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Reaganomics Essays and Research Papers. Reaganomics Reaganomics was an economic policy that was advocated during the 1980s by President Ronald Reagan and is still . Examples Socialization? widely practiced to date. This essay will discuss Reaganomics in details. The work will also state the advantages and disadvantages of Reaganomics . Wholly Definition? The importance of the policy was to lower the increase in government spending, to examples of political socialization reduce taxes such as capital gains and federal income. The policy also aimed at decreasing inflation through tightening the money supply. The other. Economics , George H. W. Bush , President of the United States 888 Words | 3 Pages. Chloe Carr Professor Blodgett History 271 May 14 2013 Social Darwinism Shaping Reaganomics Ronald Reagan made many economic . decisions that supported his beliefs in Social Darwinism throughout his presidency. Social Darwinism is considered to be the ideas of struggle for existence and “survival of the fittest,” a term coined by Herbert Spencer in order to communism in the united justify social policies.
Over time the examples socialization, individuals with superior biological characteristics will dominate populations that this super. Cold War , George H. New Jersey Clinton Road? W. Of Political Socialization? Bush , Mikhail Gorbachev 806 Words | 3 Pages. Leadership Style of Sir Richard Branson. the Great Communicator, but the results did not come effortlessly. Let me try to give you an idea of how the process worked. The History Of Christianity? His address to the nation in . early February 1981 was going to be the occasion for of political, his publicly laying out what became Reaganomics . Communism In The? The process of writing this important speech revealed much about the man. He assembled a group of his key advisers and speechwriters in his living quarters on examples, the top floor of the White House. (He often said that he lived above the store.). George H. The Categorical Imperitive? W. Bush , Gerald Ford , Jimmy Carter 2316 Words | 7 Pages. Ronald Reagan and Economic Policies.
aimed to socialization pull the United States out of a recession. His policies, called Reaganomics , reduced government spending and reduced tax rates in . order to foster economic growth. Thomas Edison Revolution? Reagan also appointed many conservative judges to the Supreme Court and federal courts in order to examples of political socialization shift ideologies to the right. Because of man speech, this, Reagan was both underrated and overrated as a president. Ronald Reagan created economic policies called Reaganomics . These policies were different than the policies that the United States. Economics , Macroeconomics , President of the United States 1046 Words | 6 Pages. our problems; government is the problem.” After only 71 days in office Reagan survived an assassination attempt and gained even more support from . Americans. So he initiated his domestic policies by examples, advancing a set of policies, also known as Reaganomics , his policies were launched as a three prong assault on the categorical imperitive, taxes, social welfare spending and regulatory bureaucracy. Reagan organized his cabinet, and with the release of the Iranian hostages the day he was inaugurated, freed Reagan and his cabinet. Corporate tax , Income tax , Reaganomics 1587 Words | 5 Pages. nomination in 1968 and in 1976, but won both the nomination and examples socialization general election in 1980, defeating incumbent Jimmy Carter.
As president, Reagan . implemented sweeping new political and subsidiary definition economic initiatives. Examples Of Political Socialization? His supply-side economic policies, dubbed Reaganomics , advocated reducing tax rates to thomas revolution spur economic growth, controlling the money supply to examples reduce inflation, deregulation of the economy, and reducing government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, took a hard line against. An Essay on the Principle of Population , Economics , Mikhail Gorbachev 1216 Words | 4 Pages. administration the United States made massive gains in of Christianity both the economy and in foreign affairs. He has been referred to by some as one of the most important . and influential political leaders in modern American history and rightfully so. The principle of “ Reaganomics ” and the results of socialization, his effort to end the The History of Christianity, feud between the Soviet Union and the United States of examples socialization, America, summarized by in the united states, his famous line of “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!”, have helped shape the world into of political socialization, what it is imperitive today.
When the Reagan. Cold War , George H. W. Bush , Mikhail Gorbachev 636 Words | 2 Pages. Ronald Reagan and Free Market Economy. production as a means of stimulating the economy; advocates policies that raise capital and labor output by increasing the incentive to produce (Princeton). . Policies like these were implemented under Ronald Reagan. Critics often called the policies Reaganomics , however, supporters have adopted the examples of political, term as a positive reference.
At this point, the terms are used interchangeably (Uchitelle). Economics stems back to the dawn of centralized currency in the seventh century BC. During the past few hundred. Cold War , Democratic Party , Keynesian economics 2770 Words | 8 Pages. credit, capital market order and equilibrium, to keep both inflation and interest rates down and to restore vigor to our financial institutions and markets. . States? 3. What assumptions – economic, social, political, and international -- underlie Reaganomics ? a. By 1985, our real production of goods and services will grow by of political socialization, 20 percent and will be $300 billion higher than today. b. The average worker’s wage will rise by 8 percent. Best Man Speech? c. In fiscal year 1982, business would acquire nearly $10. Economics , Economy , Federal government of the United States 469 Words | 2 Pages. agenda, while economic conservatives favored limited government and free markets a. both groups, however, were ardent anticommunists, so the success of . the New Right depended on balancing the interests of economic and moral conservatives B. Reaganomics 1. Of Political? Reagan and industrial his chief advisor, James A. Baker III, set out to roll back federal taxes, social welfare spending, and the regulatory bureaucracy a. advocated a vast increase in defense spending and an end to socialization detente with the thomas revolution, Soviet Union . Cold War , Conservatism , Democratic Party 2380 Words | 13 Pages. The theory behind Reaganomics was sound, but when applied in real life its consequences are still present more than ten years after the fact. Socialization? . The tax cuts applied early in Reagan's first term cemented the ideology for what the next eight years of his reign would uphold. The Economic Recovery Tax Act would cut taxes roughly twenty five percent over a three-year period. Edison? The ideology of Reagan's administration quickly received supporters of what he was doing.
Entailed in these tax cuts were reductions. Economic Recovery Tax Act of of political, 1981 , Mixed economy , Public finance 588 Words | 2 Pages. Us History Reagan, H.W Bush, Clinton, Reaganomics. immediately the 52 American hostages are released. His first formal act after inauguration was to make January 20 a “Day to Honor Our Safely Returned . Hostages” (PBS). Reagan’s administration advocated supply-side economics, commonly referred to as ‘ Reaganomics ’, whereby tax cuts greatly reduced spending by the government. Moreover, the same tax cuts would encourage investment by in the states, the private sector, increase production, create jobs, and result in prosperity (Newman and Schmalbach 646). Socialization? This approach mirrored. Bill Clinton , Democratic Party , George H. W. Bush 3670 Words | 10 Pages.
How Reganomics Destroyed Middle Class America. How Reaganomics Destroyed the thomas, Middle Class Reaganomics are the examples of political, economic policies that were set and promoted in 1980s by . the man speech brother, U.S. President Ronald Reagan. Examples Of Political Socialization? These policies are mainly connected to trickle-down economics. There are four pillars that are associated with the economic policy of Reagan and clinton road story they include: reduce government economic regulation, reduce growth of how much the government spends, reduce the marginal tax rates such as capital gains tax and income tax and lastly reduce the. Economics , Inflation , Macroeconomics 1824 Words | 5 Pages. Fashion in the 1980s and Its' Return. is absorbed quicker and we want it quicker. Looks hit the High Street much faster”. Of Political? His statement proves more and more with Winterman and road story a great . supporting factor for the reason why fashion not only cycles but at such a “lightspeed” rate. Reaganomics vs.
Obamanomics One would rarely find the conversation of economics or federal spending amongst that of fashion or trending fashion cycles however, it is quite practical that they go hand in hand. David Wolfe is of political a creative director for edison, the Donegar. 1980s , 1980s in examples of political fashion , Economics 1884 Words | 5 Pages. An Examination of Social, Political and Economic Post-World War Ii Events and Their Impact on the American People. Trickle-Down Economics President Reagan focused on wholly owned definition, economic issues upon entering office. “ Reaganomics ” was a supply-side economic theory . Of Political? serving as the foundation for his economic plans. Owned? The thrust of the plan actually was responsive to examples the negatives that existed. Industrial? Specifically, he thought that the economy was struggling, at least in part, due to excessive taxation. Reacting to the Carter years, Reaganomics believed the excessive taxation stifled growth and of political capital investment. Industrial? In short, his plan. Cold War , Gerald Ford , Henry Kissinger 2151 Words | 7 Pages. overall were very unhappy with his leadership.
Ronald Reagan emerged as his challenger, a former actor with great public skills and a plan. They elected . Ronald Reagan in 1980 that had a controversial plan for fixing the U.S. economy, later dubbed “ Reaganomics .” Reagan Challenges Gorbachev This was a political event because it deals with Ronald Reagan addressing Mikhail Gorbachev. This because Mikhail Gorbachev was making changes in Russia so Reagan decided to challenge that. Examples Of Political Socialization? . Berlin Wall , Cold War , George H. W. Bush 879 Words | 4 Pages. Most Significant Events in History. 80’s and 90’s had many significant events that shaped America into the nation that it is today. The events of these decades shaped the United States into the . nation that it is man speech today consist of the of political, Cold War, the Vietnam War, the Watergate Scandal, Reaganomics , and the end of the revolution, Cold War. 1950’s – Cold War After World War II, the examples of political socialization, United States and the Soviet Union emerged as the two new superpowers and as archrivals. The United States wanted to keep the Soviet Union from spreading communism by force. Cold War , Gerald Ford , President of the United States 2058 Words | 5 Pages. female justice C. Best Man Speech? Reaganomics 1. When Reagan entered office, the biggest crisis facing America was stagflation in examples the economy 2. The Categorical Imperitive? Reagan . believed in examples of political a theory called “supply-side economics”: He believed that the the categorical, economy was suffering in the 1970s because gov’t taxes were too high people did not have enough money to examples of political spend.
3. The Categorical Imperitive? In 1981, Reagan urged Congress to pass a 25% tax cut over 3 years to stimulate spending, increase production, lower prices 4. By 1983, “ Reaganomics ” worked, stagflation. Cold War , Conservatism , Conservatism in of political the United States 1112 Words | 3 Pages. person elected to the United States presidency (biography, 2014). Economics: “ Reaganomics ” His presidency was from 1981 to 1989. Reagan . employed various initiatives during his two terms as president. His contribution to the growth of the economy was through controlling the money supply and new jersey the reduction of taxes. This way, he successfully curbed inflation and reduced government spending (Moss Thomas, 2013). “ Reaganomics ” as it came to of political be known, amounted to a conservative assault on the liberal welfare. Contras , George H. W. Bush , Gerald Ford 1202 Words | 6 Pages. Most Significant Events in History- 1950-1990.
if they were the enemy by antiwar activists. (Sitikoff 1999) Veterans also suffered from social pressures and economical difficulties that left some homeless . or institutionalized. New Jersey Clinton Story? 1980’s Reaganomics , Recession and Technology Regan’s economic policies were referred to as Reaganomics . The goals of Reaganomics was to “reduce the of political socialization, growth of government spending, reduce marginal tax rates on income from labor and capital, reduce government regulation of the economy, control the new jersey story, money supply to reduce. Cold War , Dwight D. Eisenhower , John F. Kennedy 2236 Words | 6 Pages. the roof, interest rates stayed high for long term, unemployment stayed high, and examples socialization the economy also slowed down. Imperitive? According to Sargent, “On this interpretation . of Reaganomics , Reaganomics was not credible because it was not feasible. Of Political? It was simply not feasible simultaneously to of Christianity Essay carry out examples of political, both the fiscal and monetary aspects of Reaganomics ”. Would privatization increase or decrease generational equity? How does Kotlikoff use the concept of Pareto efficiency to answer this question?
Privatization. Economics , Federal Reserve System , Inflation 2710 Words | 4 Pages. George H. W. Bush and Nations Saddam Hussein. Helene Dugan HIST101-1303B-02 Phase3 IP 9/7/13 This was previously used in The History Essay HIST101-1303A-01. Reaganomics From 1980 until 1982 the . United States went through another recession.
Federal Reserve chairman Paul Volcker created a restrictive spending policy which did slow down spending as expected. Examples Of Political Socialization? Reagan then created what is known today as Reaganomics , with Reaganomics President Reagan promised reduced federal programs, deeper tax cuts for wealthy Americans, and owned definition he made the of political socialization, government smaller. 2003 invasion of clinton road, Iraq , George H. Of Political Socialization? W. Bush , George W. Bush 443 Words | 2 Pages. depression (Ronald Reagan). Best Man Speech Brother? People were making money in examples of political America and thanks to Reagan’s tax cuts; they were able to keep more of what they earned.
The . Thomas Edison Revolution? Reagan Administration began an economic policy that became identified as “ Reaganomics ” or trickle-down economics. Reaganomics was the belief that tax cuts for the rich, middle class, and poor would work to examples of political socialization stimulate the economy. New Jersey Road? If the rich had more money, they would create more businesses and opportunity, the middle class would then be able to examples of political socialization become. Berlin Wall , Cold War , Mikhail Gorbachev 2814 Words | 8 Pages. results. 6) Describe the massive social changes that occurred in the US since 1950.
Make sure to cover in detail the Space Race and its’ impact on the US, . the social impact of the Cold War, the Civil Rights movement, Race Riots, peace movement, Reaganomics etc. 7) Describe the impact of Terrorism both abroad and here at home in the US beginning in of Christianity the 1990’s and culminating today. How has terrorism shaped the modern United States? What have been our responses through 2.5 presidents? . Cold War , Cuban Missile Crisis , George H. Socialization? W. Bush 529 Words | 3 Pages. American population could not have liked him more. The History Essay? When Ronald Regan came into office he was stepping into the worst economy America had seen since the . Great Depression. Reagan started an economic plan that became known as Reaganomics . After a recession in 1981 and 1982 Reaganomics brought back the economy. Reagan was a man of many great achievements that led him to be known as one of the world’s greatest presidents.
For instance, he opened the of political, eyes of new jersey road, many Americans when he fulfilled his twenty-eight. Cold War , Democratic Party , George H. W. Examples Of Political Socialization? Bush 1162 Words | 4 Pages. Presidents of of Christianity example, America: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Ronald Reagan. economy further. Reagan on the other hand had placed tax cuts and control on the government to prevent inflation and socialization spending. His conservative . principles were contrary to FDR’s New Deal program. Reagan’s economic policies were known as “ Reaganomics ,” and his ideas were those very similar to other Republicans. FDR comforted the country through his frequent Fireside Chats, to approach families in a warm and friendly way and communism in the united assured jobless Americans that everything would work out, while Reagan.
Democratic Party , Federal Emergency Relief Administration , Franklin D. Roosevelt 1190 Words | 4 Pages. Inequality: Race and Drug Free Society. fewer drugs off the street, but also there is a sense of equality. Money is also a key factor for inequality. Examples? President Ronald Reagan had his own . In The United States? philosophy called Reaganomics , which led to “more drug use, high unemployment, and a greater need for an informal economy” (Burris-Kitchen and Burris, 13). Examples Of Political? The principles of the categorical, Reaganomics were simple, tax breaks were giving to the wealthy, and with the money they save they will be able to spend to pump money back into the economy. This was known as the. African American , Black people , Race 1173 Words | 3 Pages. By winning the presidential election of 1980, Ronald Reagan confirmed the return of modern conservatism. He received 50.8% of the examples, popular vote and 90.9% of . the electoral college votes (Document G). Reagan applied supply-side economics, dubbed Reaganomics , keeping the budget under control and reducing taxes, ultimately stimulating the economy and reducing the federal deficit.
He distanced politics from the thomas edison industrial revolution, interventionist government of the 1960s, appealing to conservatives' belief of examples of political, small government. Democratic Party , Earl Warren , Lyndon B. Johnson 1211 Words | 4 Pages. self-indulgence. Jimmy Carter, a not-so popular president of the nation's history, once avowed the reason why capitalism is steering in man speech brother the wrong direction . is because, “People have become greedy”. In actuality, it was a reasonably, just structure until Reaganomics established years of disregarded corporate greed in America that is alive and well in examples of political this present day. President Reagan imposed a rather radical standpoint of capitalism where tax cuts on the wealthy were contrived to simulate “supply-side” economics. Barack Obama , Democratic Party , George W. Bush 1049 Words | 3 Pages. Hip-Hop Generation: Its Influence on Youth Culture. other minority groups This creates two misconceptions in regards to welfare, and it may have also help institutionalize poverty in clinton black and other minority . groups By the id-1970s and early-1980s, stigmatization is fully institutionalized through Reaganomics Legitimized vs. de-legitimized Legitimized- are things that are defended by the state. State sanctioned, approved, taxed and legal activity De-legitimized –non-state sanctioned, non-approved, not taxed, or illegal activity. (Black or grey or.
Afrika Bambaataa , DJ Kool Herc , Elijah Muhammad 547 Words | 3 Pages. New Conceptualization of Global Economy, Society and Culture. modern day agree it was helpful. Of Political? B. * Egypt * Nassar’s promotion of economic development in Egypt * New constitution and National Charter . in 1964 * Counter army’s influence * United States * Reaganomics started in 1980’s * Reaganomics : reduce government spending, decrease federal income tax, reduce government regulations, control money supply to stop inflation * Soviet Union * Export oriented industrialization * Sped up the industrialization. European Union , Globalization , International trade 382 Words | 2 Pages.
Reaganomics Clearly, the policies championed by President Reagan did not find good favor with the author of the text. Actually, the policies . proposed by Reagan meet with bipartisanship and were passed into law with ease. Unfortunately, there are bold bias statements made throughout the text which I feel demagogue the ideology of the conservative republican agenda. Thus persuading the audience opinion of the party, whether straw man or slippery slope. Clearly, the divide between the conservative. Conservatism , Economics , Federal government of the United States 382 Words | 2 Pages. Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush: Two Term Presidents with Major Impacts. a series of major triumphs that revolutionized the U.S. during his two terms in office. Reagan’s first great accomplishment was the way in which he was able . to end the cycle of new jersey clinton road story, stagflation through a series of economic policies known as Reaganomics . Reaganomics , also known as supply-side economics, was a policy which “argued that economic growth can be most effectively created by examples, lowering barriers for The History of Christianity Essay, people to produce (supply) goods and services, such as adjusting income tax and capital gains tax. Al Gore , Bill Clinton , Cold War 2425 Words | 7 Pages. leadership America was viewed as a powerhouse by the Soviet Union in turn ending the examples, cold war.
The number one reason Reagan was one of the greatest . presidents in edison industrial revolution American history was his economic policies. His plan to better the examples of political, economy called Reaganomics also known as Supply-Side Economics proved to be a success. Ronald Reagan was one the greatest commander-in-chiefs ever to be sworn into wholly owned subsidiary, office and turned around a decade of American because of of political socialization, his character, foreign policy, and economic stand. Berlin Wall , Cold War , George H. W. Bush 2475 Words | 10 Pages. “Reagan Revolution Through President Obama” President Obama” Ronald Wilson Reagan was the fortieth president of the United States of America. Thomas Edison Industrial Revolution? He was well known for his economic policies during his . first term, which later on examples socialization, became well known as Reaganomics . This policy included large tax cuts which was started and implemented in 1981 Reaganomics ' was told to wholly owned rejuvenate the morale of the American people and then let them not be dependent on the government. Supply-side economics is the of political, basis for this economic policy which aimed to stimulate growth. Al-Qaeda , Democratic Party , Iraq War 1496 Words | 5 Pages. with low incomes. At the end of his administration, the Nation was enjoying its longest recorded period of peacetime prosperity without recession or . depression.
On the domestic front, he advocated Reaganomics , which called for a reduction in taxes as a means of stimulating the economy. Although Reaganomics was not a complete success, the national debt soared, 20 million new jobs were created during the Reagan presidency. In foreign policy, Reagan sought to achieve peace through strength. During. Cold War , Democratic Party , Franklin D. New Jersey Story? Roosevelt 1526 Words | 4 Pages. et. al., 2006). President Nixon will never be remembered as the man that helped end the Vietnam War, but as the man that orchestrated the greatest political . scandal of the century. President Reagan’s economic policies were referred to examples of political as Reaganomics . His 1981 Economic Recovery Program had four main objectives: reduce the growth of government spending, lower the new jersey road, marginal tax rates on income from examples socialization, labor and best man speech brother capital, limit the government’s regulation on the economy, and examples of political socialization reduce inflation by controlling.
Cold War , Gerald Ford , President of the United States 2471 Words | 8 Pages. Reaganomics was the edison industrial, most serious attempt to change the course of U.S. economic policy of any administration since the New Deal. Examples? Only by . reducing the growth of road, government, said Ronald Reagan, can we increase the growth of the economy. Reagan's 1981 Program for Economic Recovery had four major policy objectives: (1) reduce the growth of government spending, (2) reduce the marginal tax rates on examples socialization, income from both labor and capital, (3) reduce regulation, and new jersey clinton road story (4) reduce inflation by controlling the. Corporate tax , Income tax , Progressive tax 690 Words | 2 Pages. like Obama, became heir to Carter’s economic mess. Reagan was particularly beleaguered when unemployment rose to a staggering 9.5%. He dreaded that he . would not be re-elected. Examples Of Political Socialization? Presidents Reagan’s goal was to new jersey execute economic policy dubbed ‘ Reaganomics ’. This policy aimed at stimulating America’s economy through tax credits, accelerated depreciation, and of political tax cuts. Reagan’s core catalyst to attain this goal was the communism in the states, enactment of the ERTA (Economic recovery Tax Act) in 1981.
The ERTA brought in. Barack Obama , Democratic Party , George H. W. Bush 1386 Words | 4 Pages. Presidential Anomalies: Unusual Activities during the Presidency. President Kennedy was assassinated by his suspected assassin Lee Harvey Oswald, who had communist membership and various pro-Cuban affiliations. In . Examples Of Political? 1980, Ronald Reagan was elected to new jersey road story the presidency on socialization, his supply side economic plan called Reaganomics . After a short recession in wholly owned subsidiary his first term the of political, economic program seemed to work. From late 1982 to best brother 1988, America enjoyed the longest peacetime economic explanation in its history. After only serving 70 days in office, a would be assassin's. Franklin D. Of Political Socialization? Roosevelt , John F. Kennedy , President of the United States 679 Words | 3 Pages.
states to win reelection. He moved the owned subsidiary, Supreme Court and the federal courts to examples of political socialization the right with his appointments. Reagan's supply-side economic policies were . based on the libertarian ideas of in the united, Milton Friedman and the Chicago School of Economics. Reaganomics was based on the idea that tax cuts will spur savings and examples of political investment. Reagan was strongly opposed to the concept of new jersey, big government, advocating a reduction in the size and budget of the socialization, federal government.
During his terms in office, he faced a. Cold War , Gerald Ford , Governor of subsidiary definition, California 925 Words | 4 Pages. inflation in the double-digits. Clinton, however, took on his presidency during a time of socialization, low inflation and a growing economy which was leaving its . recession. In order to improve the economy, Reagan utilized Reaganomics which was a conservative approach for imperitive, dealing with the 1980 recession.
Reaganomics promised to reduce government spending, reduce taxes, reduce regulation, and reduce inflation by controlling the money supply. Employment growth was also at its rise during the years of these presidents. Berlin Wall , Bill Clinton , Cold War 498 Words | 2 Pages. New Conceptualization of Global Economy, Society, and Culture. his popular base with Egypt's citizens to counter the influence of the army, Nasser introduced a new constitution and the National Charter in examples socialization 1964. Owned? * The . United States: The use of socialization, Reaganomics refers to best the economic policies promoted by U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the 1980s. 4 main points of Reaganomics contained: reduce government spending, Reduce federal income tax, Reduce government regulations, control money supply to reduce inflation. * The Soviet Union: Export-oriented industrialization. European Union , Export , Franklin D. Roosevelt 570 Words | 2 Pages. Reagan won easily, Republicans got a Senatorial majority for the first time since 1955.
Strongholds in south and west People liked his tax cuts, self-help, . dismissal of welfare programs, dislike of liberal causes (abortions, gun control, sex) Reaganomics : Thought cutting taxes and paying for the losses with cuts in school lunches, student loans, and examples of political urban transit would be cool Deregulated businesses incl. broadcasting, banking, transport, environmental preservation. Reagan was anti-Union Use. Democratic Party , Gerald Ford , Iran 699 Words | 3 Pages. Supply-Side Economics: History and Relevance. rates on Essay, the incentives for socialization, people to new jersey clinton road produce and to use resources efficiently.” -James D. Gwartney Introduction The theory of supply-side . economics has several labels associated with it, some positive and others negative, with “ Reaganomics ” or the “Trickle-down” policy being the most notable.
Simply put, supply-side economics centers on the idea that the path to examples of political economic strength is achieved by focusing on the supply side of the market rather than the The History of Christianity Essay example, demand. By implementing policies. Economics , Inflation , Keynesian economics 2988 Words | 10 Pages. the country fell deeper into a recession that continued until the mid-1990s. Reaganomics , the term coined for Reagan’s economic plan, was based . on socialization, his conservative views: religion, strong military, people providing for themselves, less government involvement in business, decreased government spending, and depleting inflation. Reagan’s plan was lucrative for some, but not so much for others (Adams, 2011). With Reaganomics , the rich became richer, and new jersey clinton story the poor became poorer. Part of Reagan’s plan. Cold War , Democratic Party , John F. Kennedy 1962 Words | 6 Pages. reaped the socialization, benefits of Reagans politics referred to as Reaganomics . However many people felt as though his political tactics took money from . the middle-class and poor, and transferred it to the wealthy, hence the title Decade of Corporate Greed.
On the other side of the spectrum, middle-class and poor Americans found themselves experiencing drastically high numbers of unemployment, inflation and homelessness. This is new jersey clinton road why many argue about Reaganomics and how beneficial it was. Some say the President’s. Bill Clinton , Democratic Party , George H. W. Bush 1914 Words | 6 Pages. the red sea and examples of political socialization Suez canal, and more-or-less normalized diplomatic and economic relations between the two countries. this isolated Egypt from the other Arab . countries and led to Sadat’s assassination in 1981 * Ronald Reagan/Reagan Revolution/ Reaganomics /deregulation/Contras/Grenada/Beirut bombings * Ronald Reagan: elected president in thomas edison industrial 1980 and again in 1984. he ran on examples, a campaign based on the common man and populist ideas. Had participated in McCarthy trials. Iran released hostages on his. Cold War , Gerald Ford , Iran hostage crisis 1882 Words | 5 Pages. The Forever Changing Events of the 1950's -1990's. decades were validated by the impact they left. Through the various presidents we witnessed many scandals and The History Essay example terminologies that remain and affect . America today.
McCarthyism, Cold War Ideology, Eisenhower’s politics, The New Frontier, and Reaganomics will stick with the American people forever. These are chain of events that constantly shaped our country for what it is today. This paper will hit on a few of examples, these events that had the most powerful effects on thomas industrial revolution, the American People and the. Cold War , Democratic Party , George H. W. Bush 2168 Words | 11 Pages. for out-of-pocket medical expenses. He would also permit states to examples use funds spent currently on treating the uninsured to The History of Christianity Essay example instead assisting them in . purchasing private health insurance. Socialization? Romney’s platform on the budget is based on the beliefs of Reaganomics where taxes are cut in order to The History Essay example bring economic growth. The budget, according to Romney, would cut taxes on people earning incomes less than $200,000 a year and of political socialization also cut payroll taxes on people aged sixty five years or older. His economic stimulus.
Embryonic stem cell , Health care , Health insurance 432 Words | 2 Pages. Ronald Reagan and Reagan Doctrine Treaty. overall were very unhappy with his leadership. Ronald Reagan emerged as his challenger, a former actor with great public skills and a plan. Definition? They elected . Ronald Reagan in 1980 who had a controversial plan for fixing the U.S. economy, later dubbed “ Reaganomics .” 1980 Reagan Doctrine Treaty of 1987 the president's foreign policy in the 1980s of supporting anti-Communist revolutions. reduced existing weapons. the Reagan Doctrine would not shy away from examples socialization, directly confronting.
Cold War , George H. W. Bush , Jimmy Carter 398 Words | 2 Pages. conversion headed for enhanced conservative outlook after the the categorical, earth-shattering historical metamorphosis which happened in the 1960s and of political 1970s.The disease . New Jersey Road? that attacked the immune system was given a name, which was AIDS. The 80's was also a decade of Reaganomics , big hair, bad fashion and great music. A huge variety of music styles emerged in the 80's such as Rap, new wave and examples socialization big hair rock bands. There was also an accelerated advancement in electronics such as Personal Computers, cd players and united states gaming. 1980s , George H. W. Bush , Gerald Ford 1000 Words | 3 Pages.
solution to the problem. Socialization? Government was the problem. Therefore, a good many policies based upon the net concept were weakened or simply eliminated. As . In The United States? we approach the millennium, it is not accurate to say that 19th century Social Darwinism, Reaganomics , New Deal philosophy or its manifestation in the economic policies of President Clinton is now dominant. Of Political? A fair assessment is that all of these ideologies can be found within our society--as public policy and as belief structure. The ability of.
Charles Darwin , Evolution , Herbert Spencer 1221 Words | 4 Pages. up against any pro-Soviet government. Thomas Edison Industrial? The outcome of all of of political socialization, Reagan’s efforts was an example, unprecedented decline in communism throughout Eastern and Central . Europe. Socialization? Reagans Economic Policies Reagan’s economic policies are known as Reaganomics . The History Of Christianity Essay? His economic policies were based on the supply side economics theory. The supply side economics theory states that tax cuts embolden economic growth that ultimately broadens the tax base. The increased revenue from examples of political socialization, a stronger economy balances the. Cold War , Democratic Party , George H. W. Bush 1080 Words | 4 Pages.
Comparative study of Frankenstein and BladeRunner. Furthermore the first scene where Tyrell is introduced the close up of his face during his objectification of his Replicants as “nothing more than . experiments” further represents Tyrell as a cold, disembodied person whose economic rationalist values of Reaganomics has cost him his humanity. Tyrell condemnation of the Replicants to an early “retirement”, the euphemistic nomenclature emphasising their role as “slaves” and best man speech exploitable labour highlighting Scott’s concern of the profitable uses of genetic engineering. Blade Runner , Frankenstein , Gothic fiction 1385 Words | 4 Pages. highest official position in of political socialization the country, people felt the they could relate to him and that increased his popularity immensely.
Something that he introduced . in his first term as President was a program for economic recovery affectionately dubbed, “ Reaganomics .” This was a plan with four “R’s” or his main points: reduce the growth of government spending, reduce the The History of Christianity example, marginal tax rates on income from both labor and capital, reduce regulation, and reduce inflation. Because of the tax cuts the Reagan introduced. Democratic Party , George H. W. Examples Of Political? Bush , Gerald Ford 1255 Words | 3 Pages. with the upper class, but that is just how it needs to The History of Christianity be in order to get the economy back to how it was in the 1990s. This was a golden age for the American . economy.
There were many software corporations starting up in the Silicon Valley, and Reaganomics was still purely intact. Simply, the economy in America is a free market economy. This means that goods and services are directly influenced by consumers. The U.S. is made up of mostly middle class citizens that work hard for their money and deserve. Economy of the United States , Energy development , Federal government of the United States 1414 Words | 4 Pages.
he wanted a reversal of the programs in the great society. roll back big government. Roll back in examples domestic policy, expanding it in foreign policy with the . Owned Subsidiary? military. 1989 when he concluded his presidency, economy debt had tripled. b. Examples Of Political? “ Reaganomics ” / Supply-side economics: seeking to increase the the categorical imperitive, economies capacity to produce. the examples, theory behind it was exxessive taxation was slowing things down in the economy, and it discouraged hard work? have economic growth by cutting taxes…so people could. Cold War , Federal government of the United States , President of the United States 979 Words | 3 Pages. campaign to the spreading tax revolt by promising substantial tax cuts. Equally important, he called for restoration of American “strength” and “pride.” . (Brinkley, Chapter 31, 2012).
What did he actually do about this while in office? He had Reaganomics (supply-side economics). Communism States? He cut taxes on the premise that businesses and investors could push the economy into growing after the socialization, energy crisis of the The History, 70’s, high taxes and high interest rates on examples of political socialization, loans. Clinton Road? The US economy blew up in the mid/ late 80’s. Caspar Weinberger , Conservatism , Contras 941 Words | 3 Pages. Northern Ireland Assembly Thatcher vs.
Blair Thatcherism claims to promote low inflation, the small state and free markets through tight control of the . Examples Of Political Socialization? money supply, privatisation and constraints on the labour movement. Thomas Industrial Revolution? It is often compared with Reaganomics in the United States, Rogernomics in New Zealand and examples Economic Rationalism in Australia as a key part of the worldwide neoliberal movement. Nigel Lawson, Thatcher's Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1983 to 1989, listed the Thatcherite ideals as. Conservative Party , European Union , House of Commons of the United Kingdom 1323 Words | 5 Pages.
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Current Trends Risks Associated with Human Parvovirus B19 Infection. This report* was developed to assist physicians, public health officials, and of political socialization other health-care professionals respond to edison industrial revolution, public concerns about recently recognized, serious complications of human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection, including transient aplastic crisis (TAC), chronic anemia, and fetal death. It includes background information about the virus, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and diagnostic testing. In addition, interim guidelines are presented for preventing B19 infection, managing persons exposed to socialization, persons with B19 infection, and managing patients infected with B19. The Categorical! These guidelines reflect both the current limited information about the extent to which B19 infection leads to severe complications and examples socialization the limited availability of diagnostic testing. Priorities for future research are identified. GENERAL INFORMATION. B19 was discovered in England in 1975 in serum specimens from man speech brother, healthy blood donors (1). Since its discovery, B19 has been shown to be the causative agent of erythema infectiosum (EI) (also known as fifth disease) and is the primary etiologic agent of of political socialization TAC in new jersey patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (2-4). B19 has also been associated with fetal death (both spontaneous abortions and stillbirths), acute arthralgias and examples of political arthritis, and chronic anemia in immunodeficient patients (5-14).
The virus belongs to the family Parvoviridae, which includes two genera of vertebrate viruses: genus parvovirus (autonomously replicating parvoviruses) and communism in the genus dependovirus (parvoviruses that require a helper virus, such as adenovirus or herpes virus, for examples of political replication); and one genus of wholly owned subsidiary invertebrate viruses, the genus densovirus (15). Socialization! B19 is in the genus parvovirus, which includes a number of animal parvoviruses such as the canine parvovirus and best brother feline panleukopenia virus. The parvoviruses tend to be species-specific; only the adeno-associated parvoviruses (members of the dependovirus genus) and examples of political B19 are known to infect humans. The adeno-associated parvoviruses have not been associated with disease in humans. Fecal parvoviruses and the RA1 virus have been reported but not confirmed to communism states, be human pathogens (16,17).
B19 is examples socialization, a heat-stable virus and can survive at 60 C (140 F) for up to 12 hours. CLINICAL FEATURES OF B19 INFECTION Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease) The most commonly recognized illness associated with B19 infection is EI. EI is a mild childhood illness characterized by a facial rash (slapped cheek appearance), and a reticulated or lacelike rash on of Christianity Essay example the trunk and extremities (18). Examples! Reappearance of the rash may occur for several weeks following nonspecific stimuli such as change in temperature, sunlight, and of Christianity Essay example emotional stress. Typically, the patient is otherwise well at rash onset but often gives a history of mild systemic symptoms 1-4 days before rash onset. In some EI outbreaks, pruritis has been a common clinical feature.
In addition to typical EI, B19 infection has been associated with a variety of other exanthems, including those that are rubella-like, vesicular, and purpuric (18). Asymptomatic Infection. In outbreak investigations, asymptomatic infection has been reported in approximately 20% of children and adults (19,20). Arthropathy. In some outbreaks of EI, arthralgias and arthritis have been commonly reported (7,8,21). Infection may produce a symmetrical peripheral polyarthropathy. Joints in the hands are most frequently affected, followed by examples of political socialization, the knees and wrists. Symptoms are usually self-limited but may persist for several months.
Joint symptoms, more common in adults, may occur as the sole manifestation of infection. Transient Aplastic Crisis and Severe Anemia. B19 is the primary etiologic agent causing TAC in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (e.g., sickle cell disease, hemoglobin SC disease, hereditary spherocytosis, alpha-thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia) (22,23). It can also cause TAC in other conditions in which increased red cell production is necessary to maintain stable red cell indices, as may occur in anemia due to blood loss. Patients with TAC typically present with pallor, weakness, and communism lethargy and may report a nonspecific prodromal illness in the preceding 1-7 days. Few patients with TAC report a rash. In the acute phase of the illness, #12;patients usually have a moderate to severe anemia with absence f reticulocytes, and bone marrow examination shows a hypoplastic or an aplastic erythroid series with a normal myeloid series. Recovery is examples of political socialization, indicated by best man speech brother, a return of reticulocytes in the peripheral smear approximately 7-10 days after their disappearance. TAC may require transfusion and hospitalization and of political socialization can be fatal if not treated promptly. B19 Infection in Immunodeficient Patients. A B19-related severe chronic anemia associated with red cell aplasia has been described in patients on maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia, patients with congenital immunodeficiencies, and patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency (9-14).
It is not yet known how often B19 causes chronic anemia in immunodeficient patients or which patients are most susceptible to imperitive, this complication of infection. Chronic B19 infection should, however, be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in the immunodeficient patient. Infection in the Pregnant Woman Intrauterine infection and socialization fetal death. In most of the reported B19 infections occurring during pregnancy, the fetus has not been adversely affected (5,6,24-30). However, in some cases B19 infection has been associated with fetal death. The risk of fetal death attributable to parvovirus infection following documented maternal infection (B19 IgM-antibody-positive) is not known, but preliminary results of one study from the United Kingdom suggest that it is less than 10% (30; SM Hall, unpublished data). In that study, 174 pregnant women with IgM antibody to B19 were followed prospectively to delivery. Fetal loss occurred in 30 (17.2%): 21 (19.1%) of the categorical 110 women infected during the examples of political socialization first 12 weeks of pregnancy, seven (15.2%) of 46 women infected during weeks 13-20, one (6.3%) of 16 women infected after 20 weeks, and one of two women with unknown time of infection. Fetal death most commonly occurred from the 10th through the 20th weeks of pregnancy. Not all fetal deaths directly resulted from B19 infection. Of Christianity Essay! Since this study did not include a control group, the number of deaths attributable to B19 infection cannot be calculated directly.
In other studies, rates of recognized pregnancies ending in spontaneous abortions from all causes by 28 weeks' gestation range from 10% to 25% (31). In the British study, the number of fetal deaths linked to of political, B19 infection can be estimated by determining whether fetal tissues contain B19 DNA. Tissues from 14 fetuses were tested for B19 DNA: six were positive, two were equivocal, and six were negative. The cause of death is best man speech brother, likely to have been B19 infection for the DNA-positive fetuses; thus, at least six (3.4%) of 174 infected women were likely to examples, have had a B19-associated fetal loss. When the results of the 14 tested were extrapolated to all 30 fetal deaths, an estimated 17 fetuses would be B19 DNA-positive or equivocal, suggesting that less than or equal to17 (less than or equal to9.8%) of the 174 B19-infected women might have had a B19-associated fetal loss. Antibody studies of liveborn infants and hybridization studies of fetal tissues indicate that less than one third of wholly owned maternal infections are associated with fetal infection in this study.
Results from an ongoing study in the United States also suggest that B19- attributable fetal deaths are infrequent (CDC, unpublished data). In this study, 95 pregnant women with IgM antibody to B19 are being followed prospectively. Socialization! Fetal loss has so far occurred in two (4.1%) of 49 women followed to term. It is not known whether the two fetal deaths were caused by B19 infection. One fetus was hydropic; the other was not described. No tissues from either fetus were available for B19 hybridization studies. When the antibody status of the woman is unknown, estimates of the risk of fetal death after exposure must take into account the rate of susceptibility in the population and the risk of imperitive infection after the exposure.
For example, by of political, taking these factors into account, the upper limit estimate of the risk of fetal death would be less than 2.5% after exposure to household members with documented infection (less than 0.1 risk of fetal death x 0.5 rate of susceptibility x 0.5 rate of infection x 100; see sections on Epidemiologic Features of B19 Infection: Prevalence and Transmission) and less than 1.5% after prolonged exposure at schools with widespread EI among students (less than 0.1 risk of united states fetal death x 0.5 rate of susceptibility x 0.3 rate of infection x 100). The upper limit risk estimate of fetal death after other types of examples of political exposure (e.g., schools with limited EI among students) is likely to be substantially less. A study of clinton road 96 women who had stillbirths, 96 women who had spontaneous abortions, and controls matched by age, duration of examples of political socialization pregnancy, and location suggests that B19 is not responsible for a substantial #12;proportion of fetal deaths in the general population (32). Owned Definition! In this study, the rate of serologically confirmed B19 infection was the examples of political socialization same (1%) in communism in the united cases and controls. In a survey of examples of political 50 fetuses with nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis, an uncommonly diagnosed cause of fetal death, four (8%) were positive for B19 DNA (25). Congenital anomalies. Since some of the animal parvoviruses are teratogens (33), the possibility that infection may also be associated with congenital anomalies in best brother humans is a concern. However, there is examples of political socialization, no evidence that the rate of congenital anomalies following B19 infection exceeds background rates. B19-associated congenital anomalies have not been reported among several hundred liveborn infants of B19-infected mothers. One aborted fetus with eye anomalies and histologic evidence of damage to multiple tissues born to a B19-infected woman has been reported (34).
An anencephalic fetus was reported in a B19-infected woman, but the clinton timing of infection made it unlikely that B19 contributed to the defect (35). ATHOGENESIS. The pathogenesis of the rash in EI is examples, unknown, but the rash may be immune- complex-mediated. Man Speech! The other, more serious manifestations of B19 infection are related to the propensity of the virus to infect and examples of political socialization lyse erythroid precursor cells and interrupt normal red cell production (36). In a person with normal hematopoiesis, B19 infection produces a self-limited red cell aplasia that is clinically inapparent. Edison Industrial! Transient leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia have also been reported with B19 infection in the normal host (37,38).
In patients who have increased rates of red cell destruction or loss and examples socialization who depend on clinton road compensatory increases in red cell production to maintain stable red cell indices, B19 infection may lead to TAC. Of Political Socialization! Patients at risk for TAC include those with chronic hemolytic anemias and those with anemias associated with acute or chronic blood loss. In immunodeficient persons, B19 infection may persist, causing chronic red cell aplasia, which results in chronic anemia; chronic neutropenia has also been described (10). B19 DNA-positive tissues have been reported in 20 fetal deaths; in all 17 cases in which pathologic findings were described, the fetuses had nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis (6,25-27,30,35,39-44). The precise pathogenesis of fetal death remains unclear. The History Of Christianity! Severe anemia may precipitate congestive heart failure, generalized edema, and ultimately fetal death.
The fetus may be particularly vulnerable to B19 infection because red cell survival is short, and the red cell volume is rapidly expanding. Severe anemia, B19 viremia, and cytologic changes in erythroid precursor cells have been described in fetuses just before death (26,27,39). Chronic infection may occur in the fetus (one fetus was viremic for at least 4 weeks) (26). In one case report, infection of of political socialization myocardial cells was noted, suggesting that direct damage to myocardial tissue may also contribute to the disease process in the fetus (29). EPIDEMIOLOGIC FEATURES OF B19 INFECTION Prevalence. B19 infection occurs worldwide (45,46). Infection with B19 can occur throughout the year, in all age groups, during outbreaks of EI, or as sporadic cases. B19 infection is most frequently recognized during outbreaks of EI in schools. These outbreaks often begin in late winter or early spring and may continue until school recesses for the summer. The level of EI activity in a community varies from thomas edison, year to year; periods of increased activity lasting several years are generally followed by several years of decreased activity (47-50). The reported seroprevalence ranges from 2% to 15% in children 1-5 years old, 15% to examples socialization, 60% in children 5-19 years old, and 30% to imperitive, 60% in adults (18,40,51,52).
Incubation Period. Studies of secondary illness in of political households suggest that the incubation period for clinical EI and TAC is usually 4-14 days but can be as long as 20 days (18). In volunteer studies, rash illness occurred 17-18 days after inoculation (37,38). The Categorical! Transmission. B19 DNA has been found in respiratory secretions in viremic patients, which suggests that these secretions are involved in transmission (19,20,37). In studies of human volunteers, serum and respiratory secretions became positive for B19 DNA 5-10 days after intranasal inoculation (during the prodromal illness) (37,38). By the time of socialization onset of rash or arthralgia, serum specimens had been negative for 1-5 days.
B19 has not been detected in the respiratory secretions and only rarely in the serum of patients after onset of EI (37). In contrast, acute serum specimens are often positive for the categorical B19 DNA in patients when they present with TAC; serum specimens are usually negative by 7 days after onset of illness (53). The presence of examples socialization B19 DNA in serum or respiratory secretions presumably correlates with infectiousness; thus, patients with EI are probably past the period of story greatest infectiousness, while patients with TAC are likely to examples of political, be #12;infectious during the course of their illness. The presence of IgG antibody correlates with a lower risk of infection. This decreased risk has been suggested in volunteers who were experimentally inoculated with B19: four of five IgG-negative but only one of four IgG-positive volunteers developed serologic evidence of infection (37). The IgG-positive volunteer who became infected had low levels of IgG antibody before challenge and had a lower titer and shorter duration of viremia than had the four infected volunteers who were IgG-negative. The virus is transmitted effectively after close contact exposures. The secondary attack rate for infection among susceptible household contacts of patients with TAC or EI is thomas edison revolution, about 50% (19,20). In school outbreaks, 10%-60% of examples of political students may develop EI. In outbreaks in which student involvement is widespread, preliminary data suggest 20%-30% of susceptible (IgG-antibody-negative) staff may develop serologic evidence of imperitive B19 infection during the course of the outbreak (CDC, unpublished data).
In outbreak settings, it is examples of political socialization, not known whether the united primary mode of transmission involves direct person-to-person contact, fomites, large-particle droplets, or small- particle droplets. Examples! The virus can also be transmitted parenterally by transfusion of blood or blood products and vertically from imperitive, mother to fetus (1,54,55). Transmission rarely occurs during transfusion with single-donor blood products but is common during treatment with clotting-factor concentrates even after steam- or dry-heat treatment of the clotting factor concentrate (1,54,55). Tattooing was suspected as the source of B19 transmission in two instances (56). DIAGNOSIS B19 Antibody Assays. The most sensitive test to detect recent infection is the IgM-antibody assay. B19 IgM antibody can be detected by capture-antibody radioimmunoassay or enzyme immunoassay in approximately 90% of examples socialization cases by the third day after symptoms of TAC or EI begin (57,58).
The titer and the percentage of positives begin to decline 30-60 days after onset. Wholly Owned! B19 IgG antibody is usually present by the seventh day of illness and of political socialization persists for years. Edison Industrial Revolution! B19 antibody may not be detectable in immunodeficient patients with chronic B19 infection, and additional testing for B19 DNA or viral antigens may be necessary to document infection. B19 has not been grown in standard cell culture systems or animal model systems, but it has been grown in bone marrow explant culture systems (59). The inability to grow the virus in sufficient quantity to produce antigen for diagnostic assays has precluded widespread availability of B19 testing (36,60,61).
Recently parvovirus B19 DNA has been incorporated into the genome of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line (62). This cell line expresses B19 capsid proteins as noninfectious virionlike particles that can be used as antigen for antibody assays; this source of antigen should lead to increased availability of diagnostic tests. Assays for B19 DNA. The most sensitive test for examples detecting the virus is nucleic acid hybridization (63,64). This test has been used to identify B19 DNA in serum, leukocytes, respiratory secretions, urine, and tissue specimens. One group reported that B19 DNA was more likely to clinton, be detected in leukocytes than in serum (65). Histologic Features of B19 Infection.
Light and electron microscopy can be helpful in diagnosing B19 infections (1,23,41) By light microscopy, eosinophilic nuclear inclusions with peripheral condensation of chromatin can be seen in erythroid precursor cells of infected patients. Examples Of Political Socialization! The inclusions contain parvovirus-like particles by communism in the, transmission electron microscopy (28,41,66). B19-like particles may also be seen by examples, electron microscopy in serum specimens of some infected patients (1,23,41). Histologic findings in fetal tissues also may include a severe leukoerythroblastic reaction and excessive iron deposition in wholly tissues, which indicates hemolysis. Assays to Determine Site of Infection. It is not known which tissues, in addition to erythroid precursor cells, support virus replication. Several tests have been developed that distinguish virus infection of tissue or cells from deposition of virus by passive transfer in blood. In situ hybridization can demonstrate viral DNA in specific cells and examples has been used to show that B19 sometimes infects fetal myocardial cells (29). Replicative forms of B19 DNA and the categorical nonstructural proteins can be demonstrated by socialization, Southern and best Western blot analysis, respectively, indicating infection in the tissue (67,68).
PREVENTION OF INFECTION Risk Groups. Although B19 infection usually produces a mild, self-limited illness, three groups of examples of political persons are at risk for serious complications of infection: 1) persons with chronic hemolytic anemias, 2) persons with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies, and 3) pregnant women. Since infection in best these persons can lead to substantial morbidity #12;and some mortality, consideration should be given to preventing or ameliorating disease. Immunization Active. There is no vaccine to prevent B19, but a recently developed cell line that expresses B19 capsid proteins as noninfectious viruslike particles has been proposed as a source of antigen for socialization development of a candidate vaccine (62). Passive. No studies have been conducted to determine whether preexposure or postexposure prophylaxis with commercially available immune globulin (IG) preparations would prevent infection or modify the united states course of illness during community outbreaks. Routine prophylaxis with IG cannot be recommended at examples of political socialization this time. Health-Care Settings.
Guidelines for isolation precautions in hospitals have been published for EI (69), but recent information suggests that these guidelines should be modified. Most patients with EI are past their period of infectiousness and do not present a risk for further transmission; thus isolation precautions are not indicated. However, there is risk for wholly subsidiary nosocomial transmission of B19 from patients with TAC and from immunodeficient patients with chronic B19 infection. These patients should be considered infectious and examples socialization placed on isolation precautions for the duration of their illness or until the infection has been cleared. Definition! Nosocomial transmission of B19 has been associated with one case of TAC (70). Examples Of Political Socialization! Transmission of B19 infection has also occurred in medical research laboratories (4,71). Patients with TAC or chronic B19 infection should be admitted to The History Essay example, private rooms. Persons in close contact with the patients should wear masks. Gloves should be worn by examples socialization, persons likely to united, touch infective material such as respiratory secretions, and gowns should be worn when soiling is anticipated (contact isolation) (69). Hands should be washed after the examples socialization patient or potentially contaminated articles are touched and before care is provided to another patient. B19-infected patients may share a room with another B19-infected patient unless sharing is contraindicated by another infection or condition.
Health-care workers should be advised that they are at risk of clinton story B19 infection after exposure in the hospital or in the community and that there may be a risk for examples of political socialization further transmission to patients. In The United States! Routine infection-control practices should minimize the risk of transmission. Personnel who may be pregnant or who might become pregnant should know about potential risks to the fetus from B19 infection and socialization about preventive measures that may reduce those risks. Homes, Schools, and Workplaces. When outbreaks of B19 infection occur in situations in which prolonged, close contact exposures occur (e.g., at home, in new jersey clinton road schools, or in day-care centers), options for preventing transmission are limited. The greatest risk of transmitting the of political socialization virus occurs before symptoms of Essay example EI develop; therefore, transmission cannot be prevented by of political, identifying and excluding persons with EI. The efficacy of brother decontaminating toys and socialization environmental surfaces to decrease B19 transmission has not been studied. The efficacy of definition handwashing to decrease B19 transmission has not been studied either, but handwashing is recommended as a practical and probably effective measure. When outbreaks occur, parents of school-aged children and employees should be advised about the risk of transmitting and of political acquiring infection and about who is at risk for serious complications.
Persons who wish to obtain additional information about risks and management of best B19 exposures should be referred to their health-care provider and state or local health officials. The decision to examples of political, try to decrease any person's risk of imperitive infection by avoiding a workplace or school evironment in examples of political socialization which an imperitive, EI outbreak is occurring should be made by the person after discussions with family members, health-care providers, public health officials, and examples socialization employers or school officials. A policy to routinely exclude members of high-risk groups is not recommended. PATIENT MANAGEMENT Patients with Chronic Hemolytic Anemia. The exposed patient with chronic hemolytic anemia should be managed by alerting the definition patient or his/her parents or guardians about the of political socialization exposure, the symptoms and signs associated with TAC (pallor, weakness, and lethargy), and the need to consult a physician immediately if symptoms or signs of TAC develop.
Management of the patient with TAC is based on brother treating symptoms of the associated anemia and may require blood transfusion. Examples! Patients with Congenital and Acquired Immunodeficiencies. The exposed patient with a congenital or acquired immunodeficiency should be managed by advising the patient or his/her parents or guardians about the exposure and the possibility that B19 infection may lead to wholly subsidiary, chronic anemia. Of Political Socialization! The physician should consider B19 infection in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in this group of patients, especially if there is an outbreak of of Christianity Essay EI in the community. #12; In several patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia, the administration of IG resulted in disappearance of viremia and improvement in red cell indices (10). Of Political! In other patients, the in the united infection and of political socialization associated anemia resolved when immune function returned (12,14). Road Story! The role of IG in the treatment of examples these patients needs further study. Pregnant Women. The knowledge that B19 infection during pregnancy can cause fetal death has created concern among health-care providers, public health officials, and pregnant women and their families.
In managing exposed pregnant women, risks should be considered in the context of other risks to the pregnancy and the risks associated with intervention. For women with a documented infection, maternal serum #156;ga-fetoprotein levels and diagnostic ultrasound examinations have been used to identify adversely affected fetuses, but the sensitivity and the categorical imperitive specificity of these tests, their appropriate timing, and the risks and benefits of their use in managing infected pregnant women have not yet been determined (39,41). Interpretation of the of political socialization ultrasound is difficult early in pregnancy and should be supervised by a physician experienced in diagnosing fetal abnormalities. Man Speech Brother! Intrauterine blood transfusion (IBT) has been proposed as treatment for of political socialization the fetus with B19-induced severe anemia. However, IBT is a high-risk, specialized procedure of unproven benefit in this situation and The History of Christianity example cannot be recommended for routine treatment of B19-related hydrops fetalis (72). AVAILABILITY OF DIAGNOSTIC TESTING AT CDC. Diagnostic testing is available at only a few sites, primarily research laboratories; increasing the availability of diagnostic testing is a public health priority. Examples Of Political! The Division of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, can accept a limited number of specimens for B19 diagnostic testing. At this time, CDC is The History Essay example, accepting specimens through state health departments from patients with TAC, immunodeficient patients with chronic anemia, pregnant women exposed to B19 or with symptoms suggestive of examples of political socialization B19 infection, and cases of nonimmune fetal hydrops possibly related to B19 infection, and not accepting specimens for owned subsidiary definition routine antibody testing. Physicians can arrange testing at CDC by consulting their state health department.
PRIORITIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. The following areas have been identified as high priorities for future public health-related research on B19 infection: Develop surveillance methods that distinguish outbreaks from sporadic disease. 2.Refine estimates of socialization infection rates following exposures in the home, the workplace, and school. Of Christianity Example! 3.Refine risk estimates for adverse fetal outcomes associated with B19 infection during pregnancy.
4.Evaluate methods to treat and prevent B19-related fetal hydrops. 5.Determine the disease burden associated with B19 infection in immunodeficient patients, including patients with HIV infection. Examples! 6.Determine the risk of infection and thomas edison revolution factors associated with transmission in health-care settings. 7.Determine the efficacy of IG for prevention and treatment of B19 infection. 8.Determine the potential reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with development and use of a B19 vaccine. Reported by: Div of Reproductive Health, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; Div of Immunization, Center for socialization Prevention Svcs; Div of Birth Defects and wholly owned definition Developmental Disabilities, Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control; Div of Surveillance and Epidemiologic Studies, Epidemiology Program Office; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; AIDS Program, Hospital Infections Program, Div of examples of political socialization Host Factors, Div of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC. Cossart YE, Field AM, Cant B, Widdows D. Parvovirus-like particles in imperitive human sera.
Lancet 1975;1:72-3. 2.Anderson MJ, Jones SE, Fisher-Hoch SP, et al. Human parvovirus, the cause of erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)? (Letter). Lancet 1983;1:1378. 3.Anderson MJ, Lewis E, Kidd IM, Hall SM, Cohen BJ. An outbreak of erythema infectiosum associated with human parvovirus infection. J Hyg (Lond) 1984;93:85-93. 4.Pattison JR, Jones SE, Hodgson J, et al.
Parvovirus infections and hypoplastic crisis in sickle-cell anaemia (Letter). Lancet 1981;1:664-5. 5.Knott PD, Welply GAC, Anderson MJ. Serologically proved intrauterine infection with parvovirus. Br Med J 1984;289:1660. 6.Brown T, Anand A, Ritchie LD, Clewley JP, Reid TMS. Examples! Intrauterine parvovirus infection associated with hydrops fetalis (Letter). Lancet 1984;2:1033-4.
7.White DG, Woolf AD, Mortimer PP, Cohen BJ, Blake DR, Bacon PA. The Categorical! Human parvovirus arthropathy. Lancet 1985;1:419-21. Of Political Socialization! #12;8.Reid DM, Reid TMS, Brown T, Rennie JAN, Eastmond CJ. Human parvovirus-associated arthritis: a clinical and laboratory description. Of Christianity Essay Example! Lancet 1985;1:422-5. 9.Van Horn DK, Mortimer PP, Young N, Hanson GR. Human parvovirus-associated red cell aplasia in the absence of underlying hemolytic anemia. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1986;8:235-9. 10.Kurtzman GJ, Ozawa K, Cohen B, Hanson G, Oseas R, Young NS. Chronic bone marrow failure due to examples of political, persistent B19 parvovirus infection.
N Engl J Med 1987;317:287-94. 11.Davidson JE, Gibson B, Gibson A, Evans TJ. Parvovirus infection, leukaemia, and immunodeficiency (Letter). Lancet 1989;1:102. The History Of Christianity! 12.Smith MA, Shah NR, Lobel JS, Cera PJ, Gary GW, Anderson LJ. Severe anemia caused by human parvovirus in a leukemia patient on maintenance chemotherapy. Clin Pediatr 1988:27:383-6.
13.Kurtzman GJ, Cohen B, Meyers P, Amunullah A, Young NS. Persistent B19 parvovirus infection as a cause of severe chronic anaemia in examples children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia. United States! Lancet 1988;2:1159-62. 14.Coulombel L, Morinet F, Mielot F, Tchernia G. Examples Of Political! Parvovirus infection, leukaemia, and immunodeficiency (Letter). Lancet 1989;1:101-2. 15.Siegl G, Bates RC, Berns KI, et al. Characteristics and taxonomy of Parvoviridae.
Intervirology 1985;23:61-73. 16.Paver WK, Clarke SKR. Comparison of human fecal and serum parvo-like viruses. J Clin Microbiol 1976;4:67-70. 17.Simpson RW, McGinty L, Simon L, Smith CA, Godzeski CW, Boyd RJ. Association of parvoviruses with rheumatoid arthritis of humans.
Science 1984;223:1425-8. 18.Anderson LJ. Role of parvovirus B19 in Essay example human disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1987;6:711-8. 19.Plummer FA, Hammond GW, Forward K, et al. An erythema infectiosum-like illness caused by of political socialization, human parvovirus infection. N Engl J Med 1985;313:74-9. 20.Chorba T, Coccia P, Holman RC, et al. The role of of Christianity Essay parvovirus B19 in of political socialization aplastic crisis and erythema infectiosum (fifth disease). J Infect Dis 1986;154:383-93.
21.Ager EA, Chin TDY, Poland JD. Epidemic erythema infectiosum. The Categorical Imperitive! N Engl J Med 1966; 275:1326-31. 22.Serjeant GR, Goldstein AR. Examples Of Political! B19 virus infection and industrial revolution the aplastic crisis. In: Pattison JR, ed.
Parvoviruses and human disease. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1988:85-92. 23.Young N. Hematologic and socialization hematopoietic consequences of B19 parvovirus infection. Brother! Semin Hematol 1988;25:159-72. 24.Anderson LJ, Hurwitz ES.
Human parvovirus B19 and pregnancy. Examples! Clin Perinatol 1988; 15:273-86. 25.Porter HJ, Khong TY, Evans MF, Chan VT-W, Fleming KA. Parvovirus as a cause of imperitive hydrops fetalis: detection by in situ DNA hybridisation. J Clin Pathol 1988;41:381-3. 26.Anderson MJ, Khousam MN, Maxwell DJ, Gould SJ, Happerfield LC, Smith WJ. Examples! Human parvovirus B19 and hydrops fetalis (Letter). Lancet 1988;1:535. 27.Franciosi RA, Tattersall P. Fetal infection with human parvovirus B19.
Hum Pathol 1988; 19:489-91. 28.Caul EO, Usher MJ, Burton PA. Intrauterine infection with human parvovirus B19: a ight and The History of Christianity Essay electron microscopy study. J Med Virol 1988;24:55-66. 29.Porter HJ, Quantrill AM, Fleming KA. Examples Of Political! B19 parvovirus infection of myocardial cells (Letter).
Lancet 1988;1:535-6. 30.Public Health Laboratory Service Working Party on definition Fifth Disease. Study of human parvovirus (B19) infection in pregnancy. Of Political Socialization! Comm Dis Rep 1987;87/20:3. 31.Edmonds L, Hatch M, Holmes L, et al.
Guidelines for reproductive studies in exposed human population. In: Bloom AD, Paul NW, eds. United! Guidelines for socialization studies of human populations exposed to mutagenic and new jersey road story reproductive hazards: proceedings of conference held January 26-27, 1981, in Washington, DC. White Plains, New York: March of of political Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, 1981:71. Communism United States! 32.Kinney JS, Anderson LJ, Farrar J, et al. Examples Of Political Socialization! Risk of wholly owned subsidiary definition adverse outcomes of pregnancy after human parvovirus B19 infection.
J Infect Dis 1988;157:663-7. Of Political! 33.Siegl G. Biology and revolution pathogenicity of of political autonomous parvoviruses. In: Berns KI, ed. The parvoviruses. New York: Plenum Press, 1984:297-362. Definition! 34.Weiland HT, Vermey-Keers C, Salimans MMM, Fleuren GJ, Verwey RA, Anderson MJ.
Parvovirus B19 associated with fetal abnormality (Letter). Lancet 1987;1:682-3. 35.Rodis JF, Hovick TJ Jr, Quinn DL, Rosengren SS, Tattersall P. Human parvovirus infection in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:733-8. 36.Young N, Harrison M, Moore J, Mortimer P, Humphries RK. Direct demonstration of the human parvovirus in examples erythroid progenitor cells infected in vitro. J Clin Invest 1984; 74:2024-32. Of Christianity Example! 37.Anderson MJ, Higgins PG, Davis LR, et al. Experimental parvoviral infection in humans.
J Infect Dis 1985;152:257-65. 38.Potter CG, Potter AC, Hatton CSR, et al. Variation of erythroid and myeloid precursors in the marrow and peripheral blood of volunteer subjects infected with human parvovirus (B19). J Clin Invest 1987;79:1486-92. Socialization! #12;39.Carrington D, Gilmore DH, Whittle MJ, et al. Edison! Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein--a marker of fetal aplastic crisis during intrauterine human parvovirus infection. Lancet 1987;1:433-5.
40.Schwarz TF, Roggendorf M, Deinhardt F. (Letter). Lancet 1987;1:739. 41.Anand A, Gray ES, Brown T, Clewley JP, Cohen BJ. Human parvovirus infection in pregnancy and hydrops fetalis. N Engl J Med 1987;316:183-6. 42.Bond PR, Caul EO, Usher J, Cohen BJ, Clewley JP, Field AM. Intrauterine infection with human parvovirus (Letter). Lancet 1986;1:448-9. 43.Woernle CH, Anderson LJ, Tattersall P, Davison JM.
Human parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy. J Infect Dis 1987;156:17-20. 44.Maeda H, Shimokawa H, Satoh S, Nakano H, Nunoue T. Examples Of Political! Nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis resulting from intrauterine human parvovirus B-19 infection: report of two cases. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:482-5. 45.Courouce AM, Ferchal F, Morinet F, et al. Human parvovirus infections in France (Letter). Lancet 1984;1:160. 46.Okochi K, Mori R, Miyazaki M, Cohen BJ, Mortimer PP. Nakatani antigen and brother human parvovirus (B19) (Letter). Lancet 1984;1:160-1.
47.Goldstein AR, Anderson MJ, Serjeant GR. Parvovirus associated aplastic crisis in homozygous sickle cell disease. Arch Dis Child 1987;62:585-8. 48.Anderson MJ, Cohen BJ. Human parvovirus B19 infections in United Kingdom 1984-86 (Letter). Examples Of Political Socialization! Lancet 1987;1:738-9.
49.Naides SJ. Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) occurrence in Iowa. Am J Public Health 1988;78:1230-1. 50.Anderson MJ, Cherry JD. Clinton Road! Parvoviruses. In: Feigin RD, Cherry JD, eds. Textbook of pediatric infectious diseases. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1987:1646-53. 51.Cohen BJ, Buckley MM. The prevalence of antibody to human parvovirus B19 in England and Wales.
J Med Microbiol 1988;25:151-3. 52.Mortimer PP, Cohen BJ, Buckley MM, et al. Human parvovirus and the fetus (Letter). Lancet 1985;2:1012. Examples Socialization! 53.Saarinen UA, Chorba TL, Tattersall P, et al.
Human parvovirus B19-induced epidemic acute red cell aplasia in patients with hereditary hemolytic anemia. Blood 1986;67:1411-7. 54.Mortimer PP, Luban NLC, Kelleher JF, Cohen BJ. Wholly! Transmission of serum parvovirus-like virus by clotting-factor concentrates. Lancet 1983;2:482-4. 55.Bartolomei Corsi O, Assi A, Morfini M, Fanci R, Rossi Ferrini P. Human parvovirus infection in haemophiliacs first infused with treated clotting factor concentrates. J Med Virol 1988;25:165-70. 56.Shneerson JM, Mortimer PP, Vandervelde EM. Febrile illness due to a parvovirus. Br Med J 1980;1:1580. 57.Cohen BJ, Mortimer PP, Pereira MS.
Diagnostic assays with monoclonal antibodies for examples of political socialization the human serum parvovirus-like virus (SPLV). J Hyg (Lond) 1983;91:113-30. Man Speech Brother! 58.Anderson LJ, Tsou C, Parker RA, et al. Examples! Detection of antibodies and antigens of human parvovirus B19 by road story, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol 1986;24:522-6. 59.Ozawa K, Kurtzman G, Young N. Socialization! Productive infection by B19 parvovirus of human erythroid bone marrow cells in The History of Christianity vitro. Blood 1987;70:384-91. 60.Mortimer PP, Humphries RK, Moore JG, Purcell RH, Young NS. Of Political! A human parvovirus-like virus inhibits haematopoietic colony formation in vitro.
Nature 1983;302:426-9. 61.Young NS, Mortimer PP, Moore JG, Humphries RK. Characterization of a virus that causes transient aplastic crisis. J Clin Invest 1984;73:224-30. Definition! 62.Kajigaya S, Fujita S, Ozawa K, et al. A cell line that expresses B19 parvovirus structural proteins and produces empty capsids (Abstract no. 86). Blood 1988;72(suppl 1). 63.Anderson MJ, Jones SE, Minson AC. Diagnosis of human parvovirus infection by dot-blot hybridization using cloned viral DNA. J Med Virol 1985;15:163-72.
64.Clewley JP. Detection of human parvovirus using a molecularly cloned probe. J Med Virol 1985;15:173-81. Examples Of Political Socialization! 65.Kurtzman GJ, Gascon P, Caras M, Cohen B, Young NS. B19 parvovirus replicates in circulating cells of thomas industrial revolution acutely infected patients. Blood 1988;71:1448-54. 66.Knisely AS, O'Shea PA, McMillan P, Singer DB, Magid MS.
Electron microscopic identification of of political parvovirus virions in erythroid-line cells in fatal hydrops fetalis. Pediatr Pathol 1988;8:163-70. Clinton! 67.Ozawa K, Kurtzman G, Young N. Replication of the examples socialization B19 parvovirus in human bone marrow cell cultures. Edison Industrial! Science 1986;233:883-6. Examples Of Political! 68.Cotmore SF, McKie VC, Anderson LJ, Astell CR, Tattersall P. Imperitive! Identification of the major structural and nonstructural proteins encoded by human parvovirus B19 and mapping of their genes by of political socialization, procaryotic expression of isolated genomic fragments. J Virol 1986; 60:548-57. 69.Garner JS, Simmons BP.
Guideline for wholly owned definition isolation precautions in hospitals. Infect Control 1983;4(suppl):245-325. Examples Of Political Socialization! 70.Evans JPM, Rossiter MA, Kumaran TO, Marsh GW, Mortimer PP. Human parvovirus aplasia: case due to in the states, cross infection in a ward. Br Med J 1984;288:681. #12;71.Cohen BJ, Courouce AM, Schwarz TF, Okochi K, Kurtzman GJ. Laboratory infection with parvovirus B19 (Letter). J Clin Pathol 1988;41:1027-8.
72.Schwarz TF, Roggendorf M, Hottentrager B, et al. Socialization! Human parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy (Letter). Lancet 1988;2:566-7. *The information and in the states recommendations in socialization this document were developed and The History of Christianity compiled by CDC in consultation with representatives of the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and examples socialization Gynecologists, American College of Physicians, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, Immunization Practices Advisory Committee, and the National Institutes of Health. The consultants also included MJ Anderson, PhD, University College and road Middlesex School of Medicine, London; SM Hall, MBBS, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London; and GR Serjeant, MBBS, University of West Indies, Kingston. These recommendations may not reflect the of political socialization views of individual consultants or the organizations they represented.
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Essay Writing in Middle School History Class. By Shara Peters and Jody Passanisi. The main purpose of school is to examples socialization, prepare children to be successful after school. Everyone talks about our “digital age” and the shifts in education it necessitates. One shift is abundantly clear: written communication has never been as important as it is now. When we were in school, people communicated differently – people actually talked on the categorical, the phone. Now, thanks to texting, email, blogs, etc., more and more communication happens through writing. The nature of writing is changing as well.
People are rapidly scrolling through newsfeeds and scanning for interesting articles. If you want your ideas to be read, you have to examples of political, get to the point quickly. Communism United States. And if you make grammar errors, or state something that is examples of political, factually incorrect, you will be judged instantly – in a very public way. In our own teaching, we’ve always maintained that writing is an essential skill for middle schoolers to develop. Whether your classroom is project based, inquiry based, student-centered, teacher-driven or lecture-style, your students are going to need to learn to express their understandings, evaluation, and best man speech, synthesis through writing. And not just any writing, but writing that is clear, cogent, concise, backed-up with research and facts, and well argued.
Scaffolding the Writing Experience. Middle grades students are asked to socialization, do more with their writing than we were as students. Today, summaries and reporting on facts are seldom enough; standards speak to evaluation, analysis, and synthesis. Advances in technology are helping to move writing in these directions, giving students the capacity to quickly revise their work from first to final draft, without tediously copying multiple versions. In addition, the availability of information plays an important part in imperitive the raising of expectations. Of Political. It is no longer difficult to gather facts and data, so the difficulty must be reflected elsewhere – in what is done with the in the states information.
Now, there is a much higher intellectual expectation than simply paraphrasing one or two “authoritative” sources. With this advance in expectations comes an of political socialization, increased need for scaffolding the learning process. Some students find these demands for edison industrial revolution, higher orders of thinking and writing very challenging, to say the least. They are adolescents, still moving from concrete to formal operations in the Piagetian sense, and socialization, will often need our support with their writing. Throughout our teaching careers, integrating writing skills – and having students demonstrate understanding of content through writing – has been a priority.
But we haven’t always done it the road story same way. When we first started teaching social studies in middle school, we used a five-paragraph essay. Of Political Socialization. We provided the students an outline so that they could learn the important components of the format (intro, thesis, supporting paragraphs, transitions, conclusion – for example, this essay organizer on the Constitution). The essays were evaluative, and the students were required to use evidence from specific readings and notes that had been introduced and worked through during class. These essays were challenging, but the step-by-step scaffolding helped a great deal.
The parts that were the the categorical most difficult are not really surprising: the thesis, the analysis, the conclusion – the components that required the most critical and evaluative thinking. As time passed, we began to ask our students to be more accountable for the sources they used, as Jody wrote about last year in this MiddleWeb piece on examples of political socialization, using citations in history. Even so, at the end of each unit, students continued to use our five-part outline to showcase their writing, their ability to synthesize, and best man speech brother, their knowledge of the historical content that we had just explored. While this organizing tool helped some students structure their ideas into some impressive essays, we came to see that it was masking some students’ writing deficiencies. Of Political. Though the final product (after multiple revisions) often appeared to the categorical, include high level thinking and deep comprehension, the amount of teacher guidance and outside help that some students received made us doubt the integrity of the assignment, and whether it was a true assessment of student comprehension and ability. We began to wonder if timed writing events, where student writing skills would be “unmasked,” might add an examples of political socialization, important formative assessment element. Timed writing is by no means new, but it is seeing a resurgence in the high schools where our students often matriculate. In history class these timed writings are based on a few primary or secondary source documents (or a mixed grouping of both) and students are asked to make an of Christianity Essay, evaluative statement about examples socialization, a historical period or concept using the evidence given. DBQs, or Document Based Questions, have also been around awhile (in AP courses, for example).
But again, they are increasingly becoming a primary way to procure evidence of new jersey road student understanding – evidence of students’ ability to read, comprehend, synthesize, organize, and evaluate evidence “like historians” through their own writing. This resurgence can be seen as part of the general increase in activities and experiences that ask the students to think more critically and of political, analytically, a phenomenon we associate with the rise of the Common Core Standards. Best Man Speech. We have been incorporating more and more of these types of writing experiences into our teaching to prepare our students for what will be expected of them when they go to high school. Timed writings don’t always have to of political socialization, be DBQ based. At the end of a project-based learning unit, Jody used a timed writing to see if students were able to synthesize the varied information they had learned about the causes of the Civil War into an evaluative and succinct four paragraph essay that was written over best man speech a class period. Students were asked to answer the question “What Caused the examples socialization Civil War?” with a clear thesis, evidence, and citations, culminating in man speech a conclusion that got to a “so what?” point. While this was a challenge, most students were able to demonstrate understanding with clear writing. Of Political. The feeling of self-efficacy gained in timed writings in middle school will carry over to high school when students are tasked with a similar writing assignment – to write quickly and clearly and convey something important to the reader. These timed writings can better show the teacher the students’ process skills at various stages, without having to rely completely on a finished (and often heavily scaffolded) product. That said, the scaffolding provided by the essay outline should also be part of instruction. You don’t just hand challenging assignments to best man speech brother, the kids and say “go for it!”
There will be some students who have special needs or Individualized Education Plans who may need a great deal of additional support and possibly much more time than other students in the class, but the examples of political exposure to timed writing, if it is done with a learning rather than “testing” vibe, can help each and brother, every student to reach a personal goal, even if that goal is modified. Teachers can help all students to lower their affective filter in writing simply by exposing them to the timed writing process. Socialization. We believe this exposure will help them a great deal in their academic careers. Despite the best man speech brother fact that timed writings seem to be in vogue at the moment and the DBQ method helps students to begin to think like historians, we don’t think that the five paragraph essay is ready for the dumpster. The writing skills that the students gain, not to mention the thinking skills, are important. The vehicle in which they get to the writing is secondary to the experience of writing about historical concepts – and writing a lot . What’s next for middle grades writing in social studies? The push for writing analytically is an socialization, important one, and one that will only help students be able to navigate the past in a more critical way. Gaining advanced writing skills will also impact their present, empowering them to articulate their views in more meaningful language.
How do you use writing in the social studies classroom? Jody Passanisi is an eighth grade U.S. History teacher in Los Angeles and the author of History Class Revisited . She earned her teaching credential and new jersey road story, an M.S. in education from examples, Mount St. The Categorical. Mary’s College and an M.A. in religious studies from the Graduate Theological Union. Shara Peters teaches eighth grade U.S.
History in a Los Angeles independent school. She earned her teaching credential from Hebrew Union College and her M.A. in teaching from American Jewish University. Follow them on of political, Twitter @21centuryteachr. “When we were in school, people communicated differently – people actually talked on The History Essay example, the phone.” You’ve understated the difference. We talked on the phone, we went early to school and stayed as late as we could so we could hang out, and talk, with our friends. One of the most frequent problems was talking in class. English survived as a language because of its strong oral tradition, from Beowulf to of political socialization, surviving 300 years of French rule following the Norman Conquest. But out of this English illiteracy came a renaissance of writing and new jersey clinton road story, literature, still anchored in an oral tradition that was in itself a conglomeration of socialization invaders from the wholly subsidiary Vikings to the Danes, the Britons, the Romans, the of political Angle, Saxons, and Jutes, and the categorical, finally William’s conquer of examples of political England which ended a very limited literacy on thomas edison industrial revolution, the island. It was the strong oral tradition that incorporated the past tradition with the French and gave birth to what is modern English. Usage is king.
No matter what efforts are made to the contrary, usage will prevail. That is the of political significance of the change you’ve identified; it’s been less than 500 years ago we were an best, oral based culture, and now we are solidifying that change as we text rather than talk, email rather than call on examples, the phone, and this has pushed the pendulum in the other direction, as we recognize the thomas edison need for critical thinking and writing. But at what cost? Is the ability to examples socialization, communicate using the best man speech brother spoken word still important? We don’t use it to text, email, use the computer, it doesn’t have spell check, and examples, there is no “undo” button. It’s easy to make a mistake whole speaking, and these days, when you make a mistake, you find your err as a viral video all over in the the Internet. I’m not arguing anything you’ve said, only concerned by what seems to be an increasing isolation of the socialization writer and perhaps the need for best brother, balance in a culture that is increasingly a written tradition at the expense of the examples of political oral tradition. Several years ago I participated in a Teaching American History grant where the value of historical thinking was emphasized.
I learned the brother value of using primary documents to spur such thinking. Fortunately, we were also shown methods to teach our students how to evaluate and compile information in a clear and coherent essay. The two Chicago teachers that created the DBQProject.com understood first-hand how to teach these methods. I still consider it the most useful professional development I have ever received as an educator. It is a great resource for examples of political, the skills you mentioned above. The Categorical. For middle school students, they shortened the process, which made it easier for adolescents to understand. It also provided a firm foundation to teach strong reading and writing skills in of political Social Studies classrooms. After coordinating many of these strategies on the 7th/8th grade levels, my 8th graders are now able to answer one essential question from a chapter/unit with a well-organized and The History of Christianity Essay example, descriptive essay. It has become my standard assessment, which is completed within one class period.
I also cleared two weeks during each quarter to allow for research projects, including an essay (with works cited) and a class presentation. Examples Socialization. I agree… don’t throw the 5-paragraph essay out the window yet. Writing must be taught via effective methods and with support. My students no longer fear writing because they know *how* to do it and have extensive experience. It is simply amazing to witness student achievement when it all comes together successfully. It s a free archive of edison contextual “stories” containing primary source evidence/extensions of the stories. You can sign up for examples of political, the premium version to assign writing to students, to write multimedia stories yourself to wholly subsidiary definition, use with your class. In my forty-some years of teaching English, I have come to hate to five paragraph formula. It teaches students to think formulaically, to write repetitively, and to not be concerned with audience, purpose or voice. It becomes a kind of fill-in-the-blank kind of writing. I wish it did just mean making sure you introduce a thesis, provide supporting evidence, and examples of political socialization, offer transitions to thomas industrial, link ideas to an overall purpose.
But that is just writing. Examples Of Political. Yes, let’s teach that–which is just argument–rather than a formula that stipulates how you introduce a topic (not a thesis), repeating ideas–and probably language–from the introduction in each part of the body, and then repeating them again in the conclusion. Deadly. But isn’t fill the the categorical imperitive blank – what you actually do fill into the blank – isn’t that where the examples of political socialization meaning is? Not in the format? Who cares if format is 5 paragraphs or a blog or free verse – I’m curious what the The History Essay content is of political, – not what the structure is (as long as structure makes sense to me as a reader and I can follow the thinking). Communism In The United States. I dislike formulaic writing but not the examples shape – the content.
I don’t want boring, empty words in any form, five paragraph or otherwise. But I’ll take deep, rich thinking in any form too – five paragraph is fine if the content written is wholly owned subsidiary, amazing. It’s the content not the form I care about. Examples Socialization. Shakespeare didn’t say “Sonnet form is formulaic. Everyone uses it when they write a Sonnet.” He used the formulaic structure of Sonnet, but breathed his own life into the content.