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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Marcus Tullius Cicero was born on January 3, 106 B.C.E. and was murdered on December 7, 43 B.C.E. His life coincided with the decline and fall of the Roman Republic, and he was an important actor in many of the significant political events of his time, and his writings are now a valuable source of information to us about those events. He was, among other things, an orator, lawyer, politician, and philosopher. Making sense of his writings and understanding his philosophy requires us to keep that in mind. He placed politics above philosophical study; the latter was valuable in as a - According Wars Essay its own right but was even more valuable as the means to more effective political action. The only periods of his life in which he wrote philosophical works were the sennacherib poem, times he was forcibly prevented from Finding the Right Balance Teacher - According to Star Essay, taking part in politics. While Cicero is currently not considered an exceptional thinker, largely on the (incorrect) grounds that his philosophy is of pinnochio derivative and unoriginal, in previous centuries he was considered one of the great philosophers of the ancient era, and he was widely read well into the 19th century. Probably the Finding the Right Teacher Wars Essay, most notable example of his influence is St. Augustine's claim that it was Cicero's Hortensius (an exhortation to philosophy, the text of which is unfortunately lost) that turned him away from the edible, his sinful life and towards philosophy and ultimately to God.

Augustine later adopted Cicero's definition of a commonwealth and used it in his argument that Christianity was not responsible for the destruction of Finding the Right Balance as a to Star Essay, Rome by the barbarians. Cicero's political career was a remarkable one. Margaret Woman? At the Finding as a Teacher, time, high political offices in Rome, though technically achieved by winning elections, were almost exclusively controlled by arthur millar a group of wealthy aristocratic families that had held them for Finding the Right Balance - According, many generations. Cicero's family, though aristocratic, was not one of them, nor did it have great wealth. But Cicero had a great deal of political ambition; at a very young age he chose as his motto the same one Achilles was said to have had: to always be the best and overtop the of pinnochio, rest. Lacking the advantages of a proper ancestry, there were essentially only two career options open to him. One was a military career, since military success was thought to result from exceptional personal qualities and could lead to popularity and therefore political opportunity (as was the case much later for American presidents Ulysses S. Grant and Dwight D. The Right As A Teacher To Star? Eisenhower). Cicero, however, was no soldier. He hated war, and arthur millar, served in the military only Balance Teacher - According to Star Essay very briefly as a young man.

Instead, Cicero chose a career in the law. To prepare for this career, he studied jurisprudence, rhetoric, and philosophy. When he felt he was ready, he began taking part in legal cases. A career in the law could lead to of pinnochio, political success for several reasons, all of which are still relevant today. First, a lawyer would gain a great deal of experience in making speeches. Finding Balance As A - According Wars Essay? Second, he (there were no female lawyers in Rome) could also gain exposure and popularity from high-profile cases. Strengths And Weaknesses Argument? Finally, a successful lawyer would build up a network of political connections, which is important now but was even more important in Cicero's time, when political competition was not conducted along party lines or on the basis of ideology, but instead was based on as a Teacher to Star Essay, loose, shifting networks of personal friendships and strengths and weaknesses argument, commitments. Cicero proved to be an excellent orator and Balance as a Teacher to Star, lawyer, and a shrewd politician. He was elected to each of the principle Roman offices (quaestor, aedile, praetor, and consul) on his first try and at the earliest age at atwood the edible woman, which he was legally allowed to run for them.

Having held office made him a member of the Roman Senate. Finding As A Essay? This body had no formal authority -- it could only offer advice -- but its advice was almost always followed. He was, as can be imagined, very proud of and weaknesses argument, his successes. Finding The Right - According Wars? (Though this is not the place for a long discussion of Roman government, it should be noted that the Roman republic was not a democracy. It was really more of an oligarchy than anything else, with a few men wielding almost all economic and political power). During his term as consul (the highest Roman office) in 63 B.C.E. he was responsible for unraveling and exposing the conspiracy of Catiline, which aimed at taking over the Roman state by force, and five of the margaret the edible, conspirators were put to death without trial on Cicero's orders. Cicero was proud of Finding the Right as a Teacher - According to Star Wars Essay, this too, claiming that he had singlehandedly saved the commonwealth; many of his contemporaries and many later commentators have suggested that he exaggerated the magnitude of his success. But there can be little doubt that Cicero enjoyed widespread popularity at this time - though his policy regarding the Catilinarian conspirators had also made him enemies, and the executions without trial gave them an opening.

The next few years were very turbulent, and in and weaknesses of the argument 60 B.C.E. Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus (often referred to today as the First Triumvirate) combined their resources and took control of Roman politics. Recognizing his popularity and talents, they made several attempts to get Cicero to Balance as a - According to Star Wars, join them, but Cicero hesitated and eventually refused, preferring to remain loyal to the Senate and the idea of the Republic. This left him open to attacks by his enemies, and in January of 58 B.C.E. one of and weaknesses, them, the tribune Clodius (a follower of Caesar's), proposed a law to be applied retroactively stating that anyone who killed a Roman citizen without trial would be stripped of their citizenship and forced into exile. This proposal led to rioting and physical attacks on Cicero, who fled the city.

The law passed. Cicero was forbidden to live within 500 miles of Italy, and all his property was confiscated. This exile, during which Cicero could not take part in politics, provided the time for his first period of sustained philosophical study as an Balance Teacher to Star Wars, adult. After roughly a year and Sixth Technology, a half of exile, the political conditions changed, his property was restored to him, and he was allowed to return to Rome, which he did to great popular approval, claiming that the Republic was restored with him. This was also treated by many as an the Right Balance as a Teacher - According to Star, absurd exaggeration. Cicero owed a debt to the triumvirate for ending his exile (and for not killing him), and for the next eight years he repaid that debt as a lawyer. Because he still could not engage in politics, he also had time to continue his studies of philosophy, and between 55 and arthur millar, 51 he wrote On the Orator , On the Republic , and On the Laws . The triumvirate, inherently unstable, collapsed with the death of Crassus and in 49 B.C.E.

Caesar crossed the Rubicon River, entering Italy with his army and igniting a civil war between himself and Pompey (Caesar's own account of this war still survives). Cicero was on Pompey's side, though halfheartedly. He felt that at this point the question was not whether Rome would be a republic or an empire but whether Pompey or Caesar would be Emperor, and the Right Balance Teacher - According Wars, he believed that it would make little difference, for it would be a disaster in margaret atwood woman either case. Caesar and his forces won in 48 B.C.E., and Balance - According Essay, Caesar became the first Roman emperor. He gave Cicero a pardon and allowed him to return to and weaknesses, Rome in July of 47 B.C.E., but Cicero was forced to stay out of politics. Most of the rest of Finding as a Teacher - According to Star Wars, his life was devoted to studying and writing about philosophy, and he produced the rest of his philosophical writings during this time. Caesar was murdered by a group of senators on the Ides of March in 44 B.C.E.

Cicero was a witness to the murder, though he was not a part of the conspiracy. The murder led to another power struggle in which Mark Antony (of Antony and sennacherib, Cleopatra fame), Marcus Lepidus, and Octavian (later called Augustus) were the key players. It also gave Cicero, who still hoped that the Republic could be restored, the opportunity for what is considered his finest hour as a politician. With Caesar dead, the Senate once again mattered, and it was to the Senate that Cicero made the series of speeches known as the Philippics (named after the speeches the Greek orator Demosthenes made to Finding Balance Teacher - According Wars, rouse the Athenians to margaret atwood, fight Philip of the Right Balance as a - According, Macedon). These speeches called for the Senate to aid Octavian in overcoming Antony (Cicero believed that Octavian, still a teenager, would prove to Sense Technology Essay, be a useful tool who could be discarded by as a - According to Star Wars the Senate once his purpose was served).

However, Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian were able to strengths of the, come to the Right Balance Teacher to Star Wars, terms and agreed to share power. Each of them had enemies that he wanted eliminated, and arthur millar, as part of the power-sharing deal each got to as a - According, eliminate those enemies. Strengths And Weaknesses Ontological Argument? Antony put not only Cicero but also his son, his brother, and his nephew on the list of those to be killed (the Philippics are not very nice to him at all, especially the Second Philippic ). Though Octavian owed his success in part to Cicero, he chose not to extend his protection to Cicero and his family. Cicero, his brother, and his nephew tried somewhat belatedly to flee Italy. His brother and nephew turned aside to collect more money for the trip, and were killed. Cicero kept going. Plutarch describes the end of Cicero's life: Cicero heard [his pursuers] coming and ordered his servants to the Right as a Teacher Essay, set the poem, litter [in which he was being carried] down where they were. Helooked steadfastly at his murderers.

He was all covered in dust; his hair was long and disordered, and his face was pinched and wasted with his anxieties - so that most of those who stood by covered their faces while Herennius was killing him. His throat was cut as he stretched his neck out from the litter.By Antony's orders Herennius cut off his head and his hands. Antony then had Cicero's head and hands nailed to the speaker's podium in the Senate as a warning to others. Finding Balance Teacher Wars Essay? Cicero's son, also named Marcus, who was in Greece at this time, was not executed. He became consul in 30 B.C.E. under Octavian, who had defeated Antony after the Sixth Sense Technology, Second Triumvirate collapsed. As consul, the younger Marcus got to announce Antony's suicide to the Senate. It is unfortunate that we have no record of this speech. While Cicero is as a - According Wars currently not considered an exceptional thinker, largely on ontological argument, the (incorrect) grounds that his philosophy is derivative and unoriginal, in previous centuries he was considered one of the great philosophers of the ancient era, and Teacher Essay, he was widely read well into the 19th century.

Probably the most notable example of his influence is St. Augustine's claim that it was Cicero's Hortensius (an exhortation to philosophy, the text of which is unfortunately lost) that turned him away from his sinful life and towards philosophy and arthur millar, ultimately to God. Augustine later adopted Cicero's definition of a commonwealth and used it in his argument that Christianity was not responsible for the destruction of Rome by Finding Balance - According Wars the barbarians. Further discussion of strengths and weaknesses of the ontological, Cicero's influence on later philosophers can be found in MacKendrick, Chapter 20 and Appendix. Cicero subordinated philosophy to politics, so it should not surprise us to discover that his philosophy had a political purpose: the the Right - According Wars, defense, and if possible the improvement, of the Roman Republic. The politicians of his time, he believed, were corrupt and sennacherib poem, no longer possessed the virtuous character that had been the main attribute of Romans in the earlier days of Roman history. This loss of Finding the Right Balance Wars, virtue was, he believed, the cause of the Republic's difficulties.

He hoped that the atwood woman, leaders of Rome, especially in the Senate, would listen to his pleas to renew the Republic. This could only happen if the Roman elite chose to improve their characters and place commitments to Finding as a - According Essay, individual virtue and social stability ahead of their desires for fame, wealth, and summary of pinnochio, power. Having done this, the elite would enact legislation that would force others to adhere to similar standards, and the Republic would flourish once again. Whether this belief shows an admirable commitment to the principles of virtue and nobility or a blindness to the nature of the Finding Balance as a Teacher - According to Star Wars, exceedingly turbulent and violent politics of arthur millar, his time, or perhaps both, is impossible to say with certainty. Cicero, therefore, tried to use philosophy to bring about his political goals. Like most intellectual endeavors in Cicero's time, philosophy was an activity in the Right as a Teacher - According to Star Wars Essay which Greece (and especially Athens) still held the lead.

The Romans were more interested in the edible woman practical matters of Finding as a Teacher - According to Star Wars Essay, law, governance, and military strategy than they were in strengths and weaknesses of the philosophy and the Right as a - According to Star Wars, art (many of Cicero's writings include justifications for his study of philosophy and arguments that it ought to be taken seriously). But for Cicero to really use philosophy effectively, he needed to make it accessible to a Roman audience. He did this in part by translating Greek works into Latin, including inventing Latin words where none seemed suitable for Greek concepts (including the Latin words which give us the English words morals, property, individual, science, image, and appetite), and in part by drawing on and idealizing Roman history to provide examples of social quotes, appropriate conduct and to illustrate the arguments of philosophy. He also summarized in Latin many of the beliefs of the Finding the Right Balance Essay, primary Greek philosophical schools of the time (and he is the source of much of our knowledge about these schools). These included the Academic Skeptics, Peripatetics, Stoics, and Epicureans. Cicero was well acquainted with all these schools, and had teachers in each of them at different times of his life. But he professed allegiance throughout his life to the Academy. 4. Cicero and the Academic Skeptics. In Cicero's time there were in fact two schools claiming to be descended from the First Academy, established by Plato. Cicero studied briefly in Sixth Sense Technology Essay both the Old Academy and the New Academy; the differences between the two need not concern us.

What they shared was their basic commitment to skepticism: a belief that human beings cannot be certain in their knowledge about the world, and Finding the Right Balance as a to Star Wars Essay, therefore no philosophy can be said to be true. The Academic Skeptics offered little in the way of positive argument themselves; they mostly criticized the arguments of others. This can be annoying, but it requires real mental abilities, including the ability to see all sides of an issue and to understand and accept that any belief, no matter how cherished, is poem only provisional and subject to Finding the Right Essay, change later if a better argument presents itself. It is the approach which underlies the modern scientific method, though the Academics did not use it in ontological that way. Even something like evolution, for which there is mountains of evidence and Balance as a Teacher - According to Star Essay, seemingly no resonable alternative, is poem treated as a theory subject to change if needed rather than an eternal truth. And it is this approach which Cicero embraced.

This is not surprising if we consider again why he was interested in Balance as a - According to Star Essay philosophy in the first place. As a lawyer, he would need to see as many sides of an argument as possible in summary order to Finding the Right Balance as a - According Wars, argue his clients' cases effectively. He would have to marshal all the summary of pinnochio, available evidence in as a Teacher - According Wars a methodical way, so as to make the strongest possible case, and he would have to accept that he might at any time have to deal with new evidence or new issues, forcing him to totally reconsider his strategies. As a politician, he would need a similar grasp of the margaret atwood woman, issues and a similar degree of flexibility in order to speak and to act effectively. A lawyer or politician who fanatically sticks to a particular point of view and cannot change is not likely to be successful. Adopting the teachings of the Academy also allowed Cicero to pick and choose whatever he wanted from the Finding the Right Wars, other philosophical schools, and he claims to do this at strengths and weaknesses of the ontological argument, various points in his writings.

Finally, his allegiance to the Academy helps to explain his use of the as a - According to Star Essay, dialogue form: it enables Cicero to put a number of arguments in the mouths of others without having to endorse any particular position himself. However, Cicero did not consistently write as a member of the Academy. Skepticism can, if taken to extremes, lead to complete inaction (if we can't be certain of the strengths of the ontological argument, correctness of our decisions or of our actions, why do anything at all?) which was incompatible with Cicero's commitment to political activity. Even if it isn't taken that far, it can still be dangerous. Teacher - According To Star? It may not be a problem if trained, knowledgeable philosophers are skeptical about things like whether the gods exist or whether the laws are just. But if people in general are skeptical about these things, they may end up behaving lawlessly and immorally (see Aristophanes' Clouds for a portrayal of this). Thus, while Cicero is willing to accept Academic Skepticism in some areas, he is not willing to do so when it comes to ethics and politics. For doctrines in strengths and weaknesses of the ontological argument these areas, he turns to the Stoics and Peripatetics.

5. Cicero and Stoicism and the Right Balance to Star Wars Essay, Peripateticism. Cicero believed that these two schools taught essentially the same things, and summary, that the difference between them was whether virtue was the only thing human beings should pursue or whether it was merely the best thing to the Right Balance as a - According to Star Essay, be pursued. According to social, the first view, things like money and health have no value; according to Finding the Right as a Teacher - According Wars Essay, the second, they have value but nowhere near enough to Sixth Essay, justify turning away from Finding Balance Essay, virtue to attain them. This was a difference with little practical consequence, so far as Cicero was concerned, and there is no need to take it up here. Since, according to margaret the edible woman, the teachings of the Academy, Cicero was free to accept any argument that he found convincing, he could readily make use of Stoic teachings, and he did so particularly when discussing politics and ethics. In the Laws , for example, he explicitly says that he is setting aside his skepticism, for Finding - According Wars Essay, it is summary dangerous if people do not believe unhesitatingly in the sanctity of the laws and of justice. Thus he will rely on Stoicism instead. He puts forth Stoic doctrines not dogmatically, as absolutely and always true, but as the best set of beliefs so far developed. We ought to adhere to as a Teacher, them because our lives, both individually and collectively, will be better if we do. It is essentially Stoic ethical teachings that Cicero urges the Roman elite to Sense, adopt. Stoicism as Cicero understood it held that the gods existed and loved human beings.

Both during and after a person's life, the gods rewarded or punished human beings according to their conduct in life. The gods had also provided human beings with the gift of reason. Since humans have this in common with the gods, but animals share our love of pleasure, the Stoics argued, as Socrates had, that the best, most virtuous, and most divine life was one lived according to reason, not according to the search for pleasure. Finding Teacher - According? This did not mean that humans had to shun pleasure, only that it must be enjoyed in the right way. For example, it was fine to margaret atwood woman, enjoy sex, but not with another man's wife. It was fine to enjoy wine, but not to the point of shameful drunkenness.

Finally, the Stoics believed that human beings were all meant to follow natural law, which arises from reason. The natural law is also the source of all properly made human laws and Finding Wars, communities. Because human beings share reason and the natural law, humanity as a whole can be thought of margaret the edible woman, as a kind of community, and Finding the Right Teacher - According to Star, because each of us is part of a group of human beings with shared human laws, each of us is also part of a political community. This being the case, we have duties to Technology, each of these communities, and the Stoics recognized an obligation to take part in politics (so far as is possible) in order to Finding Balance - According to Star, discharge those duties. The Stoic enters politics not for Sixth, public approval, wealth, or power (which are meaningless) but in order to Balance as a Teacher - According to Star Wars, improve the communities of which they are a part. If politics is painful, as it would often prove to be for Cicero, that's not important. What matters is that the virtuous life requires it. For the Epicurean philosophy Cicero had only disdain throughout most of Sixth Sense, his life, though his best friend Atticus was an Epicurean.

This disdain leads him to seriously misrepresent its teachings as being based on the shameless pursuit of Balance as a Teacher - According to Star, base pleasures, such as food, sex, and wine (the modern day equivalent being sex, drugs, and rock'n'roll). However, this is not what Epicurus, who founded the school, or his later followers actually taught. Epicurus did claim that nature teaches us that pleasure is the only human good, and that life should therefore be guided by summary of pinnochio the pursuit of pleasure. But he meant by pleasure the Finding Balance Teacher - According Wars Essay, absence of pain, including the pain caused by desires for wealth, fame, or power. This did not mean living life as one long Bacchanalia. Instead it meant withdrawing from politics and public life and living quietly with friends, engaged in the study of arthur millar, philosophy, which provided the highest pleasure possible (think of a monastery without the Finding the Right Balance - According to Star Wars Essay, Bible and the rigorous discipline). The notion that the life of philosophy is the most pleasant life, of course, also comes from Socrates. Epicureans were also publicly atheists.

Their atheism was based on a theory of atomism, which they were the first to propose. Everything in the universe, they argued, was made up of atoms, including the heavenly bodies; the gods did not exist. This knowledge was not a cause of despair but a cause of joy, they believed, since one of the social, greatest human pains is the pain caused by the fear of death and what lies beyond it. According to the Epicureans, death simply meant the end of sensation, as one's atoms came apart. Balance As A Teacher To Star Essay? Thus there was no reason to fear it, because there was no divine judgment or afterlife. Arthur Millar? The best known Epicurean is Lucretius, a contemporary of Cicero's at Rome who Cicero may have known personally. Finding Balance As A To Star? Lucretius' On the Nature of Things , available online, sets out Epicurean teachings.

It is classes quotes easy to see why Cicero, a man deeply involved in politics and Balance as a Teacher - According Wars, the pursuit of strengths and weaknesses of the ontological, glory, would find any doctrine that advocated the rejection of public life repulsive. It is also easy to see why someone concerned with the reform of character and conduct would reject public atheism, since fear of divine punishment often prevents people from acting immorally. During his forced exile from politics at Finding the Right as a Teacher - According Wars, the end of his life, however, some of his letters claim that he has gone over to Epicureanism, presumably for the reasons he hated it previously. No longer able to take part in margaret atwood the edible public life, the Finding Teacher - According to Star Wars, best he could hope for was the cultivation of private life and the pleasures that it had to offer. Since Cicero abandoned this idea as soon as the opportunity to return to public life arose, there is no reason to take his professed conversion seriously - unless we wish to see in margaret the edible woman it an example of changing his beliefs to reflect changing circumstances, and the Right Balance, thus an example of margaret, his commitment to the Academy. Cicero's written work can be sorted into three categories. None can be said to represent the true Cicero, and all of Cicero's work, we must remember, has a political purpose. This does not make it worthless as philosophy, but it should make us cautious about proclaiming anything in particular to be what Cicero really thought. Also, as an Academic skeptic, Cicero felt free to change his mind about something when a better position presented itself, and this makes it even more difficult to bring his writing together into Finding Balance Teacher Wars Essay, a coherent whole. The first category of Cicero's work is his philosophic writings, many of which were patterned after Plato's or Aristotle's dialogues.

These writings, in chronological order, include On Invention , On the Orator , On the Republic , On the Laws , Brutus , Stoic Paradoxes , The Orator , Consolation , Hortensius , Academics , On Ends , Tusculan Disputations , On the Nature of the Gods , On Divination , On Fate , On Old Age , On Friendship , Topics , On Glory , and On Duties . Unfortunately, several of them have been lost almost entirely ( Hortensius , on the value of philosophy, the Consolation , which Cicero wrote to himself on the death of his beloved daughter Tullia in order to atwood the edible woman, overcome his grief, and On Glory , almost totally lost) and the Right Teacher - According Wars, several of the others are available only in of pinnochio fragmentary condition (notably the Laws , which Cicero may never have finished, and the Republic , fragments of which were only discovered in 1820 in the Vatican). These will be discussed in more detail below. While each of them is dedicated and the Right Balance Teacher Wars Essay, addressed to a particular individual or two, they were intended to be read by a wide audience, and even at the end of atwood the edible woman, his life Cicero never gave up entirely on Finding the Right Balance as a Teacher - According to Star Wars Essay, the hope that the Republic and his influence would be restored. Hence these are not purely philosophical writings, but were designed with a political purpose in mind, and we are entitled to wonder whether Cicero is arthur millar being entirely candid in the opinions that he expresses. Also, the dialogue form is the Right Balance Wars useful for an author who wishes to express a number of opinions without having to endorse one. As we have seen, Cicero's skepticism would have made this an especially attractive style. We should not assume too quickly that a particular character speaks for Cicero.

Instead we should assume that, unless he explicitly says otherwise, Cicero wanted all the Essay, viewpoints presented to be considered seriously, even if some or all of them have weaknesses. The second category is the Balance as a Teacher Wars, speeches Cicero made as a lawyer and summary of pinnochio, as a Senator, about 60 of which remain. Balance As A Teacher - According To Star Wars? These speeches provide many insights into Roman cultural, political, social, and poem, intellectual life, as well as glimpses of Cicero's philosophy. Many of Finding Balance as a - According Essay, them also describe the corruption and immorality of the Roman elite. However, they have to be taken with a grain of salt, because Cicero was writing and delivering them in order to achieve some legal outcome and/or political goal and by his own admission was not above saying misleading or inaccurate things if he thought they would be effective. In addition, the speeches that we have are not verbatim recordings of what Cicero actually said, but are versions that he polished later for publication (the modern American analogy would be to Sixth Sense Essay, the Congressional Record , which allows members of Congress the opportunity to revise the the Right Wars, text of their speeches before they are published in the Record ). In some cases (such as the Second Philippic ) the speech was never delivered at social, all, but was merely published in Balance as a written form, again with some political goal in mind. Finally, roughly 900 letters to poem, and from (mostly from) Cicero have been preserved. Finding Balance As A Wars Essay? Most of them were addressed to his close friend Atticus or his brother Quintius, but some correspondence to and from some other Romans including famous Romans such as Caesar has also been preserved. The letters often make an interesting contrast to the philosophic dialogues, as they deal for the most part not with lofty philosophical matters but with the mundane calculations, compromises, flatteries, and arthur millar, manipulations that were part of politics in Rome and which would be familiar to any politician today. It is important to be cautious in drawing conclusions from them about Cicero's true beliefs since they rely on an understanding between the sender and recipient not available to others, because they are often not the result of full reflection or an attempt at complete clarity and precision (after all, a friend can be counted on to know what you mean), and Finding Balance Teacher - According to Star Wars, because many of them, like the speeches, were written with a political purpose in mind that may make them less than fully truthful and straightforward. Space does not allow us to discuss Cicero's speeches and letters.

The serious student of Cicero, however, will not want to ignore them. What follows is a brief summary of the main points each of Cicero's philosophical works. Written while Cicero was still a teenager, it is a handbook on oratory. Cicero later dismissed it and argued that his other oratorical works had superceded it. A lengthy treatise, in the form of a dialogue, on arthur millar, the ideal orator.

While it is full of detail which can be tedious to those who are not deeply interested in the theory of the Right as a - According to Star, rhetoric, it also contains useful discussions of the nature of and summary, the relationships among law, philosophy, and rhetoric. Cicero places rhetoric above both law and philosophy, arguing that the ideal orator would have mastered both law and philosophy (including natural philosophy) and would add eloquence besides. Finding As A - According To Star Wars? He argues that in arthur millar the old days philosophy and rhetoric were taught together, and that it is Teacher to Star unfortunate that they have now been separated. Summary Of Pinnochio? The best orator would also be the best human being, who would understand the correct way to live, act upon it by Finding as a Teacher taking a leading role in politics, and instruct others in it through speeches, through the example of his life, and of the ontological, through making good laws. This dialogue is, unfortunately, in an extremely mutilated condition. It describes the the Right Balance Essay, ideal commonwealth, such as might be brought about by the orator described in On the Orator . In doing so it tries to provide philosophical underpinnings for existing Roman institutions and to demonstrate that until the 20th century (the dialogue is set in 129 B.C.E.) Roman history has been essentially the increasing perfection of the Republic, which is now superior to any other government because it is a mixed government. By this Cicero means that it combines elements of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy in the right balance; the contemporary reader may well disagree. But even this government can be destroyed and is being destroyed by the moral decay of the aristocracy.

Thus Cicero describes the importance of an of pinnochio, active life of virtue, the foundations of community, including the the Right Balance Teacher - According to Star Wars Essay, community of all human beings, the role of the poem, statesman, and the concept of natural law. Finding Balance As A - According To Star? It also includes the famous Dream of Scipio. This dialogue is of pinnochio also badly mutilated, and may never have been finished. In it Cicero lays out the laws that would be followed in as a to Star Wars Essay the ideal commonwealth described in On the Republic . Finding the source of margaret woman, law and justice, he says, requires explaining what nature has given to humans; what a quantity of wonderful things the human mind embraces; for the sake of performing and fulfilling what function we are born and brought into the world; what serves to unite people; and Balance to Star Wars, what natural bond there is between them. Philosophy teaches us that by nature human beings have reason, that reason enables us to discover the strengths of the ontological argument, principles of Finding the Right as a Teacher - According to Star Wars, justice, and that justice gives us law. Therefore any valid law is rooted in nature, and any law not rooted in nature (such as a law made by a tyrant) is no law at all. The gods also share in reason, and because of this they can be said to be part of a community with humanity. They care for us, and punish and reward us as appropriate. Much of what remains of this dialogue is classes quotes devoted to religious law. This dialogue too is in a mutilated condition. It is Finding the Right - According to Star Essay a history of oratory in Greece and Sense Technology Essay, Rome, listing hundreds of orators and their distinguishing characteristics, weaknesses as well as strengths.

There is also some discussion of oratory in the abstract. Cicero says that the orator must instruct his listener, give him pleasure, [and] stir his emotions, and, as in On the Orator , that the true orator needs to have instruction in philosophy, history, and law. Such a person will have the tools necessary to become a leader of the commonwealth. This dialogue is less inclined to the argument that the orator must be a good man; for example, Cicero says that orators must be allowed to distort history [i.e. lie] in order to give more point to their narrative. Not a dialogue; Cicero lays out six Stoic principles (called paradoxes) which the average listener would not be likely to agree with and tries to make them both understandable and persuasive to such a listener. It is, he says, an exercise in turning the specialized jargon of the Stoics into plain speech for his own amusement (which obviously does not require Cicero to actually agree with any of the Stoic beliefs). The beliefs discussed are as follows: moral worth is the only good; virtue is sufficient for happiness; all sins and virtues are equal; every fool is insane; only the wise man is really free; only the wise man is really rich. These topics are largely taken up again in the Tusculan Disputations . Finding Balance - According? MacKendrick argues strenuously that this work is far more than an idle amusement, and that it showcases Cicero's rhetorical skills as well as being an attack on his enemies. Written in the form of a letter on the topic of the Sixth Sense Technology Essay, perfect orator, it includes a defense of Cicero's own oratorical style (Cicero was never known for his modesty). The Right As A - According Essay? It emphasizes that the summary, orator must be able to Balance as a, prove things to the audience, please them, and sway their emotions. It also includes the famous quote To be ignorant of what occurred before you were born is to remain always a child.

This text is Sixth Sense Technology lost except for fragments cited by other authors. Finding Balance Teacher Wars Essay? Cicero wrote it to diminish his grief over the death of his daughter Tullia through the use of philosophy. From his letters we know that it was not entirely successful. his text is heavily fragmented and we can determine little more than its broad outline. It is written in order to praise philosophy, which alone can bring true happiness through the development of reason and the overcoming of passions.

In antiquity it was widely read and very popular; it was instrumental in converting St. Augustine to Christianity. The positions of the various philosophical schools on epistemology (how we can perceive and understand the world) and the possibility of knowing truth are set out and refuted by the participants in this dialogue (of which we have different parts of two editions). Cicero also incorporates a detailed history of the development of these schools following the quotes, death of Finding Balance - According to Star Essay, Socrates (diagrammed nicely in MacKendrick; see below). The nature of Cicero's own skepticism can be found in this work; the reader is quotes left to choose the argument that is most persuasive. A dialogue which sets out the case, pro and con, of the several philosophic schools on the question of the end or purpose (what Aristotle called the telos) of human life. For Cicero, and arguably for ancient philosophy generally, this was the most important question: What is the end , the Finding the Right Balance - According to Star, final and ultimate aim, which gives the standard for all principles of summary of pinnochio, right living and of good conduct? Today many are inclined to believe that an answer to this question, if an answer exists at all, must be found in religion, but Cicero held that it was a question for philosophy, and this text was meant to popularize among the Romans the various answers that were being offered at the time. As with Academics , the reader must decide which case is most persuasive. Another attempt to popularize philosophy at Rome and demonstrate that the as a Teacher to Star Wars Essay, Romans and their language had the potential to achieve the very highest levels of philosophy. The first book presents the argument that death is an evil; this argument is then refuted.

The second book presents and refutes the argument that pain is an evil. The third book argues that the wise man will not suffer from anxiety and fear. Of The? In the fourth book Cicero demonstrates that the wise man does not suffer from excessive joy or lust. And in the fifth and final book Cicero argues that virtue, found through philosophy, is sufficient for a happy life. Finding Balance As A Teacher Wars? These positions are all compatible with Stoicism. This dialogue, along with the next two, was intended by Cicero to form a trilogy on summary, religious questions. It offers desciptions of literally dozens of varieties of religion. Emphasis is especially placed on the Epicurean view (the gods exist but are indifferent about human beings), which is described and then refuted, and the Stoic view (the gods govern the world, love human beings, and after death reward the good and punish the bad), which is similarly stated and refuted. At the end of the dialogue the Finding the Right Essay, characters have not reached agreement.

This is summary of pinnochio perhaps the dialogue that best illustrates Cicero's skeptical method. This dialogue too, according to Cicero, is meant to set out arguments both for and against a topic, in this case the validity of Teacher - According Essay, divination (predicting the future through methods such as astrology, reading animal entrails, watching the flight of atwood woman, birds, etc.) without asserting that either side is correct. Finding Balance Teacher - According To Star? The case for the validity of divination is presented in the first book and then crushed in Sixth Sense Essay the second (in which Cicero himself is the Finding the Right to Star Wars Essay, main speaker). While Cicero explicitly says that he reserves judgment, it is hard to conclude that Cicero approved of divination, which he saw as drawing on arthur millar, superstition rather than religion. Religion was useful because it helped to control human behavior and as a Wars Essay, could be used as a tool for Sixth Sense Technology Essay, public policy; and in this context divination could be useful too (as when an unwise political decision was prevented by the announcement that the omens were unfavorable).

The text is the Right Balance as a Teacher to Star Essay fragmented. The topic discussed is whether or not human beings can be said to have free will, so much of the book deals with theories of causation and the meaning of truth and falsehood. Cicero apparently rejects the margaret atwood, idea that fate determines all our actions and argues that human beings, to Finding Balance to Star Essay, a significant extent, have free will. In this dialogue, we learn that the sufferings of old age do not affect everyone equally but in social quotes fact are dependent on character; old men of Finding the Right as a Teacher to Star, good character continue to enjoy life, though in different ways than in arthur millar their youth, while men of bad character have new miseries added to Finding the Right Balance to Star, their previous ones. Nothing is more natural than to age and die, and sennacherib, if we are to live in the Right Balance Teacher to Star Wars accordance with nature (a Stoic teaching) we should face death calmly. If one has lived well, there are many pleasant memories to enjoy, as well as prestige and the intellectual pleasures that are highest of all. This dialogue describes the nature of true friendship, which is possible only between good men, who are virtuous and follow nature. This friendship is margaret woman based on Finding the Right Teacher - According Wars Essay, virtue, and arthur millar, while it offers material advantages it does not aim at Finding Balance Teacher - According Essay, them or even seek them.

The dialogue goes on to describe the bonds of friendship among lesser men, which are stronger the more closely they are related but which exist even in more distant relationships. The conclusion is reached that all human beings are bonded together, along with the gods, in a community made up of the sennacherib poem, cosmos as a whole and based on shared reason. There is, however, awareness of the fact that in the real world friendship can be a difficult thing to maintain due to political pressures and adversity. It also includes the assertion that Cato was better than Socrates because he is the Right Balance Teacher - According to Star Wars praised for deeds, not words, which is perhaps the center of atwood the edible, Cicero's personal philosophy (recall that he only wrote about philosophy, rhetoric and so on when political participation was denied to him by force), as well as the claim that love is not compatible with fear - a claim that Machiavelli found significant enough to explicitly reject in The Prince . A toolkit for orators on Finding Teacher Essay, the science of Sixth Sense Technology Essay, argument, touching on the law, rhetoric, and philosophy, and setting out the various kinds of arguments available to as a Teacher to Star, the orator, rules of logic, and poem, the kinds of questions he may find himself facing. It has similarities to Aristotle's Topics and part of his Rhetoric . Written in the form of a letter to Balance Wars Essay, his son Marcus, then in the edible his late teens and - According Wars, studying philosophy in summary Athens (though, we can gather from the letters, not studying it all that seriously), but intended from the start to reach a wider audience. Cicero addresses the topic of duty (including both the final purpose of life, which defines our duties, and the way in which duties should be performed), and says that he will follow the Stoics in this area, but only as his judgment requires. More explicitly, the letter discusses how to determine what is honorable, and which of two honorable things is more honorable; how to determine what is expedient and Finding Balance to Star Wars Essay, how to judge between two expedient things; and what to do when the sennacherib poem, honorable and the expedient seem to conflict. Cicero asserts that they can only seem to conflict; in reality they never do, and if they seem to it simply shows that we do not understand the situation properly.

The honorable action is the expedient and vice-versa. Finding As A Teacher Wars? The bonds among all human beings are described, and young Marcus is urged to follow nature and wisdom, along with whatever political activity might still be possible, rather than seeking pleasure and indolence. Poem? On Duties , written at the end of Cicero's life, in his own name, for the use of his son, pulls together a wide range of material, and is probably the best starting place for someone wanting to get acquainted with Cicero's philosophic works.

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Amplifying the Voices of Finding the Right to Star Essay, Women Photographers in margaret atwood the edible woman, the Middle East. WASHINGTON, DC In the dominant narrative about the Middle East, the Finding as a Teacher - According to Star voices of women are among the most difficult to hear. Here in the West, their words are often drowned out by our perceptions of their oppression, freedom, and alienation within the assumed monolith of regional culture and governance. Theres a narrative Western observers are more than willing to shoehorn Middle Eastern women into, devoid of nuance and complexity, that does just as much to silence them as the societal and legal limitations they face. Social? Its against those opposing but similar walls that the National Museum of Women in Finding Balance as a Teacher Essay, the Arts exhibit She Who Tells a Story pushes. After runs at the edible woman, Bostons Museum of Fine Arts and Stanford Universitys Cantor Arts Center, the show has come to the Right Balance as a Teacher - According to Star, Washington, DC, a powerful location for an endeavor that amplifies the voices of women living in a part of the world ravaged by US-led war and policy. The exhibit fittingly shares its name with Rawiya (Arabic for She Who Tells a Story), the summary of pinnochio first Middle Eastern female photography collective, founded in 2009. It seeks to present Arab and Iranian womanhood far removed from the myths and tales of the Persian Queen Scheherazade and the Arabian One Thousand and One Nights, as the introductory wall text states.

In doing so, She Who Tells a Story offers a masterclass on how to provide a platform for marginalized voices. As A Teacher Wars? Installation view, #8216;She Who Tells a Story#8217; at the National Museum of Women in the Arts, showing Lalla Essaydi#8217;s #8220;Bullets Revisited #3#8221; (2012) (click to of pinnochio, enlarge) Set in several rooms, the exhibit is broken into three themes: Deconstructing Orientalism, Constructing Identities, and New Documentary. Each offers an opportunity to Finding Teacher - According to Star, see how contemporary women living in the Middle East respond to ideas about their own identities and sennacherib poem the world around them. Wall text provides crucial context, making the many layers of meaning clear to lay observers who may not know about legal complexities in Iran or the varied forms of veiling across the region. The works on view are remarkably powerful, at times uncomfortable. In Moroccan artist Lalla Assia Essaydis Bullets Revisited #3 (2012), a woman adorned in gold jewelry lounges on a bed in a traditionally Orientalist pose, before an intricately patterned backdrop. On closer examination, it becomes clear that the backdrop, bed, and jewelry are all made of bullet casings, and the womans languid gaze becomes one of as a Teacher Essay, confrontation. The work calls up restrictions on and violence against women, but also the need for outsiders to look more closely in order to see the complicated reality of a place often painted in simple, stark strokes. Shadi Ghadirian, wntitled, from the classes series #8216;Qajar#8217; (1998), gelatin silver print, 15 3/4 x 11 7/8 in, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Museum purchase with the the Right Wars Essay Horace W. Goldsmith Fund for Photography and Abbott Lawrence Fund ( Shadi Ghadirian, photo 2015 Museum of social, Fine Arts, Boston) Boushra Almutawakel, untitled, from the series #8216;The Hijab#8217; (2001), chromogenic print, 47 1/4 x 39 3/8 in (image courtesy the artist and the Howard Greenberg Gallery) (click to enlarge) On an Balance as a Teacher Essay adjoining wall, Irans Shadi Ghadirian injects humor into the show with her Qajar series (1998).

Ghadirian combined imagery from the Qajar dynasty at the turn of the 20th century with contemporary props to communicate tension between modernity and traditionalism in post-revolutionary Iran. Each black-and-white photograph in the series features a woman in traditional Qajar dress and arthur millar a classic pose, but holding an anachronistic item: a banned newspaper, sunglasses, a boom box. The pictures capture the as a Essay contrary realities women face in a changing Iran. Opposite Qajar , Yemeni artist Boushra Almutawakels Mother, Daughter and Doll series (2010) brings the viewer face to face with multiple forms of veiling. Showing the summary artist, her daughter, and a doll in each iteration, the series challenges the idea that veiling is a monolithic practice thats done one way and means one thing to all women in all contexts. Rula Halawani, #8220;Untitled VI#8221; from the series #8216;Negative Incursions#8217; (2002), chromogenic print, 35 1/2 x 48 7/8 in ( and courtesy the artist and the Ayyam Gallery) In addition to the navigation of societal and Balance Teacher cultural expectations, the sennacherib poem show captures war through the Finding the Right as a Teacher - According woman artist#8217;s lens. Summary Of Pinnochio? Among the most powerful works on Finding Teacher Essay this topic is Palestinian former photojournalist Rula Halawanis series Negative Incursions . During Israels 2002 military incursion into the West Bank, Halawani captured images of combat, destruction, and pain.

But she left the images as negatives, creating a haunting and obscuring effect. Her proximity to her subjects, which include bombed-out houses and Israeli tanks, also speaks to the myth of the demure Arab woman; she is as close as one can possibly get to the occupation here, unafraid to stare down danger in order to capture its reality. Elsewhere in the exhibit, artists explore Iranian restrictions on women singing, the changing nature of life for social classes, women in Finding Balance - According, Gaza and Egypt, and the relationship between the margaret atwood hijab and Finding the Right - According to Star Wars Essay American identity. Individually, the works offer an engaging window onto the clash between private and arthur millar public; hung side by side, they juxtapose subjects like fashion and armed conflict in a way that emphasizes the connection between the personal and the political. Clothing choice becomes an act of Finding the Right - According to Star Wars, confrontation on poem one wall, while war interrupts the rites of passage that define a young woman#8217;s life on another.

At every turn, She Who Tells a Story emphasizes the Finding - According Essay importance of even the most mundane minutia of womanhood, while grounding the larger, more easily abstracted questions of and weaknesses ontological, international conflict in the realities of lived experience. Rania Matar, #8220;Stephanie, Beirut, Lebanon#8221; from the series #8216;A Girl and Her Room#8217; (2010), pigment print, 36 x 50 in (image courtesy the artist and Carroll and Sons, Boston; Rania Matar) She Who Tells a Story continues at the National Museum of Women in the Arts (1250 New York Avenue NW, Washington, DC) through July 31. I am nonreligious and I don#8217;t practice Yom Kippur#8217;s rituals, but I appreciate its teachings.

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essay sources Essay on Finding the Right Balance Teacher - According to Star, Sources: African-American Life in Charlottesville, Virginia, 1890-1920. by Joshua D. Rothman (do not cite without permission of author) (Note to students: This essay was originally written in May 1998 as an effort to describe a semester-long exploration of source materials available on African-American life in Charlottesville and Albemarle County in the early twentieth century. Woman? Obviously, it does not discuss every available source, but it is intended to Finding Balance as a to Star Essay, suggest the kinds of information that can be drawn from the particular sources discussed, to provide some very preliminary suggestions about what that information tells us, and to suggest directions for a more substantive essay. As you read, consider what kinds of sources you might use for your own projects and Sense Technology what kinds of questions those sources might enable you to investigate). The lives of the African Americans whom Rufus Holsinger photographed in his downtown Charlottesville studio during the first two decades of the twentieth century have remained largely unexamined by historians. Finding As A Teacher Essay? Part of the Holsinger Studio project is an arthur millar effort to describe the contours of Finding the Right as a to Star Wars Essay black life in Charlottesville that provided the arthur millar, figurative backdrop for the literal ones of Holsinger's studio. Preliminary research suggests that African Americans in Charlottesville lived largely excluded from white society and white public events, yet did not live in any clearly defined single community of Finding Balance Teacher - According Essay their own. Rather, blacks traveled in many overlapping and evolving communities, defined not only by residential boundaries and neighborhoods, but also by political districts, clubs, occupations, and other social and economic organizations, all of which were inextricably linked to black individuals' perceptions of their own class status.

The essay that follows is a discussion of some of the secondary and primary sources available for a study of Charlottesville's multifocal black communities. It is intended to hint at the often fragmentary and atwood subjective nature of available evidence, and Finding Teacher - According Essay accordingly at both the possibilities for arthur millar, and limitations on the Right Balance as a Teacher Wars Essay, a satisfying picture of black Charlottesville in this period. Published secondary materials on black life in Charlottesville between 1890 and 1920 are remarkably thin. John Hammond Moore's Albemarle: Jefferson's County, published in Sense Technology 1976, is certainly the best historical treatment of Albemarle County over its first two-and-a-half centuries. Finding The Right Balance As A Teacher Wars? Moore does devote some space in his work to and weaknesses of the ontological, the lives of the Right Balance - According to Star Essay county African Americans after Reconstruction. There is valuable information, for example, on black education and the persistent lagging of black educational facilities and training of teachers behind education for white children. Moore also presents a number of interesting tidbits related to the social lives of city blacks, and there is also some useful material on patterns of arthur millar black residency in the city and on class differences within local black communities.1 There is little in Moore's work, however, that is not readily available in other published sources, especially in Finding as a Teacher - According to Star the Phelps-Stokes Fellowship Papers, discussed in greater detail below. Generally, Moore chooses in Technology his book to look at very broad changes taking place in Charlottesville from its incorporation as a city in 1888 through 1920. He writes primarily about the modernization of Finding Balance as a to Star Essay a small Southern city--transportation improvements like paved roads and the installation of the trolley car, important technological innovations like the telephone and electricity, the growth of the university, and economic changes such as the inception of the tourist industry and the boom in real estate development, as developers bought the sennacherib poem, remaining large private estates in Finding Balance Teacher Wars town, turned them into subidivisions, and sold or rented these smaller lots to new residents.

With specific regard to relations between racial groups, however, Moore's conclusion on arthur millar, life under segregation is vague and broad nearly to the point of banality: White and black lived, for the most part, in separate worlds, usually meeting as servant and master as they had for generations; however, this did not preclude close bonds of personal friendship and interdependence, nor did it prevent the rise of considerable bitterness and even hatred long before segregation laws were effectively challenged. - According To Star? 2. The information available in Moore's book is sparse, but by comparison other useful secondary sources for black life in Charlottesville in Technology the early twentieth century are practically nonexistent. There are a number of Finding the Right Balance - According to Star pictorial histories of Charlottesville, most notably Cecile Clover and F.T. Heblick, Jr.'s Holsinger's Charlottesville, and Fred Heblich and Mary Ann Elwood's Charlottesville and the University of Virginia: A Pictorial History. Neither book discusses African Americans in summary of pinnochio any significant way. 3 Agness Cross-White's recently published Charlottesville: An African-American Community contains many previously unseen photographs, especially of some of the city's most prominent black families. But Cross-White's work has little text, and her photographs are largely dated after 1930, with most after World War II. 4. In 1981, Richard McKinney published Keeping the Faith, a history of the First Baptist Church on Main Street. - According Wars? There is some relevant detail about important church members from the early twentieth century as well as a very rough sketch of the congregation's leadership in this period.

For the most part, however, a discussion of the church's import to the black community and summary of pinnochio its role in community influence between the 1880s and World War I is conspicuously lacking, and the bulk of the book's material covers the the Right Teacher - According to Star Essay, years after 1914. 5. The Magazine of summary Albemarle County History has few published articles on black life early this century. Aside from an abridged version of McKinney's work on Finding the Right Balance Teacher, the Baptist church published in the magazine in 1981, no article has ever been published by the Albemarle County Historical Society that deals exclusively or even primarily with African-American life in Charlottesville between the end of Reconstruction and the onset of the Great Depression. A few articles allude to the presence of argument African Americans, including Andy Meyers' article on the Charlottesville Woolen Mills strike of 1918, in which the author devotes a paragraph to a discussion of the Finding the Right Balance as a Teacher - According Essay, only black worker at the mills, and an article by Halston Hedges, in which he remembers treating black patients as a medical student and doctor around the turn of the century. 6 But most articles in the magazine touching on this era discuss issues that reflect priorities similar to margaret the edible, those of Moore, such as the Balance Teacher Essay, elaboration of new transportation systems or the politics of arthur millar Charlottesville's incorporation as a city. 7. Frequently, local newspapers provide the feel for as a Teacher - According Essay, a community that no other primary source yields. But reading the Daily Progress, Charlottesville largest daily newspaper, from 1900 through 1920, one gets essentially no sense that blacks have any significant role in local happenings. Amidst the information on local events such as marriages, church announcements, club and other public meetings, important visitors coming through town, and school reports that peppered the Progress every day, African-American churches, schools, and social lives are noticeably absent. Social Classes Quotes? Lest one forget that blacks lived in Finding Balance Teacher - According Wars Albemarle County at all, the Progress never ceased to provide reports about African Americans involved in criminal activities or being the victims of gruesome deaths and other misfortunes.

For white readers of the Daily Progress, blacks served almost exclusively as entertainment and sennacherib human curiosities, satisfying white desires for Finding as a Teacher - According, lurid stories and real crime. Take, for example, all mentions of African Americans during the ten-day period from strengths of the ontological January 4 through January 14, 1910. On January 4, the paper ran a story about a black man on trial for - According to Star Essay, the murder of a man in Alexandria (whose conviction registered as a story on January 8). On January 5, the paper reported that a black man had escaped the state penitentiary, while January 6 brought the local news of a fire in an old black woman's home. Classes Quotes? January 7 showed that a black man killed a timekeeper in Pennsylvania in a dispute over wages, and on January 8 a negro boy from Kentucky who purportedly admitted to assaulting a white woman hanged for his crime. On January 12, attendants at a mental hospital in Philadelphia beat a black man to death after he suddenly became violent. On January 13, the Balance to Star Wars Essay, Progress ran the story of the sheriff of Starksville County, Mississippi, who shot eight blacks as they tried to arthur millar, lynch a man accused of murder. January 14, meanwhile, saw two stories: in one, soldiers in Leavenworth, Kansas threatened to lynch a black man accused of killing a police officer, while the other reported the mysterious case of Finding the Right Teacher Wars Essay a Long Island black woman who was supposedly turning white.

8. Editorials published by the Progress, on the rare occasions they discussed African Americans at all, reflected the racism of the white South in the early twentieth century, and focus primarily on the need to keep blacks away from equality in public facilities and, especially in 1900 as the debate over woman a new state constitution heated up, out of electoral politics. A January 1900 editorial on black education, for as a Teacher Essay, example, justified steering blacks toward industrial training: Even were the negro as capable as the white man of poem receiving a wholly literary and Teacher - According Wars Essay intellectual training, under existing conditions he would find it impossible to make as good use of such an education as the white man does, because an equal number of strengths ontological argument channels are not opened to him. It, therefore, profits him more to secure manual training along with his intellectual course for the reason that he can turn it to Finding Balance Essay, practical account more quickly and with larger enumeration. 9.

Similarly, in an editorial from summary later that year the Progress warned Democrats that local black Republicans were being thoroughly drilled in the manner of Teacher to Star Essay securing correct marking upon strengths and weaknesses argument their tickets, and printed instructions to all Republican voters are being furnished with that end in view. . . Balance Teacher - According To Star Wars Essay? . The chairmen of the various precinct committees should be urged to take steps at once to prevent any Democrat in the county losing his vote on account of a failure to be properly registered. It is too important a matter to margaret atwood the edible woman, be left to chance. 10. Occasionally, the Progress ran reports of local political meetings of African Americans (other than their routine tabloid-esque coverage of African-American crime and punishment, black participation in as a Teacher politics easily aroused the most attention from the Progress, as discussed below) or chose to praise a respectable black citizen upon his or her death. For the most part, however, the newspaper perpetuated a highly skewed and selective portrait of black life in the early twentieth century--that there were a few blacks worthy of trust and respect, but that for arthur millar, the most part blacks were unintelligent, poor, full of vice and irrational passions, and subject to criminal tendencies. The Right Balance Teacher - According? In short, blacks were only classes marginally worthy of freedom. Drawing useful information from the Progress is possible, especially with regard to politics, if only to get a sense of the flow of information available to white newspaper readers and Balance Teacher - According Essay of the context of white racism in which black Charlottesvillians lived. But relying on the Progress to get any feeling for the daily lives of county blacks would be preposterous.

Unfortunately, a source that may have had the greatest potential to give us that sense of daily life no longer exists. The Charlottesville Messenger was published in the 1910s and early 1920s by and for African Americans. The paper surely provided a much-needed antidote to the invisibility of and summary of pinnochio the slander against blacks provided by the Progress, and it probably ran the Finding as a to Star Essay, stories about black social life and the announcements of church and summary of pinnochio club meetings that the Progress had no concern for including. - According To Star? Perhaps its editors were bold enough to challenge publicly and in writing the pleas of the edible local whites to the Right Balance as a to Star Essay, exclude blacks from the political sphere and to classes, contain the economic advancement of blacks by limiting them to industrial education. The Right As A Essay? But there are no known extant copies of the Messenger, nor any way of knowing for certain its content or its readership. A search of the archival resources of sennacherib poem Alderman Library at the University of Balance as a Virginia, however, begins to yield some substantive information on the lives of African Americans in Charlottesville. 11 Potentially most valuable is the recent discovery of thirty-six issues of the Reflector , a black weekly newspaper published from at least 1933 to 1935. Consciously designed to sennacherib, bring news to the African-American community that the Progress ignored, the Balance as a Teacher to Star Wars, Reflector published black church and school news, letters to the editor, reports of club meetings, and editorials protesting the Sixth Sense Technology Essay, conditions for - According Wars Essay, black Americans in Charlottesville and elsewhere.

Though published after 1920, the Reflector is a treasure trove of information on summary of pinnochio, black life in Charlottesville during the Jim Crow era. Most of the useful materials in Alderman Library relate to the electoral political activities of black men, and yield some insight into the importance of political clubs to male members of the black community. The Charlottesville Republican Party Papers, for example, while a small collection, contain a list of black voters by ward for 1900. Comprising a few hundred names, the list was compiled at the McKinley and Roosevelt Club Headquarters and, when cross-referenced with other primary sources such as the census or the Charlottesville city directories, may help tell us the class, occupational, and residential status of the black voting population just before legal and constitutional strategies aimed at disfranchisement eliminated most blacks from the polls. Finding The Right As A To Star Wars Essay? 12. Of even greater interest and value are the Cox-McPherson Papers. This collection holds the of pinnochio, papers of Leroy Wesley Cox (1845-1938), a white carriage and wagon maker in Charlottesville and the chairman of the local Republican Party from 1901-1922. Some of Cox's papers are simply lists of black and Finding as a Wars Essay white voters.

Many of these lists are partial, undated, or of unclear purpose, making the use of them in social quotes any systematic way--for example, to compile full rosters of political club memberships--impossible. Finding The Right To Star Wars? Still, those Cox-McPherson lists with dates attached, even without being sure of their completeness, are in social classes some ways of Finding Teacher to Star greater analytical value than the Republican Party Papers, for they seem partially to describe the changing circumstances under which African Americans participated in electoral politics in Charlottesville in the early twentieth century and the struggle of black voters against disfranchisement. Sennacherib? In 1896, for example, Republican canvassers simply noted names and addresses of black voters. By 1908, however, addresses ceased to be as important as noting when voters paid their poll taxes during the previous three years, without which exercise of the franchise would be impossible by the end of the first decade of the twentieth century. The undefined purpose of many of the lists of names makes absolute numbers of the Right - According to Star Essay black voters during each year very difficult to ascertain from these documents alone, but a 1907 article from the Daily Progress gives some sense of the numbers involved, and indicates the extent to which the classes quotes, African-American vote fluctuated as disfranchisement policies tightened their grip on political life after 1900. On May 22, 1907, the Progress reported a more than twofold increase of the black vote in Balance Teacher Essay Charlotteville from the strengths and weaknesses ontological argument, previous year. Still, just 135 African Americans were able to Finding the Right Balance to Star Wars, qualify to vote in 1907, rising from a paltry 58 black voters the previous year. 77 black men had voted in argument 1902.

13. Other lists held in the Cox-McPherson collection are of local Republican committee members, which suggest that a sort of Finding the Right as a Teacher - According Essay interracial Republicanism operated in Charlottesville, at least on the club and ward levels, into classes quotes, the early twentieth century. 14 But the few pieces political correspondence in the Cox-McPherson papers suggests that black participation in as a to Star Essay the Republican party was always problematic for Charlottesville's white Republicans who wished to extend the party's base outside of arthur millar its black base of support. In a letter to Ivy resident J. Snowden Wood in 1896, for example, J.H. Rives at the University of Virginia pointed to a potential Republican crisis, writing that when I went down the street this morning I was told that certain colored men had been canvassing the city and Teacher - According to Star Wars Essay urging the social, election of a colored man to the position of City Chairman and a committee composed entirely of colored men. Anxious to put the rumored movement to a quick halt, Rives urged Wood to unite publicly with him and other Republicans to put down this dangerous movement which has always injured the Republican party and Wars Essay inured to summary of pinnochio, the benefit of the Democratic party. White Republicans in the 1890s wanted black votes but they did not want whites to realize that they cast their lot with black voters if they voted Republican, to Finding the Right Balance as a - According Essay, the point that men like Rives were willing to disavow black support publicly even as they cultivated it behind closed doors. 15. There were whites who veered away from the duplicity of margaret atwood the edible woman men like Rives and Finding the Right Balance Teacher Essay seem to have accepted black participation in party affairs. In 1900, for example, J. Augustus Michie wrote to Leroy Cox, insisting that Wood and Rives do not have their way in organizing the atwood woman, county convention being held later that year.

Michie instead provided his own lists of white and Teacher - According Wars black men he believed should represent the various county districts. Technology Essay? 16 But however many white men supported black participation in Republican politics, the political climate in the Jim Crow South was such that most Republicans shied away from - According Essay acknowledging their association with the remaining black Republican voters in the region. By 1920, white Albemarle county Republicans were taking out full-page advertisements in the Daily Progress telling voters that local Democrats were engaging in political trickery by and weaknesses of the ontological argument appointing black judges of election in certain voting wards and calling them Republicans. Finding Balance As A - According To Star Essay? But this fake 'race' issue should not dissuade whites from voting for the GOP, for the Republicans, the county committee implicitly assured the voters, were safely white. 17. For their part, black Republicans--who surely possessed complete awareness of poem this uneasy and unstable interracial political alliance--refused into the 1920s to be shunted off the voting rolls and out of Finding the Right as a to Star Wars Essay leadership positions in their own party. Quotes? One party worker in Lindsays Precinct in Albemarle County reported in 1896 that although getting them together was difficult, black voters there were excited to Finding Balance as a Teacher - According Essay, get their badges signifying membership in the local McKinley and Hobart Club, and were very anxious to hear good speaking and by the way every thing appears we could I think have a right good meeting. 18 In 1900, the Virginia Conference of Colored Men met in Charlottesville and collectively they signed a petition that blacks not be disfranchised. 19 Voter registration drives for black Republicans continued well after disfranchisement. Black women involved themselves in of the ontological electoral politics as well.

Mrs. A.M. Curtis, for example, the Colored Representative of the Women's Republican Association, signed her name to a Republican broadside encouraging black men to stand up for the Republican party despite Democratic trickery. Our enemies now in the disguise of friends, Mrs. Curtis claimed, now pretend friendship, but the Republican party has proved its friendship. 20 Men like George P. Finding Balance Wars? Inge, Charles Coles, Jr., J.G. Shelton, and W. E. Sense Essay? Jackson, Jr., remained active in the party until at least 1922, when Charlottesville Republicans elected them as delegates to the state congressional convention.

But by 1922 what remained of the Republican party in the Right Balance as a Teacher - According to Star Wars Virginia had cast its lot with white supremacy. At the state convention in Luray, the social classes quotes, black members of the Charlottesville delegation were denied seats. The Right - According? 21. Though the Cox-McPherson papers yield only snapshots of political life for black ctiizens, few other collections in Sixth Essay Alderman Library yield evidence nearly as rich. The Dillard Family Papers hold materials related to the life and work of the Right Balance - According Wars James H. Social Quotes? Dillard, a central figure in Finding the Right Teacher to Star Wars black educational efforts until his death in 1940. Much of the collection, however, deals with Dillard's involvement with the Jeannes Fund and the John F. Slater Fund, and in neither case do the materials held in the Dillard Papers have anything to do with African-American life in Charlottesville. 22 Charles Louis Knight, a sociological researcher, collected statistics on black housing in social quotes the mid-1920s in a number of cities, including Charlottesville. But while he left his data sheets to Balance as a to Star, the University of Virginia archives, they have no information written on them other than that they represent homes in Charlottesville.

The lack of any identifying features such as the name of sennacherib poem a home's residents, the address, or even what neighborhood it lies in renders the data sheets essentially useless. 23. One might expect that the Barringer Family Papers would hold useful evidence. The papers mostly relate to the life and career of Paul B. Barringer. Barringer (1857-1941), professor of medicine and chair of the faculty at the University of Virginia, a founder of the University Hospital, and President of Virginia Tech, also maintained a deep interest in what was commonly referred to in the early twentieth century as the negro problem or the Finding the Right as a Teacher Wars, race question. He thought, wrote, and corresponded much on quotes, racial issues over the course of his life, but the content of those thoughts and writings are profoundly disturbing. Barringer seems a man obsessed with the quest for Anglo-Saxon racial purity, the Lost Cause, and finding a new theory of Finding Balance as a Teacher - According to Star Wars Essay natural history to explain the Sense Essay, evolution of Finding the Right Balance Teacher Wars Essay human cultures. The products of of pinnochio these fascinations amount to a collection of bizarre white supremacist materials. In a speech on medical topics, for example, Barringer argued that an Finding the Right Balance as a Teacher - According to Star Essay interracial sexual union was an assault upon nature, a criminal violation of arthur millar natural law. In a draft of an essay entitled Why Your Father's Fought? A Warning, Barringer tackles American history and ridicules the equalitarianism of the radical abolitionists of the antebellum period, arguing that the call to recognize the brotherhood of man postulates an Finding Balance - According to Star Essay equality of men which does not exist.

Matters of policy may shift red, yellow, or brown, but even the African, in his heart, knows that he and white men are antipodes. 24. Especially concerned with black crime and interracial sex, Barringer's pretense to use his medical expertise as a foray into racial theory is in keeping with notions of race in the early twentieth century that continued to postulate innate biological differences between racial groups of people, but they are nonetheless somewhat frightening to the modern reader. Barringer may have been best known for a speech delivered in 1900 at Sense, a conference in Montgomery, Alabama, in which he postulated that the black race was doomed to extinction because of high infant mortality rates and disease. The end of slavery, Barringer suggested, had severed the bonds between blacks and Finding as a - According to Star whites that had led masters to be responsible for their slaves. The price paid for such a separation was high--The Sacrifice of a Race.

25 While the Barringer Papers prove to arthur millar, be jaw-dropping if not always stimulating reading, Barringer rarely wrote anything specifically about blacks in Albemarle County. While his writings do give some hint of the the Right Balance as a Teacher - According to Star, kinds of racial antipathy felt by some local whites, it is atwood the edible woman difficult to make use of Barringer's abstract and broad racial theorizing for any conclusions on the specifics of Finding the Right Teacher - According Wars life in Charlottesville. The papers of the presidents of the University of Virginia contain little about blacks in Charlottesville specifically as well, but the papers of Edwin Alderman in particular do hold useful background materials on the origins and strengths and weaknesses ontological intentions of the Phelps-Stokes Fellowship Series, the products of the Right as a Teacher - According Wars which provide crucial documentation of black life in Albemarle County from the early twentieth century through World War II. The Phelps-Stokes Fund, a philanthropic organization based in New York, gave a gift of $12,500 to the University of Virginia in classes quotes 1911 for the purpose of funding a permanent fellowship in Sociology. Balance Teacher - According? One Phelps-Stokes Fellow--a University of Virginia student--was chosen each year, given $500 to undertake a research project on some aspect of black life, and expected produce a written report of his or her findings for publication, in the hope that such research would assist in improving the condition of the negro. President Alderman, in his announcement of the fellowship, praised its underlying premise, namely that the arthur millar, best way to solve the Finding the Right Teacher Essay, problems facing African Americans in the United States was through the search for scientific and practical solutions. Poem? The thing to Finding - According to Star, do, Alderman claimed, is to take it [the 'negro problem'] out of the nervous system of our people and their emotions, and to ontological, get it set up before them as a great human problem,--economic in nature, scientific in character,--to be acted upon Finding the Right to Star as the result of broad, wise, sympathetic study.

26. Between 1915 and sennacherib poem 1950, the University of Virginia published 18 research reports written by students under the auspices of the Phelps-Stokes Fellowship Series. Balance Teacher Wars? Nearly all deal with black education, professional and employment opportunities, residential patterns, land ownership, health, or crime. Because of the proximity of social quotes Charlottesville and Albemarle County's black communities to the University, a number of students chose to the Right Wars, devote part or all of their research to local studies. Quotes? From 1915 to 1934, six Phelps-Stokes Fellows wrote on the conditions of black life in Albemarle County, with three focusing specifically on Charlottesville.

27. Though most of the studies were actually undertaken after 1920, the anthropology and sociology students who performed the research for the Phelps-Stokes reports present what are probably the most valuable sources on black life in Charlottesville in the early twentieth century, with information unavailable from any other even remotely contemporaneous source. The reports describe different residential neighborhoods in Finding the Right - According Wars Essay Charlottesville, from Old Scottsville Road (South Sixth Street), notorious among blacks and whites alike for its extreme poverty and unsanitary conditions, to the Gas-House district in the hollow north of Main Street between Second and Fifth Streets, which housed working-class blacks and was known for the stream of stinking refuse that ran from the nearby city gashouse through the streets, to the neighborhoods around Page Street northwest of downtown and between Seventh and Ridge Streets south of Main, where professional and wealthier African Americans lived. 28. The residential patterns the Phelps-Stokes fellows describe reflected class distinctions within the black population, and the fellows frequently contrasted what they characterized as the vice-ridden residents of the slum of Old Scottsville Road with the educated upstanding club members and business owners who lived in social quotes more respectable neighborhoods and who composed the four hundred--a name taken on by upper-class African Americans in Charlottesville to distinguish themselves from poorer blacks.

Phelps-Stokes reports tell of club life, from cultural organizations like the Taylor Art Club to civic and the Right Balance as a Essay charity-minded groups like the Progressive Club; of black education at the Jefferson School; of the Vinegar Hill business district which housed barber shops, pool rooms, tailors, insurance companies, dentists and doctors offices, groceries, cleaners, and other businesses, most owned by and weaknesses argument African Americans; and of religious life centered on the five local Baptist churches. When the findings of all the Phelps-Stokes papers are read together, a complex picture of the black community begins to emerges, better described as multiple communities of Balance as a to Star Wars Essay African Americans who shared the atwood, same city but often not the same economic or cultural interests and Finding the Right Balance Teacher Wars Essay priorities. 29. In keeping with the philanthropic spirit of the Sense Essay, Phelps-Stokes Fund's bequest, all the fellows appear to have been well-meaning, and they detailed the conditions under which Albemarle's black citizens lived in the hopes that their reports might draw attention to and bring alleviation of some of the worst deprivations faced by African American. In his report on the county neighborhood of Finding Balance - According to Star Wars Red Hill which lies southwest of Fry's Spring, for example, William Lester Leap wrote the negro standards of living are slowly rising. But when the Sixth, incomes are small, such progress is necessarily slow.

It requires time, education, leadership, encouragement, and help; if these are available much can be accomplished. 30 In concluding his report on black housing, Charles Louis Knight took the space to deplore the living arrangements of Finding the Right Balance as a Teacher - According Wars Essay many blacks and called on summary, local governments to improve public services and zoning codes, on Finding Balance - According to Star Wars, black leaders to uplift the race, and on lenders to help improve the rate of black home ownership. 31 Robert Lightfoot, meanwhile, in sennacherib poem his study of black crime in Charlottesville, not only found that whites committed many more violent crimes than blacks and discovered large disparities between the as a Teacher Wars, severity of Sixth Essay sentencing of black criminal offenders and the leniency granted whites, but he also argued that given the economic and educational deprivations faced by blacks, their crime rate was surprisingly low. When these factors, he wrote, are considered in Finding the Right Balance to Star Essay connection with the 'we-don't-want-the-niggers-to-get-away-with-anything' attitude which is held by a great many white people, the Negro question changes from 'Why do the Negroes commit so many crimes?' to 'Why do they commit so few?'32. But the Phelps-Stokes Papers must be read with a severely critical eye. Even as they called for reform, many of the fellows wrote in a fashion that suggests they believed they described a certain objective reality of black life and sennacherib that, as Alderman claimed, practical and scientific ideas properly applied would fix the conditions laid out in their reports. 33 Their studies, however, hardly described any objective picture of African-American life. Rather, one finds that the reports of the Phelps-Stokes fellows reflect the Balance Teacher Wars Essay, intellectual tenets and the preconceived understandings of most Southern sociologists about African Americans in summary the early twentieth century. Vernon J. Williams, Jr., in his work on sociological attitudes toward African Americans, argues that from the turn of the century through World War II, sociologists moved away from a rationalization of castelike arrangements in the United States and towards advocacy and support for assimilation of Balance Essay blacks into the American mainstream.

This change, however, was slow and gradual, and ideas about the and weaknesses argument, natural, immutable inferiority of blacks only died slowly over the course of the first four decades of the twentieth century. While Southern sociologists, Williams suggests, did slowly adopt Boasian ideas about cultural determinism as an Finding Balance as a to Star alternative to racial determinism, they tended to lag behind their disciplinary colleagues in accepting the possibility of black equality. Most Southerners, Williams writes, tended to hold that there were significant mental difference between blacks and whites; yet despite this tendency, their writings reflected the classes quotes, tension between the hereditarian and Balance Teacher - According Wars Essay environmental perspectives. Poem? 34. Underlying the Phelps-Stokes papers is the notion that economic conditions for Finding the Right as a - According Wars, blacks could be alleviated and that change from strengths and weaknesses a caste system was possible, but a cultural (and sometime vaguely biological) racism is present as well. The fellows' bibliographies suggest the scholarly and disciplinary environment in which they operated. In Lightfoot's study of as a - According Wars black crime, for example, he cites both E. Franklin Frazier's study of the black family in Chicago and E.B. Reuter's book, The American Race Problem, both of which had been published during the years Lightfoot conducted his research. While both scholars set out to undermine the notion of a scientific foundation to race that relegated blacks to a predetermined inferior status, inherent in both their works is a presumption that the closer a black family approached middle-class white standards of hard work, stable two-parent families, and temperance, the margaret atwood the edible, closer they came to a kind cultural superiority conducive to economic and social success in America. The theories of Finding Balance as a - According men like Frazier and Reuter are reflected in Lightfoot's study, as he tied higher crime rates in areas like Old Scottsville Road not only to economic and educational circumstances, but also to bad attitudes. In this area, Lightfoot suggested, are the homes of the Negroes who take life as it comes.

They display little or no ambition; men and women loaf in the streets, or stand about in their yards doing nothing. 35. Helen Camp de Corse, meanwhile, used Frazier's studies but also Howard Odum's 1910 work, Social and Mental Traits of the Negro, in which the Southern sociologist argued that while changes in margaret the edible woman the economic conditions of blacks could help improve their status, blacks were also inherently impulsive, tended toward pleasure and leisure which led to Finding the Right Teacher - According Wars, laziness and inactivity, extreme in responses to stimuli, lacked self-control, and were superficial and irresponsible. 36 In her own work, de Corse focused heavily on summary of pinnochio, moral issues, criticizing blacks for perceived high rates of illegitimacy, the absence of two-parent homes, and juvenile delinquency. Her attention to those issues in particular reflects a sensibility that blacks were precisely what Odum suggested: naturally hypersexual, irresponsible, and untrustworthy. De Corse, like the other Phelps-Stokes scholars, seems to have believed these circumstances were mostly products of culture rather than of biology (even Odum's work indicated the tension between the two notions of racial difference), and were amenable to change if blacks were willing to make the Finding - According to Star Essay, effort to approximate middle-class moral standards. Nonetheless, her tone is condescending, pitiful, and occasionally self-righteous, all of which suggest that she viewed poor African Americans as projects, susceptible to possible improvement through moral and economic uplift, rather than as people who lived in an environment of sennacherib racism that often trapped them in their poverty regardless of Finding the Right as a Teacher - According to Star their aspirations. The sources discussed thus far all present different obstacles for a historical interpretation of social classes quotes black life in early twentieth century Charlottesville, from the skewed presentations of blacks in the Daily Progress to the too few moments of the Right fragmentary insight yielded by private collections, to the problematic interpretive lens through which Phelps-Stokes fellows understood their subjects. At first glance, the most glaring obstacle may be that there exist no contemporary sources actually produced by African Americans. There are, however, some oral histories given by blacks from Charlottesville, both published and on tape in the collection of the Woodson Institute.

Many of these histories recall a time after the 1920s, but when considering a time period and a population about social quotes, whom sources are so elusive the Finding - According to Star Essay, oral documents cannot simply be discarded. For starters, to attempt to and weaknesses of the ontological argument, write this history without some black perspective when these perspectives are available is flawed and intellectually dishonest. The experience of any group of people is most effectively conveyed by the people themselves, and the reports of blacks from Charlottesville are frequently outstanding in Finding the Right Balance as a Teacher - According to Star Essay their expressions and poem descriptions of the nuances of social relations, and in confirming or modifying reports from other sources about, for example, the racial compositions of particular neighborhoods and the kinds of economic circumstances of those who lived in them. Most importantly, perhaps, these oral histories add the kinds of anecdotal evidence crucial to anyone trying to capture the the Right - According Essay, sense of a place, its feel, and its subtleties. Compare, for classes quotes, example, the descriptions of the Finding the Right to Star Wars Essay, Old Scottsville Road neighborhood in the Phelps-Stokes papers with the personal story about that neighborhood told by Rev. Carter Wicks in his interview from earlier this year. Where the Phelps-Stokes fellows wrote about Sense Technology, Old Scottsville Road as the dirtiest and the Right Teacher - According to Star Wars most dangerous area of Charlottesville, Rev.

Wicks said the following about his parents' feelings: In our social lives, we discriminated, cause my father and mother, if I told them we was going to a party down on Sixth Sense Essay, Scottsville Road, they'd tell me 'you ain't goin' nowhere,' because they knew the section and just going to get in a lot of Finding Teacher - According to Star Wars Essay trouble, and they wouldn't let me go. Not that they thought I was better than those people, but its just the neighborhood was just such that you'd get in trouble. I was never taught that I was better than anybody else, and I also was taught that nobody was better than I am. Here, Wicks not only confirms and enhances the notion that this area deserved its reputation, but also, rather self-consciously, the idea that blacks did in fact discriminate between themselves based on class distinction and senses of the danger that awaited those who ventured into the wrong neighborhoods. In Wicks' and others' oral testimony, blacks are the main characters and the documents yield a sense of what those in the black community saw and felt that the Phelps-Stokes papers and other sources that view blacks primarily as subjects of study never do effectively. 37. Oral histories can allow for the reconciliation of evidence transmitted through any number of subjective lenses, but oral interviews are no less subjective in their own way. Memories are always selective and imperfect and while we still do not entirely understand the neurochemical processes of memory, it is of pinnochio clear that memories are frequently hazy, inaccurate, and consciously or unconsciously altered to conceal that which is painful, to enhance the role of the Finding the Right as a Teacher - According to Star Essay, teller, or simply to make anecdotal recollections fit the overall narrative the teller is choosing to recreate. Taking oral histories, some of which recall events from sixty or seventy years earlier, at face value is Sixth Essay thus no less problematic than accepting the validity of sociological data from the same time period. History is often memory, but memory is not the reflection of an objective reality. I hope to correct for some of the fogginess and fragmentary nature of the sources not only by the Right Teacher - According Essay comparing them against one another, but by summary of pinnochio using evidence from the 1910 census and from Charlottesville city directories published between 1895 and 1920 to compile demographic profiles of the black population in Charlottesville.

Among other categories, the census records names, numbers and relations of people within households, the nature of individuals' work or business, literacy rates, and the Right Balance Teacher - According Wars home ownership. Census takers also took note, in the margins of the census sheets, the names of streets from which the atwood woman, records on the page come. Currently, the census records of all African Americans in Charlottesville are being logged onto Finding to Star Essay computer to enable manipulation of the data and to allow for some conclusions to be drawn about family and Sixth Sense Technology Essay household size as well as employment and residential patterns. In the future the entire census could be put into Finding the Right Balance as a to Star Essay, a database program, and perhaps censuses from 1900 and 1920 can be added, to enable better comparisons with the white population and to note changes taking place over arthur millar time. The Charlottesville city directories contain less information than the Finding the Right Wars Essay, census, but they do record names, employment, and both home and work addresses. In addition, the business directories list dozens and dozens of black businesses and their addresses. Directories from 1895, 1898, 1904-05, 1909-10, 1916-17, and 1919-20 have been entered into a computer. They have an advantage over the census not only in their more manageable sizes but also in that they exist for more than half the years between 1895 and 1920, which allows for the close tracking of changes over time in work and living patterns. My hope for Sense Technology, both the census and the city directories is to be able both to glean evidence to support or contradict the Finding Balance as a - According to Star Wars, conclusions drawn by arthur millar observers like the - According to Star Essay, Phelps-Stokes fellows and the providers of oral histories and to argument, build a foundation for this study that lies on less subjective ground than those sources. In particular, I am excited by the possibilities for creating a map of black Charlottesville that can display residential distribution of African Americans both generally and by occupation (which may in turn be suggestive of conclusions about class) as well as the locations of black churches, schools, cemeteries, club buildings, and businesses.

The black communities of Charlottesville comprise a mosaic spread across the city a sense of which I believe visual demonstration may best convey. I have not even begun the process of looking at the largest cache of sources in Finding Balance - According to Star Wars terms of sheer volume. Arthur Millar? The city and county courthouses hold wills, deeds, marriage registers, police and court records, and other legal documents. The Right As A Wars? To take full advantage of these sources requires enormous amounts of time and patience, but the rewards can be worth the effort. Sense Technology? We know many African Americans owned property, for example, but just how much and where? Did black business owners own or rent buildings on Vinegar Hill? What can we learn about Balance as a to Star Wars, black interaction with the criminal justice system?

What can wills tell us about patterns of inheritance? I strongly encourage a steady mining of these kinds of sources to complement and add to the portrait of a city being painfully drawn to date from fragmentary sources--smatterings of arthur millar anecdotal information, occasional newspaper reports, undated and incomplete lists of voters, and names and descriptions of Finding Balance Wars neighborhoods where people lived. 1 John Hammond Moore, Albemarle: Jefferson's County, 1727-1976, (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976). On black education, see pp. 323-329. On residential patterns, class differences, and social life, see pp. 423-432. 2 Moore, pp. 423-424. 3 Holsinger's Charlottesville: a collection of photographs by classes quotes Rufus W. Holsinger,.

Cecile Wendover Clover, and F.T. Heblick, Jr., eds., (Charlottesville: Art Restoration Services, 1995 [2nd ed. of 1976 publication]; Fred T. Heblich and Mary Ann Elwood, Charlottesville and the University of Virginia: A Pictorial History, (Norfolk: Donning Company, 1982). 4 Agnes Cross-White, Charlottesville: An African-American Community, (Dover, New Hampshire: Arcadia, 1998). 5 Richard I. McKinney, Keeping the Faith: A History of The First Baptist Church, 1863-1980 In Light of Its Times, (Charlottesville, 1981). 6 Andy Meyers, The Charlottesville Woolen Mills: Working Life, Wartime, and the Walkout of 1918, MACH, Vol. Finding The Right Balance As A To Star Essay? 53 (1995), pp.

71-114; Halstead S. Hedges, A Doctor's Reminiscences of Albemarle County, MACH, Vol. 3 (1942-43), pp. 5-16. 7 See, for example, Edward M. Donohoe, From Horse Cars to Busses in Charlottesville, 1887-1935, MACH, Vol. 12 (1951-52), pp.

1-10; Jefferson Randolph Kean, 'Forward is the Motto of atwood the edible woman Today:' Electric Street Railways in Charlottesville, 1893-1936, MACH, Vols. 37-38 (1979-1980), pp. Finding Essay? 67-186; Kean, Early Street Railways and the Development of Charlottesville, MACH, Vols. Strengths And Weaknesses? 33-34 (1975-76), pp. 1-52; Gayle M. Schulman, 'Shall We Become a City?' The Story of Charlottesville's Incorporation as a City in 1888, MACH, Vol. 46 (1988), pp. 1-16. Other articles dealing with this time frame include A. Robert Kulthau, and Beulah O. Carter, Baptist Education for Young Ladies in Charlottesville: Part II, 1875-1909, MACH, Vol. Teacher To Star Wars Essay? 54 (1996), pp. 29-68; L. Moody Simms, Philip Alexander Bruce: The Charlottesville Years, MACH, Vol.

29 (1971), pp. Arthur Millar? 69-79; James P.C. Southall, Reminiscences of Charlottesville in the 1880s, MACH, Vol. 4 (1943-44), pp. 24-34; Lilyan Sydenham, Reflection of National Dramatic Trends in Charlottesville, 1900-1935, MACH, Vol. 13 (1953), pp. 46-53; and Peter Wallenstein, The Case of the Laborer from Louisa: Three Central Virginians and the Origins of the Virginia Highway System, MACH, Vol. 49 (1991), pp. As A Teacher Wars? 19-48. 8 The Daily Progress, January 4-14, 1910. 9 Ibid., January 15, 1900.

10 Ibid., October 23, 1900. Sennacherib? On July 31, the Progress, a staunchly Democratic organ, had aligned itself clearly with forces calling for the Right Balance Teacher - According Wars, disfranchisement, reprinting from the Lynchburg News, classic rhetoric defending the elimination of the black vote in Virginia: the margaret woman, white people of Finding Balance as a - According Essay Virginia are not unfriendly to the negroes. Social Classes Quotes? The desire to exclude illiterates from the Finding the Right Balance as a Teacher to Star Wars, polls is not prompted by unkindness. It is due to the conviction that our politics will be purer and strengths of the ontological our government better administered when this dangerous and irresponsible element is eliminated. 11 A survey of the archival materials at the Library of Virginia and Finding the Right Balance Teacher - According to Star Essay the Virginia Historical Society proved almost entirely fruitless. Sixth Technology Essay? The VHS had no collections of interest. The Library of Virginia holds some county records, but many of these are available at the Right to Star, the courthouses in downtown Charlottesville. The LOV does hold the War History Commission Records, which the State of Virginia created shortly after World War I. The Commission interviewed veterans about summary, their personal lives before the war, their war experiences, and their reflections on their military service. A few of Finding the Right Balance Teacher to Star Wars these questionnaires survive from Albemarle County blacks, but I have found none from margaret blacks living in Charlottesville specifically. (World War I History Commission, Questionnaires, Microfilm Reel 38, Library of Virginia, Richmond). 12 Republican Party (Charlottesville) Papers, MSS 9077, Alderman Library, University of Virginia.

13 Cox-McPherson family papers, 1892-1922, MSS 38-11, Alderman Library, University of Virginia, Box 1; Daily Progress, May 22, 1907 and Finding the Right Balance as a Wars Essay Oct. Of Pinnochio? 4, 1902. By 1902, in the wake of a new Virginia state constitution designed in part to keep black voters off the Finding Balance - According Wars, rolls, the Progress felt compelled to explain to its readers how it was possible that those 77 black voters still qualified to vote. The paper, assuring its readers that not just any black man could qualify, indicated that at least 60 qualified via their ownership of margaret atwood the edible woman property. Of the others, one was a graduate of Hampton and qualified under the understanding clause, another was the Finding Teacher, son of a Confederate soldier, and a third was a very worthy and prosperous citizen. The Progress indicated, lest any white citizen worry, that 27 black men in one ward were disqualified under the classes, understanding clause. It is uncertain how many black men qualified to vote in Charlottesville before the new state constitution took effect. One list from Essay May 1896 in the Cox-McPherson papers contains 44 names of registered voters, but it seems likely that this is arthur millar a list either of just one ward or of the voters registered at a particular registration drive, as suggested by the absence of the names of men like J.T.S. Taylor and George Inge and others who sat on local Republican committees in Finding to Star Wars Essay 1896 and who were certainly voters. 14 Both black and arthur millar white Republicans served on Finding Balance Teacher to Star Wars Essay, ward committees in Charlottesville, and social classes the minutes of a number of Republican party meetings from 1896 indicate that whites and blacks worked together on party business. Finding Balance As A Teacher - According Essay? It does seem, however, that white Republicans held most leadership positions, especially those that might have them represent the party before other whites.

Thus, L.W. Cox was repeatedly elected City Chairman, while ward committeemen included many prominent black citizens like George P. Inge, Charles E. Coles, and Noah Jackson, whose racial status enabled them more than white committeemen to work more closely with individual black citizens. (Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 2) 15 Rives to Snowden, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1, July 13, 1896. Social Classes Quotes? The cynicism of Balance to Star Essay his own schemes never seems to have occurred to Rives, who on April 20, 1896, found himself, after the unanimous adoption of a resolution submitted by black Republican George P. Inge, selected by the City Committee of Republicans to serve as delegate to the St. Louis national convention. (City Committee Minutes, April 20, 1896, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 2).

16 Michie to Cox, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1, March 20, 1900. It is sennacherib poem possible, of course, that Michie's worries had much to do with internecine struggles for local political power between white Republicans, a battle in which a fight over black participation simply served as a means to an unrelated end. Finding The Right As A - According To Star Wars Essay? Still, that there could be such a fight at all indicates that African American support mattered to sennacherib poem, white Republicans and that men like Michie and Rives understood its significance. 17 See Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1. In a public exchange of letters in the Progress, the Secretary of the Albemarle County Committee accused the - According, Democratic Electoral Board of appointing African Americans as judges of election and calling them Republicans without the approval or knowledge of the Republican party. The electoral board shot back without irony that they believed that there are more colored Republicans in the City of Charlottesville than white Republicans, and that it was not only legal, but morally right to seat black judges of election in certain precincts. ( Progress, November 1 and of pinnochio November 5, 1920). 18 William Wilkey to L.W. Cox, February 20, 1896, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1.

19 Progress, August 23, 1900. 20 undated Appeal to Colored Voters, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1. Black women could not vote, obviously, until 1920. It is unknown how many women in the whole city qualified in 1920, but the Cox-McPherson collection notes that in Charlottesville's first ward, where few blacks lived, three women--Maggie P. Finding Balance To Star Wars Essay? Burley, Mamie J. Farwell, and Alice Grady--qualified to vote in the presidential election. (Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 2). 21 See assorted documents, March-July 1922, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1. 22 Dillard Family Papers, MSS 9498, Alderman Library, University of Virginia. Dillard also sat on the board of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, but not until well into the 1930s, and classes the papers relevant to his involvement with that organization largely consist of reports of meetings of the Board of Trustees. 23 Charles Louis Knight, Statistics on the colored population of Philadelphia, Lynchburg, and Charlottesville, MSS 38-535, Alderman Library, University of Virginia. Any value to be derived from Knight's research appears in the compiled tables for his report made for the Phelps-Stokes Fund, Negro Housing in Certain Virginia Cities, Charlottesville, 1927.

24 Barringer Family Papers, Alderman Library, University of Virginia, Box 6. 25 For full text of Barringer's speech, see Progress, June 2, 1900, and see the the Right Balance as a Teacher to Star Wars Essay, response delivered by Booker T. Washington in Century magazine, discussed in Progress, July 31, 1900. 26 Presidents Papers, RG2/1/2.472, subseries I (Office Administrative Files, 1904-1914), Box 20. The fellowship series began inauspiciously as H.M. McManaway, the social classes quotes, first fellow, was selected in 1912 but never delivered his report. In 1915, the University's Phelps-Stokes Fellowship Committee passed a new set of guidelines that more rigidly bound the fellows to produce actual work. The Right Wars Essay? It became mandatory that preference in selection of the fellow be given to graduate students, and the responsibilities of the fellows were more clearly defined. Summary? In addition, the committee passed a rule that full payment of the fellowship not be issued until the the Right as a Teacher to Star Essay, fellow's thesis was complete and in the possession of the committee. (Presidents Papers, RG2/1/2.472, subseries III [Office Administrative Files, 1915-1919, Box 8, letter from Sixth Charles W. Kent, Prof. of English Literature, to the Right Balance Teacher - According to Star, Alderman, 10/15/15]). 27 The six studies relevant to Charlottesville include: Samuel T. Bitting, Rural Land Ownership among the Negroes of poem Virginia with Special Reference to Albemarle County, 1915; Knight, Negro Housing, 1927; Marjorie Felice Irwin, The Negro in Charlottesville and Albemarle County, an explanatory study, 1929; William Lester Leap, Red Hill Neighborhood: life and race relations in a rural section, 1933; Helen Camp de Corse, Charlottesville: a study of Negro Life and Personality, 1933; Robert Mitchell Lightfoot, Negro Crime in a Small Urban Community, 1934.

28 On different residential areas of Charlottesville, see de Corse, Charlottesville, pp. 7-10; Irwin, Negro in Charlottesville, pp. 18-22; Lightfoot, Negro Crime, pp. 7-11. 29 These kinds of materials fill much of the the Right as a Teacher to Star Wars, reports of de Corse and Irwin in particular, and I imagine that much of the final version of strengths ontological this paper will be suffused with more detailed descriptions of all the areas touched on above. The Right As A? Pulling together these materials more systematically and at margaret the edible, greater length here, however, is perhaps a superfluous task, as the information still to be gleaned from the census and from city directories is intended to help confirm or modify many of the conclusions drawn by the fellows about Finding Balance as a - According Essay, class divisions and residential patterns and, in turn, to help bolster the argument that the black community in Charlottesville was multifocal and imagined.

Community could mean residential boundaries and neighborhoods and it could describe self-conscious class differentiations but community also took shape around political districts, club membership, churches, or any other means by which African Americans identified with one another. The populations of these different but coexisting communities overlapped and constantly shifted, but the suggestion that a single black community ever existed seems to mask a much more complex set of summary social arrangements. 30 Leap, Red Hill, p. 153. 31 Knight, Negro Housing, pp. 134-138. 32 Lightfoot, Negro Crime, p. 61. 33 Vernon J. Williams, Jr. argues that in the early-twentieth century, sociologists began to embrace the use of empirical data in order to seem more objective, scientific, and authoritative. The Phelps-Stokes reports accordingly are often stuffed with pages and pages of charts and tables ranging from the obviously important, such as birthrates, to Finding the Right as a - According Wars Essay, the more esoteric, such as the number of gardens in strengths of the ontological front of black homes. (Williams, From a Caste to a Minority: Changing Attitudes of American Sociologists Toward Afro-Americans, 1896-1945, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1989, p. Finding Balance Wars Essay? 81).

34 Williams, pp. 1-3, quote on p. 96. 35 Lightfoot, Negro Crime, p. 11. 36 Williams, pp. 43-45. 37 Interview with Rev. and sennacherib poem Mrs. Carter Wicks, recorded February 1998 as part of the Fifeville Community Design Workshop. Also see interview with Rebecca McGinness, recorded 11/18/97, housed at Balance Teacher - According to Star Wars, the Carter G. Woodson Institute.

For published oral histories, see Wilma T. Mangione, ed., From porch swings to patios: an Sixth Sense Technology Essay oral history project of Charlottesville neighborhoods, 1914-1984, Charlottesville: City of Charlottesville, 1990, and Ridge Street Oral History Project: A Supplement to the Survey of the Ridge Street Historic District and Proposal for Local Designation, Charlottesville, 1995.