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obesity essay titles This article appears in the. The Integrity of Pressure Ulcers in ICU Science. Editor’s Note Daniel Sarewitz on why scientists must come out for high, of the lab and into example the real world Ivan Oransky and Adam Marcus praise the High Sports growing scrutiny of scientific publications Barbara A. Pressure In ICU? Spellman on the role of technological and demographic changes. [Publication of this special section was made possible through the support of a grant to The New Atlantis from the John Templeton Foundation; the opinions expressed are those of the authors and is metabolism in biology, do not necessarily reflect the views of the John Templeton Foundation.] Daniel Sarewitz Discusses “Saving Science” Enter your e-mail address to receive occasional updates and Pressure Essay, previews from alexander the great and mother, The New Atlantis . Science isnt self-correcting, its self-destructing. To save the in ICU enterprise, scientists must come out alexander the great father, of the lab and into the real world. S cience, pride of modernity, our one source of objective knowledge, is in deep trouble. Stoked by fifty years of Pressure Ulcers Essay growing public investments, scientists are more productive than ever, pouring out millions of articles in thousands of journals covering an ever-expanding array of fields and phenomena. But much of this supposed knowledge is turning out to be contestable, unreliable, unusable, or flat-out wrong.

From metastatic cancer to absurdism, climate change to growth economics to dietary standards, science that is supposed to Ulcers in ICU example, yield clarity and solutions is in many instances leading instead to literature, contradiction, controversy, and Ulcers in ICU Essay example, confusion. Along the way it is absurdism, also undermining the four-hundred-year-old idea that wise human action can be built on a foundation of independently verifiable truths. Science is trapped in a self-destructive vortex; to escape, it will have to abdicate its protected political status and embrace both its limits and its accountability to the rest of Pressure Essay society. The story of how things got to this state is difficult to unravel, in no small part because the scientific enterprise is so well-defended by walls of hype, myth, and denial. But much of the problem can be traced back to a bald-faced but beautiful lie upon which rests the political and literature, cultural power of science. Ulcers In ICU Essay Example? This lie received its most compelling articulation just as America was about to embark on an extended period of extraordinary scientific, technological, and economic growth. It goes like this: Scientific progress on a broad front results from the free play of free intellects, working on absurdism literature subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by Ulcers Essay example their curiosity for exploration of the unknown. “The free play of free intellects. dictated by triumph evil their curiosity” So deeply embedded in Essay our cultural psyche that it seems like an echo of alexander common sense, this powerful vision of Pressure Ulcers example science comes from Vannevar Bush, the M.I.T. engineer who had been the High School architect of the nation’s World War II research enterprise, which delivered the atomic bomb and helped to advance microwave radar, mass production of antibiotics, and other technologies crucial to the Allied victory. Ulcers Example? He became justly famous in describe the structure and veins the process.

Featured on the cover of Time magazine, he was dubbed the “General of Pressure Ulcers Essay example Physics.” As the war drew to a close, Bush envisioned transitioning American science to a new era of is metabolism in biology peace, where top academic scientists would continue to receive the robust government funding they had grown accustomed to Pressure Ulcers Essay, since Pearl Harbor but would no longer be shackled to the narrow dictates of military need and application, not to mention discipline and secrecy. Instead, as he put it in his July 1945 report Science, The Endless Frontier , by pursuing “research in the purest realms of science” scientists would build the foundation for evil “new products and new processes” to deliver health, full employment, and military security to the nation. From this perspective, the lie as Bush told it was perhaps less a conscious effort to Pressure Essay example, deceive than a seductive manipulation, for absurdism political aims, of Ulcers Essay example widely held beliefs about the purity of science. Topics School? Indeed, Bush’s efforts to establish the conditions for generous and Pressure in ICU Essay example, long-term investments in science were extraordinarily successful, with U.S. federal funding for what in biology “basic research” rising from $265 million in 1953 to $38 billion in 2012, a twentyfold increase when adjusted for Ulcers in ICU Essay inflation. More impressive still was the increase for basic research at universities and colleges, which rose from alexander the great and mother, $82 million to $24 billion, a more than fortyfold increase when adjusted for inflation. By contrast, government spending on more “applied research” at universities was much less generous, rising to just under $10 billion.

The power of the lie was palpable: “the free play of free intellects” would provide the example knowledge that the nation needed to confront the challenges of the future. To go along with all that money, the beautiful lie provided a politically brilliant rationale for public spending with little public accountability. Politicians delivered taxpayer funding to scientists, but only and mother scientists could evaluate the research they were doing. Pressure Example? Outside efforts to guide the course of Essay science would only interfere with its free and unpredictable advance. The fruits of curiosity-driven scientific exploration into the unknown have often been magnificent. The recent discovery of Essay example gravitational waves an experimental confirmation of Einstein’s theoretical work from a century earlier provided a high-publicity culmination of billions of dollars of public spending and High School Sports, decades of Ulcers in ICU research by large teams of describe the structure of arteries and veins scientists. Multi-billion dollar investments in space exploration have yielded similarly startling knowledge about our solar system, such as the recent evidence of flowing water on Mars.

And, speaking of startling, anthropologists and geneticists have used genome-sequencing technologies to offer evidence that early humans interbred with two other hominin species, Neanderthals and Denisovans. Such discoveries heighten our sense of wonder about the universe and about ourselves. And somehow, it would seem, even as scientific curiosity stokes ever-deepening insight about the fundamental workings of our world, science managed simultaneously to deliver a cornucopia of miracles on the practical side of the equation, just as Bush predicted: digital computers, jet aircraft, cell phones, the Internet, lasers, satellites, GPS, digital imagery, nuclear and solar power. When Bush wrote his report, nothing made by humans was orbiting the earth; software didn’t exist; smallpox still did. So one might be forgiven for Ulcers in ICU example believing that this amazing effusion of technological change truly was the product of “the free play of free intellects, working on subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown.” But one would be mostly wrong. Science has been important for technological development, of course. Scientists have discovered and probed phenomena that turned out to have enormously broad technological applications. But the miracles of what is metabolism in biology modernity in the above list came not from “the free play of free intellects,” but from the leashing of scientific creativity to the technological needs of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). The story of how DOD mobilized science to help create our world exposes the lie for what it is and provides three difficult lessons that have to be learned if science is to evade the calamity it now faces.

First, scientific knowledge advances most rapidly, and is of Pressure Ulcers in ICU Essay most value to english essay topics school students, society, not when its course is Ulcers in ICU Essay, determined by the “free play of free intellects” but when it is steered to solve problems especially those related to technological innovation. Second, when science is not steered to solve such problems, it tends to alexander the great, go off half-cocked in ways that can be highly detrimental to science itself. Third and this is the in ICU hardest and scariest lesson science will be made more reliable and more valuable for society today not by being protected from essay school students, societal influences but instead by being brought, carefully and appropriately, into a direct, open, and intimate relationship with those influences. How DOD Gave Science Its Mojo. A lmost immediately after World War II, the Department of War soon renamed the Department of Defense began to harness together the complete set of players necessary to Pressure Essay, ensure the United States would have all the technologies needed to win the Cold War. This is what President Eisenhower, in 1961, would call the “military-industrial complex” and what today would be termed, more broadly, the “national innovation system.” It includes everything from university laboratories and scientists, to absurdism, the small and large companies that develop and commercialize innovations, to the users of those innovations in this case, the military itself. DOD was able to catalyze rapid innovation because money was, more or less, no object; the Pressure mission ensuring that America’s military technologies were better than anyone else’s was all that mattered. How do you create materials for jet engines and fuselages that are lighter and more durable under extreme conditions?

How do you obtain high-resolution images of an essay for high school, enemy’s military facilities from an orbiting satellite? How do you ensure that military communication links can still operate after a nuclear war? These are the Pressure Essay example types of questions that the military needed to have answered, questions that demanded advances in fundamental knowledge as well as technological know-how. DOD’s needs provided not just investments in but also a powerful focus for advances in basic research in alexander the great and mother fields ranging from high-energy physics to materials science to in ICU Essay, fluid dynamics to over, molecular biology. At the Pressure Ulcers in ICU Essay same time, protected from both the logic of the marketplace and the capriciousness of politics by the imperative of literature national defense, DOD was a demanding customer for some of the most advanced technological products that high-tech corporations could produce. For example, the first digital computer built in the mid-1940s to calculate the Pressure example trajectories of describe the structure and function and veins artillery shells and used to design the first hydrogen bomb cost about $500,000 (around $4.7 million today), operated billions of times more slowly than modern computers, took up the space of a small bus, and Ulcers Essay, had no immediate commercial application. Who but the Pentagon would buy such a crazy thing? But DOD also supported the science needed to keep innovation going. In the late 1950s and well into the 1960s, as the for high students role for Pressure computers in military affairs was growing but the what is metabolism science wasn’t keeping up, DOD’s Advanced Research Projects Agency essentially created computer science as an academic discipline by funding work at M.I.T., Carnegie Mellon, Stanford, and other institutions. Another example: The earliest jet engines, back in the 1940s, needed to be overhauled about every hundred hours and were forty-five times less fuel-efficient than piston engines. Why waste public money on such a technology?

Because military planners knew that jet power promised combat performance greatly superior to Ulcers in ICU Essay, planes powered by piston engines. For decades the Air Force and the structure and function and veins, Navy funded research and development in the aircraft industry to continually drive improvement of jet engines. Meanwhile, the Boeing Company could take the jet-engine-powered aerial fuel tanker it was developing for Pressure Essay the Air Force and use a similar design for its 707 passenger jet, the first truly safe and describe of arteries and veins, reliable commercial jet aircraft. And another: ATT’s Bell Labs, where the Ulcers Essay transistor effect was discovered, could use the demands (and investments) of the Army Signal Corps for smaller and more reliable battlefield communication technologies to improve scientific understanding of literature semiconducting materials as well as the reliability and in ICU Essay, performance of transistors. Absurdism? It was military purchases that kept the new transistor, semiconductor, and integrated-circuit industries afloat in the early and mid-1950s. As historian Thomas Misa explained in his study of DOD’s role in in ICU Essay example stimulating the english essay students development of transistors: “By subsidizing engineering development and the construction of manufacturing facilities . the Pressure Ulcers in ICU Essay example military catalyzed the establishment of an industrial base” helping to alexander father, create the technological and industrial backbone for the information age. And new weapons such as missile systems and ever-more powerful nuclear warheads continued to drive the development of and demand for increasingly sophisticated and reliable electronic components such as microprocessors and supercomputers. Today, DOD continues to push rapid innovation in select areas, including robotics (especially for drone warfare) and human enhancement (for example, to improve the battlefield performance of soldiers). But through a combination of several factors including excessive bureaucratic growth, interference from Congress, and long-term commitments to hugely expensive and troubled weapons systems with little civilian spillover potential, such as missile defense and Ulcers Essay, the F-35 joint strike fighter the Pentagon’s creativity and english essay topics for high, productivity as an innovator has significantly dissipated. Yet the scientific and technological foundations that DOD helped to create during the Cold War continue to support the American economy. To take just one example, of the thirteen areas of in ICU Essay technological advance that were essential to the development of the alexander father iPhone, eleven including the microprocessor, GPS, and the Internet can be traced back to vital military investments in in ICU Essay research and technological development.

Americans lionize the scientist as head-in-the-clouds genius (the Einstein hero) and describe of arteries and veins, the inventor as misfit-in-the-garage genius (the Steve Jobs or Bill Gates hero). The discomfiting reality, however, is that much of today’s technological world exists because of DOD’s role in Pressure Ulcers example catalyzing and steering science and technology. This was industrial policy, and it worked because it brought all of the triumph evil players in the innovation game together, disciplined them by providing strategic, long-term focus for their activities, and shielded them from the market rationality that would have doomed almost every crazy, over-expensive idea that today makes the Essay world go round. The great accomplishments of the is metabolism military-industrial complex did not result from allowing scientists to pursue “subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity,” but by in ICU Essay example channeling that curiosity toward the essay topics school students solution of example problems that DOD wanted to solve. Such goal-driven industrial policies are supposed to be the stuff of Soviet five-year plans, not market-based democracies, and neither scientists nor policymakers have had much of an appetite for alexander the great recognizing DOD’s role in Pressure Ulcers creating the foundations of our modern economy and society. Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has been a much more appealing explanation, ideologically and politically. Not everyone, however, has been fooled. F ran Visco was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1987. A Philadelphia trial lawyer intimidated by no one, she chose to be treated with a less toxic chemotherapy than the one her doctor recommended.

She also started volunteering for english essay for high school a local breast cancer patient-support group, which soon led to an invitation to the organizing meeting of what came to be called the National Breast Cancer Coalition. NBCC was conceived as a political advocacy organization that would provide a unified voice for local patient groups across the Ulcers in ICU Essay example nation an approach that appealed to Visco’s activist nature. She became the organization’s first president, and has ever since been a national leader for mobilizing science, medicine, policy, and politics around the alexander and mother goal of eliminating the disease. Visco was a child of the lie. “All I knew about science was that it was this pure search for truth and knowledge.” So, logically enough, she and the other activists at NBCC started out by trying to get more money for breast cancer research at the country’s most exalted research organization, the National Institutes of Health’s National Cancer Institute. But Visco was also a child of the Sixties with a penchant for questioning authority, and she wanted to Ulcers Essay, play an active role in figuring out over, how much money was needed for research and how best to in ICU example, spend it. What In Biology? She and Pressure Essay example, her NBCC colleagues identified a community of cancer researchers that they thought were particularly innovative, and brought everyone together in February 1992 to discuss what was needed to find cures more quickly and how much it would cost.

Together, the advocates and scientists determined that $300 million of new money could be absorbed and well spent by the scientific community a goal that found strong support in Congress. Meanwhile, Visco and other patient-advocates began to immerse themselves deeply in the science so they could “have a seat at the table and figure out how those dollars should be spent.” Through an english students, accident of Ulcers congressional budgeting, it turned out that the only way to meet the $300 million goal was to the great father, have most of the money allocated to the Department of Ulcers Essay example Defense. So in November 1992, Congress appropriated $210 million for a peer-reviewed breast cancer research program to be administered by the Army. The initial plan was to evil, have most of the money transferred to the National Cancer Institute, but when Visco and her NBCC colleagues met with NCI officials to discuss how best to spend the new dollars, Director Sam Broder explained how difficult it was to influence the momentum of science because priorities were established by the bottom-up interests of the research community itself. This, Visco said, “gave us absolutely no comfort that he was going to do anything differently.” When Visco went to DOD, “it was a completely different meeting.” With Major General Richard Travis, the Army’s research and development director, “it was, ‘you know, we’re the Army, and if you give us a mission, we figure out how to accomplish that mission.’” It was, “‘Ladies, I’m going to lead you into example battle and we’re going to win the war.’” “At some point, you really have to save a life”: Fran Visco speaks at an NBCC event at Sports the U.S. Capitol in 2007 Nancy Ostertag/Getty Images. Although Visco was at Pressure Ulcers in ICU example first “terrified” to find herself working with the military, she also found it refreshing and empowering a “fantastic collaboration and partnership.” NCI leaders had reminded Visco that she was an over, activist and a patient, not a peer. Pressure Ulcers Essay Example? But Gen.

Travis told her and is metabolism in biology, her colleagues, “You want a seat at Pressure Ulcers the table, I’ll make sure you have a seat at the table.” The Army welcomed the participation of patient-activists in the planning process for the breast cancer program, directly involved them in the final selection of scientific projects to over evil, be funded, and eventually even brought them into Ulcers in ICU example the processes for reviewing the merits of alexander father various research proposals. DOD’s can-do approach, its enthusiasm about partnering with patient-advocates, and Pressure Ulcers in ICU Essay, its dedication to solving the problem of High Sports Essay breast cancer rather than simply advancing our scientific understanding of the disease won Visco over. Ulcers? And it didn’t take long for is metabolism benefits to in ICU Essay example, appear. During its first round of grantmaking in absurdism literature 199394, the program funded research on a new, biologically based targeted breast cancer therapy a project that had already been turned down multiple times by NIH’s peer-review system because the conventional wisdom was that targeted therapies wouldn’t work. The DOD-funded studies led directly to the development of the drug Herceptin, one of the Ulcers in ICU Essay most important advances in in biology breast cancer treatment in recent decades. According to Dennis Slamon, the lead scientist on that project, the openness of the DOD program to funding projects like his that went against mainstream scientific beliefs was due to the patient-activists. “Absolutely, unequivocally, no question. The scientific community, perhaps even myself included, were skeptical that it was going to be doable that a bunch of laypeople, who weren’t trained in-depth in science, were going to Pressure Ulcers in ICU example, sit at the table and really be involved in is metabolism the peer-review process in a meaningful way. Pressure Ulcers In ICU? And we could not have been more wrong.” There have been few major advances in what is metabolism breast cancer treatment since then, but one of the most promising a targeted therapy called palbociclib was funded by the same DOD program and was approved by the FDA in in ICU example 2015 after successful clinical trials. Despite the objections of scientists advising the School Sports in America program, patient-advocates also pushed DOD to ramp up funding for immunological approaches to Ulcers example, curing breast cancer, including support for vaccine research too unconventional to be supported by either NCI or the High School pharmaceutical industry. NBCC’s collaboration with DOD exemplifies how science can be steered in directions it would not take if left to scientists alone.

But that turned out not to be enough. Twenty years into the Army’s breast cancer program, Visco found herself deeply frustrated. The Army was providing grants for innovative, high-risk proposals that might not have been funded by NCI. But that’s where the program’s influence ended. Ulcers Essay? What Visco and Gen. Travis had failed to appreciate was that, when it came to what is metabolism in biology, breast cancer, the program lacked the key ingredient that made DOD such a successful innovator in other fields: the money and control needed to in ICU, coordinate all the players in the innovation system and absurdism, hold them accountable for Ulcers Essay example working toward a common goal.

And so, as NBCC and other groups brought more and more money into the research system through their effective lobbying campaigns, it grew clear to Visco that the main beneficiaries were individual scientists attracted by the new funding not breast cancer patients. To be sure, the DOD support for innovative research is “better than what’s happening at NCI and the great father, NIH, but it’s not better enoug h . it’s innovation within the existing system.” Ultimately, “all the money that was thrown at breast cancer created more problems than success,” Visco says. What seemed to drive many of the scientists was the Pressure Ulcers in ICU desire to “get above the fold on the front page of the New York Times ,” not to of arteries and veins, figure out how to end breast cancer. It seemed to her that creativity was being stifled as researchers displayed “a lemming effect,” chasing abundant research dollars as they rushed from one hot but ultimately fruitless topic to another. “We got tired of seeing so many people build their careers around one gene or one protein,” she says.

Visco has a scientist’s understanding of the Ulcers example extraordinary complexity of breast cancer and the difficulties of making progress toward a cure. But when it got to the point where NBCC had helped bring $2 billion to the DOD program, she started asking: “And what? And what is there to show? You want to do this science and wha t ?” “At some point,” Visco says, “you really have to save a life.” The Measure of Progress. F or much of human history, technology advanced through craftsmanship and trial-and-error tinkering, with little theoretical understanding. The systematic study of describe the structure and function and veins nature what we today call science was a distinct domain, making little or no contribution to technological development. Yet technology has contributed in obvious ways to scientific advance for centuries, as practical tools such as lenses, compasses, and clocks allowed scientists to Pressure Ulcers, study nature with ever greater accuracy and resolution. The relationship only started to swing both ways, with science contributing to technological advancement as well as benefiting from alexander father, it, in the nineteenth century as, for example, organic chemistry both emerged from and found application in the German dye-making industry.

And as the Industrial Revolution came to link technological innovation to historically unprecedented economic growth, scientists began to make many important contributions to fundamental knowledge by studying phenomena whose existence was brought to light only because of the new technologies of an industrializing world. Efforts to improve the performance of Pressure Ulcers in ICU Essay example steam engines, wine manufacturing, steel-making, and telephone communication to name just a few guided much scientific inquiry, and, in some cases led to entirely new fields of basic research, such as thermodynamics, bacteriology, and radio astronomy. New technologies also provided discipline and what is metabolism, focus for areas of fundamental science that had been progressing slowly, as vaccines did for immunology and Pressure Ulcers example, airplanes did for theoretical aerodynamics. Science has been such a wildly successful endeavor over the past two hundred years in large part because technology blazed a path for High in America Essay it to follow. Pressure Ulcers Essay Example? Not only have new technologies created new worlds, new phenomena, and new questions for science to explore, but technological performance has provided a continuous, unambiguous demonstration of the validity of the what is metabolism in biology science being done. The electronics industry and semiconductor physics progressed hand-in-hand not because scientists, working “in the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown,” kept lobbing new discoveries over the lab walls that then allowed transistor technology to advance, but because the quest to improve technological performance constantly raised new scientific questions and demanded advances in our understanding of the behavior of electrons in different types of materials. Or, again, consider how the rapid development of computers beginning in the 1950s, catalyzed by DOD, led to the demand for new types of theories and knowledge about how to Pressure, acquire, store, and process digital information a new science for a new technology. Thirty years later, computer scientists were probing phenomena in a rapidly developing technological realm that had never existed before cyberspace and the World Wide Web and were asking questions that could never have been imagined, let alone answered, before. The National Science Foundation funded basic research into absurdism literature this new, technology-created realm, including grants to Pressure Ulcers Essay example, two graduate students in absurdism computer science at Stanford University who wanted to understand how best to navigate the novel and expanding landscape of Pressure Ulcers example digital information. They published their results in the 1998 article “The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine.” The abstract begins: “In this paper, we present Google . ” the web-search protocol that led to the corporate empire whose technologies are today woven into the fabric of daily life, and whose economic and for high school, social influence is every bit as powerful as the great railroad, steel, automobile, and telecommunications corporations of previous technological revolutions. Pressure Ulcers In ICU Example? Technology led; science followed.

If, as Visco says, “at some point you really have to save a life,” it will be a technology, perhaps a vaccine or drug, that does the job. Technology is absurdism literature, what links science to human experience; it is what makes science real for us. A light switch, a jet aircraft, or a measles vaccine, these are cause-and-effect machines that turn phenomena that can be described by science the flow of electrons, the movement of air molecules, the stimulation of antibodies into reliable outcomes: the Ulcers Essay example light goes on, the jet flies, the child becomes immune. The scientific phenomena must be real or the technologies would not work. Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie makes it easy to believe that scientific imagination gives birth to technological progress, when in literature reality technology sets the agenda for Ulcers example science, guiding it in its most productive directions and providing continual tests of its validity, progress, and value. Absent their real-world validation through technology, scientific truths would be mere abstractions. Here is where the lie exercises its most corrupting power: If we think that scientific progress is best pursued by what in biology “the free play of free intellects,” we give science a free pass to Ulcers in ICU, define progress without reference to the world beyond it.

But if there is nothing by which to measure scientific progress outside of science itself, how can we know when our knowledge is advancing, standing still, or moving backwards? It turns out that we cannot. Einstein, We Have a Problem. T he science world has been buffeted for what in biology nearly a decade by Ulcers Essay growing revelations that major bodies of scientific knowledge, published in english students peer-reviewed papers, may simply be wrong. Among recent instances: a cancer cell line used as the basis for Pressure in ICU over a thousand published breast cancer research studies was revealed to be actually a skin cancer cell line; a biotechnology company was able to replicate only six out of fifty-three “landmark” published studies it sought to validate; a test of and mother more than one hundred potential drugs for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in mice was unable to reproduce any of the positive findings that had been reported from previous studies; a compilation of nearly one hundred fifty clinical trials for therapies to block human inflammatory response showed that even though the Pressure Ulcers therapies had supposedly been validated using mouse model experiments, every one of the High trials failed in humans; a statistical assessment of the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map human brain function indicated that up to 70 percent of the positive findings reported in Pressure Ulcers example approximately 40,000 published fMRI studies could be false; and an article assessing the overall quality of basic and preclinical biomedical research estimated that between 75 and father, 90 percent of Ulcers in ICU Essay all studies are not reproducible. Meanwhile, a painstaking effort to assess the quality of one hundred peer-reviewed psychology experiments was able to triumph over, replicate only 39 percent of the original papers’ results; annual mammograms, once the frontline of the war on breast cancer, have been shown to confer little benefit for in ICU Essay women in is metabolism their forties; and, of Ulcers in ICU example course, we’ve all been relieved to learn after all these years that saturated fat actually isn’t that bad for us. The number of retracted scientific publications rose tenfold during the first decade of this century, and although that number still remains in the mere hundreds, the growing number of studies such as those mentioned above suggests that poor quality, unreliable, useless, or invalid science may in fact be the norm in some fields, and the number of scientifically suspect or worthless publications may well be counted in the hundreds of topics students thousands annually.

While most of the Ulcers in ICU example evidence of poor scientific quality is coming from fields related to over evil, health, biomedicine, and psychology, the Pressure in ICU Essay example problems are likely to be as bad or worse in many other research areas. For example, a survey of statistical practices in economics research concluded that “the credibility of the economics literature is likely to be modest or even low.” What is to be made of this ever-expanding litany of dispiriting revelations and reversals? Well, one could celebrate. “Instances in which scientists detect and address flaws in work constitute evidence of success, not failure,” a group of leaders of the American science establishment including the past, present, and future presidents of the National Academy of Sciences wrote in over evil Science in 2015, “because they demonstrate the in ICU Essay example underlying protective mechanisms of science at work.” But this happy posture ignores the systemic failings at the heart of science’s problems today. When it works, science is a process of creating new knowledge about the world, knowledge that helps us understand how what we thought we knew was incomplete or even wrong.

This picture of absurdism success doesn’t mean, however, that we should reasonably expect that most scientific results are unreliable or invalid at the moment they are published. What it means, instead, is that the results of research however imperfect are reliable in the context of the existing state of knowledge, and are thus a definite step toward a better understanding of our world and Ulcers in ICU example, a solid foundation for further research. In many areas of research, such expectations do not seem justified, and science may actually be moving backwards. Richard Horton, editor-in-chief of The Lancet , puts it like this: The case against science is straightforward: much of the scientific literature, perhaps half, may simply be untrue. Afflicted by studies with small sample sizes, tiny effects, invalid exploratory analyses, and flagrant conflicts of interest, together with an absurdism literature, obsession for pursuing fashionable trends of dubious importance, science has taken a turn towards darkness. C. Glenn Begley and John Ioannidis researchers who have been courageous and visionary in exposing systemic weakness in biomedical science concluded in Ulcers in ICU example a January 2015 article that “it is impossible to endorse an approach that suggests that we proceed with an ongoing research investment that is producing results the majority of which cannot be substantiated and will not stand the test of time.” Similarly, an economic analysis published in June 2015 estimates that $28 billion per year is wasted on biomedical research that is unreproducible. Science isn’t self-correcting; it’s self-destructing.

Part of the problem surely has to do with the pathologies of the alexander father science system itself. In ICU? Academic science, especially, has become an alexander the great father and mother, onanistic enterprise worthy of Swift or Kafka. As a university scientist you are expected to produce a continual stream of startling and Pressure Ulcers in ICU, newsworthy findings. Alexander The Great Father? Here’s how the great biologist E. O. Wilson describes the life of an academic researcher: You will need forty hours a week to perform teaching and administrative duties, another twenty hours on top of that to conduct respectable research, and still another twenty hours to accomplish really important research. Make an important discovery, and you are a successful scientist in the true, elitist sense in a profession where elitism is practiced without shame. Fail to discover, and you are little or nothing. The professional incentives for academic scientists to assert their elite status are perverse and crazy, and Pressure Ulcers in ICU Essay example, promotion and tenure decisions focus above all on how many research dollars you bring in, how many articles you get published, and how often those articles are cited in other articles. To bring in research grants, you need to show that your previous grants yielded “transformative” results and that your future work will do the same.

To get papers published, you need to cite related publications that provide support for describe and veins your hypotheses and Pressure in ICU example, findings. Meanwhile, the peers who review funding proposals and literature, journal articles are playing in the same system, competing for the same funds, motivated by the same incentives. To get the research done you need graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to do most of the grunt work of running experiments and collecting data, which is how they get trained and acculturated to become the next generation of academic scientists behaving the same way. Ulcers In ICU Essay Example? Universities competing desperately for top faculty, the best graduate students, and over, government research funds hype for the news media the results coming out of their laboratories, encouraging a culture in which every scientist claims to be doing path-breaking work that will solve some urgent social problem. (Scientists themselves are complicit in the hype machine: according to Pressure Ulcers, one study, the triumph over evil frequency of in ICU example positive words like “innovative,” “novel,” “robust,” and “unprecedented” in what in biology biomedical research publications in 2014 was nearly nine times as high as it was forty years earlier.) The scientific publishing industry exists not to Ulcers in ICU, disseminate valuable information but to allow the ever-increasing number of researchers to english essay school students, publish more papers now on the order of a couple million peer-reviewed articles per year so that they can advance professionally. As of 2010, about 24,000 peer-reviewed scientific journals were being published worldwide to accommodate this demand. These figures would not have shocked the historian of science and physicist Derek de Solla Price, who more than half a century ago observed that “science is so large that many of us begin to example, worry about the sheer mass of the monster we have created.” In his book Little Science, Big Science (1963), Price noted presciently that the literature number of in ICU Essay example scientists was growing so fast that it could only lead to a “scientific doomsday” of High Sports Essay instability and Pressure Ulcers Essay example, stress, and absurdism, that exponential growth of the scientific enterprise would bring with it declining scientific originality and quality, as the number of Pressure Ulcers in ICU truly great scientists was progressively drowned out by the much more rapidly increasing number of merely competent ones.

One cumulative result of these converging stresses (a result that Price did not anticipate) is a well-recognized pervasive bias that infects every corner of the basic research enterprise a bias toward the new result. Over Evil? Bias is an inescapable attribute of Ulcers in ICU human intellectual endeavor, and it creeps into science in many different ways, from bad statistical practices to absurdism, poor experimental or model design to mere wishful thinking. If biases are random then they should more or less balance each other out through multiple studies. Pressure Ulcers Example? But as numerous close observers of the scientific literature have shown, there are powerful sources of bias that push in one direction: come up with a positive result, show something new, different, eye-catching, transformational, something that announces you as part of the elite. Yet, to Sports Essay, fixate on systemic positive bias in an out-of-control research system is to miss the deeper and much more important point. Example? The reason that bias seems able to infect research so easily today is that so much of science is detached from the goals and agendas of the and veins military-industrial innovation system, which long gave research its focus and discipline. Nothing is left to keep research honest save the internal norms of the professional, peer-review system itself. And how well are those norms holding up? A survey of Pressure in ICU Essay example more than 1,500 scientists published by Nature in May 2016 shows that 80 percent or more believe that scientific practice is describe and function of arteries and veins, being undermined by such factors as “selective reporting” of data, publication pressure, poor statistical analysis, insufficient attention to replication, and inadequate peer review. In short, we are finding out what happens when objective inquiry is guided by in ICU Bush’s beautiful lie. “Scientific doomsday” indeed.

Lemmings Studying Mice. A neuroscientist by of arteries and veins training, Susan Fitzpatrick worries a lot about science and what Price called the “sheer mass of the monster.” “The scientific enterprise used to be small, and in any particular area of Ulcers example research everyone knew each other; it had this sort of artisanal quality,” she says. “But gradually the in biology system became more professionalized, it got more and more money, it made bigger and bigger promises. So the qualities that make scientific research reliable, honest, got undermined by the need to Ulcers Essay, feed the beast, and the system got too big to essay, succeed.” She worries especially about what this change will mean for the quality and value of the science being done in her field. As president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, which funds research on in ICU cognition and the brain, Fitzpatrick is concerned about where research dollars are flowing. Triumph Over? Just as Visco observed what she called the “lemming effect” researchers running from one hot topic to the next Fitzpatrick also sees science as driven by a circular, internal logic. “What the researcher really wants is something reliable that yields to their methods,” something that “can produce a reliable stream of Pressure Essay example data, because you need to have your next publication, your next grant proposal.” For example, scientists commonly use mouse brains to study neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s, or to study behavioral problems such as addictiveness or attention deficit disorders. Of Arteries And Veins? What’s great about Essay example, mice is that they yield to scientists’ methods. They can be bred in virtually limitless quantity, with particular traits designed into High School Sports Essay them, such as a gene mutation that triggers Alzheimer’s-like symptoms. This allows researchers to Pressure Ulcers in ICU Essay, test specific hypotheses about, say, the genetics or neurochemistry of a mouse-brain disease. More than one hundred different strains of mice have been developed for absurdism literature the purpose of Pressure in ICU Essay example studying Alzheimer’s, and triumph over, numerous chemical compounds have been shown to slow the course of Alzheimer’s-like symptoms in mice. Yet despite the proliferation of mouse and other animal models, only one out of 244 compounds that made it to the trial stage in the decade between 2002 and 2012 was approved by the FDA as a treatment for Ulcers in ICU Essay humans a 99.6 percent failure rate, and even the High Sports one drug approved for use in humans during that period doesn’t work very well.

And why should it be otherwise? The last common ancestor of humans and mice lived 80 million years ago. “You’re using animals that don’t develop neurodegenerative disease on their own,” explains Fitzpatrick. “Even aged mice don’t develop Alzheimer’s disease.” So researchers force some characteristic to develop such as beta-amyloid plaques on the mouse’s brain, or age-related cognitive decline but that’s not the same as the human disease in question, “because the process whereby you create that model is not the pathogenesis of the disease. Your treatment is focused on how you created the model, not how the Pressure in ICU Essay example disease occurs naturally.” There is little reason to believe that what’s being learned from these animal models will put us on the right path to over evil, understanding let alone curing human brain disorders. Not that such concerns are likely to put a damper on the research. A search for Ulcers Essay example article titles or abstracts containing the words “brain” and “mouse” (or “mice” or “murine”) in the NIH’s PubMed database yields over describe and function and veins, 50,000 results for the decade between 2005 and 2015 alone. If you add the word “rat” to the mix, the number climbs to about 80,000. It’s a classic case of looking for your keys under the streetlight because that’s where the light is: the science is done just because it can be. Ulcers In ICU Essay Example? The results get published and absurdism, they get cited and that creates, Fitzpatrick says, “the sense that we’re gaining knowledge when we’re not gaining knowledge.” But it’s worse than that. Scientists cite one another’s papers because any given research finding needs to be justified and Ulcers in ICU Essay, interpreted in terms of other research being done in related areas one of those “underlying protective mechanisms of triumph evil science.” But what if much of the science getting cited is, itself, of poor quality? Consider, for example, a 2012 report in Science showing that an Alzheimer’s drug called bexarotene would reduce beta-amyloid plaque in mouse brains.

Efforts to Pressure in ICU, reproduce that finding have since failed, as Science reported in February 2016. But in the meantime, the paper has been cited in about 500 other papers, many of which may have been cited multiple times in turn. In this way, poor-quality research metastasizes through the published scientific literature, and distinguishing knowledge that is reliable from knowledge that is alexander the great and mother, unreliable or false or simply meaningless becomes impossible. A scientific model allows you to study a simplified version, or isolated characteristics, of a complex phenomenon. This simplification is sometimes justified, for instance, if the cause-and-effect relations being studied in the model (say, the response of an airfoil to turbulence in a wind tunnel) operate in the same way in the more complex context (an airplane flying through a storm).

In such cases you can have some confidence that what you’ve learned from the model can be applied to the actual problem at hand. Fitzpatrick thinks that such reasoning is not justified when using mouse brains to model human neurodegenerative disease. But her concerns about this way of approaching brain science have more devastating implications when the models are extended still further to explore the neurological aspects of human behavioral dysfunction: Because these questions are incredibly complex and we’re trying to reduce it to some biological models, you have to create proxies. A neuroscientist can’t directly study what makes somebody commit a crime, so instead they say, “Oh I know what it is, these people have a lack of inhibitory control.” So now that’s something I can put my arm around, so I need a task that I can reliably deliver in the laboratory as a marker for inhibitory control. “Oh, and we have one, there’s this reaction-time task . ” Now we’re studying something, calling it something else, creating a causal hypothesis about people’s behavior that’s made up of tenuous links. The problem, as Fitzpatrick explains it, is that in this space between the proxy say, measuring inhibitory control in a mouse, or for that matter a person and a complex behavior, such as drug addiction, lies a theory about what causes crime and addiction and anti-social behavior. The theory “has ideological underpinnings. Pressure? It shapes the kind of questions that get asked, the way research gets structured, the absurdism findings that get profiled, the person that gets asked to give the big speech.” Fitzpatrick is observing what happens when the interplay between science and technology is replaced by the “free play of free intellects.” Scientists can never escape the influence of human bias. But human bias doesn’t have much room to Pressure Ulcers Essay example, get a foothold when research is tightly linked to the performance of a particular technology through, say, the desire for lighter, stronger automobile engines, or for faster, more efficient web search engines. Technology keeps science honest.

But for subjects that are incredibly complex, such as Alzheimer’s disease and criminal behavior, the connection between scientific knowledge and technology is tenuous and mediated by many assumptions assumptions about essay topics students, how science works (mouse brains are good models for human brains); about how society works (criminal behavior is caused by brain chemistry); or about how technology works (drugs that modify brain chemistry are a good way to change criminal behavior). The assumptions become invisible parts of the Ulcers in ICU Essay way scientists design experiments, interpret data, and apply their findings. The result is ever more elaborate theories theories that remain self-referential, and unequal to the task of finding solutions to human problems. All this may go some way toward explaining why the rate of failure of pharmaceutical interventions for Alzheimer’s is so high. When mouse models are used to explore theories of human brain health and behavior, there is no reliable way to assess the validity of the science or the assumptions underlying it. This is not to topics for high, say that scientists should just start conducting on humans the experiments they now perform on Pressure in ICU example mice. But as Fitzpatrick emphasizes, the huge amount of mouse-brain research now being done is a reflection of the internal dysfunction of the research system, not of the potential for english topics the “free play of free intellects” to help alleviate the human suffering caused by neurological disease and dysfunction. But Is It Science? P roblems of values, assumptions, and ideology are not limited to neuroscience but are pervasive across the scientific enterprise.

Just as Derek Price recognized the threat to science from its unsustainable growth decades before the symptoms became painfully apparent, so was the threat of ideology in science flagged long ago by the physicist Alvin Weinberg. A bona fide member of the Pressure Ulcers military-industrial complex, Weinberg ran the Oak Ridge National Laboratory originally part of the the structure and function of arteries Manhattan Project and was a tireless advocate for Ulcers Essay example nuclear energy. Involved as he was in the early political debates over nuclear power, he was concerned about the limits of what science could tell us about complex social and High School Essay, political issues. In his 1972 article “Science and Trans-Science,” Weinberg observed that society would increasingly be calling upon Pressure Ulcers Essay, science to absurdism, understand and address the complex problems of modernity many of Pressure Ulcers Essay which, of course, could be traced back to science and technology. But he accompanied this recognition with a much deeper and more powerful insight: that such problems “hang on the answers to questions that can be asked of science and yet which cannot be answered by science .” He called research into such questions “trans-science.” If traditional sciences aim for precise and reliable knowledge about natural phenomena, trans-science pursues realities that are contingent or in flux. The objects and phenomena studied by and mother trans-science populations, economies, engineered systems depend on many different things, including the particular conditions under which they are studied at a given time and place, and the choices that researchers make about how to define and study them. This means that the objects and phenomena studied by Pressure in ICU Essay example trans-science are never absolute but instead are variable, imprecise, uncertain and thus always potentially subject to interpretation and debate. By contrast, Weinberg argues, natural sciences such as physics and chemistry study objects that can be characterized by triumph a small number of measurable variables. For example, in classical physics, once the position, velocity, and forces acting on a physical object are known, the movement of Ulcers in ICU that object be it a pebble or a planet may be predicted. Over Evil? (This is Ulcers in ICU, not the case in quantum physics, in english essay for high students which the position and velocity of Pressure Ulcers individual particles can no longer be measured simultaneously with precision. But, Weinberg points out, “even in quantum physics, we can make precise predictions” about statistical distributions of molecules or atoms or particles.) Moreover, the triumph over evil objects of study whether the mass of an electron, the structure of a molecule, or the energy released by Pressure Essay example a chemical reaction can be precisely defined and unambiguously characterized in ways that all scientists can generally agree upon. As Weinberg puts it: “Every hydrogen atom is the same as every other hydrogen atom.”

This combination of predictable behavior and invariant fundamental attributes is alexander the great and mother, what makes the physical sciences so valuable in contributing to Ulcers in ICU, technological advance the electron, the photon, the english essay topics students chemical reaction, the crystalline structure, when confined to the controlled environment of the laboratory or the Pressure in ICU Essay example engineered design of a technology, behaves as it is supposed to behave pretty much all the time. But many other branches of science study things that cannot be unambiguously characterized and english essay topics school students, that may not behave predictably even under controlled conditions things like a cell or a brain, or a particular site in the brain, or a tumor, or a psychological condition. Or a species of bird. In ICU Essay? Or a toxic waste dump. Or a classroom. Or “the economy.” Or the earth’s climate. Such things may differ from one day to the next, from one place or one person to english topics for high students, another. Their behavior cannot be described and predicted by the sorts of general laws that physicists and chemists call upon, since their characteristics are not invariable but rather depend on the context in Ulcers in ICU which they are studied and the way they are defined.

Of course scientists work hard to come up with useful ways to characterize the things they study, like using the notion of a species to classify biologically distinct entities, or GDP to define the scale of absurdism a nation’s economy, or IQ to measure a person’s intelligence, or biodiversity to assess the health of an ecosystem, or global average atmospheric temperature to assess climate change. Or they use statistics to characterize the behavior of a heterogeneous class of things, for example the rate of accidents of drivers of a certain age, or the incidence of a certain kind of Pressure example cancer in people with a certain occupation, or the likelihood of a certain type of tumor to metastasize in topics a mouse or a person. But these ways of naming and describing objects and phenomena always come with a cost the cost of Ulcers Essay being at best only an approximation of the complex reality. Thus scientists can breed a strain of mouse that tends to display loss of what is metabolism in biology cognitive function with aging, and the similarities between different mice of that strain may approximate the kind of homogeneity possessed by the objects studied by physics and chemistry. This makes the mouse a useful subject for research.

But we must bear the cost of that usefulness: the Ulcers in ICU example connection between the the structure and function and veins phenomena studied in that mouse strain and the more complex phenomena of in ICU Essay example human diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, is tenuous or even, as Susan Fitzpatrick worries, nonexistent. For Weinberg, who wanted to describe the structure and veins, advance the case for civilian nuclear power, calculating the probability of Ulcers in ICU Essay example a catastrophic nuclear reactor accident was a prime example of a trans-scientific problem. “Because the probability is so small, there is no practical possibility of determining this failure rate directly i.e., by is metabolism building, let us say, 1,000 reactors, operating them for 10,000 years and tabulating their operating histories.” Instead of science, we are left with a mélange of science, engineering, values, assumptions, and ideology. Thus, as Weinberg explains, trans-scientific debate “inevitably weaves back and forth across the boundary between what is and in ICU Essay, what is not known and knowable.” More than forty years and three major reactor accidents later, scientists and advocates, fully armed with data and research results, continue to what is metabolism in biology, debate the risks and promise of nuclear power. To ensure that science does not become completely infected with bias and personal opinion, Weinberg recognized that it would be essential for scientists to “establish what the limits of Pressure Ulcers in ICU example scientific fact really are, where science ends and trans-science begins.” But doing so would require “the kind of selfless honesty which a scientist or engineer with a position or status to maintain finds hard to exercise.” Moreover, this is “not at alexander the great father and mother all easy since experts will often disagree as to the extent and reliability of Ulcers in ICU Essay example their expertise.” Weinberg’s pleas for “selfless honesty” in drawing the lines of expertise have gone largely unheeded, as scientists have, over the past forty years, generally sought not to distinguish trans-science from science but to try through what amounts to a modern sort of alchemy to transmute trans-science into science. In fact, the great thing about trans-science is that you can keep on doing research; you can, as Fitzpatrick says, create “the sense that we’re gaining knowledge when we’re not gaining knowledge,” without getting any closer to a final or useful answer. In the alexander father and mother absence of a technological application that can select for useful truths that work in the real world of light switches, vaccines, and aircraft, there is Ulcers in ICU Essay example, often no “right” way to discriminate among or organize the mass of topics truths scientists create. This is Pressure example, why, to take another endlessly contested example, after decades of intensive research about the effects of salt reduction on health, there is much less clarity today than in 1972, when a paper reported: “The evidence that salt induces permanent and fatal hypertension is direct, quantitative, and unequivocal in the rat.” Four decades later, the head of the Centers for Disease Control and School Essay, Prevention was affirming that one hundred thousand deaths per year in the United States can be attributed to too much dietary sodium, even as a major meta-analysis of 167 randomized controlled trials and 13 population studies since 1950 found no clear connection between salt reduction and health outcomes. Scientists and interest groups line up on both sides of the salt debate, avidly impugning the motives and Ulcers Essay example, research of those they disagree with. The profusion of partial truths, each defended by its own set of experts, is what comes to pass when science tries to answer trans-scientific questions like: Are genetically engineered crops necessary for feeding a burgeoning global population? Does exposure to Bisphenol A (or any of ten thousand other synthetic chemicals) adversely affect childhood development or otherwise harm human health?

Do open markets benefit all trading partners? What will be the future economic costs of is metabolism a warming climate to a particular nation or region? Does standardized testing improve educational outcomes? Why is obesity rising in America, and what can be done about it? If both scientific research and political debates over such questions seem to drag on endlessly, surely one reason is that we have the wrong expectations of science. Our common belief is that scientific truth is Pressure Ulcers in ICU, a unitary thing there is one fact of the matter, that’s why the light always goes on when I flip the topics school students switch. But trans-scientific questions often reveal multiple truths, depending in part on what aspects of an Pressure Ulcers Essay, issue scientists decide to do research on the great and mother and how they go about doing that research. There is no point in asking who is right in such cases; the Pressure Essay best we can hope for is to understand why experts are disagreeing, which often hinges on highly technical choices about how to carry out research and analyze data, not to mention the hidden biases that help determine those choices. Consider the literature question “Are genetically modified crops more productive than conventional crops?” Some researchers prefer to answer this question by looking at field trials that allow variables like weather and soil type to Ulcers in ICU Essay example, be carefully controlled.

Others prefer surveys of actual farms, because they reflect real-world variability. These two approaches often yield contradictory results, and there is no way of adjudicating based on the data which of the two provides a better guide to the future. Sometimes the problem is is metabolism in biology, not that it is hard to come up with facts, but that it is all too easy. This is in ICU Essay, why science almost never provides a solution to politically controversial issues. Usually it does the opposite, providing peer-reviewed and thus culturally validated truths that can be selected and literature, assembled in whatever ways are necessary to support the position and Ulcers in ICU, policy solution of your choice.

If this observation seems implausible or overstated, consider that after forty years of research on the risks and benefits of mammograms, their effectiveness is more contested than ever; similarly, after more than twenty-five years and $15 billion of School Sports in America research to assess the safety of the Ulcers in ICU Essay example Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository site in absurdism Nevada, nothing has resulted beyond political gridlock. In neither case does the science add up to a unitary truth. Essay? What we have, instead, is father and mother, trans-science that “weaves back and forth across the boundary between what is and Pressure in ICU example, what is not known and alexander and mother, knowable.” There is in ICU Essay example, a very good reason why the problem of poor-quality science is showing up most conspicuously in biomedical research. Even as government funding for High School in America biomedical science in the United States equals that of all other fields of research combined, diseases remain uncured, pharmaceutical innovation has slowed to a crawl, and in ICU, corporate investments are extremely risky because of the staggering failure rates of new drug trials. The Great And Mother? Biomedical science is failing the truth-test of technology. But the more difficult and dangerous threat to science comes from areas of research where the stakes are high but the Ulcers validity of the science cannot be determined precisely because it is literature, not closely tied to Pressure in ICU Essay example, technological progress toward a specific, shared goal (like curing breast cancer). What? In these cases, science delivers partial truths, any one of which can advance the career of a researcher and attract a constituency of Ulcers in ICU Essay example believers among scientists, political interest groups, and alexander father and mother, members of the public alike.

Even the vaunted scientific consensus around climate change which largely rests on fundamental physics that has been well understood for more than a century applies only to a narrow claim about the Pressure Ulcers in ICU Essay example discernible human impact on global warming. The minute you get into questions about the rate and severity of future impacts, or the what in biology costs of and best pathways for addressing them, no semblance of consensus among experts remains. Mathematical models of future rates and Pressure Ulcers Essay example, consequences of climate change are highly sensitive to assumptions about and veins, things that are totally unpredictable (such as trends in economic growth or technological innovation), and so the in ICU Essay models spew out endless streams of trans-scientific facts that allow for describe the structure claims and Pressure Essay example, counterclaims, all apparently sanctioned by science, about how urgent the problem is and what needs to describe and veins, be done. Pressure Ulcers? If we were instead to exercise the “selfless honesty” advocated by Weinberg and own up to the assumptions that led us to the results of the climate (or mouse) models, then we would have to abandon any claim to an absolute, scientific truth that gives those results their legitimacy in society. T hese difficulties are about to get much worse. Many fields of science are now staking their futures on what is sometimes called “big data” the the great father creation of enormous new data sets enabled by new technological tools for collecting, storing, and analyzing virtually infinite amounts of information. So, for Pressure Ulcers in ICU Essay example, we are told that President Obama’s Brain Initiative will “open new doors to father, explore how the brain records, processes, uses, stores, and retrieves vast quantities of information, and Ulcers example, shed light on the complex links between brain function and english for high school, behavior.” The Obama administration’s Precision Medicine Initiative will “tailor treatment and prevention strategies to people’s unique characteristics, including their genome sequence, microbiome composition, health history, lifestyle, and diet.” The international Future Earth project will seek “to observe, monitor, explain and in ICU Essay, model the state of the planet and its societies,” so that decision-makers can “move towards prediction and informed management of the Earth system.” The National Ecological Observatory Network will seek the same for ecosystems by deploying “measurement infrastructure and cyberinfrastructure that deliver standardized, calibrated data to the scientific community through a single, openly accessible data portal.” The Ocean Observatories Initiative will “measure the physical, chemical, geological, and biological variables in topics for high the ocean and seafloor . for improved detection and forecasting of environmental changes and their effects on biodiversity, coastal ecosystems, and climate.” The imperative of technological advance focuses scientific inquiry, and provides a test for the validity of new scientific knowledge. Big data does the opposite, casting science into a sea of data with few constraints on in ICU Essay where it might drift.

The difficulty with this way of doing science is alexander father and mother, that for any large body of data pertaining to a complex problem with many variables, the number of possible causal links between variables is inestimably larger than the number a scientist could actually think up and test. For example, researchers have identified more than a hundred variables that may influence obesity, from genes to education to job stress to how fast you eat to whether you were breastfed. Exploring the relations between even some small number of combined variables would give you billions of possible hypotheses to test. The likelihood that you will happen upon one that reveals important causal relations is Pressure example, thus extremely small, while the opportunities for introducing bias or discovering meaningless correlations abound. And Function And Veins? So even if you get a positive result, it will likely be spurious. As John Ioannidis explains in his famous 2005 article “Why Most Published Research Findings Are False,” the problem of searching for Ulcers a small number of possible true relationships in absurdism literature large data sets “totally reverses the way we view scientific results. Traditionally, investigators have viewed large and highly significant effects with excitement, as signs of important discoveries. Too large and too highly significant effects may actually be more likely to be signs of large bias in most fields of modern research.” But no matter once you have a positive finding, the web puts the world’s scientific literature at your beck and in ICU Essay example, call, and you can effortlessly trawl for peer-reviewed published papers to lend credibility to your discovery. And even if you do happen to describe the structure of arteries, confirm a real causal link, for it to be useful you would probably have to connect it to other such links, each of which is Pressure in ICU Essay, itself unlikely to be true. Perhaps obese people with less education, more job stress, and a specific genetic marker do eat more quickly than others, but the reason they are obese may be due to absurdism, something else entirely, say, not having time to exercise because they live far from work. If mouse models are like looking for your keys under the street lamp, big data is like looking all over the world for Pressure Ulcers Essay example your keys because you can even if you don’t know what they look like or where you might have dropped them or whether they actually fit your lock.

So another reason why biomedical science is out in front of evil other fields in terms of revelations of in ICU example irreproducibility and false results may be that it staked its future on big data earlier than other areas of science especially through mapping of the human genome, which pretty much everyone agrees has been an incredibly powerful catalyst for scientific research while generating unfathomably huge amounts of data but, at over evil best, yielding modest health care benefits. As Michelle Gittelman, a professor of management at Ulcers in ICU example Rutgers University who studies pharmaceutical innovation, puts it in a recent paper: The biotechnology revolution was bound to fail, given the limits of essay topics school students predictive science to solve problems in complex natural phenomena. [T]he experience of genetics in medical research has demonstrated that a moving frontier in scientific knowledge does not translate to Pressure, a corresponding advance in technological innovation. Indeed, she suggests that “the application of genetics and molecular science to medical discovery could hinder, rather than accelerate, progress.” The situation with regard to cancer is summed up in a 2014 essay in the journal Cell by M.I.T.’s Robert Weinberg, a leading cancer researcher: “The data that we now generate overwhelm our abilities of interpretation, and in biology, the attempts of the Pressure Essay example new discipline of ‘systems biology’ to School Sports in America Essay, address this shortfall have to date produced few insights into cancer biology beyond those revealed by simple, home-grown intuition.” Blinded by the lie, enthralled by the power of Ulcers in ICU new technologies not to solve discrete problems but to gather, store, test, and analyze billions of terabytes of data about everything that goes on anywhere from Earth’s core to the human brain to the outer atmosphere and religiously dedicated to the notion that more information, more peer-reviewed publications, and more funding is always a step in the right direction, whatever direction that may be, the over evil scientific community and in ICU example, its supporters are now busily creating the infrastructure and what is metabolism in biology, the expectations that can make unreliability, knowledge chaos, and multiple conflicting truths the essence of science’s legacy.

Science is in Pressure a pincer grip, squeezed between revelations that entire areas of scientific inquiry are no good, and and function and veins, the willy-nilly production of Pressure Essay example unverifiable knowledge relevant to the unanswerable questions of trans-science. Even as the what is metabolism resulting chaos compromises technological progress aimed at, say, preventing or curing breast cancer the boundary between objective truth and subjective belief appears, gradually and terrifyingly, to be dissolving. Managing for Truth. F or twenty years Jeff Marqusee had to come up with practical solutions to environmental problems for the Department of Defense. His approach was nothing short of Pressure Essay heresy. “You want to english for high school, actually manage research.” With a Ph.D. from M.I.T., Marqusee too is Pressure Ulcers in ICU example, a child of the lie. “Culturally I was very much trained as a basic scientist. I did statistical physics. My thesis was about as esoteric and useless as you can be. It was fun.” He genuflects, as we all must, but then moves on: “You don’t need to manage the Sports in America lone guy that’s brilliant.

That ain’t the problem.” Most scientists aren’t Einstein or E. Pressure Essay? O. Wilson, and most research doesn’t have the potential by itself to be particularly earth-shattering. High In America Essay? If people expect scientific research even basic, long-term research to contribute to a larger goal, there must be some mechanism of accountability for driving it toward that goal. Pressure Ulcers In ICU? Like Visco and Fitzpatrick, Marqusee thinks that the topics students absence of such accountability has led to “a system which produces far too many publications” and has “too many mouths to feed.” When Marqusee talks about the need to “manage research” he doesn’t mean telling scientists how they should do their work, or even what they should work on; he means making sure that the science that’s being done makes sense in Ulcers example terms of the goal to School Sports Essay, which it is supposed to contribute. The types of Pressure in ICU example questions Marqusee needed to have answered at DOD were essentially trans-scientific the alexander the great father and mother necessary truths and effective solutions were contextual, varying from Ulcers in ICU Essay, one situation to the next. Is Metabolism? They were biased toward the local and in ICU, specific, rather than career-enhancing discoveries. To figure out, for describe the structure and function and veins example, “how to protect my soldiers” from poisons like lead, cadmium, and chromium in the soil on military bases, he first had to understand questions like: How does the dry, poor-quality soil typical of Pressure in ICU Essay many military bases affect soldiers’ exposure to toxic chemicals? And how, in turn, do soldiers’ diets affect their stomach chemistry and the toxicity of various chemicals once they enter the body? Marqusee’s programs devised methods for essay for high school cleaning up polluted groundwater that were more cost-effective than those developed by Ulcers in ICU Essay other government agencies or previously used by the private sector. His office funded research that allowed the Environmental Protection Agency to and function of arteries, tighten standards for lead exposure on Army bases. He supported ecological research on how best to protect the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, which nests in Pressure in ICU Essay example forests on military bases in the southeastern United States and improved both the ecosystem and military training in literature the process. “It turns out, if you treat your landscape to Pressure Ulcers in ICU example, maintain good habitat for red-cockaded woodpeckers, you also create a forest which is a helluva a lot prettier, more resilient and Sports in America Essay, better for dismounted training.

But you just have to be careful during certain weeks, when there is certain nesting behavior happening, that you’re not firing small arms next to Pressure Essay example, them.” The scientific knowledge necessary to solve these sorts of problems would never be spontaneously generated by “the free play of is metabolism in biology free intellects.” Marqusee came to realize that if he funded scientists and left them alone to do their work, he’d end up with a lot of Pressure Ulcers in ICU Essay useless knowledge and a lot of unsolved problems. It’s not as though he didn’t fund rigorous, fundamental research: “Sure we wanted to have high-quality publications, we wanted to advance the the great scientific field, but why? Because we had a problem we wanted to solve.” The beautiful lie insists that scientists ought to be accountable only to themselves. Marqusee’s advice to his staff was precisely the contrary: “Have no constituency in the research community, have it only in the end-user community.” Sometimes he would have to put an end to projects that were scientifically productive but did not contribute to his mission. One such project “a basic research project, great proposal” promised to Pressure, develop indicators that could show when activities on a military facility were having adverse effects on a protected animal species before it suffered severe population decline. But during a project review Marqusee came to understand that the researcher was simply identifying and measuring “all sorts of biomarkers steroidal stress levels, dozens of them,” and triumph over evil, that in Pressure Essay example the end he would find lots of correlations, just as you can find a million reasons for why Americans are growing obese or why public school performance isn’t improving or why lack of literature inhibitory control will make you a drug-addled criminal. Such findings would surely have stimulated debate and more research, leading to Pressure Ulcers in ICU, more publications and topics students, professional advancement but they would not have helped a military base manager predict the Pressure Essay example specific causes of the decline of a particular species. “So we killed the project.” And yet . Alexander The Great Father And Mother? “The scientist was looking at some very innovative biomarkers.

And there might have been some unanticipated spin-off which might have been useful which is always the justification for all basic research, right? NSF would have never killed the project.” Right. Not only would the National Science Foundation never have killed it, but it exemplifies the big data spirit that is fast becoming the Pressure Ulcers in ICU example new face of science. But if your constituency, to use Marqusee’s term, is society, not scientists, then the choice of what data and knowledge you need has to literature, be informed by Ulcers in ICU Essay the real-world context of the problem to be solved. The questions you ask are likely to be very different if your end goal is to describe the structure and function of arteries, solve a concrete problem, rather than only to advance understanding. That’s why the symbiosis between science and in ICU Essay example, technology is so powerful: the technology provides focus and discipline for the science.

But Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has led to institutional cultures organized and incentivized around pursuing more knowledge, not solving problems. Marqusee quips that the best way to triumph over evil, reorient scientists would be to “pay them to care about the Ulcers in ICU problem.” Or maybe just send them to triumph, the Peace Corps before they go to graduate school. At least that’s what A. Pressure? J. Kumar did, after getting his undergraduate degree in physics at Stanford. Working in a small South African village for two years, Kumar began to see science as a way to leverage his impact on the world, and this made him skeptical of the culture of the lie. Like Marqusee, Kumar understands and appreciates the role of fundamental science, but he also recognizes how the logic of the and function of arteries lie justifies “digging down deeper and deeper on a single subject without stopping to ask why we’re doing it in Ulcers Essay the first place.” He thinks there’s “room for more intentionality in triumph over evil how we do science.” In the applied physics Ph.D. program at Harvard, Kumar started with an interest in linking science to health care needs in poor countries. He quickly focused on Pressure Essay example a specific question: “How do we bring the information that we get from studying blood into low-resource settings?” The question pushed him in two directions: into what in biology the social context, to Pressure Essay example, see what needs could be met with better information on blood; and into the science, to see what theories and tools could provide that information. So he talked to doctors who had experience working in Africa, and he talked to scientists in his lab and the structure and veins, elsewhere, and this eventually led to Pressure, a convergence between the two: a technique to separate proteins using a simple type of centrifuge that had been around for fifty years. This technique could be used for describe and function separating blood cells, which could potentially help diagnose sickle-cell disease, a health problem that lacked a quick, cheap, portable, and reliable diagnostic procedure.

Kumar wraps up the story with modest alacrity: “So we were able to Ulcers, get some collaborators, start researching, doing the Sports first experiments, and Pressure Essay, getting initial positive results,” showing that sickle-cell could reliably be diagnosed by triumph over density separation. Ulcers In ICU Essay? “This allowed us to really charge forward and start the quest for funding, clinical validation, and trials, which took up the rest of my Ph.D.” The test he came up with can be done on-site in fifteen minutes, and it costs less than a dollar. Kumar was a one-man medical-industrial complex, coordinating all aspects of the research process, including commercial development, and using technological performance as a ruthless arbiter of scientific progress. In short, he made his research accountable to the end-user rather than to his scientific peers. “More intentionality in topics students how we do science”: A.J. Kumar in Zambia demonstrating the in ICU example sickle-cell test Courtesy A.J. Kumar. This is really all that Fran Visco is asking for.

Of course ending breast cancer is a vastly more complex scientific and organizational problem than finding a cheap and fast way to diagnose sickle-cell disease. But that would seem to be all the more reason why, after all the billions spent and with forty thousand women a year still dying from the disease in the United States alone someone needed to be accountable for driving the triumph system toward a solution. So Visco and her colleagues decided that NBCC would shoulder that burden and start managing the science itself. “We just got tired after all of these years of seeing so much that really wasn’t going to make a big difference. We have no interest in the continued funding of these things.” Working first with the patient-advocacy community, NBCC identified a key question that it thought could focus research: How could you develop a preventative vaccine for breast cancer? In March 2010, NBCC brought together a diverse group of Pressure Ulcers Essay example scientists to see if this was a question that could decisively be pursued given the current state of absurdism literature knowledge; the group’s consensus view was that it could and it should. Lacking a big checkbook to fund research directly, NBCC instead began to in ICU example, bring scientists together to compare ideas and results, foster collaborations that weren’t happening but should have been, and accelerate the process of developing and alexander and mother, testing a vaccine. It set a deadline 2020 for ending breast cancer and staked its credibility on achieving at least major progress by Pressure Essay example that date. The deadline has been much criticized by the mainstream research community “Discovery does not answer to deadlines” was the the great predictable dismissal in a Nature editorial. Visco totally gets this; it’s how scientists evade accountability.

The deadline is NBCC’s ballsy and high-risk alternative. Visco rejects the Essay example idea that after decades of research and billions in funding, ending breast cancer can still be a matter of just waiting for someone to make an unexpected discovery. “We decided that we just needed to take control because we have an agenda, our agenda is to end breast cancer and save lives and that’s it.” NBCC has attracted about thirty scientists, many of them from what in biology, leading cancer research groups, to work on the Artemis vaccine project, now in its sixth year. “These are people who never would have collaborated and never would have been asking this question if it weren’t for us,” says Visco. Pressure Ulcers Example? They have selected the antigens that will be targeted by the vaccine, and are starting to plan for clinical trials, to think about how they can ensure affordability and access if the trials succeed, and even to triumph, explore the idea of starting up a nonprofit vaccine company. With the vaccine effort successfully underway, NBCC also started a second leg of the Artemis Project, this one focused on stopping breast cancer from metastasizing to other parts of the body, a problem that had, like vaccine research, mostly been neglected by the mainstream research community. The Artemis Project is different from science-as-usual in many ways. It is small, collaborative, and focused not on producing good science for its own sake, nor on making a profit, but on solving a problem.

It takes its research agenda from patient advocates, not from scientists. Accountability to the end user past, present, and future breast cancer patients is Pressure Ulcers, built into english essay topics for high school the program. Frank Calzone, who for twenty years worked at the biotechnology company Amgen, ultimately as a scientific executive director, and who is a longtime technical advisor to NBCC, sees the Artemis vaccine effort as combining the focus and Ulcers Essay, deadlines of industry with the openness and collaboration of academia. Describe The Structure And Function And Veins? “It’s an industry-academic hybrid, with advocates in charge, which is what’s unique.” Above all he credits the Ulcers example patient-advocates for understanding and driving the science in ways it wouldn’t otherwise have gone. “They’re about is metabolism in biology, primary breast cancer prevention. Nobody’s ever considered that feasible in the vaccine world or the pharmacology world.” In 2010, when Artemis was just getting organized, “there were traditional immunologists who said we’re crazy.” Six years later, Calzone finds himself “very impressed that we learn things that I would have never foreseen about the tractability of this approach.” He credits Visco: “Fran, by focusing on something impossible, has gotten people interested in revisiting dogma.” Will the Ulcers in ICU Essay vaccine succeed? No one can know, but it’s the wrong question. The right question is why it took a fearless lawyer to get science to do what the in biology lie tells us will happen automatically. Returning to Our World. I s science today just the latest candidate for inclusion in the growing list of failing institutions that seems to characterize our society? As with democratic politics, criminal justice, health care, and public education, science’s organization and culture are captured by a daunting, self-interested inertia, and a set of values reflecting a world that no longer exists.

Yet science does have advantages over other sclerotic institutions. Within the scientific enterprise lie innumerable niches in which other ways of organizing research can be explored. In ICU Essay? Yes, the system that each year generates twenty-five thousand promising new Ph.D. Is Metabolism? scientists and nearly two million new articles of mostly dubious value exemplifies the rigid paradigm within which much of science operates. But Kumar notes a “hunger” among the young scientists he knows to do more than just add to the piles of esoteric knowledge. Their challenge will be to find the niches in the system that allow them to Pressure in ICU example, contribute something more, allowing the system to evolve, gradually, in a better direction. Indeed, an especially hopeful attribute of science is that it can be leveraged even by individuals and small organizations to have big impacts, as Visco, Marqusee, and Kumar have shown. In the future, the most valuable science institutions will be closely linked to triumph, the people and places whose urgent problems need to be solved; they will cultivate strong lines of accountability to those for whom solutions are important; they will incentivize scientists to care about the problems more than the production of knowledge. They will link research agendas to the quest for improved solutions often technological ones rather than to understanding for its own sake. Pressure Essay? The science they produce will be of higher quality, because it will have to be.

The current dominant paradigm will meanwhile continue to crumble under the weight of its own contradictions, but it will also continue to hog most of the resources and insist on its elevated social and political status. The renowned chemist George Whitesides (who, perhaps not coincidentally, was Kumar’s Ph.D. advisor) argued in The Economist in High 2012 that, in the past century or so, purely curiosity-driven science has delivered only one or two fundamentally transformational breakthroughs (quantum mechanics and perhaps genomics), and Ulcers in ICU Essay example, that, given this performance record, keeping science separate from technology “may or may not be an affordable luxury.” A different way to put it might be that the sort of undisciplined exploration that Vannevar Bush was peddling back in 1945 should be seen now in much the same light as space travel, support for the arts or for public monuments, and wilderness protection. However worthwhile and ennobling it may be for its own sake, it cannot be justified in terms of solving problems or guiding policy decisions or even of leading toward verifiable truth. In this light, Susan Fitzpatrick faces a particularly difficult challenge. She wants the philanthropic foundation that she leads to maximize the absurdism potential for neuroscience to help reduce human suffering, but she doesn’t think that this field has much to say yet about lessening the terrible burdens of Pressure Essay most brain diseases. She thinks that much of neuroscience has been seduced by what she terms the “dogma” of reductionism. “Everyone is convinced that if you can find the genetic molecular explanation for something now then you understand it and hence you can fix it, even though there is literally no evidence for absurdism literature this.” She wants to insulate the scientists that the foundation funds from some of the cultural pressures to do research that quickly leads to publishable results, and provide them time “to ask important questions, be careful about what they’re doing, be skeptical of their own results.” One project underway looks at extreme long-term survivors of Ulcers in ICU Essay example malignant brain cancer to see how their tumors interact with the rest of the body and other environmental influences. Why do treatment technologies that are ineffective for literature most patients show positive results for a very few? It’s a problem that links technological performance to scientific advance the sweet spot for fundamental research.

But Fitzpatrick also wonders if biomedical science undervalues other kinds of research that could offer solutions to pressing problems. “There’s not a lot of research on how best to socially, emotionally, environmentally, support Alzheimer’s patients, that might ameliorate their own anxiety, their own stress maybe the disease, as horrible as it is, would be less horrible through a better care structure, but we do very little research on Ulcers example that.” Perhaps for now, research to help people with these diseases ought to aim at more practical questions. “I don’t think you can tell people ‘Well, we’ve got another forty years of research that we’re going to have to do’ when we also don’t know if there are better ways of supporting people.” And maybe in the process of understanding how better to help patients, scientists will discover things about the course of the disease and its varieties that can lead to effective therapies. “What’s been lost is the School Sports in America Essay continual back-and-forth between the science and the real disease” that has, historically, been the source of major medical advances. Advancing according to its own logic, much of science has lost sight of the better world it is supposed to help create. Shielded from accountability to Ulcers in ICU example, anything outside of itself, the “free play of free intellects” begins to seem like little more than a cover for indifference and absurdism literature, irresponsibility. Pressure Ulcers Essay? The tragic irony here is that the stunted imagination of mainstream science is absurdism, a consequence of the very autonomy that scientists insist is the Pressure in ICU key to their success. Only through direct engagement with the real world can science free itself to in biology, rediscover the path toward truth. Daniel Sarewitz is a professor of science and Pressure Essay, society at Arizona State University’s School for over the Future of Innovation and Society, and the co-director of the university’s Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes.

He is Pressure Ulcers Essay example, also the co-editor of Issues in Science and Technology and a regular columnist for the journal Nature . Daniel Sarewitz, Saving Science, The New Atlantis , Number 49, Spring/Summer 2016, pp. 440.

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10 Surprising Banana Health Benefits. Bananas are one of natures great snack foods, but did you know that theyre also packed with health benefits? Most of us know theyre a great source of Pressure Ulcers Essay example potassium but Im going to share some of the more surprising banana health benefits - my favourite is hangover cure! Read on for 10 banana health benefits that will give you more energy, improved digestion and even improve the way you look and feel. Absurdism Literature! Potassium is an Essay, essential mineral which maintains proper heart function and High Sports, regulates your blood pressure. Potassium-rich foods such as bananas actually offset the effect of sodium (salt) in raising your blood pressure. This, along with a healthy diet and Pressure in ICU, lifestyle, lowers your risk of what is metabolism in biology heart attack and Ulcers in ICU example, stroke. The Great And Mother! (source) This isnt pseudoscience. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows the banana industry to Ulcers in ICU Essay, make official claims, much like they would a pharmaceutical drug, with respect to the reduction in risk of literature high blood pressure and stroke. Research published in the American Heart Associations journal suggests eating bananas regularly can cut your risk of having a stroke by up to 20%. (source) Bananas potassium content also benefits your kidneys and bones.

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Some people are worried about bananas spiking blood sugar, but tests show they actually have a glycemic index of around 52, with 24 g of available carbs (lower the less ripe they are). Thats a glycemic load in what in biology the vicinity of 12 which isnt considered that high. These figures will obviously vary depending on variety and ripeness. Ulcers Essay! (source) Bananas make a great work snack to combat that mid-afternoon slump. Theyre a good choice for weight loss too - a small banana contains about 100 calories and will satisfy your sweet cravings. If you can replace candy bars and other junk foods with bananas, its a helpful step towards losing weight.

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Many testimonials online have reported good results with these simple treatments, though results with natural cures can be varied. Describe And Function Of Arteries! Id be interested to hear from anyone whos tried any of these techniques for themselves. In addition to the high levels of potassium and vitamin B6 mentioned above, bananas also have high levels of Pressure Ulcers example vitamin C, magnesium and manganese. And Function And Veins! They are also a source of most of the in ICU Essay example, other B vitamins and smaller amounts of trace minerals like iodine, iron, selenium and zinc. (source) Recent Japanese animal research linked bananas that are fully ripe (with dark spots) to production of a compound called TNFa. This is a cytokine believed to have the potential to increase white blood cell count, thus enhancing your immunity and combating cancerous cell changes. (source) Personally, I dont put too much stock in animal studies. Alexander The Great! Regardless, increasing overall fruit consumption in your diet has been consistently linked to a lower risk of developing various cancers.

9. Improves Mood and Reduces Stress. Bananas are a good source of the amino acid tryptophan which your body converts to serotonin. Amongst many other things, proper serotonin levels help improve your mood, reduce stress and enhance your general outlook and Pressure in ICU Essay, happiness levels. It also helps regulate your sleep patterns. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid because the only way your body gets it is the structure and function of arteries and veins through your diet. Pressure In ICU Essay Example! Bananas, while certainly not the highest source out there, are one of the easiest ways to over, get a little more tryptophan. Another reason why bananas make such a great snack for when youre feeling stressed out at work. (source) Bananas are a great choice for mornings when youve overdone it a bit the night before.

A couple of bananas blended with ice, berries and coconut milk or cows milk makes a really good hangover recovery drink. Just about all of the Pressure Ulcers in ICU Essay example, health benefits weve discussed come into absurdism literature, play here. Of course the better solution is not to drink so much the night before. Ulcers In ICU Essay! But just in case, its good to have some bananas around for the next morning. As I tend to get mine in bulk and dont always finish them before they get too ripe, I like to chop up any excess ones on and mother, their last legs and put them in a container in the freezer.

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At its height, it resembled a city, extending over Pressure Ulcers Essay example, five square miles, mounds and structures that towered over smaller dwellings, and a population, that some believe to have been the largest, north of Mexico. Economics , Economy , Elite 843 Words | 3 Pages. tiny hamlets of thatched huts to larger settlements of tile-roofed stone and brick houses. Most Indian villages are small; nearly 80 percent . have fewer than 1,000 inhabitants, according to the 1991 census. High Sports In America? Most are nucleated settlements, while others are more dispersed. It is in villages that India's most basic business--agriculture--takes place.

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