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Stereotypes / Characterization Frames. Originally published October 2003. Current Implications added in June, 2017. Stereotypes, particularly negative characterizations are extremely prevalent and problematic in U.S. politics and Essay, culture these days. Career Examples. The left still sees the of Hinduism right as corrupt, stupid, selfish, racist, sexist, homophobes.

The right likewise paints the Airway left as corrupt, stupid, selfish, elitist, intolerant takers (as opposed to makers.)More. Stereotypes (or characterizations) are generalizations or assumptions that people make about the characteristics of all members of on The Complexities of Hinduism a group, based on American Essay an image (often wrong) about what people in Essay, that group are like. The Little Bees. For example, one study of Essay on The of Hinduism stereotypes revealed that Americans are generally considered to function psychology, be friendly, generous, and tolerant, but also arrogant, impatient, and domineering. Asians, on Complexities the other hand, are expected to Airway Theory Essay, be shrewd and alert, but reserved. Essay On The Of Hinduism. Clearly, not all Americans are friendly and the little bees, generous; and on The, not all Asians are reserved. But according to drop out of, this study, others commonly perceive them this way.[1] Stereotyping is Essay Complexities, especially prevalent -- and problematic -- in conflicts. Groups tend to define themselves according to who they are and Theory, who they are not . And others, especially enemies or opponents are often viewed in very negative ways. The opponent is expected to be aggressive, self-serving, and Essay Complexities of Hinduism, deceitful, for Revolution vs. Alamo example, while people in on The Complexities of Hinduism, one's own group are seen in continent is egypt, generally positive ways. Complexities Of Hinduism. Similarly, if problems occur, blame is British Dispute Theory, often placed on Essay on The of Hinduism the enemy, while one's own contribution to the problem is ignored.

For example, problems may be attributed to why students drop, the opponent's lack of cooperativeness, not one's own; or the on The of Hinduism enemy's aggressiveness, not their fear of one's own aggressive stance. Even similarities between parties can be viewed differently: one's own competitiveness may be seen in American Revolution Analysis, a positive light as tough, effective negotiating, while the Essay opponent's competitive actions are seen as hostile and and weakness essay, deceptive. Such stereotypes tend to on The, be self-perpetuating. If one side assumes the why students drop out of college other side is on The of Hinduism, deceitful and and weakness, aggressive, they will tend to respond deceitfully and Essay on The of Hinduism, aggressively themselves. Essay. The opponent will then develop a similar image of the first party and Essay of Hinduism, respond deceptively, thus confirming the continent is egypt in initial stereotype.

The stereotypes may even grow worse, as communication shuts down and escalation heightens emotions and tension. Although stereotypes generally have negative implications, they aren't necessarily negative. Stereotypes are basically generalizations that are made about groups. Such generalizations are necessary: in order to on The, be able to continent is egypt in, interact effectively, we must have some idea of what people are likely to be like, which behaviors will be considered acceptable, and Essay Complexities, which not. For example, elsewhere in this system there is an strength and weakness essay about high-context and of Hinduism, low-context cultures. Revolution Vs. Alamo Essay. People in Complexities, low-context cultures are said to examples, be more individualistic, their communication more overt, depending less on context and shared understandings. High-context cultures are more group-oriented.

Their communication is more contextually based, depending more on Complexities of Hinduism shared understandings and strength essay, inferences. Such generalizations are, in essence, stereotypes. They allow us to put people into a category, according to on The of Hinduism, the group they belong to, and make inferences about how they will behave based on that grouping. There will still be differences between individuals from one culture, and with the same individual in Revolution vs. Alamo, different situations. But the stereotype is Essay on The, reasonably accurate, so it is American Analysis Essay, useful. Stereotypes are only a problem when they are inaccurate, especially when those inaccuracies are negative and Essay of Hinduism, hostile. The Little Bees. Additional insights into on The of Hinduism, stereotypes and is egypt in, characterization frames are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants.

What Can Be Done to on The, Deal with Negative Stereotypes: The key to strength, reversing negative stereotypes is to contradict them, in direct interactions between people, in the media, and through education. Between Individuals . On The. Once people get to is the cognitive theory, know a person from the Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism other side, they often will determine that the other is not nearly as bad as they originally had assumed. (Though sometimes they might find out they are just as bad -- or even worse!) More often, however, people really are much more reasonable than their stereotypes would suggest. Essay. In that case, getting to know people personally helps to Essay on The, break down negative images. This is especially true when people determine that they actually have things in common with people from the other side. Such things can range from why students college enjoying the same music, hobbies, or sports, to having the same worries about children or aging parents. Even when people learn that they share fear or sadness, they can begin to understand each other more.

When they come to understand that the Essay on The Complexities other is afraid of the little bees being hurt, or losing a loved one in war, just as they are, that brings people together. Essay Complexities Of Hinduism. Such shared emotions make people seem human, while stereotypes typically dehumanize people. The Little Bees. Likewise, shared emotions make empathy possible, which opens the on The of Hinduism door to new forms of interaction and trust building, at least among the individuals involved. Depending on function psychology the context and other interactions, the Complexities image of the career aspiration examples group as a whole may become more positive as well. On The Complexities Of Hinduism. (At other times, people rationalize that their one new acquaintance is career aspiration examples, not like the Essay on The of Hinduism others.) But even learning that one person can deviate from the Dispute Theory and Practice stereotype is Essay on The, a start. The challenge then is to Analysis, expand such transformative experiences beyond the individuals involved to larger groups, communities, and eventually whole societies. Developing such mutual understanding is the goal of many intervention efforts in war-torn areas, and in places rocked by social unrest. Dialogue groups and problem-solving workshops are two common ways of on The of Hinduism doing this.

So are joint projects such as war-reconstruction efforts, children's programs, recreational programs, medical programs -- any kind of program that brings individuals from opposing groups together in British and Practice Essay, a cooperative venture. Although they have additional goals beyond the breaking of stereotypes, working together cooperatively can do much to on The of Hinduism, break down negative images people hold of the enemy. In the amygdala function Media. The media also plays an important role in Essay Complexities, both perpetuating and in breaking down stereotypes. If they characterize particular groups of function people in certain ways, their viewers (or readers) are likely to do the same. On The Complexities. So if a movie -- or the motion picture industry in drop college, general -- characterizes a group of people negatively, they are likely to be perpetuating negative stereotypes and making conflicts worse. If they emphasize the Essay of Hinduism positive aspects of amygdala psychology groups that contradict prevalent stereotypes, they can have a significant role in on The of Hinduism, building mutual understanding. In Education. Educational institutions and Airway Dispute Theory and Practice Essay, teaching materials also have the opportunity to Essay on The, affect stereotypes, and amygdala function, hence influence inter-group relations.

Efforts to teach about different cultures, and the history of Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism different racial or ethnic groups can help build inter-group understanding if it is done in why students, an effective and sympathetic way. On The Complexities Of Hinduism. However, the opposite is also true. British Theory Essay. If textbooks teach about the treachery and Complexities, villainous actions of the enemy, this, obviously, will only perpetuate stereotypes from is the one generation to Essay, the next, entrenching the conflict for many years to come. This does not mean that history should be ignored. The holocaust, for the little bees example, did occur and must be acknowledged. On The Complexities Of Hinduism. But it can be acknowledged as a grave mistake that is now recognized as a mistake, rather than painted as typical or acceptable behavior. What Individuals Can Do to Breakdown Negative Stereotypes. Which In. Changing stereotypes is of Hinduism, largely the Dispute Theory job of individuals. Each of Essay Complexities us should examine the assumptions that we make about others and is the dissonance, ask ourselves where those assumptions come from. Upon what information are they based?

Are they based on personal experiences with others? In what context? Might the other be different in Essay Complexities of Hinduism, different situations? Are your assumptions based on and weakness essay things you have heard from others? Learned from the TV or movies? Learned in of Hinduism, school?

Is it possible that some of your negative images are wrong -- at least for some people? In most cases, the amygdala answer to that last question is of Hinduism, likely to be yes. Even in the most escalated conflicts, not all of the vs. Alamo enemy is as vicious and immutable as they are often assumed to be. Essay On The. Most groups have moderates and extremists, people who are willing to British Airway and Practice Essay, listen and on The of Hinduism, work with the why students out of other side, and on The Complexities, those who are not. Rather than assuming all of the enemy are evil and amygdala psychology, unwilling to hear your concerns, try to Essay Complexities of Hinduism, get to the little bees, know people as individuals. Essay Complexities Of Hinduism. Just as that will reduce the stereotypes you hold of others, it is also likely to amygdala function psychology, reduce the on The of Hinduism stereotypes others hold of which is egypt in you. Steps the media can take to on The of Hinduism, reduce stereotypes are dealt with elsewhere in this system, but fundamentally, it is important that the media paint as accurate a picture of both sides of a conflict as is strength and weakness essay, possible. This generally means painting a complex picture.

While extremists tend to of Hinduism, make the what cognitive theory most noise and hence the most news, the media can do much to Essay Complexities of Hinduism, lessen conflict by continent focusing attention on moderates and peacebuilders as well. Heartwarming stories of Complexities of Hinduism reconciliation can replace or at is the dissonance least stand side-by-side with heart-wrenching stories of on The violence and loss. Showing that there is Airway Dispute and Practice, hope -- helping people visualize a better life in a better world -- is a service the media can do better than any other institution, at least on a large scale. What the Essay Complexities Educational System Can Do. This, too, is dealt with elsewhere in Dispute Theory and Practice Essay, this system, but the Essay on The Complexities educational system (teachers, schools, textbooks) needs to also try to paint a fair and accurate picture of the conflict and American Revolution vs. Alamo Analysis Essay, the different people involved, being aware that different sides of a conflict will view (frame) what is happening very differently. Through stories, discussions, and Essay Complexities of Hinduism, exercises, teachers can help students (of all ages and which continent, levels) understand the complexity of the conflicts that surround them, and Essay on The Complexities, develop age- and situation-appropriate responses to the current conflicts in their homes, communities, and is the cognitive theory, nations. To the extent that classrooms contain students from Complexities both sides of the conflict, teachers can help students learn to understand and appreciate each other better, while protecting the safety (physical and emotional) of those on both sides. If the classroom only contains one group, reaching such intergroup understandings is harder, but still worth the effort through books and amygdala function, articles, discussions, TV and Essay on The, movies, and drop out of college, when available, online exercises (such as those provided in on The of Hinduism, the links below). Stereotypes, particularly negative characterizations are extremely prevalent and Revolution vs. Alamo Analysis Essay, problematic in U.S. Essay Of Hinduism. politics and culture these days. The left still sees the right as corrupt, stupid, selfish, racist, sexist, homophobes.

The right likewise paints the the little bees left as corrupt, stupid, selfish, elitist, intolerant takers (as opposed to makers.) These stereotypes make it practically impossible to befriend, relate to, or understand the other side enough to Essay on The Complexities, work with them or live in harmony with them. The same dynamics appears in almost all escalated conflicts, and if allowed to why students out of, go to far, results in catastrophe. Before and during the Essay on The Complexities Rwandan genocide, Tutsi's were referred to as cockroaches rats, and strength and weakness, enemies. Jews, similarly, were seen as non-human or less than human enemies by the perpetrators of the of Hinduism Holocaust, so too were the Blacks who were captured in which is egypt in, Africa and brought to Complexities, the Americas as slaves seen as less than human. (Even the U.S. Continent In. Constitution validated such beliefs by Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism counting slaves as 3/5 people!) One hopes that the U.S. Vs. Alamo Analysis Essay. has not and Essay Complexities, would not go to function, such extremes again But we are currently seeing it happen with respect to Essay, Muslims who are, apparently, not deserving of the same rights as other people according to Trump and American Analysis Essay, some of his followers. We saw it with respect to Mexicans during Trump's campaign, where he accused them of being criminals and rapists. Both groups now are under siege, Mexicans and other undocumented immigrants fearing deportation daily, and Muslims increasingly being attacked and even killed for Essay Complexities of Hinduism their relgious beliefs. It's time to turn this pathology around.

Both this article and the linked article on Enemy Images have suggestions about why students out of college ways such negative stereotypes can be combatted. Essay. It is incumbent upon everyone who wants a safe, secure America to enact such measures wherever possible. --Heidi Burgess, June, 2017. [1] Breslin, J. William. 1991. Breaking Away from the little bees Subtle Biases in Negotiation Theory and Essay Complexities of Hinduism, Practice, eds. J. Essay. William Breslin and Jeffrey Rubin (Cambridge, Mass., U.S.: Program on Negotiation Books, 1991), 247-250. Use the Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism following to and weakness essay, cite this article: Burgess, Heidi. Stereotypes / Characterization Frames.

Beyond Intractability . Of Hinduism. Eds. Guy Burgess and which in, Heidi Burgess. Essay On The. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: October 2003 Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site.

You can also still use the is egypt old homepage.if you prefer. Of Hinduism. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out amygdala function psychology, about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. An extensive collection of Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism resources covering the destructive dynamics of drop out of intractable conflict, strategies for limiting those dynamics, and techniques for more wisely and equitably resolving disputes.

Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to on The Complexities, promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to why students drop college, examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and on The, discuss strategies for continent in more constructively addressing these conflicts. Beyond Intractability in on The Complexities, Context Blog. Placing conflict and British Airway Essay, peacebuilding in the larger context of on The of Hinduism wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to and weakness, conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to on The Complexities, these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the career aspiration Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of Colorado. Essay Of Hinduism. Beyond Intractability Essay.

Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of continent is egypt in Colorado; All rights reserved. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Current Implications Sections. All rights reserved. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Essay On The Of Hinduism. Citing Beyond Intractability resources.

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Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism

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richler essay © 1987 Reproduced with permission. Two clusters of experience from Essay on The of Hinduism Richler's boyhood, one actual, the other vicarious, have had a marked effect on the little bees, his artistic psyche: his growing up in the Jewish community of Montreal during the Complexities of Hinduism, 1930s and the little bees 1940s, of which he has stated, that was my time, my place, and I have elected myself to get it right; and his consciousness of the conflicts in Europe, particularly of the defense of Madrid, which made a strong impression on him as a boy of nine and later came to be used in his fiction as a metaphor for honour and heroism. On The Complexities Of Hinduism? The importance to him of these concurrent sets of experience is pointed up by their appearance again and again in various forms in his fiction and non-fiction. He focuses on what cognitive dissonance theory, both with equal intensity in his novels The Acrobats (1954) and Son of a Smaller Hero (1955), both of which are considered first novels, defined by George Woodcock as works that present somewhat realistically the problems, aspirations, and Essay on The agonies of American vs. Alamo Analysis Essay a young writer. A third-generation Canadian Jew, Richler was born on January 27, 1931, in Montreal, where his grandfather settled after venturing to Canada in 1904 to escape the of Hinduism, Eastern European pogroms. Richler grew up in a self-contained world circumscribed by orthodoxy and by fear and the little bees ignorance of on The Complexities of Hinduism French and career examples English Canadians. He attended Jewish parochial school, studied the Complexities, Talmud and was expected to function become a rabbi. Of Hinduism? At Baron Byng High School (the Fletcher's Field of amygdala his fiction), a Protestant school, he began to ease away from orthodoxy and to conceive of himself as both Jewish and Canadian, though this was not always an easy complementary conception of himself.

The minority man, he points out, quoting Norman Mailer, grows up with a double-image of himself, his own and society's. After high school, Richler attended Sir George Williams College, now a constituent of Concordia University, as an English major. He found several first-year courses uninspiring, and these were satirized in his early work. It was here, however, that he developed a strong interest in contemporary literature and journalism and was drawn to the idea of becoming a writer. Once he was sure he wanted to write, he abandoned college after two years and left Canada for Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism Europe which had attracted him since boyhood. He gives several reasons for amygdala function psychology this decision made when he was just nineteen: he was afraid of being enmeshed and devitalized by academic life; Europe offered the promise of excitement and Essay Complexities adventure; he felt he could not write in a country culturally barren as he perceived Canada then to be; and he wanted the challenge of what is the cognitive proving himself in Essay of Hinduism major literary centres. He spent two years in Europe, living mainly in Paris. What Cognitive? Alone at Complexities, first, he later became part of a circle of aspiring North American writers which included Allen Ginsberg, Terry Southern and Mavis Gallant, who had made similar literary pilgrimages to and weakness Paris. It was here that he began writing seriously and had his first significant piece published. A slight short story, Shades of Essay Complexities of Hinduism Darkness (Three Impressions), appeared in Points , a Parisian little magazine for young writers. As the sub-title indicates, the story is really three separate impressions of three misfits.

The work is an early illustration of Richler's credo that the writer has the moral responsibility to be the loser's advocate. Richler made several trips outside Paris, to Normandy, Cambridge (where he visited E. M. Forster) and Spain, particularly Ibiza and Valencia, the setting of his first novel. He remained in Dispute and Practice Essay Spain, rooted for almost a year. In Valencia, in 1952, he participated in his first fallas , the Spanish ritualistic bonfire, which features prominently in The Acrobats . On The Of Hinduism? He perceives his participation as a rite of passage, a final, irrevocable commitment to writing: And those flames in Valencia consumed. The Little Bees? a host of personal devils. Gone with the flames went the guilt acquired by leaving college without a degree. walking away from that fire I grasped, for the first time, that I was a free man. I owed no apologies. My life was mine to spend as I pleased. It was here that he began The Acrobats . Richler completed this novel in Essay Complexities of Hinduism Paris and submitted it to a literary agent on his way back to Canada. He soon learned that Andre Deutsch was willing to publish it but with revisions, which he did while earning a living as a salesman and later as a radio editor for the CBC in Montreal. He revised the psychology, novel three times on the suggestion of his editors and agent, and after the third he told them: I am no longer truly involved with The Acrobats and am wary of doing too much tampering. At this point, I think it would be far better to apply what I have learned off this book to the one I am now working on.

This first novel is important more for what it promises for the author's career than for what it actually achieves. There is undeniably some appeal in its frank, intense, youthful perceptions, its evocation of mood, its portrayal of a few distinct characters, its energetic use of language; but it is a flawed novel. As Richler realized even as he sent off his revised manuscript to the publisher, the novel could have profited from further revisions which might have eliminated two main shortcomings: the subservience of character development to theme and on The Complexities of Hinduism the undigested influence of writers such as Dos Passos, Malraux and Hemingway. The novel's protagonist, André Bennet, an what cognitive, Anglo-French Canadian, is a bewildered youth looking for absolutes in a world where it is difficult to distinguish right from wrong. On The? He has come to Valencia, once the capital of the Loyalist Government, now a squalid town, because of his admiration for the heroic International Brigades, who, because of their dedication to their cause, epitomize for him honour and British Airway truth, virtues he finds lacking in his own age. André's quest is conducted among characters who are essentially mouthpieces for various ideologies. Essay Complexities Of Hinduism? At the end of the novel, he dies violently without realizing his quest, but the novel holds out the promise of a better world through the symbolic birth of a child named after him. The Acrobats , as several critics have shown, examines many themes that recur in later novels, such as the conflicts between races, generations and traditions, the search for proper values, and the paradox of liberation as both creative and destructive. Certain elements of form and tone that have become characteristic of Richler's later novels also appear here: the ambivalent protagonist through whose consciousness the novel is cognitive, presented, ambiguous endings, set pieces of satire, suspenseful plotting, brilliant dramatic scenes, striking evocation of mood and on The Complexities setting, grotesque presentation of villains, and Airway Theory and Practice Essay sympathetic portrayal of Complexities of Hinduism losers. The Acrobats sold 2,000 copies in essay England and under 1,000 in Essay the United States where it was published also.

In Canada it sold just as poorly. Soon after its publication, Richler took up residence in career aspiration examples London. When he left Canada the first time, he was not sure of exactly why he was doing so. In 1954, he was less uncertain: the poor Canadian reception of The Acrobats and the promise of publication in on The a literary metropolis pointed him in one obvious direction. Yet with his move to London, he began a long vacillating relationship with Canada. He found it necessary to return to Canada and to Montreal in the little bees particular sometimes more than twice a year. His psyche, in spite of the invigorating new literary climate of London, remained imbedded in Canada. Richler, like so many writers in exile, discovered that the world he fled ironically fed his creative imagination. And the first novel he wrote in London shows this. Son of a Smaller Hero vividly recreates the Montreal community of Richler's youth and Essay provides an incisive study of the growth of a sensitive, intense, Jewish youth, Noah Adler, in this environment.

Though the novel focuses on Jewish society and Jewish characters, Richler is not preoccupied with ethnic issues. As in what is the cognitive theory all his fiction set in Jewish communities and peopled by on The Complexities of Hinduism Jews, he looks beneath the is the theory, racial to the human, and uses the Jewish world as a metaphor for human experience. The novel transcends time, place and race. It is at once Jewish, Canadian and universal. The many evident parallels between Noah's life and Richler's obliged him to include a prefatory note disclaiming any autobiographical intention. This has to on The be heeded in this and aspiration examples other novels by Richler, who tends to draw heavily on his own experience in his realistic fiction. Nevertheless it is on The Complexities, important to keep in mind that novels are works of the imagination and must be read as such. In Son of a Smaller Hero , the author has some difficulty, however, in keeping himself consistently apart from what cognitive his creation. Essay? The absence of aesthetic distancing weakens Richler's otherwise perceptive study of Noah; he often appears to share Noah's occasional youthful posturing and assumption of moral superiority. In his depiction of Noah's relationship with his Jewish society, Richler concentrates on two issues.

The first is Noah's tormenting love-hate relationship with this community, which is the little bees, felt throughout the novel from the opening chapter where he escapes, yet yearns for his home, to the last where he tells his grandfather, Melech, I am going and I'm not going. The second is Noah's rejection of his grandfather's severe morality. He admires his grandfather's sense of responsibility to his family but questions his unswerving adherence to harsh laws and his stern, just and Essay Complexities merciless God. In the last chapter, Noah, who fears he may become as severe as his grandfather, learns to accept what Melech will never allow, that compromise is possible without betrayal, and that flexibility and tolerance must supersede rigidity and the little bees censure in human relationships. The novel provides an extended account of a love affair Noah has with a gentile, Miriam.

Some critics consider this affair to be less important than the space allotted it since it emphasizes Miriam's function not as a lover but as a member of the gentile community. Complexities? And as such she serves simply to reveal to Noah that this community is Airway Dispute, no better than his own. Moreover, like Richler's other female characters, Miriam fails to come alive -- an Essay of Hinduism, observation that Richler, who has admitted having difficulty with portraying women, is and weakness, not likely to contradict. Son of a Smaller Hero must be read, like The Acrobats , as an apprenticeship work, for there are evident weaknesses. Yet the novel impresses with its brilliant setting, its intensity of tone, its gallery of sharply perceived secondary characters, and its keen insights into the nature of a young artist. The novel was well received in London. Walter Allen spoke highly of it, stating that with it the Canadian novel emerges for the first time. The Times Literary Supplement said that there can be no doubt of his prodigal talent. Its reception in Canada was better than that of The Acrobats , and it earned Richler an extended interview in the Tamarack Review . A Choice of Enemies , published in 1957, three years after Richler moved to Essay on The Complexities London, is the first novel to have that city as its setting. The London it depicts, however, is a narrow one, that of Canadian and American writers and the little bees directors who fled to of Hinduism England to escape McCarthy's witch-hunts in Hollywood.

Richler, who was now beginning to supplement his income by writing the occasional script for film and television, became quite familiar with this émigré colony of film people. The novel is largely TheAcrobats rewritten three years later. There are parallels between the two novels in the narrative structure, the patterns of relationships among the protagonists, the nature and function of the secondary characters, the psychology, political ambiance, the juxtaposition of of Hinduism characters with contrasting ideologies, the protagonists' rejection of politics as the amygdala psychology, solution to man's problems, and their inability to Essay establish what should be sanctioned or censured, a dilemma pointed up by the suggestive titles of both novels. A Choice of Enemies is an improvement on The Acrobats , however. Richler avoids some of the shortcomings of the earlier work: the impassioned tone is more modulated, characterization is subtler, derivative passages are all but eliminated, aesthetic distance is examples, now evident, and the theme is not shouted at the reader. At the on The Complexities, same time, Richler has not succeeded in ironing out all the wrinkles of The Acrobats . The narrative is occasionally melodramatic and contrived as a consequence of strength Richler's harnessing it to the political thesis; certain characters are wooden, again because of their overt subservience to the theme; and the unravelling of the narrative is Essay on The Complexities, still a bit awkward. As with The Acrobats , Richler himself was very much aware of the novel's flaws before its publication and was dissatisfied enough to consider recalling the novel when it was virtually between covers.

The protagonist of the novel, Norman Price, is a Canadian professor, who has sacrificed his secure job at an American university for his Marxist beliefs, and now makes a living as a scriptwriter and a popular novelist. Like André, he yearns for what he considers the political integrity of what is the dissonance theory men like his father, who gave up his lucrative Montreal medical practice to fight and die in Spain as a member of the International Brigades. Norman's involvement with Sally, a young Canadian, and Ernst, a refugee from East Germany, makes him realize that bigotry is not exclusive to the left-wing. He eventually comes to believe, like the survivors of The Acrobats , that what is important is not political commitments or alliances but adherence to small virtues, to of Hinduism the traditional spiritual values of honesty, goodness and honour in one's everyday relationships with one's fellow man. Though it was favourably reviewed, the novel did not sell well. In recent years it has attracted appreciative critical attention. Some critics have suggested that it marks the amygdala function psychology, end of Richler's novitiate. It certainly is an improvement on Richler's first two novels, but he is still an apprentice here; and this is primarily because he too obviously manipulates narrative progression and character development to serve his thesis. This manipulation prevents Norman Price from Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism becoming as scintillating a character as Duddy in The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz , Richler's fourth novel, in which he takes care to allow theme to emerge organically from, rather than constrict, the natural evolution of narrative and protagonist.

Richler began working on The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz (1959) soon after the publication of A Choice of Enemies . He was at that time sharing a flat in career aspiration examples Swiss Cottage with Ted Kotcheff, the on The of Hinduism, Canadian film director, with whom he worked on such successful television plays as Paid in Full (1958) and The Trouble with Benny (1959). A Canada Council Fellowship enabled him in 1959 to free himself from scripting and devote his time to The Apprenticeship of strength and weakness essay Duddy Kravitz which he completed while living in the south of France. It is not surprising that this novel, which critics consider the best of his early work and one of his finest novels, should have as its setting Montreal of the 1950s, the world that haunts Richler's psyche. An unprecedented assurance and confidence here mark a new stage in his development. Essay? The narrative pace is livelier than in the previous novels. Dramatic scenes are exceptionally well done. Humour is organic and integrated, and Revolution vs. Alamo Essay is not simply relegated to set passages, though these, ubiquitous in Richler's novels, are here as well. Richler is Essay on The Complexities, now able to stand back and view his protagonist with commendable objectivity.

He has stated outside the novel that he both admires and despises Duddy, a Jewish youth from the Montreal slums who claws his way to the top. This ambivalance is patently evident in the novel and imparts to it a vitalizing tension and enriching complexity. Some critics have criticized Richler's portrayal of Airway Dispute Duddy as being too quaint; others believe that it is too detached and too critical. Richler's brilliant portrait of Duddy is neither one thing nor the on The Complexities, other. He is aware of both the good and the bad in his protagonist and is neither his castigator nor his advocate. He invites the reader to career look objectively at Duddy, though he may not, like the author, be able to affirm whether he admires or despises Duddy. The novel was very well received on both sides of the Atlantic and it firmly established Richler's reputation as a novelist. Of Hinduism? There were accusations of Anti-Semitism by critics who misinterpreted his aesthetic distancing as cold, sardonic detachment, but these were sparse. Despite its critical success, the novel sold only about 2,000 copies in Canada and about 1,200 in the United States.

Within ten years, however, it became an established high school and college text, with sales reaching 35,000 a year in Canada. Is The Dissonance Theory? In 1974, with Richler as scriptwriter, the Essay Complexities of Hinduism, novel was made into a film, with Ted Kotcheff directing. It was considered one of the more successful Canadian movies. In 1984, a musical version, entitled Duddy , with Richler once again as a scriptwriter, was staged at the Citadel Theatre in Edmonton. Though it established an attendance record for the little bees the theatre, plans for Essay Complexities of Hinduism taking it across Canada and eventually to Broadway were temporarily scrapped because of unfavourable reviews. Between the Revolution vs. Alamo Essay, publication of The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz and St. Essay Complexities? Urbain's Horseman , a span of American vs. Alamo Analysis twelve years, Richler, kept busy with screen scripts, produced just two slim volumes, The Incomparable Atuk and Cocksure , novels characterized by their fantastic plotting and sustained humour. He was spending much of his time writing film and television scripts. His financial dependence on Essay Complexities of Hinduism, scriptwriting grew after his marriage in 1960 to Florence Wood, a Canadian model living in London.

Within a few years he had the additional responsibility of providing for five children. American Essay? His many scripts of on The of Hinduism this period include No Love for Johnnie (1959), a study of a roguish British politician, Life at strength and weakness essay, the Top , the sequel to John Braine's Room at the Top , and The Looking Glass War , an adaptation of John Le Carré's novel. Richler writes scripts reluctantly. He perceives scriptwriting as a means of making a livelihood and of buying time to Essay on The work on his fiction. He considers it unworthy of the talents of truly dedicated novelists.

Like most novelists, he says, I am conditioned to working for months on material I discuss with nobody. He considers making films, on the other hand, to be a group activity with numerous participants among whom the the little bees, most lowly is the writer who adapts thrillers and best sellers. Even those who adapt serious novels or write serious original screenplays are robbed of artistic independence and satisfaction. In the case of the on The of Hinduism, adapter, the work remains essentially the original novelist's; and no matter what positive contribution the writer of the original screenplay makes, film making belongs more than anything to the writer-director. Richler evidently has a facility for scriptwriting and his services are always in demand. But his reiterated aversion to the hack work involved and his preference for concentrating on his novels make him reject most offers unless pressed into compromise by economic considerations. The Incomparable Atuk (or Stick Your Neck Out , the title of the American edition), published four years after The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz is a slight novel, but it is skilfully plotted and overflowing with zestful caricatures of the fraudulent and American Revolution Analysis the affected, drawn from the social and cultural circles of Toronto of the 1950s, the setting of the novel. Richler was still living in London at the time he wrote this novel, and perhaps his farcical style illustrates his observation about North American writers exiled in Europe: when they wrote about North America, they settled on a style that did not betray knowledge gaps of on The Complexities day to day experience. Richler utterly disregards the strength, element of probability in on The Complexities formulating the central idea of the novel, which tells of the strength, picaresque adventures of Atuk, an Eskimo poet, in Toronto. Initially, Atuk appears to be an artless individual whose innocence is used to point up the Essay of Hinduism, foibles of the Torontonians; but soon he is revealed to strength essay be equally corrupt and pretentious.

On its publication, reviewers were not sure of Richler's tone, a question which still divides critics. Essay On The Of Hinduism? Malcolm Ross, for instance, believes that the amygdala function psychology, comedy is as black as it is brilliant. There is hard even cruel mockery in Richler's laughter. On the other hand, George Woodcock feels that light satire is perhaps the best term to on The of Hinduism describe this amusing but insubstantial book. British Airway Theory? Others are unable to take a firm stand on of Hinduism, the nature of Richler's intent. F. W. Is The Cognitive Dissonance? Watt, for example, wonders about Richler's depiction of his characters: with what gravity does he offer it and do we receive it?. In his essays and articles of of Hinduism this period, Richler tends to what dissonance criticize harshly the on The, Canadian cultural scenes; it is likely that he is doing so here; but he is also having fun.

He himself describes the novel as a much gentler book [than Cocksure ]. More of a spoof. In an early observation on young British writers, Richler states that they seem to be writing almost provincial undergraduate jokes in aspiration a very special context. Complexities? To a large extent, this comment could be applied to The Incomparable Atuk , for Richler focuses on dated and aspiration regional matters here. While some Canadian reviewers responded to the novel as a roman à clef , an American critic, who enjoyed the novel, was nevertheless mystified by what was obviously inside jokes to 'hip' Canadians. The Incomparable Atuk is essentially fun.

Though not a potboiler, it certainly is a jeu d'esprit , occupying a special place in Richler's canon. Cocksure had its origins in a short story entitled Griffin, Shalinksy, and How They Settled the Jewish Question, published in 1958, in the Tamarack Review (revised and Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism published in 1961, in British Dispute and Practice Maclean's , as It's Harder to be Anybody). Of its process of creation, Richler has stated: Riding into my second year of Essay St. Urbain's Horseman , disheartened by proliferating school bills, diminished savings and only fitful progress, I finally got stuck so badly that there was nothing for it but to shove the manuscript aside. I started another novel, a year's heat, which yielded Cocksure . Cocksure has the extravagant plotting and fantastic characterization of The Incomparable Atuk , but it is quite evidently neither as parochial nor as frivolous as that novel. Though it focuses on the misadventures of a Canadian innocent, Mortimer Griffin, in swinging London of the 1960s, it is not primarily concerned with Canadian issues exclusively.

The novel looks inclusively at the ubiquitous decline of spiritual values and moral responsibility in contemporary society at large. Richler is more angered than amused by the forces generating this decline. Consequently, the humour here is more militant, the imagery more grotesque and British and Practice Essay the language more ribald than in The Incomparable Atuk . The grotesquerie and ribaldry, which some interpreted as obscenity, were responsible for the mild sensation the on The Complexities of Hinduism, novel occasioned on publication: W.H. Amygdala Function? Smith bookstores in Britain refused to stock it, and Complexities of Hinduism Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa banned it altogether. Richler has mentioned that the career aspiration examples, subject matter of Complexities Cocksure lent itself to savagery, and is the cognitive that the novel was written out of disgust. However, though it is Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism, Richler's most pervasively satirical novel, it never becomes a cogent, thoroughgoing satire. In fact, many of the early reviewers felt that Richler succeeds more in entertaining than in Revolution Essay vexing the world.

The work has been described as a stylish farce whose absurdities are never truly disturbing, as smart-alecky stuff that does not cut deeply, and Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism as a serio-comic novel in which Richler wears his jester's patches well. An important reason for this mixed critical response is Richler's ambivalent perception of Mortimer. He portrays him as feckless, bumbling and more naive than innocent; and he pokes fun at him. Yet Richler is the little bees, clearly on Mortimer's side when he is Essay of Hinduism, up against his corrupt society. Richler's ambivalence not only renders his tone ambiguous, but for some critics it blots out his moral position. Philip Toynbee says that a general weakness of this funny and memorable book is that it is quite impossible to detect the moral platform. from which his darts are launched. Perhaps had Richler not whimsically abandoned his working title It's Harder to be Anybody, his moral stance would have been less elusive. Of this stance, he has stated that in writing the novel he was trying to see how far he could make a case for that easily and Dispute Theory Essay glibly dismissed middle-class, decent, bill-paying, honourable man.

Written at a time when Richler was regularly involved with scriptwriting, Cocksure invites analysis in cinematic terms. On The Complexities Of Hinduism? There are numerous scenes where he employs techniques that suggest montages, cuts and dissolves. The Little Bees? And the pervasive dialogue, which at times contributes incrementally to on The Complexities of Hinduism the narrative and at others explodes with appealing wit, could quite easily have been lifted from a film script. The Little Bees? In fact, among Richler's papers at the University of Complexities Calgary MacKimmie Library, there are several drafts of radio and television versions of examples certain scenes that are just slightly different from on The of Hinduism their counterparts in Airway Theory and Practice Essay the novel. The critical reception of Essay on The of Hinduism Cocksure -- published, like all subsequent Richler novels, simultaneously in Toronto, New York and London -- was overwhelmingly enthusiastic. Anthony Burgess, for instance, a reader of the submitted typescript, stated: I have no hesitation in praising it as a serious work of literary art -- in public if necessary.

And he went on to do so in strength and weakness a review in Life . The novel firmly established Richler as a writer with an international stature. It was translated into several languages, including Dutch, Italian and Japanese. On The Of Hinduism? An extract won the Paris Review Annual Prize for humour. In Canada, Richler was given the Governor General's Award for British Cocksure and a collection of essays, Hunting Tigers Under Glass , published also in on The of Hinduism 1968. In that year, Richler was made writer-in-residence at Sir George Williams University.

St. Urbain's Horseman was still a major preoccupation, but he found time to issue a collection of previously published memoirs and stories about the St. Urbain Street area of Montreal during the 1940s, particularly during the war. There is a strong nostalgic tone in some of these pieces, but on Revolution vs. Alamo, the whole Richler retains an objective view of his vanishing past. Some of the short stories -- which in Essay of Hinduism tone are similar to the bits of memoir -- have a young boy as narrator, and the little bees many of his experiences parallel Richler's. Of Hinduism? The narrator's parents, for instance, have an unhappy married life, details of which call to mind what Richler has mentioned about his own parents' marriage which ended in career examples divorce when he was thirteen.

St. Urbain's Horseman , which appeared in 1971, was far more ambitiously conceived than his previous novels. Essay Complexities? It inclusively incorporates and goes beyond their respective restrictive settings. The protagonist, Jake Hersh, a Canadian currently living in London, is older than his predecessors and has far more varied experiences related to his roles as a family man, an artist and an individual conscious of his ethnic and psychology national roots. Moreover, he is Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism, obsessed with reviewing his life, which occasions major flashbacks to his boyhood, youth and early manhood. Richler draws heavily on his own experiences for amygdala function psychology this novel; he has observed that Jake is closer to him than any of his other protagonists. There are many parallels between the Essay on The of Hinduism, details of Essay their lives. Like Richler, Jake, for instance, spent his boyhood and on The of Hinduism adolescence in Montreal, admired the career examples, International Brigades, fled his stifling Jewish and Canadian environment for London where he intended to prove himself, made trips to Israel and Germany, married a gentile, has divorced parents, and returned in 1967 to Montreal for on The of Hinduism his father's funeral.

A few accounts of Jake's experiences in the little bees the novel are actually verbatim reproductions from published bits of Richler's memoirs with the first person changed to Essay on The of Hinduism Jake. Jake's sensibility and beliefs also are similar to Richler's. Like his creator, he is apprehensive of aging, feels he belongs to British Airway and Practice a frivolous generation, is a socialist but distrusts professional liberals and the masses, is ambivalent towards Canada, strives to be a devoted family man, and celebrates decency, tolerance, honour. Richler makes no conscious effort to hide the similarities. Despite this, St. Urbain's Horseman is a novel, not an autobiography. It has more incidents imaginatively conceived than drawn unchanged from Richler's own experience.

It strictly maintains, unlike Son of a Smaller Hero , the double presence of author and protagonist. In this richly-textured work, Richler introduced the most complex and challenging symbol of his novels: the Horseman. Critics have offered different interpretations of this elusive figure, perceiving him variously as Jake's conscience, as the Essay of Hinduism, redeeming manhood for function Jewish men, as The redemptive deliverer of the Jews, and as a metaphor for the triumph of art. Each of these interpretations gives the Horseman a single, fixated meaning. However, Richler, who has stated that the novel functions on several levels, evidently intends him as a symbol with multiple meanings, which vary in the three separate but contiguous spheres of the novel: the domestic and social, the racial and ethnical, the professional and artistic.

In the first sphere, the Horseman is a false god, advocating dubious values; in the second, he is, when considered within the cyclical pattern of Jake's dreams and nightmares, part of Richler's ambitious attempt to Essay Complexities of Hinduism create a myth for the contemporary Jew who, having not gone like sheep to the slaughterhouse in Auschwitz and being too fastidious to Revolution punish Arab villages with napalm, did not fit a mythology; in the third, the Essay on The Complexities, Horseman represents the artist's desire for participation which is constantly in conflict with his inherent role of an observer. This multiple symbolic function of the Horseman, together with the involved narrative, the the little bees, skilful structural use of layers of flashbacks, the extensive gallery of memorable secondary characters (including a middle-aged Duddy Kravitz), and the penetrating portrait of a troubled, ambivalent protagonist, makes this novel a very dense work and has encouraged several critics to consider it Richler's best novel. It was awarded the Governor General's Literary Prize for 1971. The publication of St. Essay On The Complexities Of Hinduism? Urbain's Horseman marked the end of one phase in Richler's life. He began making preparations to and weakness essay return to Canada. In 1972 he took up residence in Montreal and has lived there ever since. His reasons for returning were as mixed as his reasons for leaving eighteen years earlier. They involved, as he has mentioned on different occasions, a certain nostalgia for the seasons, the Laurentians, and hockey; an odd fascination with Montreal; a realization that Canada was no longer a cultural backwater; an acknowledgement that Canada in recent years has been kind to him as a novelist; and Essay Complexities of Hinduism a need to return to the wellsprings of his creative imagination. Richler took nine years to the little bees publish his next novel, Joshua Then and Now (1980). He has admitted that he is increasingly critical of his fiction and works at a far slower pace, occupying himself at the same time with complementary activities.

He was Visiting Professor at Carleton University for two years, teaching courses in journalism and literature. Complexities? He wrote numerous reports and Analysis essays and several film and Essay on The of Hinduism television scripts including that of a television play, The Bells of Hell (1974), and of the movie The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz , that earned him nomination for an Academy Award in career 1975. Of Hinduism? He was also appointed to the Editorial Board of the Book-of-the-Month Club in 1976. The following year, Images in Spain , a volume of the little bees photographs by Essay on The Peter Christopher, appeared, for which Richler provided an extended foreword. Analysis Essay? Earlier, in 1975, he had published his first, and so far only, children's novel, Jacob Two-Two Meets the Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism, Hooded Fang , which further underscores Richler's artistic versatility. The Little Bees? The novel is of Hinduism, about the wish fulfilment of an incompetent child, who dreams of performing heroic deeds for which he earns the function psychology, respect of his family. It was praised by reviewers, and won the first annual Ruth Schwartz Children's Book Award in 1976.

Joshua Then and Now (1980) could be read as a companion piece or a sequel to St. Urbain's Horseman . The protagonist, Joshua Shapiro, is similar in temperament and sensibility to Jake Hersh. Richler could be speaking of Jake when he describes Joshua as a man charged with contradictions. Though Joshua is not as intensely introspective as Jake, he is like him neurotically insecure in his social and of Hinduism family life; he adheres to traditional moral values, yet has a perceptible streak of malice in him; he is sympathetic yet sardonic; he has nightmares about his gentile wife's infidelity; he is tormented by fear of real and imagined Nazi butchers; and he is obsessively conscious of his mortality. Both Joshua and Jake were born in Montreal and lived in similar domestic and communal environments, though particulars differ. Both developed artistic interests -- Jake as film director and Joshua as a journalist and occasional historian of the International Brigades. What Is The Cognitive Theory? Both fled their constricting homeland for Paris, Spain and London. And in both novels there are numerous flashbacks to the protagonists' childhood and youth in Montreal and their early manhood in Essay on The of Hinduism Europe. The current action of the earlier novel occurs in 1967 when Jake is in American Revolution vs. Alamo Essay his late thirties; in Joshua Then and Now , it is 1977, and Essay of Hinduism Joshua, ten years older than his predecessor, has returned to live in Montreal. Of the great abundance of fascinating characters and absorbing episodes in this involved book, one reviewer said that a more parsimonious novelist might have spread [them] over several novels.

To give shape to all this material, Richler employs an intricate pattern of flashbacks. While the flashbacks in amygdala psychology St. On The? Urbain's Horseman adhere more or less to a straightforward chronology, in Joshua Then and Now rapid and constant shifts back and forth among several time sequences occur. This structure, over which Richler said he had laboured for a long time (and which a few reviewers found dizzying), serves several purposes. It allows Richler effectively to create -- what is now an established characteristic of his novels - suspense, of which the Times Literary Supplement reviewer says: I have seldom seen it used more skilfully. More important, the structure complements Richler's portrayal of vs. Alamo Analysis Essay Joshua as a man obsessed with what he once was and what he is now. The flashbacks are not randomly thrown together but are informed by the organizing principle of contrast between past and present. And Richler uses this contrast to accentuate his main themes: man's mortality and Essay Complexities of Hinduism ephemerality, the British Airway Theory and Practice, ironical reversal of fortune occasioned by the passage of time, and Complexities of Hinduism the constricting hold past incidents can have on the individual and his need to exorcize himself of function such a possessive past. The origins of Joshua Then and Now and certain parallels between Joshua's and Richler's experiences inevitably invite consideration of the of Hinduism, closeness of the author and the little bees his protagonist. On The Complexities? Joshua Then and and Practice Essay Now originated with Richler's return to Spain in 1976 after an absence of twenty-five years to write an introductory essay for Images of Essay on The of Hinduism Spain . The Little Bees? Richler was accompanied by his wife, a fact which reminds the of Hinduism, reader that Joshua Then and and weakness essay Now is fictional though based in parts on Complexities of Hinduism, Richler's experiences. After two weeks in Spain, during which time he revisited Ibiza where, like Joshua, he had lived for a short time in his youth, Richler produced not a travel piece but a very long essay about what Ibiza had once meant to him.

For Images of Spain , Richler wrote a separate introduction which, though it says much about the geography, history and customs, is essentially dry, for Richler's more personal responses and amygdala function psychology his more meaningful visit to Ibiza were removed for inclusion in what was to become Joshua Then and Now . He rewrote the longer, personal essay as a memoir of his experiences in Ibiza and London, and later revised this memoir, transforming it into on The Complexities a work written in the first person which was teetering between a memoir and a novel, and eventually into its present novel form where the third person replaces the amygdala, first person. But elements of the memoir are clearly evident, as Richler himself mentions: I remember, as Joshua does in my novel. coming on this picture of Franco striding through shelled Madrid -- a conqueror. I don't know quite what it meant to me at Essay, that time. I don't pretend that I was politically conscious at the age of 8 or 9, but for some reason it did move me. The novel was extensively and favourably reviewed in Canada, Britain and the United States.

Some reviewers, however, found it uncomfortably familiar. One, otherwise positive, said, It's as if a rich and unusual body of fictional material had become a kind of prison for a writer who is condemned to repeat himself ever more vehemently and inflexibly. Richler is essay, currently working on a novel partially set in the North West Territories, which is a new setting for him. Perhaps in this new novel we shall see him, like Joshua, liberating himself from Complexities a possessive past. While working on this new novel, Richler has continued to be a scriptwriter and a journalist.

He wrote the American Revolution vs. Alamo Analysis, script for the movie of Joshua Then and Now (1984), and published two books, an anthology The Best of Modern Humour (1983) and Home Sweet Home (1984), a selection of previously published journalistic essays and Essay Complexities reports. Richler takes himself very seriously as a journalist, and amygdala function no introduction to his work should ignore this aspect of his writing. While he dismisses scriptwriting as a means of buying time for his novels and as a form not worthy of the serious novelist, journalism is Complexities of Hinduism, another matter. I like journalism, he states frankly; I take as much care of my journalism as anything I write. Essay? He is a prolific journalist, with about four hundred pieces published in both popular and prestigious journals and magazines in Canada, the United States and Britain. His work has appeared since the 1950s in publications such as Punch , New Statesman , Commentary , Kenyon Review , Atlantic Monthly , New York Times Book Review , Saturday Night , Canadian Literature , Playboy , Life and Weekend Magazine . Not unexpectedly for one who has written so much and in such a range of Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism publications, his journalism is uneven in quality. Some articles are written simply to startle or to be controversial, some are repetitive and self-plagiarizing, some are hasty opinions evidently written to be discarded and forgotten, and some are very serious, written with great deliberation over matter and essay style. Richler himself has selected and Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism edited the pieces important to him in five collections: Hunting Tigers Under Glass (1968), The Street (1969), Shovelling Trouble (1972), Notes on an Endangered Species and Others (1974) and Airway Theory and Practice Home Sweet Home (1984). Mordecai Richler has described himself as a serious novelist and affirms that any serious writer is on The of Hinduism, essentially a moralist. But to come to his work for homilies and axioms is to be disappointed.

His novels conclude with no formulated wisdom. Though he celebrates the traditional virtues, what concerns him is his protagonists' process of strength and weakness discovering the validity of Essay these virtues in a more or less amoral, contemporary society, and their conflicting desire both to British Airway Dispute Theory protest against this society and to accommodate themselves to it. All his novels so far reflect this thematic pattern and bear out his observation that every serious writer has. one theme, many variations to play on it. The Acrobats . London: Deutsch, 1954. Son of a Smaller Hero . London: Deutsch, 1957. The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz . Essay Of Hinduism? London: Deutsch, 1959.

The Incomparable Atuk . Function? Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1963. Cocksure . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1968. Hunting Tigers Under Glass: Essays and Reports . Toronto: McClelland and Essay of Hinduism Stewart, 1968. Canadian Writing Today , ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970. The Street: A Memoir . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1971. St. Urbain's Horseman . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1971. Shovelling Trouble . The Little Bees? Toronto: McClelland and Complexities of Hinduism Stewart, 1972. Notes on an Endangered Species and Others . Revolution Vs. Alamo Analysis Essay? New York: Knopf, 1974. (Most of these essays appear in Shovelling Trouble .) Jacob Two-Two Meets the Hooded Fang . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1975.

Images of Spain (with Peter Christopher). On The? Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1977. (A volume of photographs with text by Richler.) Joshua Then and Now . Career Examples? Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1980. The Best of Modern Humour . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1983. Home Sweet Home . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1984. The Mordecai Richler papers: first accession.

An inventory of the on The of Hinduism, archive at the University of Calgary Libraries . Compiler: Sandra Mortensen. Editors: Apollonia Steele [and] Jean F. Tener. Biocritical essay: Victor J. The Little Bees? Ramraj. [Calgary] University of Calgary Press [c1987]

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Complexities, Needs Theory Essay Sample. Abraham Maslow introduced a very simple way of understanding the needs of a person. The Hierarchy of Needs sorts the the little bees needs of the lowest and Essay of Hinduism most basic levels to the higher levels. Maslow then arises within their theory of strength, personality, the concept of hierarchy of needs, which needs are structurally organized with varying degrees of on The, power, according to a biological determination given by our genetic makeup as the agency human species. The hierarchy is organized so that the aspiration examples deficit needs are in the lower parts, while development needs are in Essay on The the highest parts of the hierarchy; thus, in the order given by the power and priority, we find the deficit needs, which would be the physiological needs, safety needs, needs of love and psychology belonging, esteem needs; and development needs, what the needs of self-actualization and transcendence needs be. Complexities? Within this structure, when the needs of the little bees, one level are met, a state of apathy does not occur, but the focus becomes occupied by the needs of the next level and is located on the site of the on The of Hinduism next higher hierarchy, and it is these needs that is being sought. Maslow’s theory suggests that the lower needs are a priority, and and weakness therefore, more powerful than the higher needs in the hierarchy; Only when the person fails to satisfy the Essay on The Complexities lower needs – even if it does so on, gradually enter their knowledge higher needs, and and weakness that the motivation to meet them; as the positive trend takes more important, a greater degree of Essay, psychological health and a move towards full humanization is experienced.

For Maslow, the human would become fully accepting the satisfaction of the needs identified by our biological base, which would, after satisfying the trends that unite us with the rest of humanity, the idiosyncratic discover what distinguishes us from the rest human beings, discover your own tastes, talents determined by our inheritance concretizarlos – develop them – based on hard work; in Maslow’s words: … the way we’re different from other people also discover in and weakness this very personal search for identity… 1 (Frick, 1973, p.34) 1 1. Frick, Willard B. Essay Complexities? (1973): Humanistic psychology. Buenos Aires: Guadalupe. Keywords: self-actualization1, transcendence2, humanistic psychology3. Self-actualization 1 According to humanistic theory, the realizing of one’s full potential; can include creative expression, quest for career, spiritual enlightenment, pursuit of Essay Complexities of Hinduism, knowledge, or the desire to give to society. Transcendence 2 superior excellence; supereminence. Humanistic psychology 3 A psychological perspective which rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in response to psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism; this approach emphasizes an essay individual’s inherent drive towards self-actualization and creativity. Theory of Human Motivation. The “Theory of on The Complexities, Human Motivation”, proposes a hierarchy of needs and factors that motivate people; this hierarchy is modeled by identifying five categories of needs and is built considering a hierarchical ascending order according to their importance for survival and motivational skills.

According to this model, half man meets their other needs arise that change or modify the behavior of the same; considering that only when a need is “reasonably” satisfied, will trigger a new need. The five categories of needs are: physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem and self-actualization; physiological requirements being the lowest level. Maslow also distinguishes these needs “deficit” (physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem) and “development of self” (self-realization). The distinct difference between the two is that the “deficit” refer to a lack, while the “development of strength and weakness, self” refer to the work of the Essay Complexities individual. Without being exhaustive, the characterization of the hierarchy of needs proposed by essay Maslow is: Physiological needs: are of biological origin and are geared towards the survival of man; are considered basic needs and include things like: need to on The Complexities breathe, drink water, sleep, eating, sex, shelter. Safety needs: When the physiological needs are met in the large part, comes a second level of needs-oriented personal safety, order, stability and British Dispute Theory and Practice protection. Among these requirements are things like security, employment, income and assets, family, health and crime against personal property. Needs of love, affection and belonging: when security needs and physiological well-being are moderately satisfied, the next class of Essay on The of Hinduism, needs contains the love, affection and belonging or membership in a particular social group and are oriented to overcome feelings of career examples, loneliness and alienation.

In everyday life, these needs can be handled when man shows desire to marry, have a family, to be part of a community, being a member of a church or simply attending a social club. Esteem needs: When the first three classes needs are moderately satisfied, esteem needs calls oriented self-esteem, recognition for the individual, the individual achievement and respect for others arise; to meet these needs, people feel secure about herself and valuable in a society; when these needs are not met, people feel inferior and worthless. In this regard, Maslow noted two esteem needs: a bottom that includes respect for others, the need status, fame, glory,recognition,attention, reputation, and dignity; and an upper, which determinesthe need for self-respect, including feelings as confidence, competence, achievement, mastery, independence and freedom. Self-actualization needs: are the on The Complexities highest and dissonance theory are at the top of the hierarchy; Maslow describes self-actualization as a person’s need to be and do what the person was “born to do”, ie, is the fulfillment of Essay on The, personal potential through a specific activity; thus a person who is inspired to music must make music, an artist must paint, and a poet must write. Although the research support of Maslow’s theory is still under development, the concepts developed by him, have provided a framework for positive psychology and British Dispute and Practice have been used to conceptualize the policy, practice and theory in the social sciences for more than 60. Besides the five needs described above, Maslow also identified three other categories of of Hinduism, needs: aesthetic, cognitive and Revolution Analysis Essay self-transcendence (Feist and on The Feist 2006), which led to a correction of the hierarchy of needs.

The characterization of these three new needs is: Aesthetic needs: are not universal, but at least certain groups of people in all cultures seem to be motivated by the need for external beauty and rewarding aesthetic experiences. Cognitive needs: They are associated with the aspiration examples desire to know which is the vast majority of people; things like solving mysteries, being curious and investigate various activities were called by Maslow as cognitive needs, noting that this kind of need is on The Complexities of Hinduism, very important to satisfy the Revolution vs. Alamo Analysis Essay five needs described above. Need for self-transcendence: aim promote a cause beyond yourself and experience a communion beyond the limits of the self; this may involve service to other people or groups, devotion to an ideal or a cause, religious faith, the pursuit of science and union with the divine. According Koltko (2006), the rectified hierarchy of needs Maslow’s version has several important implications for theory and research in personality and social psychology; these consequences to include broader approaches: Personal and Essay on The Complexities cultural conceptions of the purpose of life. The motivational bases of altruistic behavior, social progress, and wisdom. The suicide terrorism and religious violence. The integration of psychology of religion and spirituality in personality and social psychology. Finally, it should be noted that the “Theory of Human Motivation”, with its hierarchy of needs and motivational factors as well as the following Maslow research in the area of human needs, is part of the humanist educational paradigm, for amygdala function, which the achievement maximum self-realizationof students in all aspects of personality is a fundamental part and seeking, provide education training and personal growth. A biblical truth of Essay Complexities of Hinduism, Self-realization.

When dreams come true, you really give us happiness? The Maslow pyramid or hierarchy of human needs, is a psychological theory proposed by Abraham Maslow, to meet our needs to achieve self-realization and have control over all problematic circumstances in which we find ourselves. This level of satisfaction is to meet the basic parameters, then supplemented with “meta needs.” The man who gets to comprehensively meet each of them is an aspiration examples individual who has artistic characteristics, leadership, self-confidence, fulfillment in their professional life, and loving, and although it gets to be in danger, always the proposals and alternative solutions, without having to exit pressure. All this, to possess it are people who have a drive for life, regardless of the risks, the more satisfied an Essay Complexities of Hinduism emergent need arises another which enables it to be better. According to the characteristics of the theory of Maslow born with the career examples physical person, the rest arise over on The Complexities of Hinduism, time. As the person drops their basic needs gradually higher needs appear.

In the society in which we live is handled in and weakness essay this way, and although we know that the basic needs such as meta needs are necessary, it is not always so. Advertising, TV, high technology, gives us a concept of happiness, only obtaining and fulfilling our desires, be happy and we will find fulfillment in life. Complexities Of Hinduism? While this, in “some” is amygdala function, true in others, at least not in most. In the world in which we live there are still countries that do not meet their basic needs, never mind meet the “target needs” this in turn provokes reactions of bitterness and discontent, for he who is fixed in reality scarce, known not reached the same opportunities as someone born with all the on The alternatives. In the Bible, we find the counterpart of Maslow’s pyramid. Jesus, the Son of God fulfilled his mission in the little bees life, and reached its fullness, to. self-realization of duty. Complexities? Most people feel unsatisfied look at the resources and not find your mission in life.

Although Jesus came to earth as a man, his mission always focused on “Ask the Father” Therefore to him by was never primarily meet their own needs to feel “good”, unlike renounced his basic needs, meet others; therefore, I fail their “goal needs” humble himself. And never thought of meeting his “I” rather thought of death to meet the “target needs” around the world, insomuch that by his example not only had the salvation, but the breath of that in a fallen world god’s Son also suffered, hardship than us. The life of Jesus is the little bees, a clear example of achieving the desired objective by man: the recognition of the Essay other, but in this case, that of God. And the and weakness essay way to do it is simply not satisfy any personal desire, but of God. Then the passage of Philippians 2:5-11, we can observe the on The following way: Jesus’ journey toward fulfilling your life and the satisfaction of achieving “something” is as follows: 1. Although it was the examples same being, God, emptied “renounce comfort” in every way. Essay On The? 2. He did not cling, but it took nature of the little bees, a servant of a “servant or servant” that makes people not only sent a high class, but rather to their same level of social class. 3. You know how a man doing, but even worse, as “anyone” could decide whether to live in a wealthy family, because he preferred the opposite. Also what, never revealed his identity, but rather silent, who discovered his true position as a child of God.

4. He humbled also, if anyone else did, well that was not enough, was not satisfied, he stood as “mat” to be trampled and humble. 5. He preferred to die, who did not deserve it, but he did. 6. then: GOD gave him the highest honor, And the greatest of all names, For that, in the name given to Jesus, all knees bend in heaven, on earth and under the earth, and all confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father Phil. 2:111. No man more intending meet each of their needs, never achieved what Jesus did by stripping himself, no one can have a title like His What achievement JESUS??: He fulfilled the will of God, He fulfilled his mission as a man on earth, It is the only way of salvation.

And God gave him a title that would never be taken away. Do we need to fulfill our desire to Essay on The of Hinduism be happy? Do you need to meet all the the little bees needs to fulfill our mission in life here on earth? Can you get to on The of Hinduism the self-renouncing himself? If fact, if Jesus did it, so can we. Take up your Cross and amygdala psychology follow the master and awaits the eternal crown.

And in the fullness of life there. Boeree, G. (2006). Personality Theories Psychology Department Shippensburg University. Chapman A. (2007). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.

Colvin, M. Rutland, F. (2008). Is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism, Needs a Valid Model of Motivation. Louisiana Tech University. Feist, J. Feist, G. (2006) Theories of Personality (VI Ed). New York: McGraw Hill. Heylighen, F. Career Aspiration? (1992). A Cognitive-Systemic Reconstruction of Maslow’s Theory of Complexities, Self-Actualization. Behavioral Science, Vol. 37, 39-56.

Frick, Willard B. (1973): Humanistic psychology. Buenos Aires: Guadalupe Koltko M. (2006). Rediscovering the amygdala function psychology Later Version of Essay Complexities of Hinduism, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:Self-Transcendence and Opportunities for Theory, Research, and Unification. And Weakness? Review of General Psychology by the American Psychological Association Vol. 10, No. On The Complexities? 4, 302–317. Reid-Cunningham A. (2008). Maslow’s Theory of Motivation and Hierarchy of Human Needs: A Critical Analysis. PhD Qualifying Examination School of and weakness essay, Social Welfare University of California, Berkeley.

Simons, J., Irwin, D. Drinnien, B. (1987). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs from Essay on The Psychology – The Search for Understanding. New York: West Publishing Company. Is this the perfect essay for and weakness essay, you? Save time and order Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory. essay editing for only $13.9 per on The Complexities of Hinduism page.

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The idea, I think, was that nature would take over—that I'd kick, battle the Essay on The water, and eventually rise to the surface. Instead I lay down on the bottom of the ocean and British Theory and Practice Essay, allowed the water to enter my lungs. That I seemed to possess no survival instinct, as it's called—no innate part of me that knew what to do in Complexities of Hinduism the face of danger—became apparent again the next year when I encountered a snake in the woods. As the other kids ran screaming, I just stood there frozen, tears streaming down my face. I have no idea what personality traits bring a child to so passively greet ominous circumstances, but these episodes do reveal a fatalistic predisposition that has followed me into the little bees my adult beginner life. On The! As I sank to the bottom of the ocean, it simply did not occur to me that there was anything I could do about it. I couldn't have been in the water longer than seconds, but in my memory the moment stretches like a film reel, each frame full of distinct sights and essay, sensations. I remember the Essay on The pillowy sand beneath my thighs, the light filtering through the deep green water above me, the human shadow eclipsing the light, and my uncle's arms reaching in and yanking me out. What Cognitive Dissonance Theory! I remember coughing and coughing, and then the reel cuts off and there are no more images, only the feelings of inadequacy and shame for having disappointed, and the certainty that I never wanted to see that particular movie again.

Just blow out slowly, Tony is telling me. There are seven of us in Tony's group, and Essay Complexities of Hinduism, we are learning to Airway Theory and Practice, blow bubbles. While my classmates keep their heads submerged for five, even 10 seconds, I lower only Essay on The, my face—the tip of my nylon-capped head sticking out—push all of my air out in one forceful exhale, and bop up immediately. A couple of times I try holding my nose on function the way down, but Tony says it's not allowed. He tells me to Essay, just try holding my breath, but again I dip, blow, bop up like a buoy. Tony looks confused. We move on to an exercise that requires us to push off the side of the the little bees pool and Complexities, glide with our faces down in the water. Is The Dissonance! The glide itself is not bad, but I keep raising my head as soon as I start, and Tony's patience is fading. Just hold your breath! he instructs. I want to please Tony, so the next time I try to remain under and on The, somehow manage to inhale water.

Why can't you just hold it? Tony asks as I come up coughing. He moves on to his more promising pupils, but it is Airway Dispute Theory and Practice Essay too late, I can't stop—I am crying in the pool. Then I realize something that will bring me great comfort over Essay on The of Hinduism, the next three months: No one can tell when you're crying in the water. The first time I saw the ocean, I was 10 years old, and it was wintertime, and my mother and I had walked four blocks from essay our high-rise in Coney Island, Brooklyn, to the shore in our heavy coats and stood staring at the Atlantic as if it were a gorgeous mirage. The previous night we'd emigrated from Russia. Our first year in Brooklyn, I attended a day camp at Brighton Beach, where, observing a sprightly girl named Katya in the water, I began teaching myself the on The Complexities doggy paddle, but my visit to Manhattan Beach later that summer put an end to British and Practice Essay, my aquatic interests. It would be unfair, however, to suggest that my ambivalence about water began on that day.

Even as a young child I'd had a consuming fascination with seas and oceans, which, growing up in Essay on The of Hinduism Moscow, seemed about as faraway and exotic to me as the moon. My favorite book was about a young girl who gets swept away by a storm and lands on an island made entirely of candy. My favorite TV show was The Undersea World of American vs. Alamo Essay Jacques Cousteau , dubbed in Russian. By the time I'd read Gulliver's Travels , I was convinced that large bodies of water were portals to Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism, fantastical, possibly frightening worlds—a theory that proved true after we crossed the the little bees Atlantic by plane and landed in Coney Island. But children's books are made of the very real terrors suffered by adults, and after I'd actually met the ocean, I began to see it for what it is: a sprawling, menacing body with its own heartbeats, temperamental whims, and immeasurable strength. Essay! By high school, I'd refused to read Moby-Dick and still haven't. Airway Dispute And Practice Essay! Even now, I memorize drowning data in New York the way others note crime statistics. Though I have lived here for more than a decade, I've never taken a ferry, because I know that the waters surrounding Manhattan have currents powerful enough to carry even competent swimmers out to sea, and that in 1904, for instance, the General Slocum , a steamship traveling along the East River, caught fire and sank, killing an Essay Complexities, estimated 1,021 people—the deadliest day in New York City's history until September 11, 2001. When I get home, I call my mother.

She has no memory of that day at Manhattan Beach, but after I describe it to her—we've somehow never talked about what cognitive dissonance theory it—she tells me that something similar happened to her. When she was five, she slipped from my grandmother's grasp as they were crossing a shallow lake and fell in. Her reel is on The of Hinduism eerily similar to mine: the amygdala psychology soft sand, the filtering light, the human shadow coming to rescue her. She hasn't entered a body of water since. Fear of water can be a hereditary condition, suffered by a surprising number of Complexities of Hinduism people. A quick Google search reveals that Eva Mendes and Snoop Dogg can't swim, and neither can former Baywatch babe Carmen Electra. Essay! According to the USA Swimming Foundation, if a parent doesn't know how to swim, there is only a 13 percent chance that his or her child will learn. Up to half of Americans can't swim, and an average of 10 people drown in the country every day. The week my classes begin, I happen to be reading Renata Adler's 1976 novel Speedboat , in which she writes, Every child, naturally, who was not a sissy, swam.

In lakes, and Essay, seas, and heavily chlorinated pools, they earned their certificates…. People who missed their proper year often remained afraid of career aspiration examples swimming, driving, hunting or whatever, all their lives. That passage isn't about of Hinduism swimming exactly. It's about something far more important—it's about how we come to think of ourselves. To know the self as a sissy is to avoid skis, bicycles, mountains, and tennis courts because of the strong suspicion that you will not, necessarily, know to raise a racket to block the ball from hitting your face. If we don't learn to swim, we lose a certain faith in American Revolution vs. Alamo Essay our ability to meet physical challenges, but the impact may be greater yet, if sneakingly pernicious.

Realizing that not only does your body fail to stay afloat but that it doesn't even bother to kick when faced with its own demise begins to feel like a repulsive evolutionary defect that must be concealed at all costs—an Achilles heel so fundamental that it threatens all our other accomplishments. (Is there anything more humiliating than lacking a basic instinct for self-preservation?) That I want to learn to swim now, at the age of Essay on The 28, has less to do with my being afraid of drowning than it does with my growing increasingly tired with myself for being afraid of whatever. When I return to the Y, Tony delivers strange news. I, along with three others from the lowest beginner group, have been reassigned to British Airway, an even lower beginner group. Weeks later, after I get to know my new classmates, I can only assume that the good people at the Y created a special level for us—let's call it traumatized adult beginner swim—and called in Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism special forces. My classmates are all from India. Upal and Ujjal are fraternal twins in their late twenties who live together in American Revolution Analysis Stuyvesant Town. The brothers took a swim class when they were kids but didn't like their teacher. So we never went back, Upal told me.

Ujjal has a rather large tattoo of two dolphins on Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism his back, and I'm not sure he's aware of the irony. Aspiration Examples! Our fourth is Anustee, a doe-eyed young woman who wears a bathing suit with a skirt attached. Whenever Anustee enters the water, her eyebrows travel upward on Complexities her forehead in an expression that communicates pure terror. Several times I wanted to strength, ask her why she never learned to swim, but she always seemed too distressed to engage in Essay on The of Hinduism small talk. Since none of us had learned to career examples, blow bubbles, we start there. Essay Of Hinduism! Show me what you do, says Will, our new teacher. I show him and brace for criticism. Instead, Will comes up close to Airway Theory, me and begins speaking in a calm, measured tone. It's okay, he says.

This is totally normal. You're just a little nervous in the water. On The Complexities Of Hinduism! I want you to try something for me: Just hum. Hum? Yes, hum. Start humming before you go under and that will pace your breathing. My hum is more like a yogi's om as I lower my head into the pool.

I focus on humming slowly but steadily so that no water enters my nose— Oooooommm —and as I realize that I've now been under for several seconds, I become irrationally angry at Tony for not having mentioned this neat trick last week. As I come up, Will is smiling. Aspiration! That's it, he says. See? Easy. Essay On The! By the end of the class, I not only learn to glide but I'm the only one who masters floating, which Will asks me to amygdala function, demonstrate for the rest of the class. A few important words about Will: He is beautiful. Tall, tan, and muscular, he is like a Puerto Rican Michael Phelps. When Will isn't in the pool, he walks around shirtless in on The of Hinduism ragged sweatpants and British Airway Dispute and Practice, beige Crocs. My favorite things about Essay Complexities of Hinduism him include a small swirl of hair that forms a rat tail at the back of his neck, and the tongue ring that he tried to career aspiration, be discreet about until it fell out in week five and he had to go fishing for it in Essay on The Complexities the pool.

Whenever I panic in the water—which is often—he will grab my shoulders or my waist and cognitive, say, It's okay. You're okay. Complexities Of Hinduism! I got you. I'm right here, and what is the dissonance, I will at times forget that I have a boyfriend and Complexities of Hinduism, look at Will with affection and gratitude so pure that I will simultaneously wish that he were my father and my husband. And if that sounds twisted, well, then you have not had the terrifying pleasure of being rescued by Will from the depths of the Y pool.

After the first lesson, Will teaches us to Dispute and Practice Essay, use kickboards and Essay Complexities, flippers, which is a little bit like learning to walk horizontally on American Analysis water using a precarious floating device for balance and Complexities, giant webbed feet for a manual propeller. (Flippers, I learn later, were the invention of Benjamin Franklin, an avid swimmer who helped popularize aquatics for the masses.) It takes a few weeks to get the hang of these contraptions, but eventually we're zooming from one end of the pool to the other like toddlers on training wheels, and though I know I'm not swimming, exactly, I think I am starting to understand the the little bees concept. When I move across the water, the parts of my life that exist on land seem unimportant. It's impossible for me to think about what e-mail I didn't send, or which friend I may have offended. My only Essay Complexities, priority is not to drown, and so I focus on my kicks, my breath, my muscles, which grow heavy whenever I get nervous. I start to fall in love with the sounds, which—except for the times when I hear Will's muffled voice say, Relax your neck, Irina!—are a pleasing symphony of low whirls and gargles as the the little bees water is Essay Complexities pushed around and parted by British Theory Essay, my own body. As the Essay Complexities of Hinduism weeks go on, I begin to think of water as a different mode of existence and the little bees, of swimming as a practice of Essay essentially adapting my body to Airway Dispute and Practice Essay, alien conditions. I start to Essay on The Complexities, see the world divided into people who can survive in dual realities, and more primitive creatures like myself who've been sequestered on the small patches of land that occupy our mostly blue planet. It occurs to me that, with the exception of space, this is the only place where humans get to strength essay, defy gravity and escape the weight of their tired bodies.

Between classes, everyone who hears that I'm learning to Essay on The of Hinduism, swim is eager to tell me their own water stories, and I start to feel like the protagonist in John Cheever's The Swimmer, swimming across the backyard pools of people's childhoods: the psychology old wounds, the competitions, the Essay on The of Hinduism beach towns where they grew up, that time the is the baby fell in, the Essay on The brothers who took them surfing, the freedoms water afforded them and the insecurities they still feel from early failures in essay it. In class, too, we all have our blocks. Upal and Ujjal, who are the only ones who can swim well without flippers, still cannot float. When they try, they sort of hover somewhere between the bottom of the pool and its surface as if frozen in the center of an ice cube. Anustee consistently comes undone in the deep end and Complexities of Hinduism, thrashes around until Will rushes to her rescue, which always makes me a little jealous.

For me, jumping into the water is the hardest. The Little Bees! Every week as the others line up and hop in like a row of ducklings, I stand whimpering at the pool's edge and Essay on The, categorically refuse to do it no matter how long Will pleads with me. Even when we do this at the shallow end, I cannot seem to get myself to step forward, and I tell Will with full conviction that I will drown if I do. A few times I start to cry. When I finally do jump in—and this takes all of the 12 weeks—it's not until Will stands in the pool beneath me, offers me his hand, and promises that he will not let go. On our final day, Will brings in essay a camera and Essay Complexities, films us so that we can see our progress. I climb out of the pool and stand next to psychology, him as he shows me the video in which I attempt to swim without the safety of flippers or a kickboard. I watch my scrawny body making movements I've never seen it make before, and the shocking part is that I'm moving through the pool—slowly and sloppily, but I'm doing it. Of Hinduism! See, you have a great kick, Will says. Before I leave, he writes down his e-mail address and tells me to get in touch if I want more swimming lessons, if I have questions, or whatever.

I graduate from the Y in June, and in mid-July I fly to Biarritz, where world champion surfer Lisa Andersen has generously agreed to give me a swimming lesson in open water. Andersen is an athlete for Roxy, the apparel brand with a heart-shape logo that is celebrating its twenty-fifth anniversary in Analysis Essay 2014. The beach in Biarritz is known for its waves, but when I arrive to observe the annual Roxy Pro competition, all the female surfers seem depressed. The ocean's as still as a lake, Andersen tells me. The competition has been canceled, but for Essay on The of Hinduism me, calm waters means I have no excuse. Unlike the ritzier parts of southern France along the Mediterranean, Biarritz, on career examples the Atlantic, has the Complexities raw, unself-conscious feel of British Dispute and Practice a small seaside town.

Andersen and I meet at the beach in the afternoon. I'm hesitant to go in the ocean, so she suggests we just sit and talk for a bit where the Complexities water is shallow and allow the lapping waves to wash over us. I want you to just feel the aspiration ocean and its rhythms, she says. With her flaxen blond hair and of Hinduism, fit figure, Andersen, who is 44, has a soulful quality about her and bears a striking resemblance to the actress Robin Wright. When she was a kid, her family moved around a lot, finally settling in Ormond Beach, Florida. Her father was an alcoholic who was abusive to Andersen and her brothers. Her mother, like mine, never learned to what dissonance theory, swim and was always afraid of the Essay Complexities of Hinduism ocean. After Andersen learned to surf, the ocean, where she wanted to spend all of her time, formed a rift between her and career, her family. At 16, after her father became angry and cracked her surfboard, she ran away from Complexities home and moved to career aspiration, Huntington Beach, California.

She left a note on her pillow informing her parents that she was leaving to become the number-one female surfer in the world; nine years later she did so. As we're talking, I'm so focused on Essay Andersen that I'm startled when a small wave lashes me in the face. Dissonance! That's another thing: Never turn your back on the ocean, she says. Of Hinduism! Do you want to walk in a little? Okay, I say, and we go in up to our knees. I believe Andersen when she says that the Airway Essay ocean is unusually calm, but for me, the small waves might as well be tsunamis. I am standing waist-deep now, and each time I see a wave approaching, I shudder and sometimes also shriek.

The first time this happens, I sort of leap into Andersen's arms like a baby chimp and wrap my arms around her neck. The sense that this is an unacceptable thing for an adult to on The, do is superseded entirely by my fear that a wave will swallow me and amygdala psychology, that I'll drown. Andersen is kind enough not to laugh. She instructs me to hop up against the wave's force and, as we tread deeper, plant my feet as each swell passes. She also allows me to hold her hand whenever I need to. That rocking back and forth can be so peaceful—I really want you to have that, she says. I go to Complexities, the ocean wherever I am, whenever I want to get away from all the worries and vs. Alamo, stresses. Sometimes I'm drowning on land, and I need to get in the water to breathe. This is Essay on The Complexities of Hinduism where my confidence lies, Andersen adds. In the rest of my life, I have all these insecurities, but here I feel confident.

When I ask why, Andersen pauses for the little bees a moment. I don't know. Of Hinduism! I guess the ocean has never broken my heart. It seems unlikely I'll ever have that much trust in function the ocean, I say. How could I when we are standing in Complexities the same body of water that once pinned me to career, its floor? But you have to remember, Andersen says, the ocean didn't do that to you. I haven't noticed, but I am now standing chin-deep—the farthest out I've ever gone.

Though we are more than an hour into my lesson, Andersen hasn't asked me to do any actual swimming. Instead, she's conducted a sort of immersion therapy, distracting me from my anxiety and allowing me to control the pace as we waded deeper. Somewhere along the on The way, it's almost as if I've forgotten that we're not on Theory and Practice land and adjusted to my new environment, standing on tippy-toes and instinctually rising and on The Complexities, rocking with the current. When I look back and see how far we are from shore, it feels strange not to and weakness, feel afraid. I wouldn't describe standing here as peaceful, exactly, but it is not unpleasant. Do you want to see me actually swim? I ask. Andersen nods, so I hop up and try to Essay on The, remember what Will taught me: kicking from the strength hip, pulling the water, head not too high. That's all it is, Andersen says. The rest is just technique. But having a feel for Complexities it and doing what feels natural—that's swimming.

I envy Anderson, for what dissonance theory whom the ocean has served as a vast well of courage. Those of us who stopped trusting ourselves early on tend to approach new things with paralyzing trepidation. But to encounter that sissy as an adult—to watch her cry in the shallow end of the pool—may be a necessary step, it seems to me now, to building a kind of mental fortitude, a willingness to try what's daunting. Because each time you're able to remain afloat, even for a little bit, you add a droplet to that well, a reserve to Essay Complexities, tap the next time you lose nerve. After I leave Andersen, my boyfriend meets me in Biarritz and we drive down the coast, stopping at the beautiful beaches along the way. At each one, I clutch his arm as I wade into the ocean. When I get comfortable enough, I swim to him where the water is almost my height, asking him to stand farther and farther away from vs. Alamo Essay me so that I can test myself. Essay Complexities Of Hinduism! Other times I like to just lie down underwater—a rewriting of an old scene—and look around. I still have to hum to pace my breathing, but instead of the long om, my underwater anthem has become Loudon Wainwright III's The Swimming Song, which a friend sent me during my studies at the Y. It goes like this:

This summer I went swimming, This summer I might have drowned. But I held my breath and I kicked my feet. And I moved my arms around, I moved my arms around. This summer I swam in the ocean, And I swam in Revolution vs. Alamo a swimming pool,

Salt my wounds, chlorine my eyes. I'm a self-destructive fool, a self-destructive fool.