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Goodbye My Brother by John Cheever. Goodbye My Brother is one of John Cheevers best known short stories. In fact, it was this story which contributed to Cheevers receiving his Guggenheim Scholarship. An uneasy relationship between two characters who are brothers is a dynamic Cheever returned to time and and bottom, again throughout his writing career. When he does this, the relationship is always a metaphor for something bigger. Modern Day Clear Island, Massachussetts. I like the contrast between two brothers, and I prefer the Cultural between the West examples, nihilist brother Lawrence, nick-named Croaker. Up Processing. He may have a tendency to point out the downside of any situation, but he is nonetheless right. When he notes that making improvements on a house near the about Clarissa A Brief, coast is futile due to erosion from the sea, Im reminded of and bottom up processing, that very modern division that can occur between family members at gatherings: Those who worry about climate change and rising sea levels versus those who insist that any climate change is who discovered effect, a natural phenomenon and nothing at all to worry about.

No matter the era, there will always be somewhat of up processing, a clash between pessimists and optimists; thats what make this story timeless. After reading this particular short story, I suspected there was far more to it if you cared to look below the surface. Sure enough, after reading Peter Mathews essay A Farewell to crime film, Goodbyes: Reconciling the Past in top down up processing Cheevers Goodbye, My Brother I realise that in order to crime film, really understand Cheever you would ideally have an understanding of mythology, the history of religion, and a keen eye for symbolism. Im sure I could keep digging into this one until I reached China. WHAT HAPPENS IN GOODBYE MY BROTHER The Pommeroy Clan gathers at the familys summer house, built in the 1920s on an island off the coast of Massachusetts. The four grown children and their families join their widowed mother for this summer ritual.

This is a special occasion, as they havent seen Lawrence in four years. Unfortunately, Lawrence has a reputation for putting a downer on procedings, and sure enough, he starts to and bottom, piss the rest of the family off by pointing out the negatives and refusing to be a joiner. One night, the family all dress up for an As You Were party, except for Essay about A Brief Biography, Lawrence and Ruth, who dont want to top down up processing, go. All the wives turn up in their wedding dresses; the men are surprised to find more than one has turned up in his high school football uniform. Then Ruth turns up, wearing a red dress which feels to the narrator all wrong.

Lawrence is effect, outside and refuses to come in. The narrator assumes its because he thinks the whole idea of up processing, dressing up as someone from the past is pathetic. Note that we never really know what Lawrence thinks. While the rest of the Harlowe Barton: A Brief Biography, family is at a flower show, Lawrence and the narrator have their own little showdown on the beach after the narrator has a go at Lawrence for spoiling everyones holiday. Then he whacks him across the top down up processing, back of the head with a wet root, wishing him dead. He ends up going off to have a swim and not worrying too much about whether he is okay. Lawrence, nihilist that he is, doesnt seem all that surprised by Achievements of Darren Criss Essay this, but is top down up processing, angry enough to crime film, pack up and leave after announcing the and bottom up processing, incident to the family. Only the mother got up to say goodbye, before Lawrences family took the six oclock boat to the mainland. Lauds Head appears to crime film, be a fictional headland of the sort that you find dotted along the New England coast of top down, America. Cheever wrote Goodbye, My Brother, after a gloomy summer in Marthas Vineyard, so I suppose we might imagine that setting.

That said, the name Laud apparently has significance to readers who know their English history: [T]he summer house, or Eden, of the Pommeroy family is called Lauds Head, a name which, if one knows some English religious history, undoubtedly refers to one of the most famous Anglican Archbishops, William Laud, who was beheaded by genetically organisms the Puritans in 1645 for and bottom up processing, attempting to bring back into the Episcopal Church music, ritual, the Biography, Communion table, and the sacramental system the Puritans had banned. [] Chaddy Pommeroy [] and Chucky Ewing [] both have names that are cognates of [] Charles I, who also lost his head to the Puritans under the chief Roundhead, Oliver Cromwell. The Weather As Emotion In Goodbye My Brother The blustery Atlantic air plays an top down up processing important part in the story. The cold ocean air has blown away the gloom that Lawrence has brought with him from who discovered Albany. At the end of the top down, story, the narrator wakes up on the morning of Lawrences abrupt departure with a feeling that a black cloud has blown away and left a perfectly gorgeous day.

Jesus, what a morning! The wind was northerly. Who Discovered The Photoelectric Effect. The air was clear. In the early heat, the roses in the garden smelled like strawberry jam. In stories, when the weather reflects character emotions, this is called pathetic fallacy. See: Pathetic Fallacy not actually an insult. (There are other examples of this poetic device, though weather/emotions is a commonly utilised one.) On the other hand, the weather may not have changed; rather, the narrators perception of it changed along with his improved mental state.

Cheevers characters have been described as Sisyphean, meaning they can never quite achieve completeness. (Sisypheus was a Greek king who, punished for deceit, was forced to roll a huge boulder uphill only to up processing, watch it roll back down again, then repeating the franklin, task for eternity.) A Puritan American family who have a holiday house with a tennis court. With his mouth set, my brother looked to me then like a Puritan critic. Sometimes, when I try to understand his frame of top down and bottom up processing, mind, I think of the franklin d roosevelt, beginnings of our family in this country [] The branch of the Pommeroys to which we belong was founded by a minister who was eulogized by Cotton Mather for his untiring abjuration of the Devil. The Pommeroys were ministers until the middle of the nineteenth century, and the harshness of their thought man is full of misery, and all earthly beauty is lustful and corrupt has been preserved in books and top down and bottom up processing, sermons. Modified Organisms. The temper of our family changed somewhat and became more lighthearted, but [] it seemed to me to have been a trial of the and bottom up processing, spirit in which Lawrence had succumbed. The French roots of the who discovered the photoelectric effect, name Pommeroy signifies king of the top down and bottom up processing, apples, a reference to the storys Edenic context. The Unnamed Narrator: 38 years old, a married schoolteacher. Apart from time spent with the family, lives in a school dormitory. Since this is a story told in the first person, this narrator will be unreliable to some extent. And to some extent, our narrator acknowledges this:

I think I saw what was going on his mind. On the other hand, we see the narrator calling the kettle black: It is like Lawrence to try to read significance and finality into every gesture that we make Usually, the reader identifies with the first person narrator, or the main character/protagonist. In this case, the reader may or may not side with Lawrence we are prompted in Cultural between the West and East Essay examples no particular direction by Cheever, who presents the story without asking us to and bottom, take a moral stand. This narrator isnt a particularly nice person.

He express no guilt over the fact that he had tried to kill his brother on the beach the day before by hitting him over the head with a waterlogged tree-root. Its not even an isolated incident he recalls a time in childhood, hitting Lawrence on the head with a rock. This unrepentent narrator may have his youngest brother all wrong, for all the reader knows: The I of the story seems at first a patient, long-suffering and trustworthy narrator, but as the tale progresses we realize that a great deal of Lawrences gloominess is not demonstrated but ascribed to him, proceeding less from genetically organisms his act than his thoughts, to which we have no access but the and bottom up processing, narrators speculation. The narrator is married to role in ww2, a woman called Helen , who dyes her hair to hide the years. Helen and the narrator live on Long Island with four children. The Narrators Widowed Mother : husband was killed in a sailing accident. She has formed strong opinions on how to and bottom, lead a life well-lived, and is fond of dishing out life advice to her children, even though the children are old enough now to see contractions between what she says and how she behaves. The Dead Father : Just as important to a story are the characters who are not there: The absence of the Pommeroy father constitutes more than just a fictional device: Cheever places him at Harlowe Barton:, the fringes of the story in top down and bottom up processing order to create a deliberate echo of the other legal discourses evoked by the narrator. Through this repeated association, the who discovered, Pommeroy father becomes the symbol of the law.

His legal correlates are mapped in Figure 1: God the top down, Father, the Cultural Essay, Logos from the Gospel of John and the author of the Ten Commandments; Uranus, the grandfather of the Greek gods and the father of the Titans; and top down and bottom up processing, Cotton Mather, the patriarch and lawgiver of colonial, Puritan America. We are told the crime film, children are out of their twenties. It turns out they are in their early forties/late thirties. One Recently Divorced Sister : Diana. Diana has been living in and bottom up processing France while her two children are at about Harlowe Biography, school in Switzerland. The names of the two women, Helen and top down and bottom, Diana, have mythic associations. Mythic associations add a dimension of tradition to Essay Clarissa A Brief Biography, a story, and reinforce Cheevers need to explore the past, even into antiquity. 1. Chaddy, lives in Manhattan. Chaddy and the narrator have a competitive relationship with each other, but not a soured one.

Chaddy is their mothers favourite, and up processing, successful in Cultural between the West Essay examples his work, whatever that is. Chaddy is married to Odette, who flirts to restore her youth. Odette has black hair and black eyes and is careful to keep out of the sun. She flirts (not seriously) as modus operandi. Lawrence is described as a changeling. 2. Lawrence is the youngest son and a lawyer.

He got a job with a Cleveland firm after the top down up processing, war. The family didnt see him during that time. He now works for franklin role in ww2, a firm in Albany, so agreed to spend time with the family at Lauds Head. Lawrences name, of course, contains the word law, but his nicknames also possess deeper meanings: Little Jesus during the latter part of his youth. But it is his childhood nickname that has a particular resonance throughout the story. He was called Tifty as a child because of the sound his slippers made on the floor as he walked. Up Processing. Also called Croaker (a person who grumbles or habitually predicts evil) and Little Jesus (fitting the Puritan motif).

Lawrence is the who discovered effect, only member of the family who has never enjoyed drinking. With his mouth set, my brother looked to top down up processing, me then like a Puritan cleric. Sometimes, when I try to Differences the West and East Essay, understand his frame of mind, I think of the beginnings of our family in this country, and his disapproval of Diana and her lover reminded me of this. Lawrence is both repulsed by and bottom and attracted to the past. I remembered Lawrences sensitivity to time and his sentiments and opinions about our feelings for the past. Who Discovered. I had heard him say, years ago, that we and top down, our friends and Essay about Clarissa Harlowe Barton: Biography, our part of the nation, finding ourselves unable to cope with the problems of the present, had, like a wretched adult, turned back to what we supposed was a happier and simpler time, and that our taste for reconstruction and candlelight was a measure of this irremediable failure. Lawrence is a nihilist. He can make a grievance out of anything, according to top down up processing, the narrator. But in Lawrences favour, he doesnt seem all that bothered by Essay about Clarissa Harlowe Barton: A Brief a blow to his head by his older brother, because the nihilist in him must have been expecting it. Note that Lawrence barely speaks more than a few lines in the entire narrative. Though the title is named for the narrators relationship with this particular brother, Lawrence is not all that important to the story, because the story is about the narrators inner-world alone.

Interestingly, the character of top down and bottom, Lawrence did not even exist in an early draft of the story. The brother story, in its bare outline, was the role in ww2, story of one man. And Bottom. There was no brother; there was no Lawrence. (In the finished story he speaks only a few lines and the bulk of his opinions are given to him by the narrator.) I tried to bury this outline then under several others so that the story would unfold like an uncooked onion. Lawrence is married to Ruth. Crime Film. The character of Ruth also highlights the and bottom up processing, importance of names to unlocking the the photoelectric, themes of Cheevers story; Ruth is top down, a Biblical character who sacrifices a lot for others.

In this story, Ruth is a thin girl, tired from the journey. Ipassed Ruth in Differences examples the laundry. She was washing clothes. I dont know why she should seem to have so much more work to do than anyone else, but she is always washing or mending clothes. Their two children, too, are thin and wear ornate cowboy costumes.

They cry/take offence disturbingly easily. Even their own grandmother cant stand to up processing, be around them as they look so dejected. But does Lawrence really exist? Cheever apparently told a mentor: There was no brother; there was no Lawrence. Im not sure of the who discovered, context surrounding this perhaps he meant in top down up processing an early draft, but I like the idea that Lawrence is a figment of the narrators imagination the squirrel in Influential of Darren his attic, the pessimistic side of himself, putting a dampener on his very own holiday. Minor Characters In Goodbye My Brother The man who Diana is sleeping with while here for the summer, mentioned only in passing. The summer cook, Anna Ostrovick , a recognisable trope of up processing, a woman jolly and fat and industrious. She ends up banning Lawrence from effect her kitchen because she cant put up with his negativity. Revelling in nostalgia is futile.

Critics have said that Cheevers brother motif tends to come back to this. This house is about twenty-two years old, he said. These shingles are about top down, two hundred years old. Dad must have bought shingles from all the farms around here when he built the place, to make it look venerable. [] Imagine spending thousands of dollars to make a sound house look like a wreck, Lawrence said. Imagine the frame of mind this implies. D Roosevelt Role In Ww2. Imagine wanting to live so much in the past that youll pay men carpenters wages to disfigure your front door. Then I remembered Lawrences sensitivity to time and his sentiments and opinions about our feelings for the past. I had heard him say, years ago, that we and our friends and top down and bottom, our part of the nation, finding ourselves unable to cope with the problems of the present, had, like a wretched adult, turned back to what we supposed was a happier and simpler time, and that our taste for reconstruction and candlelight was a measure of crime film, this irremediable failure. the storys basic thematic structure: the clash between the father, the mythological founder of the law, and top down and bottom up processing, the legacy he leaves to his children. Goodbye My Brother, is wrought with his recurrent themes of light and nostalgia . TECHNIQUES OF NOTE IN GOODBYE MY BROTHER The Motif Of The Sea In Goodbye My Brother Cheever uses the sea as a motif in a number of his works.

In this story, too, the sea forms the crucial backdrop to the narrative. The sea salt that I think is in our blood, says our unnamed narrator. Achievements Of Darren Criss Essay. Note also that the father died in top down and bottom up processing the sea. The sea therefore is an organisms important part of the narrator, bonding him with his family and to his history. Both he and his brother Chaddy miss the sea when they venture out West.

The sea binds together various threads of the story. Lawrence, on top down and bottom, the other hand, doesnt think well of the sea. He rejects the sea and hates everything about it, seeing the havoc it wreaks on Clarissa Barton:, the coastline and on the family holiday home. And Bottom Up Processing. He and the West and East Essay examples, Ruth refuse to go swimming with the rest of the family, partly rejected by the matriarch, of course, who takes Chaddys arm and proclaims that she is determined to have fun . The sea relieves the narrator from the nihilism that permeates Lawrences thought. There is a paradoxical tranquility in the seas restlessness that is and bottom, typified by the familys daily swimming ritual, a practice that takes on quasi-religious overtones in its illusion of purification (10). The antidote to societys Puritan past is crime film, thus to be found in the sea. Reflecting on his encounter with Ruth in the laundry, the narrator thinks about the and bottom up processing, alternative spirituality he feels in the seas presence.Lawrence fears that the sea, destroyer of his father and Influential Achievements Criss, the law, will also destroy the family structure itself, as symbolized by the house. Cheevers allusion is to the Bible, to Matthew 7:26-7, in which Jesus says: Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened to a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand: And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell: and great was the fall of it (AKJV). For Lawrence, the family has built its foundations on and bottom up processing, sinking sand, a view that Cheever thematically transfers from the house to the values that underpin the lives of crime film, his mother and siblings.

Now I could hear the waves, whose heaviness sounded like a reverberation, like a tumult, and top down and bottom, it pleased me as it had pleased me when I was young, and it seemed to have a purgative force, as if it had cleared my memory of, among other things, the penitential image of Ruth in the laundry. This house will be in who discovered the photoelectric the sea [] The sea wall is badly cracked, Lawrence said. I looked at it this afternoon. You had it repaired four years ago, and it cost eight thousand dollars. Top Down And Bottom Up Processing. You cant do that every four years The narrator ends the story with a life-sustaining image that depicts the sea not as a destructor but as life-giving. Mythological Allusions In Goodbye My Brother Using the seas mythical symbolism, Cheever reaches back to a time before the crime film, invention of Christianity, before the God of the Puritans to a different and more ancient creation myth.

Through a series of allusions, he instead evokes the pagan myths and deities of the ancient Greeks: Odette looks up at and bottom, the night sky, trying to find the constellation of Cassiopeia ; the narrator imagines Lawrence saying Thalassa, Thalassa (the Greek word for sea ) when he leaves Lauds Head; their sister, Diana , is an allusion to the virgin goddess of the in ww2, hunt; the narrators wife, Helen , is the namesake of the most famous beauty of the classical world. But these allusions are swallowed up in a greater story that is alluded to and bottom up processing, yet never explained, namely, the creation myth of the ancient Greeks. Juxtaposition In Goodbye My Brother Beginning versus Ending In Goodbye My Brother There is a copious amount of juxtaposition in this story. It begins with the second sentence, in Harlowe Barton: A Brief Biography which.

our mother has always stressed the fact that our familial relationships have a kind of permanence that we will never meet with again. This is juxtaposed with the ending, in which it is perhaps true that familial relationships have a kind of permanence, but whether they should be revered or not? The reader is left knowing that the and bottom, two brothers will never be friends. Juxtaposition of Voice In Goodbye My Brother The story is divided between the rather flat, dour pronouncements delivered by Lawrence and the rich, sensuous counterpassages of the narrator. As Lawrence, for example, calls Odette a promiscuous woman, the narrator describes her in sensual detail, noting the roundness of her shoulders and the whiteness of Clarissa Barton:, her skin. Similarly, at and bottom up processing, the conclusion of the costume party, the modified organisms, guests rescue the floating white balloons from the sea while Lawrence laments the partygoers foolishness.

The lushness of the prose that Cheever employs when describing the smells, the sounds, and the contentment of the narrators life among his family strikingly contrasts not only with Lawrences gloom but also with his matter-of-fact language. The sense of possibility of the and bottom, former overshadows the finality of the latter. Juxtaposition Of Character In Goodbye My Brother Again from Mathews: Lawrences life is who discovered the photoelectric, characterized by a string of goodbyes, but this pattern is not accompanied by a process of top down and bottom, healing and Achievements Criss, moving on. And Bottom Up Processing. On the contrary, his history is effect, scarred by these failures, and these recurring moments of disillusionment are remembered with the force of resentment.

For the narrator, by contrast, the sea allows him to top down, forget, it allows him to crime film, be washed free of his pain and thus avoid the canker of resentment that eats away at Lawrences being. The narrator experiences the up processing, visit as tender and warm, which contrasts with Lawrences perennial exasperation with his family. For example, at the West Essay, the age of sixteen, he labeled his mother as frivolous, mischievous, destructive, and overly strong. But, the narrator believes this projection to top down, be the result of Lawrences basic refusal to embrace life, which leads to the realization that the between Essay examples, lifelong rift between the brothers may always remain. The sadness that accompanies this conclusion is palpable. The philosophical difference between the top down and bottom, brothers is acknowledged early in the story: Then I remembered Lawrences sensitivity to time and his sentiments and opinions about our feelings for the past. D Roosevelt. I heard him say, years ago, that we and our friends and our part of the nation, finding ourselves unable to cope with the top down, present, had, like a wretched adult, turned back to what we supposed was a happier and between the West, simpler time, and that our taste for reconstruction and candlelight was a measure of this irremediable failure.

Subtle Repetitions In Goodbye My Brother Mathews quotes Morace: Essentially, Cheever plays the same scene or situation over and over with slight but cumulatively significant changes, gradually transforming the real into the fantastic, time into dream. [] [His fiction] depends considerably less on up processing, linear plot, narrative focus, and character development than it does on various forms of modified organisms, narrative parallelism: echoing, juxtaposition, counterpoint, incremental repetition, thematic variations, and the coming together of disparate characters, situations, and narrative lines Narrator As Character In Goodbye My Brother Written in first person point of and bottom up processing, view, the unnamed narrator is franklin, wry, compassionate and detached. At first we may think of him as a sympathetic observer. This kind of narrator is top down, commonly utilised by Cheever in his short stories. The effect, according to the photoelectric, Mathews: to initiate a move beyond the surface story, thus showing how these forces penetrate every level of discourse, from the level of everyday life (in the familys clashes with Lawrence) to its deeper, more metaphysical levels (in the top down up processing, storys religious, historical, and mythical references). The function of the narrator is to modified, evaluate his familys ideas, and the story is the scale on which he weighs the and bottom up processing, different worldviews he encounters in that milieu.

His effectiveness is guaranteed by who discovered the photoelectric effect the double consciousness with which Cheever imbues him. Indeed, the narrator shifts continually back and forth between lyrical celebrations of life and gloomy ruminations about Lawrences character. STORY SPECS OF GOODBYE MY BROTHER This story first appeared in The New Yorker , August 25, 1951 on P. 22, and and bottom up processing, is available online behind a paywall. Goodbye, My Brother is the first short story in this vintage collection. The mood and atmosphere in other words, the setting of Goodbye My Brother remind me very much of the first few episodes of Bloodline , in Cultural Essay examples which brothers and top down and bottom up processing, a sister return to the family home for an gathering. In this series, too, there is one brother who is the Influential Achievements of Darren Essay, black sheep (played by Australian actor Ben Mendelsohn). The setting is and bottom, reminiscent of that portrayed in Goodbye, My Brother the smell of brine, the crime film, coastal holiday vibe.

The feeling that not all is well beneath the surface. That said, Bloodline is top down, set and filmed many miles south, in Florida Keys. What about films such as A Beautiful Mind , or Sixth Sense ? Perhaps this is an unreliable narrator who has no epiphany; perhaps this story pans out a bit like those. WRITE YOUR OWN BASED ON GOODBYE MY BROTHER Not all of us have a family holiday house.

But if you did have a family holiday house, where might it be? Who would join you there? And what sorts of dynamics would prove uncomfortable? Have you ever been on holiday with people who you know and dont know, in just the wrong combination? Is there anybody in your life who you suspect misreads you consistently? If they were to write a story about you, and all the things that supposedly go on inside your head, what would that story look like?

(Note to essay writers: Goodbye, My Brother has a comma in Essay examples it. Ive removed it here for SEO purposes, though it bothers me to do so.)

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The College Essay as an up processing Early Memoir. Occasional reflections on the admissions process by about Clarissa Barton: A Brief Caren Osten Gerszberg, the mother of a high school junior. Last weekend, I participated in a weekend writing workshop. In a sun-filled room overlooking the and bottom, Berkshires, I sat amid 30 or so other writers for Barton: A Brief Biography, two days, as we talked, listened, read and practiced the art of memoir writing. On the first day of the workshop, Dani Shapiro, the author who led the workshop, talked about inspiration, memory and the ways to enter into the telling and in our case, writing of a story. There I sat, struggling to put parts of my story onto paper. Into what incident, relationship or place did I want to delve?

How would it feel to unlock something that resides within me? How would readers feel when they interpret my words? At one point, I looked out the window and the notion of the college essay popped into my mind. I suddenly realized that when these 17-year-old college applicants are drafting their personal statement, they are indeed writing a short form or a portion of their memoir. My daughter, Nicole, has been giving thought to up processing, her college essay since her 11th-grade English teacher assigned students to write four different essays in Essay about Clarissa Harlowe A Brief Biography, that vein.

Id read the drafts of up processing those essays, and was touched and amused by the subjects her heritage, middle name, love of storytelling, and a ropes course experience she chose, remembered and recounted. Over these last several weeks of summer vacation, Nicole has been working, and working some more, on crime film, her common application essay. Shes gone back and forth between two ideas, trying to perfect both, hoping that the one she ultimately chooses will best reflect who she is. Her essay will not be an account of her accomplishments, but rather a piece of up processing herself that reveals itself on paper. Reorganizing my office this summer and digging through years of files and papers was part of my summer agenda. Franklin D Roosevelt Role. And in doing so, I came upon my own college essay. Although it was interesting and and bottom up processing emotional to who discovered, read, I wasnt too impressed with the end result. The topic was my grandfather a Holocaust survivor and all that Id learned from top down and bottom his passions and ability to Essay about Clarissa Harlowe Barton:, appreciate life after surviving the atrocities of a concentration camp. My grandfather has planted a seed in me which contains positive emotions of top down up processing life and all it comprises. This seed will grow, and I will pass it on to others so that the world will produce more people who appreciate lifes offerings.

My grammar was surprisingly strong, but the Influential of Darren, writing felt, upon rereading, repetitive and and bottom up processing unsophisticated. Modified Examples. I dont even recall showing it to anyone before sending it off; maybe it would have been better if I had. Im not sure that writing a personal essay or memoir is ever easy. We set out to tell a story, and hope that our readers will be able to identify with, or relate to our story, or perhaps just take something away upon which to reflect. While I sat in my safe haven last weekend, I listened intently as people in the room read portions of what may one day make it into their memoir should they choose to write one or may have been perhaps a part of their college essay. Some exposed personal tragedies, relationships gone awry, and life-changing revelations. Others shared snippets of lifes mundane moments that nevertheless left a lasting impression. It felt liberating to be, and write, in top down and bottom, such an environment.

For Nicole and her fellow applicants, however, the slice of who discovered the photoelectric their story will be writing of up processing another realm. Influential Of Darren. The pressure is on to produce a personal statement that is top down up processing, simultaneously unique, heartfelt, illuminating and crime film entirely impressive. Top Down And Bottom. This will be their chance to give a very different set of Achievements Criss strangers an and bottom opportunity to turn the crime film, pages of their memoir, perhaps the and bottom, most important one theyll write for a long time. To offer your thoughts on what Ms. Gerszberg has written, please use the modified, comment box below. To read more by her, click here. Comments are no longer being accepted. My daughter, now a sophomore at Penn, completed her college applications and essays without allowing anyone to review them especially her parents. Shes always been independent (stubborn?) and up processing this followed the pattern she established early in her childhood. I viewed her applications as truly authentic in the sense that they werent polished and proofed by teachers, counselors, and hired consultants. Im sure there were flaws in the writing and misspellings (she is dyslexic), but somehow the genuine person came through.

Of course it made me nervous. Of course I thought my help was needed. But truly it wasnt; the best thing is Influential Achievements Criss, that she completely owned the process, and the result. She did it herself, and thats the most valuable outcome for an 18 year old setting out into the world. Wouldnt it be wonderful if we could stop the frenzy and let the kids do this on their own? Wouldnt it be wonderful if they could explore who they are during adolescence instead of top down and bottom up processing compiling resumes of activities they dont care about but look impressive on role in ww2, a college application? And wouldnt it be wonderful if they learned that their authentic selves are good enough without a bunch of top down and bottom up processing adults pushing them to Influential of Darren Essay, be something else? My advice is to and bottom up processing, trust them enought to let go; let them own the crime film, process.

Sure they will make mistakes. Sure they will suffer disappointments. But what better preparation could they have for life? As a college admissions counselor, I read many of these personal essays. They are by turn funny, touching and sometimes awkward.

It is hard to consider such efforts as a memoir because truly a 17 year old has so little of life to reflect on. For the most part, we view an essay as something that a student can use to demonstrate that they can write something that adds another dimension to the black and white statistics reflected by up processing their high school transcript and standardized test scores. Although it is important to spell all the words right and for crime film, goodness sake get the name of the institution correctly the rest should not be a source of angst for these students. Write something that sounds like you and it will stand up for itself. Writing the up processing, college essay can be difficult because it is so unlike any other writing assignment that a high school student has ever done. They are told to be witty, descriptive, and engaging, but at the same time they are trying to sell themselves and crime film their personality to top down and bottom up processing, a committee of strangers. We find that as long as students pick one anecdote, tie it to past accomplishments and future aspirationsalmost any topic can make a great essay. Still, it is modified, hard to convince many students not to re-write their resume with paragraphs or write all about their role model in life without ever divulging much about themselves. College essays are great practice for that future professional balance between humility and self-promotion. It is really wonderful when we see a student embrace a well-chosen topic. While writing a college essay can be difficult, I actually liked writing my essays, especially the one I submitted as part of the common application (and used for five or six schools).

The key for top down, me, was writing the essay on crime film, my terms. And Bottom. I planned it, but not too far in advance that the topic was no longer personally relevant. Influential Of Darren Criss Essay. I revised and rewrote it, but I never let my parents or anyone else see it. Top Down And Bottom Up Processing. (I just trusted myself and didnt want my voice to genetically modified organisms examples, be changed as result of others editing.) In fact, when I left an edited copy near the printer, my dad asked if I had left it there for him to edit. I chose a topic that was significant to me, an injury that ended my varsity high school sports career. When I got to college and and bottom up processing starting working with the admissions office, I heard one of the who discovered, deans suggest that students specifically not write about injuries. According to her, injuries, like the death of top down a grandparent, are commonly written about. She explained to a group of parents and prospective students, that, by in between and East Essay, large, teenagers have many of the same significant life experiences. Top Down Up Processing. If you choose one those topics, which many students do, its even harder for your application to Cultural Differences the West and East Essay, stand out.

I like to think that mine did stand out, but who knows? Congratulations on a great article! I think students write about such topics as injuries and and bottom up processing the death of a grandparent because there is very little else in their mundane teenage lives that forces them to reflect in the way these experiences do. Some of the other experiences a teen may have had , however life-shaping(unwanted pregnancy, for instance), may be just too painful and private to write about. My own daughter is who she is in part because of some unique experiences that she simply doesnt talk about. I know what they are because I experienced them along with her, but she is a very private person (as I am) and shares very little about how she feels about them. She hates to be under a spotlight, and would probably end up choosing a common essay topic that would not force her to stand out. My daughter was fortunate to d roosevelt role, be accepted by her first choice college and and bottom up processing has begun her freshman year. Crime Film. While reading Ms. Gerszbergs musings I recalled my own experiences with my daughters application process. I was most struck by the requests for the students to top down, share their innermost thoughts and feelings about themselves and loved ones.

This was followed up with requests for the familys complete financial status, down to crime film, the penny. In short, everything is shared. Then the student, who has bared her very soul to top down, the anonymous admissions officers, receives a nice but generic rejection letter. Ultimately the students are accepted somewhere, matriculate, and succeed. Who Discovered Effect. However, I cant help wondering about the lingering effects of this one sided courtship. I think we quickly put it to rest and celebrate the remainder of the senior year, the graduation, the final summer, the top down up processing, countdown to crime film, matriculation day, and the ride back home from college without the child. Still, as I feel parental pride and share my daughters joy with this next step in her life, I think there is something very wrong with this process that is not fully appreciated. Perhaps she can write about it in her personal statement for graduate school. re: Over these last several weeks of summer vacation, Nicole has been working, and top down and bottom working some more, on her common application essay.

Shes gone back and forth between two ideas, trying to perfect both, hoping that the Influential of Darren, one she ultimately chooses will best reflect who she is. If Nicole can give herself permission to spot the deeper, unexpected, but always there connection between her two separate essays, shell see that she can meld them into one self-defining piece of writing of inestimable power and top down and bottom supremely serenity-eliciting satisfaction. Cultural Differences Between And East. You too, for that matter, with your own writing. What are colleges looking for? People who dont care what theyre looking for. Thats what the amazing process of writing a college essay is really all about. Interesting article.

Heres an interesting link to actual essays, some of which may surprise you. I find it difficult to buy the idea that editing or advice removes a writers voice. Good editing does not, or else published prose wouldnt show its authors style. The editing is and bottom, too heavy-handed if a persons voice cant be heard. Its like polishing a piece of figured silverthe polish makes the figures clearer and sharper, but doesnt efface them. I wrote two essays one generic, and Cultural Differences between the West and East Essay examples the other highly personal, which I didnt show anyone because I didnt feel I could. In the end, I decided to send the personal one, even though it hadnt been vetted. And Bottom. I got into Cultural between examples my reach school without having the best grades or scores; I think the essay must have stood out in the sea of this-experience-made-me-a-better-person essays. I also work with a company that does a lot of college counseling for high school students, and specifically student athletes who are hoping to play a sport at that school, and top down maybe even use that extra curricular passion to leverage them in genetically organisms examples, the admissions process.

We also have ex-college admissions officers on board who have read a lot of up processing essays. Cultural Between The West And East Essay. We have all come to the conclusion that the essay is top down, one of the in ww2, most important pieces in the college admissions process. In many cases it is the only way to personalize yourself (especially when there is no interview) to the admissions officer, and show your character. Many folks say that the essay should by no means be a memoir. It is up processing, much easier for the writers character to effect, be conveyed if they show a glimpse or a peek through the curtain of and bottom their life, instead of the crime film, whole picture. And Bottom Up Processing. Also, essays about lessons learned can be great for Cultural Differences Essay, showing that, but discussing a major turning point in ones life can often be forced when coming from someone so young.

Athletes writing about their passion for sports is rather taboo. But on the other hand, writing about any other extra curricular activity or hobby (such as knitting mentioned above) would be a great way to show an and bottom up processing officer something interesting about yourself that would never show up on the transcript. I also do not envy the franklin d roosevelt, kids applying to top down, colleges these days. Achievements Of Darren Criss. On one hand they should be enjoying their last year of highschool, and on the other hand they are making a decision that will not impact the and bottom, next 4 years of their life, but the next 40 years. While most big public universities require an essay, I wonder how important that essay is for a student that fits easily into the admission requirements. It seems like it is crime film, not important at all really and its a shame that kids who are going this route are made to waste time with this nonsense. When the university we expect our kids will attend had to ban letters of recommendation (because they were aiding disasterous violations of the public trust) I cheered. One less stress on seniors in the application process. Ms. Gerszberg I was so pleased to read your commentary on the essay as memoir.

After reading so many applications, as an top down up processing independent Admissions Counselor (and former staff counselor), I see this phenomenon daily. But memoirs rarely make good essays. When students try to write authentic accounts of who discovered effect their lives, they often lose sight of their audience: the top down and bottom up processing, admissions department. In so doing, they often fail to provide useful information to admissions staff, telling about friendships made, love lost, desires unrequited without how these things relate to college. Admissions folks can make educated guesses regarding how the memoir-like essay translates into crime film a great student at their college, but a good essay needs to take you there.

Nonetheless, who can resist? When I was 18 and about to go to college, I wanted (a la Whitman) to sing myself. Its a rite of top down up processing passage. Furthermore, applicants have a reasonable assurance that someone will read their essay, something that a blog or FaceBook cant really guarantee when you really need it. Knowing that someone is listening and listening close enough to evaluate the Criss, essays content invites all kinds of and bottom tales, many inappropriate. All of this is to say: the College Essay Memoir is not usually useful for College Admissionsbut its here to franklin role, stay.

Like any memoir, however, its important to make sure it fits the top down up processing, audience.

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100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Speculate about what caused the situation. Examine the results of an event, choice, or situation.

Trace the start of a situation to a discussion of its results. Here's how you can use the following topic ideas to write an essay: Reword the question to fit your assignment. Use a question for your topic idea helps keep you organized. And Bottom? Use the question for your title or put it right before your topic sentence. The answer to the question is about Clarissa, your thesis. Top Down And Bottom? Simple!

What causes divorce? What is the effect of divorce on children? Does the age of the genetically organisms child make a difference? How does the divorce of and bottom, parents affect the dating and marriage relationships of their children? What is the effect of long distance on relationships? How does living together before being married affect a relationship?

What causes men to be afraid of commitment? What effect has the feminist movement had on men's and women's views of dating? What causes some women to repeatedly get involved in destructive relationships? What effect does having an abortion have on a dating relationship? What causes children to rebel against between examples, their parents? What effect has social media had on and bottom up processing, family relationships? What causes sibling rivalry? What effect does birth order have on personality (or career)? What effect does a happy and Cultural Differences and East, fulfilling marriage have on a person's health? Does going to college cause people to have better marriages?

What is the effect of grandparents raising a child? What causes teenagers to up processing become sexually active? How does a girl's relationship with her dad affect her relationship with other men? What is the effect of Differences between and East Essay examples, growing up in a single-parent household? What is the effect of being a twin? What the effect has China's one child had on family relationships? How will the new two child policy change family dynamics? What are the effects on children when their parents are very wealthy or very famous? What causes parents to over-schedule their children's activities? (Or what is the effect of over-scheduling on the child?) What causes a family to top down and bottom up processing have close relationships?

What is the effect of family vacations on family relationships? Why are more children poor than any other group? What causes poverty in the U.S.? What are the genetically effects of growing up in poverty? What causes homelessness? What effect does growing up with food insecurity have on children? What has caused the increase in top down, international adoption in Western countries?

What is the effect on children (or adults) of watching news reports of natural disasters, terrorist strikes, sexual predators, and other fearful situations? What effect do non-profit organizations (perhaps pick a particular one) have on social problems? What is the effect of more baby boomers reaching retirement age? What is the of Darren Criss cause of men still out-earning women in up processing, wages? What is the effect? What is the modified organisms effect of religious oppression on a society (perhaps pick a particular country or religion)? What are the causes of poor water quality for many people around the world? What is the effect of people not having shoes to wear? What are the effects of inadequate sanitation on a community?

What is the cause (or effect) of up processing, continued discrimination and racism? What causes people with disabilities to be unable to crime film get jobs? What is the effect on children of and bottom, growing up in poverty? What has caused the dramatic rise in overweight and obese adults in the U.S. in the last ten years? What will be the effects of crime film, this rise in obesity on the healthcare system?

What causes the increasing number of children affected by Autistic Spectrum Disorder? What effect does lack of adequate medical insurance have on an individual's health? What causes people to not go to the doctor when they have medical problems? What effect does not finishing a prescription medication have on future health? What is the cause (or the effect) of people not getting their children vaccinated? What causes the and bottom up processing spread of Clarissa Harlowe A Brief, HIV/AIDS in top down, Africa? What is the effect of climate change on infectious medical diseases? What is the effect of globalization on the spread of disease? What causes some diseases like malaria or HIV to crime film be so difficult to and bottom eradicate?

What effect does stress have on health? What effect has cancer research had on stopping cancer deaths? What causes people to get cancer? What causes pancreatic cancer to be so deadly? What has caused cancer to be so difficult to cure? What causes people to seek non-Western medical cures like traditional Chinese medicine or herbal supplements? What is the effect of role, abortion(s) on a woman's subsequent reproductive health? What effect does birth control have on women? What effect do regular dental check-ups have on oral health?

What causes people to go blind? What causes people to develop allergies? What effect does an increased use of and bottom, technology have on health? What causes cardiovascular disease? What effect does exercise have on the body? What causes people to make healthy living choices? What causes so many healthcare providers to be overweight?

What are the social effects of crime film, having braces on top down up processing, teeth? What effect does cell phone use have on teenagers? What causes families to buy unlimited cell phone plans? What are the effects of violent video games on Differences between and East Essay examples, young children or teenagers? What effects does playing video games cause in the brains of elderly people? Does online shopping cause people to spend more money? What effect does social media have on teen relationships? What are the causes (or effects) of cyber bullying? What causes social media sites to lose popularity? What are the effects of picture and video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on teenage social interaction?

What causes a video game to be popular? What effect does moving away from computers and towards tablets and smartphones have on how we browse the top down and bottom up processing Internet? What effect does typing on a screen rather than a keyboard have on how people communicate? What causes Google to be the most popular search engine? What are the Essay Biography social effects of everyone on the planet having cell phones? How have smartphones affected business practices? How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates?

What effect does being labeled gifted and top down, talented have on students? What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on a child? What causes students to think school is genetically, boring? Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in classrooms cause students to learn better? What is the top down effect on learning when students do most of their work reading from a computer or tablet rather than paper and books? What are the effects of homeschooling on children? (Or what are the crime film social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on and bottom, the educational system in your town or state? How do school programs against bullying affect the actual bullying and fears of students? Do single-sex classrooms cause students to learn better? What are the positive and negative effects of having school uniforms?

What is the effect of having an open high school campus? What is the genetically modified organisms effect on the education of and bottom, students when a district has year-round schooling? What causes teachers to burn out? What causes some schools to fail to Barton: A Brief educate students? What causes American students to lag behind students from other countries on international tests? What effect do fine arts have on top down and bottom, students? What effect does a good physical education program have on elementary school students? What effect do longer school days have on a school's educational outcomes? What effect does parent involvement in schools have on education? What caused the Influential Civil War? What are the continuing effects of top down and bottom, slavery on American society?

What was the cause of the increasing interest in feminism in the 1960s and crime film, 1970s? How were WWII veterans affected by their wartime experiences? What effect did WWII have on the Jewish people? What effect did Christianity have on the Roman empire? What caused the Arab Spring?

What are the effects of the Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on universities in the U.S.? What was the top down up processing effect of colonialism on Britain's view of itself? What were the causes and effects of Cultural Differences, colonialism? In the viewpoint of the British, what were the causes and effects of the American Revolution? What causes the drug wars in Colombia? What causes illegal immigration? What are the effects of immigration on a country (pick any country)? What is the effect of online sales on businesses (in any country)?

What was the effect of the top down printing press (or other invention) on world history? What are the effects of globalization on the position of women? What are the effects of American drone attacks on terrorists and modified organisms, civilians? What was the cause of the up processing destruction of the World Trade Center on 9/11? What is the cause of increased militancy on the part of genetically modified, North Korea? How to top down and bottom Write a Great Topic Sentence. by Virginia Kearney 37.

100 Interview Essay Paper Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. Easy Words to Achievements Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. This was great for me because I had to write an essay about some kind of topic with a cause and an effect and this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. Up Processing? I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students. I have traveled in China four different times and love your country very much! I am a Chinese student and I think your sharing did help me a lot. Thank you ! this is effect, a great sight for my informational reading and writing class its good. Hi thanks for helping me. these topics are really good.. i used some of top down and bottom up processing, these topics for my projects and got great marks.. i got A+ in all my projects , i am in 7th grade. Cultural Differences And East Essay? hubber8893 18 months ago. I think you have presented some great Ideas for hub about relationships.

Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. These topics had a BIG impact on my life. Thanks for your LARGE ammount of tips. These topics really helped me for top down up processing school. About A Brief Biography? Ruby 18 months ago from United States. Creative idea for top down up processing a hub, what was your case and effect for making it lol. WOW this is super great to look up stuff for an assignment. Awesome topics thanks a million.

Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from East Saint Louis. Wow. There are a lot things that cause and effect. Very informative write. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from between and East examples, United States. Thanks Zakeycia and YoLex. My students have come up with most of and bottom up processing, these topics through the Influential of Darren Criss Essay years and now this is top down, my most visited article so they must have done a good job! I think it got over 2000 views one day last week!

This is Essay Clarissa Barton: A Brief Biography, awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol! Great work! Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. I have a cause and effect essay to type for my English class. I was having a hard time coming up with a topic. Your website and topic suggestions were very helpful. Thank you. Up Processing? Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago. Harlowe Barton: A Brief Biography? Thanks. Great topics.

James Packard 2 years ago from Columbia, Missouri. Top Down Up Processing? What a great hub! Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics. They are good to write about to do research and clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and crime film, also spark very needed discussion. Thanks for sharing. Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from New York, NY. I love this one, VirginiaLynne. Your hubs are so valuable to top down students and professional writers. Crime Film? Cause and effect papers are among the most interesting to read. Top Down? I voted this hub up, useful, and interesting.

I am bookmarking this hub for future reference. I know I'll be using it! Keep up the excellent work here. Crime Film? Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from Georgia. Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for all categories. Up Processing? Well done. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from about Clarissa A Brief, United States. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused. Affect also means to and bottom up processing produce an effect upon as well as to influence.

I will double check my usage in Cultural Differences between and East Essay, this Hub just to make sure I haven't made an error. Thanks! Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. Top Down And Bottom? These are great topics. I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. affect = influence - usually a verb. effect= result - usually a noun. effect= cause - not used that often - verb. Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas. This will come in handy for my English class. Thanks. I Love it very much. rakesh ranjana 3 years ago.

Social causes are growing up in lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about it through this site, will help a lot in many ways for people to understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub! I like your ideas, it is something different innovative. Vote up! Thanks!

This is genetically modified organisms examples, helpful. Vote up. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is and bottom, used by most American colleges in their English departments. However, you are very right to point out that APA and Chicago and other formats are used in Essay about Clarissa A Brief, different types of courses. I think considering cause and effect is sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on top down and bottom up processing, where you view the Achievements start of the situation. Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation. Top Down And Bottom? Sometimes it is hard to pull them apart. That is why I usually like to call this a speculating about causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the Achievements Criss absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for the most important causes, or the most important effects that we see in a situation. Sumner Swett 3 years ago from Owls Head Maine.

Okay so cause and effect essays are written in different formats, but let me say in my college profession for the essays to be written were to be in APA format, and it is interesting when researching and writing whether it is from information you have researched or if it free lance. I like to research topics before writing and also note taking is effective. The cause is what causes the and bottom situation and the effect is what you have to take into consideration to the cause as we all know it. D Roosevelt Role In Ww2? Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from and bottom, California. Great topics!

Voted up and shared. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Leidy--That is franklin, a great essay topic. I think that some of that labeling can be positive and other aspects are negative. Up Processing? It can encourage students to believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by making them think that they don't need to work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed.

Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Essay about Harlowe A Brief, Macon, GA. A good and diverse collection of topics. Top Down Up Processing? I'll be sure to have my students check out some of Essay, these for their own essays. Annie Miller 4 years ago from Wichita Falls, Texas. Very interesting and in depth Hub. Up Processing? I am passing this along and saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago. Franklin? Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of essays before, and top down and bottom, I have found the information that you have presented here to genetically modified organisms examples be excellent. Thank you for sharing. Voted up and useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States.

Thanks so much Carol! You are always an encouragement. carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona. This is up processing, something to save when trying to come up with new writing ideas. Great hub. D Roosevelt Role? Going to pass this along and of course vote up. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. And Bottom? HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Case#x02013;Control Study of Blood Lead Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Chinese Children. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and up processing, lead exposure are high-prevalence conditions among children. Our goal was to investigate the organisms examples association between ADHD and blood lead levels (BLLs) in Chinese children, adjusting for known ADHD risk factors and potential confounding variables. We conducted a pair-matching case#x02013;control study with 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD controls 4#x02013;12 years of age, matched on the same age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Top Down Up Processing! The case and Differences Essay examples, control children were systematically evaluated via structured diagnostic interviews, including caregiver interviews, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4th ed., revised criteria (DSM-IV-R). We evaluated the association between BLLs and ADHD using the top down and bottom Pearson chi-square test for crime film, categorical variables and the Student t -test for continuous data. We then performed conditional multiple variables logistic regression analyses with backward stepwise selection to predict risk factors for ADHD. There was a significant difference in top down and bottom up processing BLLs between ADHD cases and controls. ADHD cases were more likely to have been exposed to lead during childhood than the non-ADHD control subjects, with adjustment for other known risk factors [children with BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL vs. Crime Film! #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL; OR = 6.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.10#x02013;8.77, p #x0003c; 0.01; 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL vs.#x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 3.47#x02013;6.98, p #x0003c; 0.01]. These results were not modified by age and sex variables. This was the largest sample size case#x02013;control study to date to study the association between BLLs and ADHD in Chinese children.

ADHD may be an additional deleterious outcome of lead exposure during childhood, even when BLLs are #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the top down and bottom up processing most common childhood psychiatric disorders, characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity, and organisms, hyperactivity [American Psychiatric Association (APA) 2000; Biederman and top down and bottom up processing, Faraone 2005; Rappley 2005; Remschmidt 2005]. Achievements Criss Essay! Prevalence of ADHD in top down up processing children has been reported to be 3#x02013;8% worldwide (Froehlich et al. Influential Criss! 2007; Leung et al. 1996; Remschmidt 2005). Top Down And Bottom! Children who have ADHD are at increased risk for conduct disorder, antisocial behavior, and drug abuse later in life (Satterfield et al. Influential Criss! 2007). Moreover, the costs associated with their medical care and education are substantial (Leibson et al. 2001). Although the causes of ADHD remain unclear, both genetic and environmental factors are thought to influence the etiology of ADHD (Banerjee et al.

2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Castellanos and Tannock 2002; Millichap 2008; Remschmidt 2005; Swanson et al. Up Processing! 2007). Family, twin, and adoption studies have demonstrated high heritability, and various polymorphisms of dopamine-related genes have been found to Essay Biography, increase susceptibility to ADHD (Castellanos and Tannock 2002; Durston 2003; Khan and Faraone 2006). Furthermore, many environmental risk factors and up processing, potential gene#x02013;environment interactions have also been shown to increase the risk for the disorder (Banerjee et al. 2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Millichap 2008; Thapar et al.

2007). Indeed, there is growing interest in studying the relationship between chronic heavy metal toxicity, including lead exposure, and examples, ADHD (Braun et al. 2006; Konofal and Cortese 2007; Millichap 2008; Nigg et al. 2008). Lead is one of the well-established environmental poisons, and its general toxic effects, particularly in children, continue to be a major public health issue worldwide [American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2005; Lidsky and Schneider 2003; Needleman 2004]. And Bottom Up Processing! It is well known that lead can cause cognitive impairment and correlate with decreased IQ scores and impaired attention (Canfield et al.

2003; Koller et al. 2004), and increased BLLs were associated with higher distractibility and impulsiveness scores in the affected children (Needleman 1993). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for crime film, Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that child blood lead levels (BLLs) not exceed 10 #x003bc;g/dL (CDC 1991; WHO 1995). As a result of and bottom up processing, rapid industrialization in China, it is Influential Achievements of Darren Criss Essay, estimated that tens of and bottom up processing, millions of children 1#x02013;18 years of age have BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL (Huo et al. 2007; Ren et al.

2006; Wang and Influential Achievements of Darren Criss, Zhang 2006). Furthermore, several recent studies have shown that cognitive deficits and behavioral problems in children still exist even with BLLs #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL (Binns et al. 2007; Braun et al. 2006; Canfield et al. Top Down And Bottom! 2003; Koller et al. 2004). Early studies have documented an association between dentine lead, whole-tooth lead, hair lead, and symptoms of inattention (Bellinger et al. 1994a, 1994b; Fergusson et al. 1993; Needleman and crime film, Leviton 1979; Needleman et al.

1979; Tuthill 1996), and subsequent studies showed that lead exposure can cause attention deficit disorder and impulsivity (Brockel and Cory-Slechta 1998; Burns et al. 1999; Eppright et al. Top Down! 1997; Kahn et al. 1995; Minder et al. 1994; Silva et al. 1988; Thomson et al. 1989; Wasserman et al. 1998, 2001). Influential Achievements Of Darren Criss! However, these studies may not be conclusive. First, few studies have investigated the effect of and bottom, lead exposure on ADHD formally diagnosed with the established criteria in International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) (WHO 2007) or in Diagnostic and d roosevelt in ww2, Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., revised (DSM-IV-R; APA 2000) (Burns et al.

1999; Eppright et al. Top Down And Bottom! 1997; Silva et al. Biography! 1988). Second, most studies were limited by small sample size, and some studies lacked sufficient control of confounding factors (Bellinger et al. 1994b; Minder et al. 1994). Third, early studies involved children who had higher BLLs than the levels seen in contemporary children (Needleman and Leviton 1979; Wasserman et al. Top Down And Bottom Up Processing! 1998) and thus may not be directly relevant to children with lower levels of lead exposure. In addition, there is no investigation of lead exposure and the photoelectric, ADHD in Chinese children.

Therefore, in an effort to evaluate the top down and bottom association between BLLs and the risk for d roosevelt role, ADHD in Chinese children, we performed a case#x02013;control study involving large samples of children 4#x02013;12 years of age. We also considered known potential variables in the etiology of ADHD, such as delivery characteristics, perinatal factors, parental psychosocial factors, and prenatal exposure to tobacco and alcohol. This study was designed as a pair-matching case#x02013;control study. Top Down And Bottom Up Processing! ADHD subjects were consecutively recruited from children coming for franklin role, initial or follow-up assessment from October 2003 to August 2007 in two pediatric clinics at the Anhui Provincial Children#x02019;s Hospital and the Institute of Anhui Traditional Chinese Medicine in Anhui Province, People#x02019;s Republic of China. The two major hospitals served the same local population in Anhui province and accepted referrals from all administrative districts within the province. All ADHD (ICD-10 codes F90, 208#x02013;210) subjects were children of Chinese Han nationality 4#x02013;12 years of age at the time of top down and bottom, investigation and had a lifetime medical history that fully met the DSM-IV-R criteria (APA 2000; Su et al. 2001) for ADHD.

The DSM-IV-R diagnostic criteria had been previously translated into d roosevelt role in ww2 Chinese, and and bottom, the reliability for the ADHD diagnosis was previously assessed (Su et al. Genetically! 2001). The diagnoses of ADHD were derived from a structured diagnostic interview based on Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS-E) (Ambrosini 2000), which was modified to assess DSM-IV-R criteria and incorporate parents#x02019; and teachers#x02019; reports of behavioral symptoms, clinical observation of behavior, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (Aman and Singh 1986), and tests of attention such as the Conners#x02019; Continuous Performance Test (Homack and top down, Riccio 2006). The interviews were performed in our outpatient clinic and administered by raters (trained research assistants) to children, one of their parents, and their teachers. All the raters, from two involved pediatric clinics, have postgraduate degrees in psychology and had been trained to high levels of interrater reliability. Criss! We computed #x003ba; coefficients of agreement between all the raters and three experienced board-certified child psychiatrists who listened to and bottom up processing, audio taped interviews made by Cultural Differences between the West and East Essay examples the raters. Based on 120 interviews, the top down and bottom up processing median #x003ba; was 0.87; #x003ba; was 0.95 for Criss Essay, ADHD.

Children with identifiable perinatal insults, autism, Asperger syndrome, other pervasive developmental disorders (ICD-10 codes F84.0#x02013;F84.9, 308.0), and mental retardation (ICD-10 codes F70#x02013;F79, 312#x02013;315) were excluded. The non-ADHD controls were randomly selected from computerized lists of outpatients admitted for acute upper respiratory infection at the same two pediatric medical clinics during the daytime and during the same study period. By the pair-matched design, each ADHD case and control set had the same sex, the same age (difference between birthdays within 6 months), and almost the same level of socioeconomic status (SES). The controls were given the same full diagnostic assessment as the ADHD cases and screened only for the absence of ADHD without exclusion of any other diagnosis except for the same exclusion criteria applied to and bottom, cases. SES is measured by poverty-to-income ratio (PIR), and PIR is the ratio of family income to the poverty threshold for the year of the interview. Low SES was defined as having PIR values #x0003c; 1 in our analysis and high SES as having PIR #x0003e; 3. The others were regarded as middle SES. Essay Biography! The study was approved by our institutional review boards and up processing, complied with all applicable requirements of the United States. The parents of all the children in Essay about Clarissa Harlowe Barton: this study provided written informed consent at top down and bottom enrollment. Blood samples (2 mL/child) were collected in heparinized syringes. Lead concentrations were measured by anodic stripping voltametry through a blood lead analysis instrument (3010B; ESA Laboratories, Inc., Chelmsford, MA, USA) after the who discovered effect blood samples were digested with an organic tissue solubilizer.

The limit of detection was 1.0 #x003bc;g/dL. No detectable values were given values of 0.70 (1.0 divided by the square root of 2). Lead values were calculated as the means of four analyses of each sample. Epidemiologic studies have shown that male sex, low SES, and young age are associated with a raised prevalence of ADHD. Moreover, its prevalence falls with age (Biederman and Faraone 2004; Doyle 2004; Scahill and Schwab-Stone 2000).

To address these important confounding factors, we employed a pair-match design on age, sex, and SES; thus, the stratified control subjects were at risk at top down and bottom up processing the same sex, age, and genetically modified organisms examples, SES. In addition, we considered multiple covariates and potential confounders for the association of top down up processing, lead exposure and ADHD in about Clarissa Barton: A Brief Biography our study. They were based on top down up processing established predictors of child behavioral problems and those widely used in studies of pediatric lead exposure (Banerjee et al. 2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Linnet et al. 2003; Mick et al.

2002; Millichap 2008; St Sauver et al. 2004; Swanson et al. Cultural Essay! 2007; Wasserman et al. Top Down And Bottom Up Processing! 2001). The following variables were used: family history of organisms examples, ADHD (ADHD in parents and siblings, diagnosed by psychiatrists, obtained from clinical reports), household composition (normal: child lives with biological parents; single: child lives with only one parent; or recombined: child lives in remarried family), maternal tobacco use during pregnancy (at least one cigarette per day during the last trimester), maternal drinking during pregnancy (at least two glasses per week during the entire pregnancy), labor complications, cesarean delivery, perinatal distress [low birth weight and admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as markers], parents#x02019; age at childbirth, and and bottom, parents#x02019; education.

Because all the cases recruited were of genetically modified organisms, Chinese Han nationality, the variable of ethnic origin could not be used in and bottom our analysis. These variables were obtained from clinical records or questionnaires completed by direct interview of the Essay about Clarissa Harlowe Biography parents. Study factors were defined as binary variables or categorical variables. For example, maternal smoking and drinking habits during pregnancy were recorded as binary variables#x02014;that is, drinker or nondrinker, cigarette smoker or nonsmoker. We analyzed some continuous potential risk factors as categorical variables according to cut points suggested by the literature. For example, low birth weight is typically defined as #x0003c; 2,500 g (St Sauver et al. 2004).

Maternal and paternal age were analyzed as three categories (St Sauver et al. And Bottom! 2004): #x0003c; 20 years, 20#x02013;30 years, and #x0003e; 30 years of crime film, age. Maternal and paternal education were analyzed as #x02264; 9 years of compulsory education, high school education (9#x02013;12 years), or some college or advanced training (#x02265; 12 years). The association between BLLs and ADHD was evaluated using the Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables and the Student t -test for continuous data. We also performed a conditional logistic regression analysis with a binary outcome of ADHD in relation to BLLs, adjusting for other potential confounding factors (Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000). In the top down and bottom regression model, BLLs were analyzed as an franklin d roosevelt role ordered categorical variable and and bottom, recorded as three categories: #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL, and #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL. We then performed a conditional logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise procedures based on the maximum partial likelihood estimates to construct a final best-fit logistic regression models to identify predictors of risk for organisms examples, ADHD among known risk factors and BLLs. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and top down and bottom up processing, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for Achievements of Darren Criss, differing levels of exposure. All statistical tests were considered to be significant at an alpha level of top down up processing, 0.05 on crime film a two-tailed test and and bottom, performed with the statistical software SPSS version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The analysis included 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD control subjects matched by age, sex, and SES.

There were 434 sets of boys and organisms, 196 sets of girls. Top Down And Bottom! The average ages were 7.9 #x000b1; 2.1 years. The mean BLLs were 8.77 #x000b1; 3.89 #x003bc;g/dL in Influential of Darren Criss Essay the ADHD group and and bottom up processing, 5.76 #x000b1; 3.39 #x003bc;g/dL in the control group. The ADHD group had higher BLLs ( p #x0003c; 0.05, see Table 1 ). There was no significant difference in BLLs between males and franklin d roosevelt role in ww2, females. Figure 1 shows BLL distribution and cumulative distribution of ADHD children and controls. Top Down And Bottom Up Processing! Only 10.1% of Influential of Darren, non-ADHD children had BLLs #x0003e; 10 #x003bc;g/dL, whereas this percentage increased significantly to 24.4% in and bottom up processing ADHD children. Of Darren Criss! (#x003c7; 2 = 237, p #x0003c; 0.01). In addition, 49.8% of non-ADHD children had BLLs #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, whereas of the ADHD cases, 74.7% had BLLS #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL (#x003c7; 2 = 116, p #x0003c; 0.01). Additional information in demographic and the distribution of risk factors are shown in Table 2 . We performed a conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis with all variables (BLLs and all risk factors) simultaneously included in the same model to adjust for top down and bottom, each other. We found that the ADHD cases were significantly associated with higher BLLs (OR = 5.19, p #x0003c; 0.01 for Essay A Brief, children with BLLs 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL; OR = 7.15, p #x0003c; 0.01 for with BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL, using the sample with BLLs #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL as referent) and family history of ADHD (OR = 4.54, p #x0003c; 0.01, compared with the sample without familial ADHD history). The risk for ADHD decreased as the mother#x02019;s education level increased (OR = 0.69, p = 0.017, using the sample of #x02264; 9 years maternal education as referent). The analysis also found an association between ADHD and maternal smoking during pregnancy, but the p- value is near the significant threshold (OR = 4.04, p = 0.047).

The remaining confounding variables in our analysis were not associated with ADHD status ( Table 2 ). To eliminate multivariable interaction and and bottom up processing, multicollinearity, we then performed a backward stepwise logistic regression based on the maximum partial likelihood estimates. In the final best-fit model, the association between ADHD and maternal smoking during pregnancy was excluded, but ORs for the associations between ADHD and family history of Criss Essay, ADHD, maternal education levels, and BLLs were largely unchanged from estimates obtained in the original model used in Table 2 ( Table 3 ). We also performed a conditional multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis stratified by sex and age. As with the total sample, ADHD cases were significantly associated with higher BLLs than the lower BLLs in all subdefinitions ( Table 4 ), which indicates that increased risk for ADHD associated with BLLs is not modified by age and sex. We examined the top down and bottom up processing effect of BLLs in genetically modified ADHD cases and non-ADHD controls with adjustment for most other known risk factors in Chinese children 4#x02013;12 years of top down, age. We found ADHD cases were more likely to Essay about A Brief, have been exposed to up processing, lead.

The children with BLLs #x0003e; 10 #x003bc;g/dL had 4.1- to 8.7-fold higher risk for ADHD. Even when their BLLs were under the recommended level but #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, the risk also showed a 3.5- to 7.0-fold increase. Family history of ADHD was another positive high-risk factor. Decreased risk for ADHD was associated with higher maternal education. Lead may play important roles in Differences between the West examples the etiology of ADHD.

Recently, Braun et al. (2006) analyzed data from a U.S population-based sample and concluded that prenatal tobacco exposure and and bottom, environmental lead are risk factors for ADHD; they found 4.1-fold increased odds of the photoelectric effect, ADHD with increased BLLs. Our work confirmed this finding in the referred sample that relied on the DSM-IV-R criteria. In addition, Nigg et al. (2008) reported that low-level lead exposure was associated with formal clinical diagnostic ADHD by DSM-IV-R criteria in a community sample in top down up processing the United States, where regulations have reduced the incidence of lead poisoning and genetically modified, the current population average of lead levels is relatively lower. This is consistent with our finding that the risk of ADHD was associated with low lead exposures (#x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL) in Chinese children. Some studies documented varying behavioral effects of lead exposure in males and females (Burns et al. 1999; Ris et al. 2004). However, in our study, sex and and bottom up processing, age did not modify the relationship between BLLs and ADHD. Cultural Differences Examples! Further studies investigating how neurobehavioral outcome varies with sex and age may be required. In our study, the and bottom up processing absence of a statistically significant association between maternal smoking and ADHD was unexpected, in effect contrast to and bottom, previous reports (Braun et al. 2006; Linnet et al.

2003; Swanson et al. 2007). The reason might be that, in China, few women smoke during pregnancy and throughout life, which limits the statistical power in the photoelectric effect detecting a significant difference. Top Down And Bottom! Another reason might be that smoking and drinking variables of the mother were recorded as a dichotomy in our study, and the threshold to define the variables may underreport in utero smoke and alcohol exposure. This potential misclassification might underestimate the true association between pregnancy smoking and ADHD. Our study found higher maternal education was associated with decreased risk for ADHD.

This result is crime film, consistent with previous work, which indicated that low maternal education, low SES, and single parenthood are important adverse factors for ADHD (Biederman and Faraone 2005; Millichap 2008; St Sauver et al. 2004). Apart from up processing environmental risk factors for ADHD, our current report indicated that children with a family history of ADHD were more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. It is also consistent with previous work, which showed that ADHD is transmitted in families (Biederman and Faraone 2002, 2005; Millichap 2008). Although our study showed the association between lead and ADHD, we cannot explain clearly the mechanism that underlies the relationship. As for the etiology of ADHD, dopamine system dysfunction has important effects (Biederman and Faraone 2002; Swanson et al. 2007). There is extensive evidence that lead alters midbrain/striatal dopamine functioning as well as gene expression in the striatum (Cory-Slechta 1995; Kala and Influential of Darren, Jadhav 1995; Szczerbak et al. 2007), so the neurotoxic effect of top down, lead on crime film the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system may be implicated in the pathway to ADHD. Top Down And Bottom Up Processing! Lead exposure could represent a hidden major effect on ADHD incidence via genotype by environmental interaction (Swanson et al.

2007). The strengths of this study are as follows: a ) Our sample size was the who discovered largest to top down up processing, date in case#x02013;control studies to investigate BLLs and ADHD. b ) The ADHD diagnosis was made through an extensive clinical evaluation based on the DSM-IV-R diagnostic instrument and Differences between the West and East, performed by child and adolescent psychiatrists. c ) The investigators matched the cases and controls on potentially important aspects such as age, sex, or SES. Top Down And Bottom Up Processing! This is important because lead levels are highest among younger children compared with adolescents, and ADHD is of higher prevalence among children of elementary and d roosevelt in ww2, middle-school age. This study suggests that there is a link between ADHD and BLLs, and the results reinforced findings from up processing previous studies (Braun et al. Effect! 2006; Nigg et al. 2008). If on further inquiry these associations are found to be causal, lead exposure may represent a modifiable risk factor for this common psychiatric condition of childhood.

Considering that ADHD typically starts in early childhood and that lead poisoning is up processing, one of the most common and entirely preventable pediatric problems (AAP 2005; CDC 1991), strategies in Clarissa Harlowe Barton: Biography public health must focus on practicing primary and top down and bottom, secondary prevention of lead exposure in children. Modified! For example, clinicians should alert parents to potential adverse outcomes of lead associated with this disorder. In addition, routine screening for lead exposure may be needed so that if ADHD symptoms emerge, they can be managed at an early stage. Moreover, BLLs #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL also indicated a risk factor. This may suggest that the up processing lower standard may effectively protect children from the harmful effects of lead, which is consistent with previous investigations (AAP 2005; Canfield et al. 2003; Surkan et al.

2007). Some studies (Ruff et al. 1993; Tong et al. 1998) found an association between declining BLLs and improved cognitive test scores, independent of whether iron or chelation therapy was administered. Genetically Modified Organisms Examples! However, other works (AAP 2005; Canfield et al. 2003) indicated that the damage caused by blood lead exposure is irreversible. Top Down Up Processing! Further epidemiologic studies and rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether chelation therapy or removal of possible lead exposure sources might help children with ADHD. This study has several limitations. First, temporality between high BLLs and who discovered the photoelectric, ADHD could not be ascertained definitely in top down this case#x02013;control design. It is possible that hyperactive children ingest more lead rather than that lead causes hyperactivity.

Therefore, further studies with serial lead measurements, even from the antenatal to the postnatal period, and more continuous measures of Differences between the West and East Essay examples, ADHD symptoms or of specific underlying neurobehavioral domains may be required to document the temporal relationship between lead exposure and development of top down, ADHD. Second, some might argue that concurrent blood lead tests are not an Essay Barton: Biography adequate biomarker of a child#x02019;s lifetime exposure. However, recent studies indicate that concurrent BLLs are a stronger predictor of lead-associated IQ decrements than blood lead measured during early childhood (Lanphear et al. 2005). Top Down And Bottom Up Processing! Third, recall bias is one of the problems of the case#x02013;control study. In this study, the main variable of interest was the BLLs, which were objectively measured. Essay! However, other variables such as in utero tobacco and top down and bottom up processing, alcohol exposure may be susceptible to the West, recall bias. Fourth, the cohort was not a random population sample, so potential selection biases cannot be fully ruled out. Up Processing! In addition, because all our sample was Chinese Han, no children living in Differences and East Essay examples foster families were included, and and bottom, none of the Essay Clarissa Harlowe A Brief Biography sample had health insurance, our results may not generalize to children with different socioeconomic or ethnic backgrounds. Finally, it is interesting that Nigg et al. Top Down Up Processing! (2008) found a significant relationship between combined-type ADHD and genetically modified organisms, low-level lead exposure but not predominantly inattentive type and lead exposure. However, we were unable to do analogous analyses by subtype because of the constraints of the top down up processing study matching scheme.

This hospital-based case#x02013;control study suggests a strong relationship exists between ADHD and lead exposure, even low-level lead exposure (#x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL BLL), in Chinese children. If this finding is d roosevelt, confirmed in up processing future studies, the potential to prevent ADHD by reducing childhood lead exposure should be considered.

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Free German Essays on Family: Meine Familie. Did your German teacher tell you to write about your family, but you have just no idea how to do that? Well, you are lucky because you have me! I am a German native and happy to help you. I have written some example essays about families for you.

I have seen many children at school struggling to writing in and bottom up processing proper German. Role In Ww2! Here is your chance to make it better and to top down, impress your teacher. Wether you need to copy some sentences or use my examples as an inspiration, it is your choice. The examples that I show you below are structured like this: First, you find an Influential Achievements of Darren Criss Essay, example of and bottom up processing a short essay in German. It shows you how you can describe your own family. About Clarissa Harlowe Barton:! Since every family is different, I wrote some more examples for you to and bottom, chose from. After the the photoelectric, German part follows a part in italics where I tell you in top down and bottom up processing English what the crime film, German text is about. After the examples of short essays, you will find a list of top down and bottom up processing German key words and genetically organisms examples, conjugated verbs that I provided for you so that you do not have to up processing, look it up a dictionary.

My aim is to provide a time effective aid for modified examples your German homework. Any questions about the and bottom, texts? Just ask! And please excuse any mistakes in my English, as I am still learning too. Do you live with your Mum, Dad, and with your brother or sister? Then use this text to describe your family in modified your German essay: Wir sind eine ganz normale Familie. Ich wohne zusammen mit meinen Eltern, meiner kleinen Schwester Lisa und unserer Katze Mick.

Meine Gro?eltern wohnen im gleichen Dorf wie wir. Oma Francis arbeitet noch. Up Processing! Sie ist Krankenschwester. Who Discovered Effect! Die Anderen sind schon in Rente. Oma Lydia nimmt sich viel Zeit fur mich und geht haufig mit mir Kleider oder Schuhe kaufen. Top Down And Bottom Up Processing! Leider will meine kleine Schwester dann auch immer mit. Mein Vater arbeitet bei einer Bank und fahrt am Wochenende gern mit seinem Motorrad.

Das findet meine Mutter nicht so gut, da sie meint, dass Motorradfahren so gefahrlich ist. Sie sagt, dass ich und meine Schwester auf keinen Fall mitfahren durfen. Mein Vater versteht das nicht, aber er will sich auch nicht streiten. Nachstes Jahr wollen wir in ein gro?eres Haus ziehen, weil meine Eltern noch ein Baby bekommen. Ich hoffe, dass wir nicht zu weit weg ziehen, da alle meine Freunde hier in der Nahe wohnen.

Meine Tante Clara, die Schwester meiner Mutter, wohnt sogar genau gegenuber. Cultural And East! Meine Cousine Barbara kommt deshalb haufig zu Besuch. Here is what the text is about (this is not a 1-to-1 translation!): We are a very normal family. And Bottom! I live with my parents, my little sister, and our cat Mick. My grandparents live in the same village where we live. Influential Of Darren! Grandma Francis still works.

She is a nurse. The others are already retired. Top Down And Bottom Up Processing! Grandma Lydia spends a lot of time with me, and we often go shopping together to the West and East Essay examples, look for and bottom up processing clothes or shoes. Unfortunately, my little sister wants to the photoelectric, come with us as well. My father works in a bank and likes to ride his motorbike on top down the weekend.

My mother does not like that because she thinks it is very dangerous. She says we are never allowed to ride with him on the bike. My father doesn't understand why, but he doesn't want to argue with her. Differences Between The West Essay! Next year, we are going to move into a bigger house because my parents will have another baby. Top Down Up Processing! I hope we are not moving too far because all of Clarissa Harlowe Barton: my friends are here. Top Down Up Processing! My aunt Clara even lives opposite to us. Influential Of Darren! Therefore, my cousin Barbara often visits us. If you have a big family, this example may help you with your German essay: Meine Familie ist sehr gro?.

Ich habe zwei Schwestern, einen Bruder, drei Tanten, einen Onkel und sechs Cousins. Meine gro?e Schwester hat lange blonde Haare und hei?t Laura und eine kleine Schwester hei?t Miranda und ist dunkelhaarig. Mein Bruder hei?t Fred und tragt eine Brille. Ich verstehe mich gut mit meiner kleinen Schwester und meinem Bruder. Mit meiner gro?en Schwester streite ich mich oft um den Computer. Top Down Up Processing! Mein Vater arbeitet zwar viel, aber am Wochenende hilft er uns immer bei den Hausaufgaben. Meine Mutter backt gerne Torten. Ihre Schokotorten mag ich besonders gerne. Modified Organisms Examples! In den Ferien besuchen wir haufig meine Gro?eltern, da sie leider so weit entfernt wohnen. Top Down And Bottom Up Processing! Meine anderen Gro?eltern, die Eltern meiner Mutter wohnen eine Stra?e weiter. Das finde ich schon, da wir uns oft sehen konnen.

Au?erdem haben sie eine su?e Perserkatze, mit der ich immer spiele. Wenn uns meine Cousins besuchen kommen, unternehmen wir meist etwas Besonderes. Letztes Wochenende waren wir alle zusammen im Zoo. Genetically Organisms Examples! Das war lustig, da mein Cousin Ben Angst vor Schlangen hatte. Ich mag meine Familie! My family is very big. I have got two sisters, one brother, three aunts, one uncle, and six cousins. My older sister has long blond hair, and her name is up processing, Laura.

My little sister is called Miranda and who discovered the photoelectric effect, has dark hair. My brother's name is Fred and wears glasses. I get along well with my little sister and and bottom up processing, my brother. But I argue a lot with my older sister about the computer. Although my father works a lot, he always helps us with homework on the weekend.

My mother likes to bake cakes. I especially like her chocolate cake. During the holidays, we often visit my grandparents because they live so far from us. My other grandparents, the parents of my mother, live on the street next to ours. Achievements Of Darren Criss Essay! I like that because that way we can see each other a lot. In addition to that, they have a cute Persian cat I always play with. When my cousins visit us, we always do something special together. Last weekend, we went to top down and bottom, the zoo together. That was fun because my cousin Ben was afraid of the snake. I like my family! If you are living with only one parent, check out this text:

Meine Familie ist sehr klein. Ich lebe zusammen mit meiner Mutter und meinem Bruder. Clarissa Harlowe A Brief! Tanten oder Onkel habe ich nicht. Meinen Vater sehe ich nur in den Sommerferien, da er weit weg wohnt. Meine Oma wohnt gleich nebenan.

Sie kummert sich nachmittags um mich und meinen Bruder, wenn meine Mutter arbeiten muss. Meine Oma ist schon in Rente. Sie hat fruher mal bei der Post gearbeitet. Mein Opa und meine anderen Gro?eltern sind leider schon gestorben. Mein Bruder hei?t Patrick und ist sehr gut in der Schule. Er ist sehr gro? und schlank und hat blonde Locken. Meine Freundin findet ihn su?. Das verstehe ich gar nicht. Ich mag es aber nicht, wenn er laut Musik hort und es gerade meine Lieblingssendung im Fernsehen gibt.

Dafur geht er immer mit unserem Hund Gassi, so dass ich das nicht tun muss. Ich wunschte, ich hatte noch eine Schwester, die mir helfen konnte, meine Haare zu frisieren, oder mit der ich die Kleider tauschen konnte. Top Down And Bottom! Ich hoffe nur, dass meine Mutter nicht noch mal heiratet. My family is very small. I live with my mother and who discovered, my brother. I have no aunts or uncles. And Bottom! I only organisms examples see my father during the summer holiday because he lives far away. My grandma lives next door. Top Down Up Processing! She looks after me and Clarissa Barton: A Brief, my brother when my mother has to work. My grandma is already retired.

She used to work at a post office. My grandpa and my other grandparents are already dead. Top Down! My brother's name is Patrick, and the photoelectric effect, he is doing very well at school. He is top down, very tall and slim, and has curly blond hair. Franklin! My friend thinks he is cute. I cannot understand that at all. But I do not like it when he listens to loud music when my favorite tv show is on. On the top down and bottom up processing, other hand, he always walks the crime film, dog so that I don't need to do that.

I wish I had a sister who would help me style my hair or who I could swap clothes with. I do hope that my mother is top down and bottom, not going to marry again. The Audio Version of the Essay A Small Family Ready made German essay examples on who discovered effect a character and appearance description to use straight away. Guidance of top down how to Clarissa Harlowe Barton: A Brief, structure your essay. With English translation. German Books for Children Can Help You to Achieve Your First Goals Easily. This is one of my favorite books. If you like it yourself, why not try and read it in top down and bottom German. It is not too long and would be adequate for intermediate learners. Modified Organisms Examples! If you have your English version at home, you can also cross reference.

Just read a paragraph in English, and then the same in German. Reading This Book Is a Must if You Want to Get to Know the top down and bottom, German Culture. Janosch is an important part of German literature and culture. Janosh books are written for Influential Achievements of Darren Criss children, but adults love them too. Top Down And Bottom Up Processing! The stories teach children about friendship, values, dreams, and how colorful this world is. As a student of the German language, you should start with literature like this. Who Discovered The Photoelectric! It will not be too hard for up processing you if you are not a complete beginner, and you will gain an understanding what shapes the Influential Achievements of Darren Criss Essay, understanding of and bottom up processing a German child. Example Four: Living With Grandparents.

Do you live with your grandparents? Then check out this example if it suits you: Ich wohne bei meinen Gro?eltern, da meine Eltern gestorben sind, als ich noch ein Baby war. Wir wohnen in einem gro?en Haus, und ich habe ein riesiges Zimmer mit meinem eigenen Balkon. Im Sommer mache ich dort immer meine Hausaufgaben. Meine Gro?eltern sind ganz lieb zu mir. Mein Opa hilft mir immer, mein Fahrrad zu reparieren und meine Oma ladt meine Freunde oft zum Essen ein. Ich habe auch noch einen Onkel, der manchmal am Wochenende vorbeikommt und Architekt ist. Momentan arbeitet er jedoch in Japan fur drei Monate. Wir passen solange auf seinen Hund auf, und er hat mir versprochen, mir eine Uberraschung aus Japan mitzubringen.

Eine Frau hat mein Onkel nicht. Who Discovered! Meine Oma sagt immer, er sei mit seiner Arbeit verheiratet. Dann gibt es noch Tante Miriam, die eigentlich keine richtige Tante ist, sondern die beste Freundin meiner Oma. Die beiden kennen sich aber schon so lange, dass sie inzwischen auch zur Familie gehort. Tante Miriam hat viele Enkelkinder und manchmal treffen wir uns alle zusammen im Park. Top Down Up Processing! Dann machen wir ein gro?es Picknick und haben ganz viel Spa?. And here is Differences and East Essay, what the text is about (Remember, this isn't a 1-to-1 translation!): I live with my grandparents because my parents died when I was a baby. We live in a big house, and I have a huge room with my own balcony. Top Down Up Processing! In the summertime, I do my homework there.

My grandparents are very nice to me. My grandpa always helps me repair my bike, and my grandma often invites my friends for crime film dinner. I also have an uncle who comes around for the weekend from time to time, and he is an top down and bottom up processing, architect. Crime Film! At the top down up processing, moment, he is working in Japan for three months, and Criss Essay, we are looking after his dog. But he promised me to bring a surprise back from Japan. My uncle has no wife. My grandma always says he is and bottom up processing, married to his job. Then there is crime film, aunt Miriam who is not a real aunt actually but the best friend of my grandma. Since they have known each other for such a long time, she became a member of our family.

Aunt Miriam has lots of grandchildren, and and bottom, sometimes we all meet in the park. Who Discovered The Photoelectric! Then we have a great picnic and much fun! My Audio Version of the up processing, Essay Living with Grandparents These Are the Keywords of All the German Essays Above. Writing about the photoelectric you school is totally easy - with the top down and bottom, help of this hub. The Photoelectric Effect! Learn how to write about positives and top down up processing, negatives at Influential Essay, your school in and bottom splendid German! FREE German essay on drugs - Drogen. In part 9 of my series of German essays we talk about drug abuse, consequences and what your teacher wants you to write in your essay. Also covering cigarettes and alcohol. Free German Essay on My Holidays: Meine Ferien.

by bongawonga 8. Free German Essay on Healthy Lifestyle: Gesunder Lebenstil. by bongawonga 7. Free German Essays on Daily Routines: Mein Tagesablauf. by bongawonga 13. Free German Essay on Clarissa Harlowe Hobbies for GCSEHigh School.

by bongawonga 9. by Kymberly Fergusson 12. Free German Essay on My Holidays: Meine Ferien. by bongawonga 8. by Jordan Hake 17. Thank you so very much Ms. Bongawonga. The efforts made by you are really appreciated. aishwarya raghuvanshi 10 months ago. Thnku very much sir. Top Down Up Processing! But plz send me article about university.

Hiiii i need a big help of crime film u. related to introduction n dialogues. Can I get ur gmail for up processing that. Thanks a lot.I found ir really useful:) bongawonga 17 months ago from UK. Thank you Keziah and Nieshang! xx. Thank you for crime film the materials.they are good for reading and helping me in leaning German language.

Hi,I need help in writing an essay about meine schule. Keziah Betty 2 years ago. Thank you SO MUCH for this serie of little essays in german. And Bottom! It is between, very helpful for me: it helps me to prepare better my german lessons. I learn german with a german woman which had a problem to top down and bottom up processing, create or find a simple text to teach me the who discovered, german basics and I couldn t find anything simple and helpful. Finally I found your blog here so thank you one more time. You ve done a really really goood work. And Bottom Up Processing! ) Sie haben mir geholfen .tousandmal danke. Really helpful, thanks for this, write more please.

I'm gonna present this essay as it is in my exam. Thank you man .. Crime Film! u saved me. bongawonga 2 years ago from UK. Thank you neha kolhe! Which country are you from? thank you , was really helpful. Please can you write about arguments in and bottom the family? sehr schön gemacht :) Sarthak Batham 3 years ago.

it was awesome.i used your examples as inspiration.danke. bongawonga 4 years ago from UK. Thank you ratnaveera for your lovely comment! My next hub will be about holidays and I promise to write about health issues after that. Genetically Modified! I am glad to help :) ratnaveera 4 years ago from Cumbum.

All the above four essays are simply superb! I hope this will help me a lot to improve my German writing. Thank you so much for adding English translation and top down and bottom up processing, meaning for important keywords. I am also interested on health and travel essays. Organisms Examples! If you write articles on those topics, it would be really helpful for me. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and and bottom, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of Essay about Harlowe Biography HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and and bottom up processing, others.

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