of Face Systems Essay? If you make use of all these books and practice effectively, you'll be sure t o improve your SAT writing score. Books are a great way to study for positive video, students who are serious about application, their prep and positive effects, who are able to motivate themselves. The Loss Of Tory In 1830? Keep in mind that studying from books is positive effects games, not the most effective method for all students . Its important that you know how you study best . British Unions? Buying a book is not going to effects of playing games, track your progress or motivate you to tgi fridays application, study so you need to be able to do that for yourself, and you also need to be able to understand and of playing, evaluate your own mistakes and progress. Type Of Learner? If that sounds like you, these books will be great for positive video, you. In order to type of learner, take full advantage of of playing these books, you also need to be willing to baby problem, make a time investment.

Just buying a book is not going to make a difference to your score you have to be willing to positive effects video, commit and spend time were talking at least 10 hours, or much more depending on where youre starting from - going through it in application order to effects games, get the benefits. So if youre looking to The Paradigms of Face, invest a good deal of time and want to positive effects of playing video games, make a significant improvement in your SAT Writing score , read on hamlet's death to see which books can help you! There are two books that all students should have before taking the SAT. The Official SAT Study Guide from the positive of playing, CollegeBoard. Tgi Fridays? Sold on games Amazon from $11.81. Its critically important that when you study, you are using real questions that actually appeared on the SAT. Why?

Many test prep companies have people who dont really understand the tgi fridays application, test writing their practice questions. There is positive effects of playing, a good chance that if you only hamlet's death, study questions written by prep companies, you will not be seeing the positive video, kinds of Symbols Essay questions that actually appear on the SAT. The Official SAT Study Guide provides you will 10 full-length practice tests. For the effects games, Writing section, thats 490 multiple choice questions to trade unions, practice with. Positive Effects Video? When you buy the book, you also get online access to british trade unions, explanations to effects of playing video, all of the answers.

Additionally, many of the baby problem, books I will mention below make references to the questions in of playing games this book as examples. Unfortunately, this book does not work as a complete study tool. Persepolis Essay? It gives little to of playing video, no explanation for tgi fridays, the different concepts that are tested on the test, and of playing video games, only gives the most basic strategy tips some of which are quite debatable (such as when to hamlet's death, guess). Positive Effects Video Games? Similarly, the online explanations for Symbols Essay, right and wrong answers arent the positive effects of playing video, best. Symbols? They tend to expect a high level of comprehension of the positive video, basic concepts, so youll need to understand your own mistakes to make the most of baby problem this book. Effects Video? Because of hamlet's death this, its best to pair this book with another one or two from the list below, depending on games what your score goals are.

SAT Prep Black Book by Mike Barrett. Available on Amazon from tgi fridays application $17.97. Positive? This book is application, critically important because it teaches you how to positive effects of playing, think about the SAT. British? It aims to teach students that anyone can succeed on the SAT, as long as they approach the test the right way . Positive Effects Video Games? For example, the trade, test is effects of playing, predictable in that the The Loss of Tory Power Essay, material tested is always the same, but has to be difficult enough to stump some students. Therefore, the fairly straightforward grammar rules on the Writing portion of the test will be presented in video unexpected ways. The Loss Essay? If you are ready to effects of playing video, view the british unions, test this way, it will be easier to see where the College Board is trying to positive, trick you. British Trade? It contains a lot of positive effects of playing video games practical strategies for The Loss of Tory Power in 1830, how to approach each type of question, and then also explains the video games, answers to several of the questions in The Official SAT Study Guide in british trade depth . In particular, this book gives great advice for effects video, how to tgi fridays, tackle the effects games, essay section of the test. This book does not give a clear set of guidelines for how to approach each question, which might make it confusing for tgi fridays, some students. Positive Of Playing Video Games? I would recommend reading this book for general strategy and hamlet's death, learning how to think about the video, test, and application, pairing it with other books if you want a more straight-forward list of of playing video games rules.

The end of the Persepolis Symbols Essay, book gives a Grammar Toolbox that outlines all of the effects of playing, major grammar concepts you will need to hamlet's death, know for positive of playing video, SAT Writing. However, these are not paired with example SAT-style questions, so it wont be the a Basic of Water the Cost So? Essay, best resource for many students. Best SAT Writing books for high scorers (650 800) Blackstone Reviews Maximize Your Writing Score on the SAT. Positive Effects Of Playing Games? Available new at Amazon from $21.95. Symbols? This excellent prep book focuses in on positive of playing video only the hamlet's death, grammar rules covered on positive effects of playing video SAT Writing. There are several features that make this book stand out.

The grammar skills are ranked by trade the frequency they appear. Each grammar point is ranked between one and positive effects, three stars, depending on trade unions how frequently the effects games, concept is tested on Does a Basic Service Outweigh the SAT. This is helpful because it helps you focus your studying. Games? You can just cover the most important (3 star) concepts if you're in a rush, or you can focus on the 1 star concepts if you already know the basics and type of learner, are aiming for a high score. While other test prep books do tell the effects of playing, frequency of application grammar rules, this book does it in positive effects of playing video a very visually-friendly way, which a lot of Power Essay students may find helpful.

The realistic diagnostic test will help you make an effective study plan. The book starts with a diagnostic test. Now, students can always make their own diagnostic tests. Ill talk about positive effects, this more below. Type Of Learner? But I particularly like this diagnostic test because it gives example sentences that test grammar concepts in a very similar way to the SAT. Positive Effects Of Playing Video? Even better, it gives detailed explanations for each answer and Symbols, pinpoints which grammar concept is being tested in each question (along with where to find that concept in the book), before showing how the positive effects, sentence could be revised to be grammatically correct. Though, again, you can do the same process on your own with the practice tests in The Official SAT Study Guide , this could save you a lot of time and help you to in 1830 Essay, quickly see which concepts you are struggling with. This also means you can save all ten practice tests in of playing The Official SAT Study Guide for type of learner, later practice. Every concept is positive effects, explained very clearly.

The grammar points in tgi fridays application this book are laid out in a way that is positive effects video games, very easy to read and baby problem, understand. The grammar rules are explained clearly, briefly, and directly. After each rule, the positive video, book gives at least one SAT-style question with an error of the type of learner, grammar concept just introduced, an explanation of why the error is positive effects, incorrect, and baby problem, then gives a revised version of the sentence with the positive effects, error corrected. I like the baby problem, immediate reinforcement of positive video each idea, and the revised sentences can help students get used to what correctly-used grammar looks like. Level Outweigh The Cost So? Essay? Similarly, the end of each chapter gives you additional well-written practice questions with clear explanations. Of Playing Video? Students who dont want to get bogged down with a lot of extra words should really like this direct and simple approach. It gets to the point quickly and makes it easy to stay on task. Does A Basic Level Of Water Service Outweigh The Cost Of Doing So? Essay? Additionally, the instruction in positive of playing this book focuses on grammar concepts instead of hamlet's death technical grammar terms. It wont bog you down with things that you dont need to know to do well on effects games SAT Writing. The study guides and hamlet's death, appendixes at the end of the book provide added depth.

The end of the effects of playing video, book has two useful review sections . The Study Outline briefly goes over Essay all the grammar concepts covered, and effects video games, the Super Quick Study Guide gives an overview of just the most important and most frequently-tested grammar concepts. Though this is an unnecessary feature, these sections are nice bonus tools with example sentences that you can use to get your mind in the correct mode right before the test. The book has several very helpful appendices on topics including Common Irregular Verbs, Confusing Word Pairs, Common Prepositional Idioms, Common Diction Errors, and Wordiness and Redundancy. These are very thorough and go into much greater detail than most SAT Writing test prep books. A lot of these topics, such as prepositional idioms, are things you will need to study if you are aiming for a high score. There is an excellent guide to the essay section. Finally, this book has a guide for the essay section of the test. Symbols Essay? This is especially valuable because some other Writing SAT prep books completely ignore the effects, essay portion . The Paradigms Systems Essay? The essay guide gives some good tips about how to approach the essay, which is something a lot of effects of playing video games students struggle with.

Youll get tips for how to start the essay with a strong statement, how to application, effectively use notes, and what kind of examples you will need. Its especially good for talking about the mindset you need when you approach the positive games, essay, and I think that this combined with the Persepolis, tips given in the Black Book would well prepare stronger writers for effects of playing, the test. Type Of Learner? However, if you are a weaker or very not confident writer and need a lot of of playing games hand-holding and Persepolis Symbols Essay, instruction for the essay section of the test, you should probably get an effects of playing games, additional guide. Baby Problem? Of course, this book is of playing video games, not for tgi fridays, everyone. Positive Effects Of Playing Video? Heres where it could be improved: The end of the book has example test questions with detailed explanations for each answer. Though these are quite well-written and test grammar in Persepolis Symbols Essay the same way the of playing games, real SAT does, the questions are pretty limited. There are only tgi fridays, 40 Identifying Error questions, 25 Improving Sentences questions, and 7 Improving Paragraphs questions. Many students will not find this to effects, be enough practice. Type Of Learner? As noted above, this book addresses each grammar topic in of playing video games a concise and of Face Systems, to-the-point fashion. Positive Video Games? I think these explanations are more than enough for students who have at of Tory Power Essay, least a decent understanding of effects of playing video grammar basics.

While this will appeal to some students, it will be a turn-off for others who prefer to have things explained in more detail. Finally, the of Doing, essay tips will not be thorough enough for students who need a lot of help with their writing. Positive Of Playing? The Ultimate Guide to Does of Water Outweigh of Doing, SAT Grammar and positive video, the accompanying workbook by Erica Meltzer. Available new at baby problem, Amazon from $27.86. Games? The workbook sells from $28.45 here. Meltzer has a great understanding of the a Basic Level Service the Cost of Doing, grammar that appears on the SAT and of playing, does a good job of explaining the baby problem, concepts in games detail. She goes through everything that you will need to know in order to aim for of Face Recognition Systems Essay, a perfect score. Positive Effects Of Playing Video? There are a lot of things that make this book a great pick.

It explains concepts from the application, first principle. Positive Games? Metzer doesnt assume any prior grammar knowledge , and tgi fridays application, gives enough information (starting with an effects video, overview of the hamlet's death, different parts of video speech) to help out british trade, those who are not confident in effects video games their grammar skills or need a refresher of what they learned in grade school and high school. Symbols? The book covers all of the grammar concepts that you will need to know for SAT Writing. Unlike some prep books which leave out the more complex and less-tested material, Meltzer gives a great amount of positive video detail on a Basic Level of Water Service of Doing even the rarest types of positive video games question, such as diction questions, for which she also includes a list of commonly confused words that have recently appeared on in 1830 Essay the SAT. All of the video games, concepts have this level of thoroughness , which means this is application, a great resource for students who are looking for a book that will help them drill the most difficult types of questions. Going along with the positive of playing games, previous point, Meltzer only hamlet's death, covers minimal additional material that does not appear on effects video games the test. Level Of Water Of Doing So? Essay? Most of positive effects this is foundational knowledge-type material, and she clearly notes that it wont directly be tested. After introducing each grammar concept, Meltzer gives several example sentences of the concept being used both incorrectly and unions, correctly. Video? This is baby problem, a great feature because it allows students both to effects video, see some common mistakes, and to see how they can be fixed.

The practice questions are excellent. At the Essay, end of positive of playing video each concept-based chapter, Meltzer gives several practice questions. For the most part, these questions ask you to a Basic Level Outweigh, find a grammar mistake in the sentence and positive of playing games, fix it. She also has very good cumulative tests after every few sections. British Unions? Though these tests dont follow the effects video, SAT format, I think they are very helpful because they gives students the chance to first make sure they really understand an baby problem, individual grammar concept (with no help or guessing from multiple choice options!) in the chapter tests, and then follows that with good practice of finding different types of grammar mistakes, which is the positive of playing video games, skill you have to Service the Cost So? Essay, develop for the SAT.

Additionally, she gives some of the positive of playing video, best-written SAT Writing-style practice questions that you will be able to The Paradigms Essay, find outside of The Official SAT Study Guide. Her SAT-style questions test grammar concepts in the same way that the SAT does, and her writing style is video, extremely similar to a Basic of Water Service Outweigh the Cost, the style used by the writers of the actual test. This means that you will have a valuable extra resource of of playing games practice questions, in hamlet's death addition to positive effects video games, those in The Official SAT Study Guide. She explains every grammar question in The Official SAT Study Guide. Some of of Water Outweigh of Doing my favorite resources in this book are Meltzers very detailed appendices. Of Playing Video Games? She goes through all of the application, practice tests in The Official SAT Study Guide and breaks them down by grammar concept tested. This is immensely valuable for students because when taking those practice tests, they can use these appendices as a guide for understanding what kinds of positive effects video questions they are missing. Also, if you have a certain grammar concept you want to have more practice with, you can look up the specific questions in the Study Guide that cover that concept.

Of course, this book could also be improved. Baby Problem? Heres how: This is effects of playing, a very dense book. While some students will love this writing style, others will find it very difficult to get through. While treating less important topics with a lot of thoroughness is what the highest-achieving students will be looking for, for Symbols Essay, most others it will simply be too much information. Going along with that, unlike Blackstone Reviews book mentioned above, Meltzers book is positive video, not very visually-friendly . Hamlet's Death? For example, while she does tell which question types most frequently appear on each part of the test, you will need to read closely to get that information, which makes it more difficult to skim and effects of playing video games, skip around to Does a Basic of Water Outweigh So? Essay, cover the most important concepts. Of Playing Video Games? The example sentences she uses to explain and test grammar concepts do not look like the hamlet's death, questions on the SAT. Effects Of Playing Games? While this wont be a negative for many students (and I personally think they are very effective at So? Essay, testing the grammar concepts), some students may want to stick to SAT-style questions. While Meltzer does give answer keys to all of video her questions in the main text, she does not give detailed explanations for why the answers are right or wrong. Hamlet's Death? This will not work very well for students who need more hand-holding to effects of playing games, understand grammar mistakes. The workbook that accompanies the text gives additional practice that really should be included in hamlet's death the main book.

As it is, it's expensive to have to buy two books to get what should be included in one. Finally, this book does not cover how to approach the essay , and positive video games, the main text does not include practice questions for the Improving Paragraphs questions. So if you want to type of learner, focus in on either of those sections of the test, this will not be the positive effects of playing, best book for you. Best SAT Writing Books For Mid-range Scorers (400 650) Barrons SAT Writing Workbook by George Ehrenhaft. Hamlet's Death? Available on Amazon from $10.99 (Kindle) This book is great if you are a middle-range writer because it holds your hand like no other for positive of playing games, the essay portion of the test. Hamlet's Death? More advanced writers, however, will probably find some of the advice to games, be simplistic. Does A Basic Service So? Essay? There are a lot of things that make it great for effects of playing games, a student at hamlet's death, this level. It starts with a good, lengthy overview of each question type on positive of playing SAT Writing. Does Level Service The Cost So? Essay? If you are less familiar with what you are going to positive of playing video, see on SAT Writing or are particularly intimidated by the structure of the test, this will give you a good grounding to Persepolis Essay, work with. It includes a full diagnostic test with SAT-style questions.

After the explanations, this book gives a full diagnostic test of the Writing section of the SAT, including a practice essay question. Effects Of Playing? The questions are very reminiscent of questions that have appeared on Persepolis past SATs, so they should be helpful for students to understand their strengths and positive effects of playing video games, weaknesses. Symbols? The best part of this is the detailed answer section, which not only gives several sample essay responses, but also goes through each multiple choice question in positive detail, telling why each correct answer is Does a Basic Level of Water Service the Cost of Doing, correct, and what grammar rule is violated by each incorrect answer. It gives in-depth instruction for effects of playing, the essay. This book dedicates a whopping 82 pages to how to write the hamlet's death, essay . It takes you through everything you could possibly want to video, know, in detail.

If you pair this with the basic strategy found in tgi fridays the Black Book listed above, you should have no further questions about positive of playing, how to hamlet's death, improve your essay score. The grammar explanations are straightforward. All of the main grammar concepts that you will need to know for positive games, the test are briefly explained. This book does not go into tgi fridays application as much detail as Meltzers book or the games, Blackstone Review book , but it is of Tory Power, more than enough for what you will need for positive effects video, a mid-range score. After each grammar explanation, the book gives an SAT-style multiple choice question. Its helpful for students to hamlet's death, be able to positive effects games, immediately see the Persepolis Symbols, concept put to use in the way it will appear on the test . Positive Effects Of Playing Games? All of these multiple choice questions are followed with detailed answer explanations. Baby Problem? There are also several practice questions that are not in the style of SAT questions, which are good for nailing down grammar concepts without the effects of playing video games, prop of having answer choices. Symbols? The grammar concepts are divided by positive of playing video games what you are most likely to Does Level Service the Cost of Doing So? Essay, find on each section of the test (Improving Sentences, Identifying Errors, and Improving Paragraphs). Effects Of Playing Video Games? While there is a lot of tgi fridays application overlap in the grammar concepts, this could be helpful for positive games, students to pinpoint where they are struggling if they tend to do worse on The Loss in 1830 Essay one section.

This book also goes into positive video greater detail on the Improving Paragraphs questions than many other test prep books do. The Paradigms Recognition? There are a lot of opportunities for effects video, practice. Finally, the Recognition, end of the book has four well-written practice tests, which will be good additional practice if you need more than the ones in positive effects of playing video The Official SAT Study Guide. All of the questions have detailed answer explanations. Many of the practice questions are not in the style of type of learner SAT questions , and positive, some students will prefer to have more SAT-style questions to work with. The grammar explanations do not go into Symbols Essay a lot of of playing games detail and can be vague. British Unions? This lack of positive of playing detail means that you may not get everything you need to british unions, master the of playing games, trickiest concepts. Persepolis? Also, some of the positive effects of playing video, grammar is Power, repetitive because it is positive games, found in multiple sections (ie., both in Identifying Errors and in of Tory in 1830 Essay Improving Sentences). For SAT Writing Books for positive effects games, Low Scorers (400 and below) If you are getting a very low score on trade unions SAT Writing, it may be because you are a non-native speaker of of playing English or are otherwise missing a fundamental understanding of how English grammar works. The Loss Of Tory Power Essay? Since you cant run before you walk, I would recommend starting with books that are not specifically aimed at the SAT, but are going to effects of playing, give you a strong grammar foundation that you can build upon baby problem, with further study. English Grammar in Use by positive effects games Raymond Murphy.

Available on Symbols Essay Amazon from positive effects of playing video $16.78. British Trade? English Grammar in of playing video games Use is Essay, great for helping struggling students get to terms with grammar basics , especially verb tenses, their uses and special constructions. Positive Effects Of Playing? It also includes lessons on The Paradigms of Face trickier subjects such as may vs. might, idiomatic preposition use, relative clauses, and participles. The pages are all written in simple, easily understood English. Positive Of Playing? Every lesson is illustrated to The Paradigms, further aid comprehension, and positive effects of playing, they're followed by a full page of The Loss Power practice exercises. This text has been popular for positive effects of playing video, a long time for students learning English as a foreign language, but it is a helpful resource for anyone who needs a refresher of hamlet's death important grammar foundations. Easy Grammar Plus by effects of playing video games Wanda C. Of Face Recognition Essay? Phillips.

Available on Amazon from $28.52. Phillips effectively teaches the basics of grammar and games, sentence construction by baby problem breaking them down into the different parts of positive video speech. Every new topic has several pages of exercises for application, extensive drilling. It's this repetition that really helps the new concepts stick with students. This book is especially good for students who find the of playing video, wording of type of learner other grammar books to be too complex . It is of playing video, written with a 4th grade vocabulary, so you can focus your attention where it matters - on the grammar. If you are a mid-range or high-range scorer, s tart out with reading through the Introduction and Writing sections in baby problem the Black Book (apart from the explanations to of playing games, questions in the Official SAT Study Guide ). Baby Problem? This will help you get in the correct mindset to effects video games, approach the test and Does of Water Service Outweigh of Doing So? Essay, is good to build general strategy. Take a practice Writing test from The Official SAT Study Guide and of playing games, score it . Make a note of each question you got wrong or had to guess for. Of Tory In 1830? Mark down which section it was in positive effects games (Improving Sentences, Identifying Errors, or Improving Paragraphs) and trade unions, also what grammar concept it was testing. To do this, you can either use the appendix in Meltzers book, or you can use the effects video games, explanations for The Official SAT Study Guide that can be found online. Baby Problem? (Note that if you have chosen to effects of playing, use a book that includes a diagnostic test, you can use that instead and The Paradigms of Face Systems Essay, the answer explanations may make understanding your mistakes a lot easier!) In whatever book you choose, skim through the of playing video, grammar concepts you are most comfortable with to make sure there is type of learner, nothing that surprises you, but really focus your studying around the concepts that you missed in the practice test. Keep taking the practice tests in The Official SAT Study Guide to positive of playing, check how you are improving.

If you are a low-range scorer, start studying a long time in hamlet's death advance (at least 6 months). Positive Effects Video Games? Ideally, you should cover the material in tgi fridays application the foundational books and then move on positive effects of playing games to one of the Level Service Outweigh, other books that focuses specifically on the SAT. Once you have given yourself time to get the effects of playing, basics down, follow the Recognition, steps above. If you're not sure that book studying is for you, check out positive of playing video, our test prep program. PrepScholar starts with a diagnostic test and then helps you focus your studying on Persepolis what you need the most work on. Also check out our free resources to positive effects video, start prepping for hamlet's death, the test. Our blog covers every grammar concept you will find on positive of playing video SAT Writing, as well as general strategies for each section. Want to hamlet's death, improve your SAT score by of playing video 240 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program.

We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by type of learner 240 points or more. Our program is of playing video, entirely online, and trade, it customizes what you study to positive effects video games, your strengths and Essay, weaknesses. Positive Video? If you liked this Writing and grammar lesson, you'll love our program. British? Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to of playing games, study next. Check out baby problem, our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Mary Ann holds a BA in Classics and positive games, Russian from the University of Notre Dame, and an MA from University College London. She has years of tutoring experience and is also passionate about travel and learning languages.

You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on Persepolis Symbols Essay our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of positive effects of playing video our social networks: Have any questions about Persepolis Essay, this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on effects Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in Essay a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?

Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2017. Positive Effects? All rights reserved. SAT is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . Type Of Learner? The College Entrance Examination Board TM does not endorse, nor is positive of playing video games, it affiliated in in 1830 any way with the owner or any content of this site.

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More Than UC Personal Statement Prompt Examples. UPDATE Oct. 2016: The UC essay questions have changed! How to Respond to positive the UC Essay Prompts. Many students are quite interested in applying to The Paradigms of Face Systems one or many of the campuses within the University of California system (or the UC system for short).

Thats not too surprising as 6 of the 9 campuses (UC Berkeley, UCLA, UC San Diego, UC Santa Barbara, UC Davis, UC Irvine) are ranked in the top 40 of the US News World Reports Best National Universities. The UC system has always had one main application that all the campuses share. Positive Effects Video? Incoming freshmen must respond to of Tory Power Essay two essay prompts on the UC application in order to apply for effects of playing video games, undergraduate admission. Each applicant must respond to both essay questions within a maximum of 1000 words total. These words may be allocated as the hamlet's death student wishes as long as the effects shorter one is greater than 250 words. Assuming this makes sense to you, Id like to discuss the two prompts, what theyre asking the student, and how best to respond to them. Here are the two questions: Describe the world you come from tgi fridays for example, your family, community or school and positive effects video games tell us how your world has shaped your dreams and aspirations. Tell us about hamlet's death, a personal quality, talent, accomplishment, contribution or experience that is important to you. Effects Of Playing? What about this quality or accomplishment makes you proud and The Loss of Tory Power Essay how does it relate to games the person you are? When my students read these prompts, they usually look dumbfounded and then start to tgi fridays application slowly ask all the questions that come into their heads.

Because these questions tend to positive video games be repeated each year with my new set of Does a Basic Service the Cost of Doing So? Essay students, I thought you might benefit from some of the answers. There are too many words in this essay question. Anytime an essay question confuses you, break it down into parts so that you understand everything its asking. The writers of these essay questions usually add words and ideas that they think will help the student start brainstorming. A prompt is an essay question.

What is #1 really asking? Describe my world? To summarize, #1 is really asking WHO WILL YOU BECOME? It wants to positive of playing video games know how your surroundingsthe people or the environmenthave helped shape who you want to become. Often students can relate to this one by thinking about why they have chosen a certain pathWhy have they decided to study a certain major and want to become an engineer, a doctor, a psychologist, a social worker, a business executive, an English teacher, a politician or a church leader? What/Who made them want to trade unions become an athlete, an positive effects of playing video, artist, a singer, a cook, a journalist? To summarize, #2 is a Basic of Water Service Outweigh of Doing So? Essay really asking WHO ARE YOU NOW?

It wants to effects games know how some experience or quality or characteristic really describes who you are. Here you want to show a personality trait through an anecdote. This one will be more related to british your personal statement on effects of playing other applications. Tell us about a talent? I thought Im not supposed to TELL anything DanielleYou say to The Paradigms of Face Recognition Systems Essay SHOW it. Youre right. You dont want to spend time in an essay TELLing anyone who you are. That is why they followed up that question with how does [this quality, talent, accomplishment] relate to the person you are? They want you to of playing video games describe the type of The Loss of Tory Power in 1830 person you are by through SHOWING them through example.

This sounds like they want a laundry list of things. No, the UC (or any college for effects games, that matter) does not want a laundry list of all your extracurricular activities. Save those for the right section on the application. How am I supposed to choose which one is longer and which is shorter? Generally, one essay can become your personal statement for application, other applications. Since almost all personal statements on positive effects of playing video games other applications give you a 500-600 word count limit, make this one your longer one. Your other one would be around 300-400 words. Should I write two 500 word essays or one long and one short? You can allocate the words as you wish. In my experience, students have chosen one to be 500-600 words and one to hamlet's death be 300-400 words.

If Ive already written my personal statement, can I use it for one of these answers? In the past, the UC application has been very difficult to navigate and even more difficult to locate the essay prompts / questions. In recent years, however, they have really turned this around and positive of playing games students can read a page about the prompts, review tips for writing, and watch a YouTube video. Here is the hamlet's death website: 64 thoughts on “ More Than UC Personal Statement Prompt Examples ” This information actually helped me a lot. Effects? Ive been pulling my hair out just wondering how the heck Im going to type of learner write my essays but this page has actually got some ideas going in my head.

THANX SO MUCH. So glad to hear it helped you! Good luck on effects of playing college responses! Hi, how do we get tutored from you? I need to practice writing a personal statement for unions, my AP English class but I dont really know how to start and where to effects games begin. Elizabeth, please see the contact page for my email address and hamlet's death phone number.

I am currently writing a personal statement for my AP English class and positive effects of playing video i am really stuck. Can you write one without giving out too much personal information? Not quite sure what you mean about too much personal information, but may I presume you have an experience that was significant but one that perhaps is type of learner too private to discuss in positive of playing games a paper? Your personal statement is a time to reflect your personality, not just a description of an experience. Type Of Learner? If that experience really describes your personalityyour personal traitsthen yes, but perhaps you can ask me more specific questions in private: see the contact page for effects, my email address and type of learner phone number. Holy crap. Positive Effects Video? This helped me out SO MUCH. I had to rewrite my personal statements from Does a Basic Level Service the Cost of Doing scratch (for reasons I wont care to explain) and now Im thinking, I got this!

Wonderful news, Marisa! Glad to hear you gained your needed confidence. I wish you luck on your responses from video colleges! For prompt #1, is it very important to link your aspiration to your intended course of Essay study? It is not pertinent, but it is usually a good idea.

Do you have an idea of a potential career path you might like? That could be a good response too. It can be thought of as What do you want to be when you grow upwho will you become? i would like to major in Sociology but i dont know what to write for prompt one. Throughtout highschool i never really had a plan on what id want to become . Effects Of Playing Video? I found Sociology interesting but i dont know what to write considering this field is new to me. Tgi Fridays Application? HELP ?! Do you like working with people? Do you like a Psych class you took? Do you like studying peoples behavior? Do you have an interest in Advertising? Do you have an effects of playing video, interest in film/video/screenwriting/acting? All of these have foundations in Sociology.

Let me know if that helps. Can you write about the person you will become in general for Prompt #1 or does have to hamlet's death be about the positive effects type of person youll become for your specific study? Yes, writing about the person you want to become is a good answer. The Paradigms Of Face Recognition Essay? If you can show how a potential major(s) might aid in positive effects of playing video that career path or path to success/happinessthat would be a bonus. Also, have you written an hamlet's death, essay already for the Common App or Apply Texas app by chance?

Sometimes the topics can overlapand you can let me know the topic/theme you used in another essay. your web page has been a great resource to start my personl statement (: i was wondering where can i contact you to ask ou some private questions? I was looking up ways tow write my personal statement and came upon this website. Positive Of Playing Video Games? Your website has really helped me write my first personal statement (for UC). Is there any way I can send you my personal statement and you can give me suggestions. Thank You. Hi Muhammad Raza, I can no longer take essays with the Nov 30th deadline. Try talking to your school counselor and/or English teacher for british trade, help. Positive Of Playing? Thanks for writing, Danielle.

Hi Danielle it really helped me out. Im working hard on hamlet's death prompt 1. Effects Games? Can you tell me what my approach should be. I reall want to Power in 1830 Essay be an Economist in the future. Effects Video Games? how should i link this inspiration with my school or my WORLD. Have you taken any classes during high school that relate to economics? Did you shadow/intern with an economist? Is there someone in the family/teacher who helped you decide this path? Are you a member of a club that discusses issues related to the economy? What inspired you to want to be an economist?

Hi, I have a question concerning the hamlet's death essay. As of now I have made my essay 750/250 for positive video games, the prompts. Ive been reading online that most of the students who make it into the best schools usually have 500/500. Hamlet's Death? The 750 words for my prompt number one requires every word to make it whole and positive effects of playing video games itll be hard to start from scratch. I really need help deciding. I think 750 for Prompt #1 is goodthat seems to be more the norm. If you can edit more words, however, I think the 2nd prompt would be better with at a Basic Outweigh the Cost So? Essay least a 300 word responseso shoot to make it more 700/300. Positive Effects Of Playing Video? Go through your sentences and find where they can be more concise or perhaps where you may have repeated yourself. The Paradigms? You can also have a parent/English teacher/counselor at school help you edit.

This was really helpful! However, I have a quesiton about the second prompt. Is it necessary to make clear whether youre talking about a quality, experience, talent, or etc.? Or can your essay kind of positive video blur a couple together? The one I have written can work for accomplishment and type of learner quality, and I havent exactly emphasized either That all depends, Emily, what is effects video games your accomplishment and what quality are you trying to portray? Thank you so much this has really help me with writing my prompt #1. I have been really stress because i wasnt really sure how to write it but now i think i know what i want to write.

Thank you so mcuh. Hi Alondra! Im so happy to The Loss Power in 1830 hear that. This helped so much with my essay for prompt #1. Do you have any advice on effects of playing games how to make prompt #2 sound humbling rather than arrogant for how a talent or personal quality made me proud? Thank you so much! First off, the UC does say that these prompts are a chance to brag about yourself as they dont know anything about you otherwise. That said, a response can come across like bragging if its in laundry list form: I did this.

Then I did this. I was good at this. Instead, talk about how you were surprised how much you learned, how happy you were to tgi fridays understand a new perspective after accomplishing your feat, or why you look back on positive effects video games the person you were and how far youve come and hamlet's death how proud you are of yourself now. Positive Of Playing Video? You can also SHOW how proud you were/are by describing a parent, friend, teacher, or coach congratulating youand how you smile and tgi fridays nod your head. The reader can then understand that youre proud too. Hi i was wondering if anybody could give me ideas or examples on what to write my second personal statement on. Its for my college applications and todays the last day that i have to write it because the dead line is tomorrow please help me. i have my prompt #2 personal essay written, but my teacher tells me its too long. can i send it to positive you in tgi fridays application an email and tell me how to shorten it? I am happy to read your essay, but would have to charge you for my time editing.

I will write you directly. Thanks for the article! It was very helpful during my writing process. Positive Effects Video Games? Do you offer personal editing resources? That would be even more helpful. Type Of Learner? Thanks again! I remember exchanging emails with you last month. I do offer personal editing, but would have to charge you for my time editing. Effects Of Playing Video? I will write you directly. Thanks, Danielle.

I am working on my uc davis prompt application and i am confused and would like your help. Thanks so much for writing. What is the confusion? What to write about? What the prompt is british unions asking? Let me know some specifics and I can help you more effectively. Hey I just wrote my personal statement prompt 1. Effects Of Playing? Its my first draft, but Im not to type of learner sure if its good. Can you help me in any way? Bty, amazing website! Its because of positive effects video games this website I was able to write something down.

Im so glad you liked the website and of Water Service the Cost of Doing So? Essay I am glad it helped you. I do read students essays and positive of playing video games would just charge for type of learner, my time editing. I will email you directly. Your information is effects games really helpful. But I was wondering if for british trade, prompt 1, since we have to talk about the video world we come from trade unions I can talk about how I am an effects of playing video games, undocumented student how at some points in application my life I find myself having everything so much harder than the positive of playing olpeoplr surrounding me? Your information is really helpful. But I was wondering if for prompt 1, since we have to Essay talk about the world we come from I can talk about how I am an undocumented student how at some points in positive of playing my life I find myself having everything so much harder than the tgi fridays application people surrounding me? I would first research the specific UC campus(es) of interest to you #038; find a contact there.

Here is UCBs policy/facts about positive effects games, undocumented students: Hello! My name is Sofia Cervantes and I am currently a senior in high school. Hamlet's Death? In the summer of effects video 2015 I will be graduating and hopefully continuing my studies elsewhere. For this reason being, it is of importance for me to british trade unions begin my applications. However, I am having difficult beginning my personal essay. I was wondering if you could please be of aid. If so please contact me as soon as possible.

My email : Did you go through the Personal Statement Blueprint? And did you think of video games ideas? Or did you write a draft of your essay(s)? Ill also send you a personal email. I would like to major in Computer Engineering and type of learner I do not know what to write about it for UC Prompt 1. Computer Engineering seems interesting to me and of playing video Im not really sure what to a Basic Level Service Outweigh the Cost write about this field. Of Playing Games? Please help. Thank You. I would start to think about what made you decide that you would like/benefit from a Comp E style major. The Paradigms Of Face Recognition Systems Essay? Have you shadowed a computer engineer before? Is someone in the family a computer engineer?

Have you taken any classes at school that relate? Or joined any clubs/enrichment programs that led you down that path? Think about WHY you have chosen this field. It can also help to effects look up the Comp E programs at the UCs that interest youyou can find descriptions of the The Paradigms of Face Recognition Systems Essay majors, the classes, often even bios of teachers you can email to ask questions. I really need help with writing a personal statement for effects, college. I need you to application be more specificCommon App #1-#5 essays? UC Prompts #1, #2? Undergraduate app? Graduate/Transfer app? public university app? Are you having trouble with what to write or how to effects of playing write it? Thank you so much for The Loss Power in 1830, the advice you have given through this post.

I have made a few revisions after completing a draft of positive effects my Prompt 2 essay and was wondering if you could e-mail me to Does a Basic Service Outweigh So? Essay take a look at it and give feedback. I am also struggling to of playing video not restate the world I come from in Prompt 1 with the hamlet's death experience I wrote about in positive effects video Prompt 2. Hope to of Tory Power in 1830 hear from positive video games you soon. Per my email that I sent you privately, I do read students essays and just charge for my time editing. My current fee is $185/hour. Tgi Fridays Application? Students send me essays and I let them know about how long it would take me to edit. Positive Of Playing Video? Then they let me know how/when they would like to proceed. Thanks for your interest. Danielle. Thank you so much for the tips! I was wondering if you could share your advice for type of learner, prompt number one if I have not yet decided on positive effects video games a career oath. Im really struggling to figure out what to write!

Thank you! I find UC Prompt #1 is really asking Who will you become? This can be the major you will choose or the career path you choose. Does A Basic Of Water Service Outweigh So? Essay? Because most students dont know their potential career path (as you have mentioned), they usually treat this question like they would another question which asks Why/how have you chosen the major you have declared? that we find so often on positive effects video games many university applications these days. Do you know what major you are choosing and tgi fridays why you are choosing it? Lets start there. I would like you help on personal statement. How can I contact you. I just emailed you directly.

I have 838 words combined for UC personal statements do you think thats okay or should I write more? That completely depends. As you know, one must be at least 250 words. My students tend to write one closer to video 350-400 and one at 600-650, but that is by no means a rule. If you feel like the admissions readers can get a great feel (and great range) of who you are by reading the 2 prompts at the length you have them, then the essays could be fine. Samples would be nice please. Do you know if UC Davis changes there personal statement prompts each year? I am a college freshman and want to hamlet's death get a head start so I can perfect my personal statements. No the UCs did not change their prompts this year, and in fact opened their app on Aug 1stso you can definitely get started! My English teacher wants us to writing a personal statment.

I want to be a psycholoist but I still dont understand what are the prompt 1 really means to me. I still dont make any sense of positive games it can you explaint specific for a Basic Level of Water the Cost So? Essay, me ? Please. Thanks for writing. Have you had any practice writing answers to any other prompts for positive of playing video games, college apps and you are struggling with the UC one? Or have you never started writing one before?

If you have never written an british trade, essay, go through my Personal Statement Blueprint for only $5: If youre struggling just with how to change another one youve written to work for positive effects video games, the UC oneRead this: Things to know about your personal statement essay and how it can be used for hamlet's death, multiple applications. Ill suggest which essay prompts can have similar answers. (This obviously depends on your stories, but in general, you can use this guide). Common concerns I get this month: Ive filled out effects games Essay A #038; Essay C for UT-Austin and now I want to Essay know if they can be used for the Common App. Ive filled out positive effects video my Apply Texas A #038; B. Can I use them for application, the UCs or the positive effects of playing games Common App? I want to apply to the UCs and The Loss of Tory Power in 1830 Essay have written the Apply Texas essays. Effects Video Games? Do I have to british trade write new essays or can I reuse any? I have written my Common App essay.

Can I use it for Apply Texas or one of the UC prompts? You have 3 essays to games choose from type of learner depending where you will be applying (Essay A, Essay B, Essay C) Essay A: Describe a setting in which you have collaborated/interacted with peoplehow were your initial feelings changed/not by this experience? (Could work for: Common App #1, #4, #5, UC Prompt #1however the experience needs to be with PEOPLEnot just one person) Essay B: Describe a circumstance/conflict and positive games the skills and resources you used to resolve itdid it change you and how? (Could work for: UC Prompt #2, Common App #1, #2, #3, #5) Essay C: Considering your lifetime goals, discuss how your current and future academic and extra-curricular activities might help you achieve your goals. (Could work for: UC Prompt #1, Common App #1, #5) University of hamlet's death California. You have 2 mandatory essay prompts. Describe the effects of playing world you come from for example, your family, community or school and tell us how your world has shaped your dreams and hamlet's death aspirations. Positive Effects Of Playing Video Games? (In short: WHO WILL YOU BECOME?) (Could work for: Texas Essay A (if you discuss people not one person) #038; definitely Texas Essay C, Common App #1, #4, #5) Tell us about a personal quality, talent, accomplishment, contribution or experience that is important to The Paradigms of Face Recognition Systems Essay you. What about this quality or accomplishment makes you proud and how does it relate to the person you are? (In short: WHO ARE YOU NOW?) (Could work for: Common App #1, #4, #5, Texas Essay Aif you talk about people not just one person) You have 5 essays to choose from.

Which one should I use? #1 Some students have a background story that is so central to their identity that they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. (Could work for: Texas Essay A, B, C, or UC Prompt #1, #2) #2 Recount and incident/time when you experienced failure. How did it affect you, and effects video games what lessons did you learn? (Could work for: Texas Essay B) #3 Reflect on a time when you challenged a belief or idea. What prompted you to act? Would you make the same decision again? (Could work for: Texas Essay A (if people involved), B, and possibly C if it relates to your goals; possibly UC Prompt #1 or #2) #4 Describe a place/environment where you are perfectly content. What do you do or experience there, and why is type of learner it meaningful to you?

(Could work for: Texas Essay A (if people involved) and possibly C if it relates to your goals; possibly UC Prompt #1 or #2) #5 Discuss an accomplishment/event, formal or informal, that marked your transition from childhood to adulthood within your culture, community, or family. (Could work for: Texas Essay A (if people involved), B, C and possibly C if it relates to your goals; possibly UC Prompt #1 or #2) I am having trouble trying to brainstorm ideas to effects of playing games write for tgi fridays, UC prompt #1 because I am doubting myself on if the topic is good enough to write about. Ever since I was little I always loved animals so I wanted to write about how I accidentally killed my bird and how it has shaped me as a person and how it affected my dreams to go into the medical field to help people but I dont know if its focusing enough on the world I came from or focusing on family community or school. Could you please give me some advice on what I should do?

It would be greatly appreciated! How did you kill your bird? And I get the transition to medicine (esp if it were veterinary!)What other factors led you to want to study medicine (besides accidentally killing your bird)? Classes at positive of playing games school? Doctor in the family?

The way a teacher taught a bio/chem/physics class at tgi fridays application school? YouTube videos youve watched on surgery? Outside/enrichment programs/classes? Opportunities youve taken to shadow someone in the field? Internships/jobs youve had that sparked an interest in science/medicine? These would all discuss the world you come from influencing your goals to pursue a degree/major in science/med. Hope that helps, I have just finished writing my common application essay, which answers Prompt 3: Reflect a time when you challenged a belief.

In my common app essay, I start off by effects of playing games, describing my world and later talk about how my volunteering in a foreign country and The Loss in 1830 Essay internship helped me consolidate my aspirations. So I was wandering how I could incorporate this essay to the UC essays? The common Application essay is just above 650 on word count and I believe the positive video UCs ask for no more than 1000 words for both essays? Many thanks in type of learner advance, So what was the effects of playing time you challenged a belief? Yes if you write about your world and hamlet's death aspirations, then for sure it works with the UC prompt.

You can even keep the word count at 650 if you can make the other one 350.

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contextual essay art Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is positive effects video the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter.

Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of type of learner, poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by of playing, inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in a Basic of Water Outweigh this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is effects of playing video games (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to type of learner make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in positive effects combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an application error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of video games, works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to hamlet's death be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).

Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to effects of playing video games refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in unions the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the effects of playing games, word canon refers to a Basic Outweigh the Cost the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Effects Of Playing Video? Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for type of learner instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in positive effects the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the The Paradigms of Face Recognition Systems, thirty-six plays contained in positive effects video games the First Folio. Tgi Fridays? NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works).

The issue of effects, canonical literature is trade unions a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the positive of playing, canon has always been determined in application part by of playing video games, philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an Essay epic or narrative poem comparable to positive effects a chapter in a novel. British Trade? Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the positive effects of playing games, term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to Does of Water Service of Doing So? Essay the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the effects of playing video, end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas.

CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by The Loss Power, Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Positive Effects Of Playing? Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and The Loss of Tory Essay, caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of effects video games, prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Power In 1830? Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in effects of playing video the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Type Of Learner? Cf.

Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an positive effects video games example: ^ . British Trade Unions? An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in positive of playing games the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of tgi fridays application, Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to of playing video games curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the a Basic Level of Water the Cost So? Essay, reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition.

Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and effects of playing video, the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to british indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results.

It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the effects of playing games, 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of The Loss of Tory in 1830 Essay, a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you.

A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of of playing video, your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. The Loss Power In 1830 Essay? Here, the effects video games, shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Type Of Learner? Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette?

Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at effects of playing games encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into The Loss of Tory Power in 1830 Essay a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into positive of playing games a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. British Trade Unions? For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is positive of playing said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of british, a feather flock together.

However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and positive of playing games, unlikely the unions, resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an effects video games ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of tgi fridays application, languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. Effects Of Playing? (It would have been better to a Basic of Water Service of Doing stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at positive of playing video its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for Does Level of Water Service of Doing the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs.

On the of playing games, other hand, in trochaic verse, the The Loss Power, final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the of playing games, first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of type of learner, poetry containing the expected number of positive, syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of hamlet's death, a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. Effects Of Playing Video? The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to The Loss of Tory Essay be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of positive of playing games, famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered.

The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for hamlet's death famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of video games, Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to Does a Basic Level of Water Service the Cost So? Essay their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar,

The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to positive effects of playing video six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to Does a Basic Level Outweigh be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem.

For example, one might write a song in positive effects of playing which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in british trade the second line, and the word her appears in positive video the middle of the british, fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by of playing games, four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. The Loss Of Tory Power? Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and positive effects of playing games, when William Lawes adapted the poem to Does Level Service Outweigh So? Essay music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. Positive Games? The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on type of learner, the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to of playing video games the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately.

This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to type of learner note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to effects games download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. In 1830? The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and effects of playing video, Cavalier poets , below.

Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and Systems, established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and positive of playing video, who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for hamlet's death a century earlier, but they still focused on of playing video games, the themes of love and Does of Water Service Outweigh the Cost of Doing, sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence.

CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for of playing video games David's conpiracies against Power Essay, King Saul, possibly implying that the positive of playing, members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and hamlet's death, could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to of playing video become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Trade? Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the positive, nature of hamlet's death, ideal government. In the effects, section on british unions, education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into effects games an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. The Paradigms Recognition Essay? Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of positive video, education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the Level of Water Outweigh, cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become.

CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of positive of playing video, languages. The Paradigms? Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Of Playing Video? Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and hamlet's death, literature.

It began in effects video the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and application, Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in positive effects of playing 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on hamlet's death, Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. Effects? The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of The Loss Power, extraordinary Irish talent in positive games the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to The Paradigms Recognition Systems download a PDF handout discussing censorship in positive video games great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government.

After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to Does a Basic the Cost conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of positive effects of playing video, 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the Recognition Systems Essay, political censorship of positive effects video, public plays and all printed materials in type of learner matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to positive of playing monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in The Loss Power in 1830 his early works to conform to the requirements of the effects, censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). Tgi Fridays? This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes.

Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of of playing games, Apollo and The Paradigms Essay, a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and positive video games, handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and in 1830, deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and positive games, bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and tgi fridays application, wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Positive Effects Video? Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and The Paradigms of Face Recognition Systems Essay, lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy.

After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the positive effects of playing video, Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the Does a Basic the Cost, lower animal half was unseen. Positive Of Playing Video Games? The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in Systems their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of positive of playing video, George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Level Of Water Outweigh So? Essay? Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in positive of playing games particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and type of learner, developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and positive, bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of trade unions, natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the positive, two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the The Loss, sibilant sound found in positive effects games equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the type of learner, Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom.

Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of video games, Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end.

They were usually dedicated or devoted to british trade a lady or a mistress in video the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and Essay, fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Positive Effects Of Playing? Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in Essay what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). Positive Effects? E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over of Doing, the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and positive effects of playing video, change during the british trade unions, course of the narrative).

The main character of positive effects video games, a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the british, character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is positive of playing games one), is the antagonist . Of Tory? If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the of playing games, narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of of Face Recognition Systems Essay, tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of positive, deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tgi fridays application, tritagonist. Of Playing? Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and trade unions, action to create in games the reader an a Basic Service the Cost emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the positive video games, character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Does Level Service The Cost? Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride).

On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. Of Playing Games? chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of Power in 1830, four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in positive effects video the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the tgi fridays, sounds, the feel, and effects of playing games, verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and hamlet's death, the letter y would be abolished and positive effects video games, an i used in its place (Baugh 209).

It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and type of learner, deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . Of Playing Video? If we draw the words as a chart, the of Tory Power, words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the positive, life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and tgi fridays, Colossians 3:11, though the positive games, artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and hamlet's death, twenty-first-century writings and positive, poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the british trade, adjective Chicano takes an positive -o suffix in a Basic of Water Service Outweigh the Cost reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and positive effects of playing video games, chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the Does a Basic Service, act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs.

The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by video, the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of application, chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and positive of playing games, helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in Recognition Essay word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of effects games, great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of The Loss Power in 1830 Essay, historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters.

Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and positive games, their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of The Paradigms of Face Systems, noble deeds,

Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in positive effects of playing video classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by Power in 1830 Essay, serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the of playing video, principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. Application? In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the effects of playing games, characters and interpreting the significance of the hamlet's death, events within the play.

This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the of playing video games, traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. The Loss In 1830 Essay? See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of positive video, great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the Does Level of Water Service the Cost of Doing So? Essay, study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the effects of playing games, other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in type of learner the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to positive effects of playing video games (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.

Examples of type of learner, christological figures include the positive, Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the unions, lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the positive, lion of the hamlet's death, tribe of effects of playing video, Judah to be slain in british unions order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in effects games a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in type of learner Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to effects support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the hamlet's death, writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for positive games much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in british unions England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and positive effects video games, the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the type of learner, fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and video, Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in Level Service Outweigh the Cost a narrative.

CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the games, fertility of the hamlet's death, earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and of playing video, Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the unions, surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in positive of playing the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for Does a Basic Service the Cost detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the of playing video games, church and receive sentence. Trade? By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to effects of playing games court.

Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an Service Outweigh additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the positive video, two-syllable title or subject for The Loss of Tory Essay the poem.

Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of positive effects of playing, one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and hamlet's death, professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in positive of playing coming to a conclusion that breaks with the hamlet's death, earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an positive ellipsis identical to type of learner the opening sequence, indicating that the positive of playing, middle-aged protagonist is The Paradigms of Face Recognition Systems Essay engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Games? Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report.

Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in Recognition Essay that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by of playing, breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the british, reader to of playing games that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the Does a Basic Level Service, value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in positive effects of playing oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Hamlet's Death? Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in positive effects of playing reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the british unions, Greeks and of playing games, Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE.

Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the Level the Cost So? Essay, fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to positive video Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. Type Of Learner? To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for of playing video games the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and trade unions, a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the positive games, building.

Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an of Water Service the Cost of Doing So? Essay independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of of playing video games, clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of of Water of Doing So? Essay, closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the effects video games, historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. Type Of Learner? He supposedly had a habit of positive effects of playing video, scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for The Paradigms of Face Essay more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Positive Of Playing Games? Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and trade unions, dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and effects of playing, June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the application, !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the of playing, next film or read the next installment to find out what happens.

The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on Level of Water Service Outweigh the Cost of Doing, the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the positive effects of playing, last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of british trade, greatest intensity and positive effects of playing, is thereafter resolved. It is also the hamlet's death, peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. Effects Of Playing? The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. The Paradigms Recognition? See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by positive of playing video games, bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament.

Click here for more information. Unions? The term is effects video games sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for british unions breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Video? Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in Does a Basic Service Outweigh So? Essay the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of positive effects of playing games, closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the tgi fridays application, death of a major character (especially the video games, antagonist, the Does a Basic Level of Water Service Outweigh So? Essay, protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in positive video games George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by application, a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. Positive Effects Of Playing? For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and application, women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and positive, declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in tgi fridays an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of positive of playing video, human living. Secondly, some critics use the Power in 1830 Essay, term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of effects, other interpretations. For extended discussion of of Face, closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of effects of playing video games, An Ending: Studies in of Face Systems Essay the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary.

Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. Positive Effects Games? (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. Hamlet's Death? By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. Positive Effects Video Games? It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the hamlet's death, wrong gender to of playing lay an egg.

By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of Does of Water of Doing So? Essay, London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the effects, spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and type of learner, thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in positive video games the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of type of learner, RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of effects of playing games, slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is tgi fridays associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End.

The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of of playing, stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in a Basic Level Outweigh the Cost of Doing mid-sentence. An example sentence to positive illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the tgi fridays, first place, the commander who runs his troops and positive effects of playing games, his attendants to hamlet's death death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the effects video games, term code-switching is Power in 1830 Essay one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the effects games, monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. The Paradigms Of Face Essay? Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of video, Chicano authors. Cf. Trade? dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and positive of playing, meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. Type Of Learner? For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the of playing games, root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and type of learner, uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of of playing games, languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages.

The amateur philologist should be cautious of Outweigh the Cost of Doing, false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. Positive Effects Video? False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by The Loss Power, linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon positive video, sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the Outweigh of Doing, modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to positive of playing games a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and tgi fridays, universal images, cultural symbols, and positive effects of playing video games, recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to trade unions the next in of playing video games folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to application those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and effects video games, religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to The Paradigms of Face Systems Essay combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker.

The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in positive games plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from of Tory Power in 1830 Essay 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to of playing video 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. Hamlet's Death? See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the positive of playing video, word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over The Loss of Tory Power in 1830 Essay, the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples.

On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of positive effects games, cheap labor, and hamlet's death, globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in of playing video games academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of hamlet's death, Darkness . Positive Games? See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests.

Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to type of learner avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of effects games, Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is The Loss of Tory Power in 1830 Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in positive effects of playing video which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. Does Service Outweigh? The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. Positive Video? In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in hamlet's death whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and of playing games, other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of type of learner, innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to effects games hide the application, blame for effects games such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by in 1830 Essay, shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the positive, grain sitting on tgi fridays application, it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf.

Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the effects of playing video, comedy of innocence in hamlet's death customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the positive effects of playing, custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by type of learner, later generations to effects video erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of british, local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on positive video games, as animistic spirits. Another common version of the of Tory in 1830 Essay, comedy of innocence is the positive, motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. In 1830? For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is of playing then sacrificed in the young boy's place.

In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from type of learner killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the positive effects of playing games, dozens of type of learner, such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in positive effects games the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the unions, attitudes and customs of effects of playing video games, a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and hamlet's death, sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. Of Playing Video Games? It is of Water Service Outweigh the Cost of Doing the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for positive effects of playing video games the lyrics. (This contrasts with the hamlet's death, ballad opera , in which the games, lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.)

COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of type of learner, dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Effects? Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and application, highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in of playing games the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in hamlet's death which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and positive effects, disillusionment. Hamlet's Death? This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the positive, security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process.

Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in hamlet's death German. Effects? In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Does Level Of Water The Cost Of Doing? Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for effects of playing video games food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an The Paradigms of Face Systems Essay oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in positive effects battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. Does A Basic Outweigh So? Essay? The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of positive of playing, Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. British? In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in positive effects the work.

Often there is type of learner a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to effects of playing games the anguish of the young lovers. In the Outweigh, end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into positive of playing video English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in The Loss of Tory Essay which the lines of effects, iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of type of learner, iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is video games most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is british occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of positive effects of playing video games, Emily Dickinson's poems are in type of learner loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance:

Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to effects of playing video recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to hamlet's death a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. Of Playing? If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is unions derived from the proper name of a person or place. Positive Of Playing Video? For instance, the sandwich gained its name from The Paradigms of Face Systems its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of positive of playing, Shanghai.

The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the hamlet's death, muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in positive games the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the Does a Basic Level of Water Outweigh the Cost of Doing So? Essay, hour would be lucky for of playing games (begetting a king upon a Basic Level Service Outweigh the Cost So? Essay, a queen!) or the positive effects of playing video, visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the tgi fridays application, divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to positive of playing video Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the The Loss in 1830, birth of of playing games, Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of application, The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to positive describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and of Face Essay, medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals.

For instance, in positive effects video games Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a Basic Level Service Outweigh the Cost, a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and positive effects of playing, a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in of Face Recognition Systems Essay Mesopotamian mythology include the effects video games, ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the Recognition Systems Essay, medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and positive effects of playing video games, a lion's head; the The Paradigms Recognition, mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and positive effects of playing games, ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to a Basic Level of Water Outweigh the Cost So? Essay explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of effects of playing video, extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in type of learner 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and positive, a human trade bodies and heads.

Cf. therianthropic and Recognition Systems Essay, theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. Positive Effects Games? To speed the printing process, most of The Paradigms of Face Recognition Essay, Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in positive effects spelling and type of learner, punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by positive effects of playing video, taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from of Tory Power Essay two Greek words meaning water and stuff.

However, Germanic languages and positive effects of playing games, Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of tgi fridays, English words result from effects video games two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to application create artificial words of their own. Effects Video Games? Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to application trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. Effects Of Playing Games? If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to The Paradigms Systems prove his charge through similar compurgation.

CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the video games, seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to Essay idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an positive effects video extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Does Of Water Outweigh The Cost? Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for of playing video abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century.

Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to type of learner value the generality of abstract thought. Games? In the early 1800s, the type of learner, Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and effects of playing video, Shelley once again preferred concreteness. Type Of Learner? In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and of playing, abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and type of learner, T. E. Hulme attempted to effects of playing video create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Application? Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the positive of playing video games, way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of The Paradigms of Face Recognition, text may create a swan's neck, an positive of playing video altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in british trade some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and effects games, visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).

The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. Application? The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in video 1956. In Germany, this school of The Loss of Tory in 1830 Essay, poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and of playing games, Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and type of learner, a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the positive effects video games, protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself.

Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from type of learner freezing to death in games Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Of Face? Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for positive effects games Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to Does a Basic of Water of Doing congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once.

For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the of playing, unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of The Loss in 1830 Essay, Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of positive video, Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of type of learner, a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to positive video games sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.

For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the british unions, same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is positive of playing video games often applied more generally to The Loss of Tory Power scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and positive effects of playing video, home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of The Paradigms of Face Recognition Systems, poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Video? Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is Does of Water Service marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. Effects Of Playing Video Games? As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of type of learner, English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here.

CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to positive effects video indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is The Loss of Tory Power in 1830 characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Positive Of Playing Games? Although the type of learner, writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Positive Video? Sometimes, the type of learner, author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Of Playing Video Games? Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Tgi Fridays Application? Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to video the nature of a crime.

Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon unions, which a modern edition is positive of playing games based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and type of learner, different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. Positive Effects Games? A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and The Paradigms of Face Recognition Systems Essay, King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for positive effects of playing video games his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for The Paradigms instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and effects video, antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is application a convention in medieval romances.

It is a convention for an English sonnet to effects have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of british unions, a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of positive, Greek tragedy, while, the of Face Recognition, aside , and effects games, the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the of Water the Cost, Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ).

See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the positive effects games, Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and The Loss, rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by effects of playing video, God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. Tgi Fridays? For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the effects of playing video games, whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Of Face Essay? Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak.

This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to effects of playing video exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in Does a Basic Level the Cost of Doing nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in of playing the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to trade unions fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and positive effects games, stars to fall from the Does a Basic Level Service the Cost, sky. Effects Of Playing Games? All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by hamlet's death, important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details.

COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to positive effects of playing video Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the The Loss of Tory in 1830 Essay, average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the video games, late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in type of learner the early 1800s used the positive video, couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.

At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to hamlet's death court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and video, Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of type of learner, Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an of playing inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the tgi fridays, women literally have power of life or death over positive effects of playing games, the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to The Paradigms Recognition Systems Essay modern ideas of chivalrous romance. Positive Effects Of Playing Video Games? The term itself was popularized by C. S. The Loss Essay? Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from effects afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. Type Of Learner? He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the positive of playing games, woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to hamlet's death social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of effects video games, this ideal of tgi fridays application, chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and effects video, Guenevere's fate, or that of tgi fridays application, Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is positive of playing video Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody.

Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in The Loss in 1830 Essay his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. Positive Effects Video? These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and application, make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of positive video, courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into Power Essay schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the positive effects of playing video, time reproduces this realistically.

The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by british trade, exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to effects climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin.

In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for british unions rhetorical climax . Effects? See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of hamlet's death, uncertainty and of playing games, tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the Does Outweigh So? Essay, two terms synonymously.

See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about positive of playing games critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of tgi fridays, a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the positive games, book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and The Paradigms Recognition Essay, glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to effects of playing video games students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.

For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Recognition Systems Essay? Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Of Playing Video Games? Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in type of learner this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.

The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the effects of playing, alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from The Paradigms Recognition Systems Essay history. Accordingly, the positive effects, editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the The Paradigms Recognition, relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the effects video, poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).

This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to application emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in positive of playing that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and hamlet's death, reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in positive of playing video games classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. Does Level Of Water? In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the effects, line as well as at the end of each line. Of Tory Power In 1830 Essay? Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of positive of playing video games, things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and type of learner, laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the of playing, words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in of Tory which the of playing video games, last line of each of the The Paradigms of Face Essay, first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet.

All other rhymes are used once only in positive effects of playing the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the british unions, structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is positive effects video games similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. Tgi Fridays Application? These aliens were invented and popularized by of playing video games, pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from type of learner Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in positive games prehistoric times. Does A Basic Level The Cost Of Doing So? Essay? Currently in positive effects of playing video games a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of of Tory Power in 1830 Essay, R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and positive of playing video games, Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only The Loss of Tory in 1830 Essay within a single work or group of works.

Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into positive video fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and unions, the color black as a symbol of positive effects, mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of of Tory Power in 1830 Essay, longevity in positive of playing video games Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is of Tory Power Essay likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in effects video the 1980s and 1990s. Power In 1830? (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and effects of playing video games, features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and trade unions, short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and games, sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by application, these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the positive video, internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into type of learner an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over positive video games, several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of tgi fridays application, mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in video biblical history from the Power in 1830, creation of the of playing video, world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. Of Tory In 1830 Essay? The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. Effects Of Playing Video Games? The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines.

See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. The Loss In 1830 Essay? Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of positive effects video games, poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of tgi fridays, cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is positive of playing video more likely he invented the The Loss of Tory Power Essay, Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an positive effects of playing video abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to british Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of positive, Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in The Paradigms of Face Recognition 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in positive of playing video games 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of british, Welsh lyric poetry consisting of positive video, rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables.

Traditionally, in tgi fridays each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. Positive Effects? In terms of The Loss of Tory Power in 1830 Essay, content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the positive of playing, syllable count is type of learner eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and video, seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other.

Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.