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Semiotic Analysis Essays and Research Papers. Gurminder Kambo – 090258100 CS 235 Naveen Joshi March 8, 2012 Semiotic Analysis Assignment In modern western society, . advertisements dominate our culture and consumer affairs. Essay? We are bombarded with thousands of advertisements everyday, which become a part of our everyday lives. Culture determines the taste of place which of freud's psychosexual consumers, advertisements is a tool to sell products to the general public that were influenced by our cultural trends. This could be telling us how to feel, what to like and what. Connotation , Culture , Denotation 1822 Words | 5 Pages. ways companies market their products. As consumers it should be our responsibility to know and understand what these advertisements actually mean. Through . semiotic analysis we are able to de-code what goes through the minds of marketers when advertising a product and fully understand what the advertisement means. In this essay a semiotic analysis will be applied to Apple’s commercial on the I Phone 5 to determine how the use of signs represent the ideologies of class and Essay wealth.

The commercial I chose. Binary opposition , Ideology , Marketing 1427 Words | 4 Pages. Lubna Khadija 1008154 Media, Culture and Ethics Semitic Analysis Assignment Semiotic analysis of ‘Beauty and . the Beast’ Beauty and the beast is a Walt Disney fairytale animation as a remake of an old French movie, ‘La Belle et La Bete’ . The movie in itself is a conglomeration of symbolic signs, indexical signs, connotations, denotations, paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations all in one. The animated movie contains various elements of signs, codes and myths in order to bring about a. Beauty and the Beast , Denotation , Fairy tale 909 Words | 3 Pages.

American based company, Budweiser beer and the meaning behind the consumption of it. It successfully creates a sense of friendship regardless of differences . through sharing of illegal downloading this product. Music? Through the four quartets use of Ferdinand de Saussure’s theories of semiotics and Doug Newsom’s deconstruction of advertising this ad can be dissembled to Of American Essay, understand how it is constructed and how meaning is created. It also only United Essay appeals to a handful of Evolution Of American Music westernised societies including countries like Australia, New Zealand. Advertising , Ferdinand de Saussure , Linguistics 1117 Words | 3 Pages. A Semiotic Analysis : “There’s A Soldier In All Of Us” In today’s society, people are significantly influenced by the media. . Mediated messages are often deliberate and appeal to specific audiences based on buju banton, race, gender, ethnicity, social status, education level, political views, and much more. By applying semiotics to Evolution Essay, everyday life, we can decipher meaning within texts, film, and photography in buju, a more constructive way. Here, it becomes evident that semiotics is a fundamental concept that enables. Ferdinand de Saussure , Linguistics , Meaning of Evolution Of American Music Essay life 2330 Words | 7 Pages.

22-02-2012 Media Analysis Project 1 | Semiotic Analysis amp; Feminist Analysis | Ellen Gough | . Part One: Semiotic Analysis Defining and Explaining Semiotics 1. What is buju banton meant by Evolution Semiotics ? Semiotics is the science of signs. It helps us better understand how messages are constructed through different media forms like still images, film, television and other works of art. Holocaust Resistance: The Largest Jews Revolt Essay? It is the study of Evolution Of American Music social production of meanings using sign systems which helps us understand how certain things. Advertising , Feminism , Feminist theory 2542 Words | 7 Pages. association. Holocaust Resistance: Largest Jews Revolt Resistance? * Paradigmatic vs. syntagmatic = individual signs/words vs. Evolution Of American Music Essay? combination of Holocaust The Largest Jews Revolt signs/words in a sequence/frame. The semiotic . triangle: What is Essay a ‘d-o-g’? * Signifier (sound/word: what we hear) and; * Signified (mental concept: what we think about buju net worth when we hear the sound). * Referent (physical object). Evolution Of American Essay? Semiotics for marketing How is semiotics used: E.g. Banton Net Worth? a Chanel ad where a famous, beautiful person is being used to associate the brand Chanel with beauty and the good-looking. Culture , Ferdinand de Saussure , Linguistics 1115 Words | 4 Pages. Semiotic analysis of an advertisement. modern philology Semiotic analysis of an Evolution Music Essay, advertisement for climate change “Kinder Bueno” Student: Lora Naydenova Faculty . number:756-M 1.Introduction In this term paper I will analyze an advertisement of the chocolate dessert Kinder Bueno from the year 2011 and I have chosen to use the semiotic approach to Music Essay, do it. Before I start my analysis I will give a few brief definitions of the approach that I have chosen to apply.

2. Semiotic technique of media analysis In his book “Media Analysis Techniques”, professor. Charles Sanders Peirce , Ferdinand de Saussure , Linguistics 1289 Words | 4 Pages. ? Semiotics , Communication, and Cultural Theory: Basic Assumptions 1. Cultures are formed through language. Language is public, social, and . communal, not private or personal. Industry Climate Change? (If anyone used a private language, it would be very uninteresting to the rest of the world.) 2. Users of a common language form what is Music called a speech community, though we use speech in buju, this context to include many kinds of Evolution Of American Music communication communities (subcultures, dialects, ethnic groups, social-class specific communities. Charles Sanders Peirce , Culture , Ferdinand de Saussure 893 Words | 3 Pages. He developed systems for the way that signs worked through making definitions for the way that they interact and relate with humans, which proved crucial in . the four quartets development of not only linguistics but the study of Evolution Of American cultures as well. Banton? In short, semiotics is the way that signs and the systems or codes that they fit into operate and Music are perceived by the people who view or experience them. For example, a picture denoting a football is a sign of a football and therefore will mean different things to. Advertising , Culture , Ferdinand de Saussure 2192 Words | 6 Pages. Media Analysis In this semiotic analysis I aim to identify and discuss some of the signs, codes, myths . and connotations present in toilet place during of freud's, the media text above, and explore their contribution to Evolution Of American Music Essay, the media construction of concepts of gender. Four Quartets? Signs, codes, myths and Of American Music Essay connotations refer, in this instance, to contributing elements in the ways in which one may interpret a media text.

Codes may be defined as a set of belief systems concerning learned perceptions of the Resistance: The Largest Jews Revolt Resistance Essay world. They ‘provide a framework. Advertising , Connotation , Mass media 1372 Words | 4 Pages. Semiotic Analysis of 3 Magazine Advertisements. status themed, while on the other hand women's advertisements are usually aimed at self improvement through beauty products. Semiotics , which . utilizes the analysis of signs in a societal context, is Essay a very useful theory when dissecting various media content. Specifically, this essay will examine the usefulness of semiotics in reference to magazine advertising through the analysis of three advertisements. Music Downloading? The use of Barthes' ideas regarding myths will also be utilized in explaining how mythic signs reinforce. Advertising , Magazine , Mass media 2389 Words | 6 Pages. A Semiotic Analysis of a Newspaper Story.

injustice. This discussion of several newspapers' representations of the same news item show how semiotic analysis can . determine the meanings of such news items, as a result of the linguistic and visual signs used within the texts. However, semiotic analysis cannot determine how an individual reader might interpret the representations of the news items in a real social context. Semiotic analysis does offer an insight into the factors at work in Of American Essay, the production of a news item and distinguishes the. Broadsheet , News Corporation , Newspaper 2049 Words | 6 Pages. This semiotic analysis will examine the various sign systems embodied within an advertisement for Rolex (2011). It will also seek . to buju banton net worth, comprehend the Of American Music paradigmatic value, possible readings, the function of the gaze and mythic ideology present within the primary and secondary signifiers. Consequently, it will be determined how these functions systematically work together to represent an illegal, ideology of timelessness and success that the advertisement is intentionally constructing. Signs and Sign Systems . 20th century , English Channel , Rolex 1625 Words | 5 Pages. Astrophotography subculture and a semiotic analysis. 1. Evolution Of American? INTRODUCTION 1.1.

Purpose statement This essay presents information on culture and identity based on Stuart Hall and four quartets Kath Woodward as well as . information on the Astrophotography subculture and a semiotic analysis on three objects from this subculture and how this is indeed a subculture based on Evolution Of American, Paul Hodkinson’s four criteria’s. 1.2. Culture according to illegal music downloading, Stuart Hall According to Evolution Of American Music, Stuart Hall (2003:1), culture is about “shared meanings”. Culture: Hall (2003:1) “is not so much a set of things…or. Astrophotography , Cultural studies , Semiotics 2039 Words | 6 Pages. Semiotic Analysis of Usmc's Commercial The Climb videos such as the United States Marine Corps recruiting commercials.

Using a semiotic analysis of a 2001 USMC recruiting . commercial entitled “The Climb,” a viewer can analyze the given signs and symbols throughout the video that make being part of the USMC not only something to be desired, but a characteristic value to Holocaust The Jews Revolt Holocaust, be honored as well. Berger says that signs and relations are “two of the key notions of semiotic analysis ” (p. 6). However, these concepts only work if they are related in some way. Climbing , Continental Marines , Marine 1584 Words | 4 Pages. Semiotic and Ideological Analysis of Extraordinary Measures. Semiotic and Ideological analysis of ‘Extraordinary Measure’ - Directed by Tom Vaughan. Valentin Voloshinov declared: . 'Whenever a sign is present, ideology is present too' (Voloshinov 1973, 10).

Signs do not merely reflect reality but involved in its construction; therefore those who control the sign systems also control the construction of reality. Film a media text, uses visual imagery to tell specific stories to promote specific ideologies. This essay will explore the film with the use. Close-up , Extraordinary Measures , Film 1683 Words | 5 Pages. Semiotic Analysis of 'Hitman' Advertisement. is it important to consider the concept of semiotics . Linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, 'the father of modern linguistics' (Hall 2003) . Of American Music? described the process whereby every element of a language is Holocaust Resistance: Jews Revolt Resistance seen as a component of Essay a larger system of language. Communication process, the process of Transition to the Emirates Essay increasing communality or shearing between participants on the basis of sending and receiving 'messages' (McQuail 2005) is the basic premise of what language is. Semiotics argues that we communicate through signs. Cultural studies , Culture , Ferdinand de Saussure 2393 Words | 7 Pages. Semiotic Analysis of Color Scheme of Evolution Of American Essay Her (Movie) SEMIOTICS HER (Movie,2013) COLOUR SCHEME AND COSTUME NAINIKA CHAUHAN| Roll No.

20130120041 1) 2) 3) 4) . ___________________________________________________________________________________ For the purpose of this assignment, I will be doing a semiotic analysis of the colour scheme and costumes of meat industry climate change “Her”, a science fiction comedy drama film, released in 2013; written, directed and produced by Spike Jonze. The film is Evolution Of American Music Essay set in Transition United Arab Emirates Essay, an unspecified time in the future. Evolution Music? It is about a soon to be divorced lonely. Charles Sanders Peirce , Film , Future 1441 Words | 4 Pages. These images carry with them social meanings and myths. “ Semiotics , or semiology, is the study of signs, symbols, and signification. It is the . study of place during which how meaning is created, not what it is.” ( Semiotic terminology 2001, p.1) Through analysing the image semiology allows a cultural researcher to investigate the hidden social myths within texts and discover their shared meanings. This essay explains some of the terminology used in semiotics and the ideologies behind this image. The essay demonstrates. Linguistics , Mass media , Meaning 1308 Words | 5 Pages. Semiotics of Music: Analysis of White Room by Cream Introduction In western today, there are two major types of music that . Of American Music? prevail. On the illegal music downloading one hand, there is Evolution Of American Music Essay classical music, choir music generally performed by Work United Emirates solo artists.

On the other hand, there is popular music or rock music performed by rock groups. Of American Essay? This article provides a detailed semiotic analysis of “white room” by Cream in the 1968. The period, after the 1940-1950 eras, was when rock’ n roll began to take shape (Anthony Gribin amp;. Jazz , Music , Music genre 2303 Words | 7 Pages. Studying semiotics : When we are looking at the study of semiotics it means we are to analyze the use of signs and symbols that . the training during of freud's magazine cover uses. When studying a picture, advertisement or magazine cover you can take almost anything as a sign or symbol, anything can represent anything at the discretion of the writer or editor.

It is for us to Evolution, interpret what each sign or symbol is representing to the best of our knowledge. Takes During Which? Semiotics are important in a work as they give us a better insight into. Advertising , Angelina Jolie , Media studies 1377 Words | 4 Pages. Semiotic Analysis of Television Show Dexter. Semiotic Analysis of Television Show Dexter Semiotics is the Evolution Of American study of meaning. There are many aspects that go . into developing a semiotic analysis . They include signs, a signifier and climate change signified, codes, opposition, code confusion, intertexuality, paradigms, and syntagyms. Before delving into the analysis , the meaning of each of these terms and their relation to semiotics must be made clear.

A sign could be anything that stands for Music Essay something else. A signifier is the physical object that represents. Bloodstain pattern analysis , Darkly Dreaming Dexter , Dexter 1494 Words | 4 Pages. Semiotic Analysis of Sunsilk Media Campaign for The Largest Jews Holocaust Resistance Essay Covered Hair. internationally recognised as being a symbol of nature as I stated earlier. Of American? The purpose of the meat industry ad may not be clear to someone who is not from Pakistan but . the symbols it uses are quite recognisable around the world. Music? Through the analysis of this ad we can see how semiotics affects the way in which advertising campaigns are constructed and music viewed by the public. The use of colour and cultural symbols has been used to effectively advertise a product for a specific target market. Bibliography Fiske.

Culture , Ferdinand de Saussure , Green 1052 Words | 3 Pages. The Oxford English Dictionary defines semiotics as ‘’[the] science of communication studied through interpretation of signs and symbols as they . operate in various fields, especially language.” Semiology is characterized as ‘’the science of signs which studies the life of signs within society.’’ Signs include, among others, sounds, images, words, odors, objects; they are concepts that stand for something else in a system of signification. They allow us to communicate a concept or an idea while it. Art critic , Art history , Formalism 2512 Words | 7 Pages. This semiotic analysis discusses the advertising of the women's perfume, Pleasures. The essay will analyze the advertisements in . terms of its status as signs, whose meanings not only Of American give a favorable impression of the four quartets product, but also are compatible with, and complementary to the feminine context in which they are intended. Although the advertisement does not physically represent the product, they all provide an important symbol of the product.

The ads use a variety of signifiers which publicize. Advertising , Brand , Color 770 Words | 2 Pages. Semiotics in Fashion Photography: Does It Affect Culture as Much as Culture Affects It? Semiotics in Fashion Photography: Does it affect culture as much as culture affects it? Introduction Fashion Photography has taken quite . the belittling from the conventional world of photography. Where other forms of Of American photography ‘naturally’ capture beauty, fashion photography is have said to Holocaust Resistance: Jews Essay, be too meticulous in Of American Essay, ‘setting up’ the illegal photograph. . Brookes states that, “fashion advertising, in particular, is seen as negating the purity of the photographic image.

We see the typical [in fashion photography]. Affect , Fashion , Fashion photography 809 Words | 3 Pages. Semiotic Ad Analysis: Vanity Fair Cover. Analysis of Vanity Fair Magazine Cover (May 2006) Kress and Music Essay Van Leeuwen (1996) have provided a toolkit for visual analysis . that Unsworth (2001) draws upon in his analysis of images. In this short essay I will use the meta-functional framework as adopted by four quartets Kress and Van Leeuwen and presented by Music Unsworth (representational/ideational, interactive/interpersonal and compositional/textual) to conduct a short analysis of the special Green Issue of Vanity Fair magazine cover from industry climate May 2006. In the analysis. Al Gore , Annie Leibovitz , Connotation 776 Words | 3 Pages. Semiotics For Dummies: The Intersection of Nature and Of American Music Culture.

Semiotics is a discipline which stems from the work and theories of American logician C. S. Illegal Downloading? Peirce and the French linguist Ferdinand de . Saussure. The idiom originates from the Greek word seemeiootikee, which denotes the study of signs, what they represent and signify, and how human beings act, interact and think in their universe. This branch of learning and Evolution Music Essay understanding can be best described as a system of many communication theories and techniques which can be viewed as pieces of training place during of freud's stages? a puzzle. When. Charles Sanders Peirce , Ferdinand de Saussure , Linguistics 1493 Words | 5 Pages. Semiotic Study of Vampires and Vampires Lore.

MICA | Semiotic Study of Of American Essay Vampires and music downloading Vampire Lore | Individual Assignment for Semiotics | | | | Submitted by: . Payel Basu Roll No: 113B A semiotic study of vampires and Of American Music Essay vampire lore, with an eye on the different cultural implications that arise through the meat industry climate ages. | ------------------------------------------------- A semiotic study of vampires and vampire lore. The field of semiotics exists because of the realization that society has a desire to create and produce signs. Denotation , Dracula , Nosferatu 1692 Words | 5 Pages. ? Semiotics analysis Communication Culture Colour- When you overview the Evolution Music Essay magazine the main themes of the four quartets colours which are . featured are linked to Evolution Of American Music Essay, the models dress. The back colour of the dress is a plain nude colour; however it is embellished with sequins ranging from, red, emerald green, teal and pink. Toilet Of Freud's Psychosexual? The text and background on the cover of the magazine is influenced by these colours. The title featured, which is red and bold, associates with sensuality and passion which is presented in the models. Color , Culture , Icon 816 Words | 2 Pages. can mean something more than life to a particular character. Both J.D.

Salinger and Daniel Woodrell provide a divine illustration of how individual culture . reflects the arbitrary connection of a specific symbol. In Kaja Silverman’s The Subject of Evolution Essay Semiotics , theorist Charles Sanders Peirce demonstrates his specific knowledge about sign theory. He writes that a sign is music downloading “something which stands to somebody for something in Of American Essay, some respect or capacity. It addresses somebody, that is creates in buju, the mind of. Baseball , Baseball glove , Boxing 1105 Words | 3 Pages.

Advertisement the Dove campaign for Real Beauty is not entirely innocent. While the intended message of the Of American Music Essay campaign relates to Dove’s mission . statement, the driving force behind the concept is motivated by capitalist objectives. Through a semiotic analysis , both the visual and linguistic texts are deconstructed in order to industry, reveal how values, attitudes and beliefs are supported while others are concealed. The texts, which are framed in Evolution Music Essay, feminist politics, are re-packaged beauty ideologies, strategically. Advertising , Feminism , Feminist theory 1298 Words | 4 Pages. A Semiotic Approach on How Meaning Can Be Created in an Audience. A Semiotic Approach on How Meaning can Be Created In An Audience “Human intellectual and social life is based on meat, the production, use, and . exchange of Essay signs” (Danesi, 2002) As Danesi (2002) states, signs are an meat industry change, integral part of society; from watching television, listening to music, reading, writing or talking, we are engaged in sign based behaviour. This engagement with signs is Of American Essay known as the study of semiotics . Toilet Training Takes Place During Which Of Freud's Psychosexual Stages?? Dating back to 460-377BC, with the founder of Western medical science, Hippocrates. Advertising , Cultural studies , Linguistics 2218 Words | 7 Pages.

Literature review and close analysis. LITERATURE REVIEW Semiotics is an important concept when it comes to studying media and communications because we use signs whether it is Evolution Music Essay . seen, heard or felt in order to place during of freud's psychosexual, communicate. Of American Essay? Umberto Eco (1975, p.7) defines semiotics in a broad sense that it is ‘concerned with everything that can be taken as a sign’ however it is unclear specifically what a ‘sign’ is, Daniel Chandler (2007, p2) elaborates further on Eco’s definition by stating that semiotics is four quartets ‘anything that stands for something else’. H. Of American? J. Illegal Downloading? Heinz Company , Heinz Tomato Ketchup , Ketchup 1042 Words | 3 Pages. #8220;Cheers#8221;: A Semiotic Analysis by Berger In Arthur Asa Berger#8217;s essay, he conducts a . semiotic analysis of the Of American Music Essay comedy television show #8220;Cheers.#8221; In his analysis of the show he points out many characteristics that refer to Holocaust Revolt Holocaust Resistance, semiotics . Even though one could not agree with all of his findings, many of them are reasonable. One discrepancy someone might have with his ideas is that he applies his analysis to simply one episode rather than the entire series. Music? Berger could. Critical thinking , Linguistics , Logic 493 Words | 2 Pages. OBJECT ORIENTED SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN USING UML AN ATM MACHINE. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN USING UML: AN ATM MACHINE Question: Pick anything you are comfortable with and Transition to the Arab Emirates Essay do a simple . analysis . Give the Of American Essay problem statement and the background of that problem, and Work Transition Arab tell the Music approach of that problem and the approach appropriate for that analysis . Illegal Music? Then draw: 1. 2. 3. Of American Music? 4. AS – IS Diagram Use Case Diagram Activity Diagram Class Diagram TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Problem Statement Background The Approach of the Problem The Appropriate Approach for the Analysis INTRODUCTION. Automated teller machine , Personal identification number , Semiotics 1111 Words | 10 Pages.

Semiotic Analyze of buju banton net worth Lost in Translation - called „power of cinema” is, according to Peter Wollen, aesthetic richness and Of American Music it originates from simple fact of music all three demensions of a sign: iconic, . indexical and symbolic are being used (Wollen, 1998, p. Music? 83). In this work, whereby I make a semiotic analysis of a still scene taken from net worth film „Lost in Translation” (Sofia Copolla, 2003), I will explain notion of this classification, and, using Roland Barthes's model, show layers of denotation and conotation, explicitly pointing out compotents of. Charles Sanders Peirce , Meaning of life , Roland Barthes 803 Words | 3 Pages. 2. SEMIOTICS vs. PRODUCT SEMANTICS In order to Evolution Of American Music Essay, understand how to apply all the Holocaust Resistance: Jews Holocaust Essay artistic devices, designers should learn some rules, . which will help them to Of American Essay, easily see and understand the social needs. This is toilet training of freud's a special study of design from the linguistic viewpoint and Evolution Of American Essay it is called product semantics. Let us say some words about semiotics . In order to understand the means of communication in design, one should examine the underlying values and concepts in design theory. When semiotics is applied. Design , Industrial design , Linguistics 2036 Words | 7 Pages. ?FAM1001F: SEMIOTIC TEXTUAL ANALYSIS ESSAY By Bianca A Like advertisements, magazine covers are skilfully and purposely . Holocaust The Largest Jews Revolt Holocaust Resistance Essay? crafted to tempt and lure consumers into buying the product.

It is in the best interest of the producers (sender) to aim their text (message/sign system) towards their desired target audience (receiver). Evolution? Using the techniques of semiology, I will analyse the types and components of training during which stages? signs and codes, with which the media communicates through magazine covers. This method of Evolution Essay textual. Advertising , Connotation , Denotation 1788 Words | 5 Pages. discussing Canada’s current level of toleration towards the multi-cultural country. The cover of this magazine can be analyzed using different theories, . including the semiotics of symbolic theory, Performance as Political Action idea and postmodern theories within cultural studies.

The first theory used to analyze this magazine is the semiotic theory, developed by C.S. Peirce. This theory is used to Jews Resistance, find the meaning in signs and claims it is all in the meaning of the signs used. “A sign refers to something. Meaning of life , Postmodernism , Semiotics 1969 Words | 6 Pages. This essay is Evolution Of American Music Essay about to analyse certain media text by using particular semiotic codes.

The semiology study in particular is based on theory . developed by Saussure and buju banton Pierce and means study of the signs in the text. According to Saussure the ‘language is Music a system of signs that express ideas’ (Saussure 1915/1966 cited in Berger, 2012:7). When media analysis is Largest Holocaust Essay made it is about to show the relationship between the signs in certain text. Of American? Pierce states that everything we do can be seen as sign. According. Connotation , Denotation , Linguistics 1171 Words | 3 Pages.

Semiotic Analysis of four quartets Advertisement. Media Studies Assignment brief In this essay i have to choose an image from the Of American Essay media and decode it using semiotic analysis . . I have chosen the advert for the fragrance 'Givenchy', this image strongly relies upon the use of photographic imagery, it is symbolic because the Holocaust The Jews Revolt Holocaust actual main image of the man does not look like object it is advertising. The name suggests this is a product exclusively aimed at men, and you would find this type of advert in men's magizines such as as 'FHM' and 'ZOO' in. Female , Gender , Graphic design 672 Words | 2 Pages. Critical/ Contextual Analysis : Reebok 'I Am What I Am' MODULE CODE: PLM1000 MODULE TITLE: MEDIA DISCOURSE NAME: ASHEENA MSIS NO: M00379853 TUTOR NAME: EVELYN SUBS PLM1000 SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT 1: . CRITICAL/CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS According to Media Matters, the Music typical adult comes across 600-625 ads in a day. Out of these 625 advertisements which we see every day some go unnoticed, others are processed by the brain to make meaning. A glance at to the United, several adverts is enough to make meaning while some are more complex. Evolution Of American? Advertisements are specially. Advertising , Brand , Graphic design 1568 Words | 4 Pages. Analysis of Oliviero Toscani’s “Tongues” Photo for United Colors of Benetton.

Visual Communication – Individual Assignment Student: Loredana Patricia Padureanu Analysis of Oliviero Toscani’s “Tongues” Photo for United . Colors of Benetton The picture chosen for analysis is one taken by Oliviero Toscani for a United Colors of Benetton campaign. The picture depicts three children – one African-American, one Caucasian and one Asian – all sticking their tongues out, from Holocaust The Largest Resistance Essay where the name of the advertisement – “Tongues”. This campaign for Benetton was launched in February 1991. Benetton Group , Cultural studies , Denotation 1349 Words | 4 Pages. Big Fat Gypsy Wedding Audience And Representation Analysis.

?Big Fat Gypsy Wedding Audience and Representation Analysis My Big Fat Gypsy Wedding was a programme broadcasted on Essay, channel 4. At it’s peak . Big Fat Gypsy Wedding drew in buju banton net worth, an audience viewing of up to 8.7 million people, making it Channel 4’s eighth highest viewed programme. There are many different opinions as to what makes the programme so popular, that it is able to Essay, draw in audiences of half a dozen million and Work Transition to the more week in week out. Evolution Music Essay? One theory as to why the programme is so popular could be due. Audience , Audience theory , Mass media 1016 Words | 2 Pages. Advertisement Analysis.

Mon Secret Fragance. Mon Secret An advertisement never has been only an advertisement. Toilet Takes Which Psychosexual Stages?? There are meanings inside it. It uses semiotics , denotation, connotation . and polysemy to deliver a product to the people. This essay is about analyzing an advertisement by generating the meaning. Mon Secret. One of the famous fragrances by Evolution Essay Nina Ricci, with a shape of an apple and in Resistance: Largest Jews Revolt Resistance Essay, 2013, Nina introduces herself as more sensual, mysterious and liberated.

A mixture of apple blossom, frosted neroli along with gardenia and a touch. Blond , Cosmetics , Denotation 1061 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Topic: Semiotic analysis of Of American visual art does not set out in the first place to produce interpretations of works of art, . but rather to Work Transition Arab Essay, investigate how works of art are intelligible to those who view them, the processes by Of American which viewers make sense of what they see (Bal amp; Bryson, 1991: 184) Bal and Bryson claim that a semiotic analysis of an banton net worth, art work exposes the Essay pre-existing system of signs through which meaning is downloading created. With reference to this question and to specific works of art. Collage , Cubism , Georges Braque 2144 Words | 6 Pages. A Semiotic Analysis of the Bodyguard. 3 1 Semiotic Analysis I face this assignment—explaining semiotics and showing how it can be applied to . television and popular culture to those who know little or nothing about the subject—with a certain amount of apprehension. I’m not sure whether semiotics is a subject, a movement, a philosophy, or a cultlike religion. Evolution Of American Music Essay? I do know that there is a large and rapidly expanding literature on the subject and four quartets that many of the writings of semioticians are difficult to understand and highly technical.

Ferdinand de Saussure , Linguistics , Paradigmatic analysis 13524 Words | 42 Pages. Evaluation of Differential Research Methods. constraining factors we, as a group encountered. The essay will then look into Evolution Music, the use and analysis of four quartets theory that we used that assisted us in . Essay? making our final campaign. Once our group was given the idea of the university application we began to Transition to the United Essay, group ideas together as to what will work most effectively. We chose to Music Essay, use the buju campaign idea of viral marketing. Evolution? To do this we took on a semantic and semiotic approach, whereby used signified linguistics to identify what we wanted to communicate and how.

Advertising , Linguistics , Promotion and marketing communications 1039 Words | 3 Pages. traditionally, it is believed that semiological analysis was pioneered by two men : the meat climate Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure [1857-1913] and . American philosopher Charles Saunders Peirce [1839-1914] [Berger [1982], cited in Boyd-Barrett, 1987 : 133]. On the most basic level, Peirce constructed a triangular model to illustrate the interaction between what he termed sign-object-interpretant. In this context, a 'sign' refers to anything from which meaning is generated. Saussure, meanwhile, saw the Of American Music sign. Advertising , Ferdinand de Saussure , Linguistics 1913 Words | 5 Pages. fire to understand the Work to the Arab Emirates significance of the smoke. 3) Symbol – rep arbitrary connection between signifier and signified. Baby symbolizes something new – . birth, recreation, new, etc. Understanding the operation of signs and symbols in an add use semiotics to Evolution, focus on advertising.

How ads have to do with age, gender, size, looks, expressions, body movements, etc. Different aspects of culture all can be understood as a language. Jacques Derrida: Starts out complimenting Sausurre on the structuralism. Claude Levi-Strauss , Culture , Ferdinand de Saussure 3274 Words | 11 Pages. deconsructon of Work Transition United Essay meaning in Pinter's The basement. ? Semiotics is a methodology for studying the Evolution production of meaning through analysis of the signs that cumulatively form the . messages and texts that that we understand as having meaning. As a methodology for analysis it is industry climate particularly useful for studying performance. Evolution Of American Music? When we go to see a performance, what is buju banton it that we see? There is a written text that is communicated physically, vocally and emotionally. There is a set, an actual performance venue, there are lights, props etcetera.

There is also time. Communication , Linguistics , Meaning of life 1046 Words | 3 Pages. style by the application of Evolution Of American Music Essay decorative elements and by four quartets borrowing elements from the old buildings and Evolution Of American Music Essay reintroduce in a new form. Postmodernism is derived . from variety of areas. At the Holocaust Resistance: The beginning of the Of American 20th century, the role of anthropology, semiotics and Semiology emerged in Postmodernism and were moderately new form of banton academic review that offer a method of describing culture in universal and more particularly traditional from Modernism. Evolution Essay? Anthropology is the banton study of Essay cultures and humanities.

Architecture , Culture , Modernism 1566 Words | 5 Pages. Today we will be using Barthes’ model of semiotics to training takes place during which psychosexual stages?, analyze how certain elements within ads have been selected and organized to convey . meaning. Evolution Of American? Also we will be critically evaluating the effectiveness of the ad as a piece of visual communication. The print ad which I have chosen is by an Italian clothing manufacturer, Diesel. Diesel is well known for touching on global issues in a signature over-the-top and often surreal way. In 2007 they launched the buju banton net worth campaign “Global Warming Ready” that highlights. Advertising , Communication , Communication design 1005 Words | 3 Pages. semiology or as it is often called semiotics . SEMIOTICS : * Means ‘sign’ is derived from a Greek word ‘SEMEION’. * . Semiology is an Evolution Of American Essay, attempt to create a science of the study of sign systems and training takes during which of freud's stages? their role in the reconstruction of meaning in the media text. Of American Music? * Semiology concentrates primarily on the text itself and the signs and codes that are contained within it. Although all interest in signs and music downloading the way they communicate has a long history, modern semiologist analysis can be said to have began by. Charles Sanders Peirce , Ferdinand de Saussure , Language 782 Words | 3 Pages. connotations: for Evolution Essay instance, sexual connotations. 'Is there any such thing as a single entendre?' quipped the comic actor Kenneth Williams (we all know that . Transition United Arab Essay? 'a thing is a phallic symbol if it's longer than it's wide', as the singer Melanie put it).

In semiotics , denotation and connotation are terms describing the relationship between the signifier and its signified, and Music an analytic distinction is four quartets made between two types of signifieds: a denotative signified and Evolution Of American Essay a connotative signified. Meaning includes both. Connotation , Culture , Denotation 2370 Words | 7 Pages. Umberto Eco, Aristotle and Dexter: an in-Depth Narrative Analysis. 4.3 Theoretical discussion 4.3.1 Overview When it comes to narrative analysis , there are various theories available to the researcher. Here . follows a brief summary of Resistance: Jews Resistance some of the most prominent theorist’s theories of this field. Umberto Eco’s concepts ? Binary oppositions – According to Eco there are fourteen constant binary groups as depicted by Wigston (2009a:292). The first four groups relate to two sets of two opposing characters in the narrative.

The other ten groups are related to Evolution Of American Music Essay, the. Boyd Independent School District , Narrative , Narratology 917 Words | 4 Pages. The Analysis of Slang Language Among Homosexuals. The Analysis of Slang Language among Homosexuals A. Background of the Holocaust Jews Resistance Study Language is Evolution one of the identity of a nation is the case with . the Indonesian language. Language as a communication tool used by communities to wotk together, interact, and identify themselves. Any language or provisions actually have in Holocaust Resistance: Largest Revolt Holocaust Resistance Essay, common in terms of sound governance, order forms, word order, syntax, grammar and meaning. But due to various factors contained in the user community's language, such as age, education. Dialect , Grammar , Homosexuality 1193 Words | 4 Pages.

Sheet Donald E. Hall. Literary and Cultural Theory: From Basic Principles to Advanced Applications. Houghton Mifflin, 2001. Theory Formalism /New . Criticism 1920’s forward Reader Response Rhetorical Analysis Marxist/Materialist Analysis Psychoanalytic Analysis Key Ideas - analysis of literary structures (genre; character, plot, setting, etc.) -rejected literature’s historical and biographical contexts -intrinsic meaning of texts; literature expresses “universal truths” -critic’s. Critical theory , Cultural studies , Feminism 720 Words | 6 Pages.

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all resume submition To: Ira Magaziner (Office of the President) Becky Burr (NTIA) From: Boston Working Group. Evolution Of American Music! Date: September 28, 1998. Re: United States Department of Commerce. National Telecommunications and Information Administration. Management of Internet Names and Addresses. Docket Number: 980212036-8146-02. Please accept the toilet training stages?, following submission as a proposal in response to the document, Management of Internet Names and Addresses , above described. For sake of simplicity we shall refer to that latter document as the NTIA White Paper. Music! In the spirit of the Internet we are submitting these as a collection of World Wide Web files.

These files are also available online at: Attached are four documents. The first two are our proposed. The second two are a reprise of the first two, except that they also show the differences between our work and that of IANA/NSI: The NTIA White Paper called for the convocation of all interested parties to discuss and formulate an buju banton, entity to assume management of certain matters involved with the operation of the Internet. In response to this call the Of American Music, International Forum for the White Paper (IFWP) was formed. That body sponsored four meetings: Reston (USA), Geneva (Switzerland), Singapore, and Buenos Aires (Argentina). These were attended by approximately one thousand highly interested people from all walks of life; all kinds of institutions - technical, legal, educational, governmental, and business; and with all kinds of backgrounds and points of view.

These meetings were highly focused discussions of the NTIA White Paper and the issues therein. Mr. Magaziner, one of the persons to whom this submission is addressed, gave the key-note address at the Reston meeting, and, in Holocaust Resistance: The Revolt Holocaust Resistance Essay, Geneva, participated in the opening session along with Jon Postel of IANA, Christopher Wilkinson of the EU, Michael Schneider, a German lawyer representing European ISPs, and Of American Essay, Dr. Tamar Frankel of Boston University. As you will note, these meetings were open, focused, well attended, and meat change, substantive. The meetings were, without doubt, the most broadly based discussion of Music Essay these matters in terms of both breadth of coverage and depth of four quartets analysis.

In addition to these meetings, the IFWP sponsored a very lively electronic-mail discussion. From these meetings evolved a set of consensus points. A complete compendium of materials of the IFWP can be found via http://www.domainhandbook.com/ifwp.html. The IFWP process itself did not result in a specific proposal in response to the NTIA White Paper. The reasons for this are complex and involved. Nevertheless, the IFWP process did create a rich body of thought and of consensus. We, the Boston Group, elected to build upon that legacy. Our work is based on the consensus points reached in the IFWP meetings and from the debates on the IFWP, Domain Name Policy, and IETF mailing lists. We of the Boston Group are all people who have attended one or more IFWP meetings. Many of us submitted comments to the NTIA Green Paper.

We have all participated in the discussions on the electronic mail discussion lists. We have all read the various proposals made by other bodies. And we are all experienced members of the Internet Community. Among us we have started numerous Internet related companies; we have written IETF standards; we have run IETF working groups; we have designed, built, and operated large networks. And many of Essay us are attorneys with long experience in matters pertaining to the Internet, business, privacy, and Intellectual Property.

In other words, despite the to the United Arab, relatively small size of our working group in Boston, we represent an immense constituency and Music, bring to bear a significant compendium of pertinent knowledge and music, experience. Our working group includes: Karl Auerbach, Internet technologist since 1974, long time IETF member and IETF Working Group chairman, California attorney, Founder of Epilogue Technology Corporation and Of American Music, Empirical Tools and Technologies Corporation, Chief Technical Officer of InterWorking Labs, also employed as an engineer at Cisco Systems (but does not represent to illegal, speak for Cisco) Mikki Barry, President of the Domain Name Rights Coalition. Vice President of Corporate Affairs and Chief Counsel of Evolution Matrix Information and Directory Services. Former VP Engineering and founder of Holocaust The Largest Jews Resistance Essay InterCon Systems Corporation, first commercial Internet applications on the Macintosh platform. Former Editor in Chief of the Of American Essay, Georgeotwn University Journal of Law and Technology.

Peter Dengate Thrush, patent attorney, solicitor barrister, counsel to ISOCNZ (New Zealand) and change, its subsidiary, the NZ registry, Domainz Patrick O#146;Brien, CEO of Domainz, the NZ registry Milton Mueller, Associate Professor and Director, Graduate Program in Telecommunications and Network Management, Syracuse University School of Information Studies, Author of Universal Service (MIT Press, 1997) and numerous other works on telecommunications and Evolution, Internet policy. Ellen Rony, co-author of four quartets The Domain Name Handbook: High Stakes and Strategies in Cyberspace , culminating more than two years of online research. She has been writing about and working in the computer industry since 1981. She received a B.A. from Pomona College and an M.A. in Music Essay, Communication from Stanford University. Illegal! Peter Rony, Professor of chemical engineering at Of American Music, Virginia Tech for 27 years.

He is the author of widely used textbooks on digital electronics and microprocessor interfacing and programming. He is the co-author, along with his sister Ellen, of The Domain Name Handbook; High Stakes and Strategies in Cyberspace . David Schutt, CIS for a manufacturer/end-user, interested in music downloading, access to resources and electronic commerce Eric Weisberg, principal and general counsel for a rural Texas ISP, Internet Texoma. Our scribe was Diane Thilly Cabell, an intellectual property attorney with Fausett, Gaeta Lund, Boston. She was formerly assistant counsel in MIT's Patent, Copyright Licensing Office. Our meeting was hosted by Jorge Contreras, corporate attorney with Hale and Dorr of Of American Essay Boston, originally trained in Electrical Engineering at Rice University and now specializing in corporate and Work Transition to the United Arab Emirates Essay, computer law. Please note that Mr. Contreras acted as a facilitator and that the Evolution Of American Music Essay, statements and documents set forth here do not necessarily reflect his views or those of Hale and Dorr. We gratefully acknowledge his contribution and that of his firm Hale and Dorr. It is our claim that our work represents a real consensus of the illegal music, Internet Community as arrived at through a broad and open process, and represents a true response to the NTIA White Paper. On September 19 we met in open session in Evolution Of American Music, Boston, Massachusetts. That meeting had a single focus -- to review and critique the most recently proposed IANA/NSI document and report back to the community, IANA/NSI, and the US government within the short time allowed for comments.

The review began with a discussion of expectations for the new entity, including prevention of capture by special interests, stable transition to the new authority, fair access and utilization of the four quartets, root assets, flexibility for growth and user protection. The group identified the Evolution Of American Music Essay, new entity's core responsibilities as the rights to Work Transition to the Arab Emirates Essay, (a) edit the root files, (b) assign the address space, and (c) control the operation, assignment and management of Of American Music protocol parameters such as port numbers and enterprise numbers. This committee was unanimous in toilet training psychosexual stages?, its belief that the beneficiary of the Essay, Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and buju banton net worth, Nunbers (ICANN) operations should be the end user and not any intermediary or trade group. Enclosed is the result of that effort. Of American! We note in passing that we submitted our proposals to IANA/NSI. However, it was, from our perspective a one-way process with no opportunity for buju discussion, much less any opportunity for a mutually agreed upon Music, result. It was due to this apparent unwillingness to openly discuss issues that we felt that we had to proceed and downloading, submit our own proposal and not to defer to what we consider to be the inferior NSI/IANA proposal. I might say that I (and I believe I speak for all of the Boston Group participants) believe that the Evolution Essay, September 28 IANA/NSI draft incorporates very, very few of our comments.

We (the Boston Group) do not endorse the September 28 IANA/NSI draft as it does not incorporate matters which we believe to be significant and which continues to toilet of freud's psychosexual stages?, reflect an organizational structure that will have vague lines of accountability, limited, if any, means for individual participation, have a high degree of susceptibility to capture by Evolution Of American Music, companies and organizations, and finally is not guaranteed to ever have a membership structure. We are, as a consequence, submitting this proposal directly to the United States as an alternative to other proposals that might also be submitted, such as that of IANA/NSI. This document summarizes our broad conclusions, and we have appended our versions of corporate Articles and By-Laws consistent with those conclusions. The changes from the IANA/NSI baseline are relatively few, although the to the United, matters are significant, and the overall structure and language has been preserved. We have brought the proposal into alignment with the Evolution Essay, international consensus. In particular we have streamlined the structure to emphasize transparency, accountability, and buju banton net worth, fairness, all of which were prime values, not only of the international consensus, but also of the NTIA White Paper itself. We are prepared to Evolution, continue this process, and have appointed Diane Thilly Cabell (dc@mama-tech.com) to be the coordination point for the group.

Comments and amendments are welcome, and in the event that any suggestion is Holocaust Resistance: The Largest Holocaust, not clear, the participants would be happy to respond with further clarification. We continue to hope that both NSI and IANA will be receptive to our proposals and incorporate these recommended changes into the current NSI/IANA proposal. However, our proposal does stand on its own merits and Evolution Music Essay, is submitted as an independent whole. Arab Essay! Before providing a summary of review points, we would like to record our support for Evolution Of American Music the general progress that has been made by the contributing parties during this iteration of the toilet training takes during psychosexual, Articles and by-laws. It is clear that significant progress has been made in recent weeks following on the debates and discussions of the Of American Music, IFWP process. Trying to meld the myriad of views, comments and opinions into one consistent set of legal documentation acceptable to all is an Holocaust Resistance: The Largest Holocaust Resistance, almost impossible task. The fact that all parties have drafted such an outcome in Evolution Of American, short order is a significant achievement and the key participants from both organizations deserve full recognition. Added Preamble and statement of purpose. Removed text that established the purpose of the corporation to be solely for lessening the burdens of government. Mandated that the Initial board create a membership structure, without exception. Defined fundamental assets expected to be received from the US and added constraints upon what the corporation can do with those assets.

Removed President from the Board of Directors. Re-cast Supporting Organizations to Resistance: The Revolt Resistance, be essentially permanent advisory committees with very strong role in Of American Essay, initiating and defining corporation policies. Eliminated Supporting Organizations' ability to downloading, appoint Directors to either the Initial or the final Board. Clarified that individuals may be members of Supporting Organizations. Added on-the-record, roll-call voting on matters before the Board. Evolution Music Essay! Added additional public access. Broadened rights to meat climate, Board Reconsideration.

Eliminated special and unique recognition of contracts between the US and NSI and between the US and University of Southern California. Added a more robust business planning and cost-recovery model. Required that conflict-of-interest statements be made public subject to reasonable privacy limitations. Required that conflict-of-interest provisions be applied to officers as well as to members of the Board. Recommended the Evolution Music Essay, reduction in illegal music downloading, the number of officers to the legal minimum. Other minor matters of Music Essay clarification of language and structure. The Articles currently identify four key functions of the new entity (names, numbers, zones and protocols). We believe they should also state the principles to meat industry climate, be followed in the performance of its functions, perhaps by way of preamble. Evolution Essay! For instance, to perform its functions so as to foster a fair, open, transparent, and competitive environment for the Internet, assuring equal access to Holocaust Resistance: The Largest Revolt Holocaust Resistance Essay, essential resources. We also felt it necessary to more clearly identify the subject matter over which the new enterprise is to exercise its powers and to Evolution Of American, clarify the degree to which the four quartets, new enterprise may pass control to Evolution Of American, others.

The Articles codify the perceived solution to the not-for-profit status - specifically, a company that meets United States Tax Code 501(c) tax status. We believe that the Articles should record WHAT principles that we aim to achieve (i.e., not-for-profit, no benefits to Resistance: Revolt, inure, etc.) as well as HOW this will be achieved. The HOW is Evolution Of American Music Essay, currently recorded as a particular way in which it is done in California, and may be the most appropriate. As we understand it, the net worth, key benefits of a 501(c) company are twofold: tax exemption for the entity, and tax deductions to private donors. We understand that other sections of the Code, such as 501(c) (6), may be more applicable and provide tax exemption. We also believe that gifts and payments to Music Essay, (c) (6) organizations are generally tax deductible business expenses. We do not offer a legal opinion as to ICANN's qualification for (c) (3) status in light of its stated purposes, though we do have concerns about such qualifications and the requirement in the Articles that it meet such qualification, including whether the current draft may create an unintended legal impediment to ICANN's continued existence or invalidate its actions if it is found not to four quartets, have been performing functions contemplated under that section.

In addition, it is important to create a company that is financially viable. It should be able to pay any taxes, and it should not have to rely on being gifted goods in order to survive. This company is Of American Essay, a crucial piece of the Work to the United Arab, Internet infrastructure. Clearly where the Of American Music Essay, company can get additional benefits this makes good business sense, but we believe the principles should be recorded in the Articles, and not derived from an assumed tax status. There is recognition that a membership structure will evolve, although the document recognizes that it is difficult to determine right now exactly how that might be achieved. This gives some confusion to the reader, as a number of clauses are contingent on whether there is, or whether there is not, a membership structure in place at Work Transition to the Arab Emirates, any particular time. IANA/NSI draft 4 leaves the Of American Essay, issues of if and how a membership structure shall be implemented to the Interim board. The White Paper requires, and the IFWP reached unequivocal consensus on the IF portion -- the entity MUST have a membership structure in order to guarantee fair representation. This is United Arab Emirates Essay, not an open issue. Essay! The only questions relate to WHO are members and HOW they shall elect their representatives. We have taken the positive view that a membership structure *will* happen, and made suggestions accordingly.

Our redrafting has a clear flow as follows: The Initial Board is Holocaust Resistance: The Jews Revolt, unequivocally charged with creation of a Membership structure (we did not attempt to resolve the issue of whether there shall be a membership of individuals and/or organizations, etc. as that was not resolved in the IFWP process); We would only allow minimal changes to Of American, Articles (by 3/4 majority of the board) until the membership structure is created; Once a membership structure is in place, power to change the Articles should transfer to the members (we provided for a 3/4 majority of the members voting to change the by-laws). 4. Role of Supporting Organizations as Policy Advisors. We fully support the creation of Supporting Organizations (SOs) as policy advisory committees to banton, the Board. We see their role as originating proposals and expert advice to the Board in their particular functional disciplines. However, we see conflict in their dual role espoused in the draft -- SOs are seen as both creators of Policy and decision makers on the merits of Policy as Board members. If the Evolution Of American Music Essay, supporting organizations are also the primary means through which ICANN will obtain a membership, there is four quartets, a great risk of politicizing the SOs. This would lessen the ability of the SOs to make objective technical and policy recommendations. This real conflict can be avoided by defining the role of Evolution Of American Essay SO's as that of advisory committees, composed of illegal downloading representatives from new and existing organizations, and we have re-drafted accordingly.

We feel that the Evolution Of American Music, SOs must be part of the ICANN structure, created by and responsible to the corporation, rather than independent entities. Making the SOs committees of the entity will assure compliance with ICANN's policies, purposes, and aspirations. We do not believe it appropriate for ICANN to be controlled by and subservient to independent organizations that can appoint members to the Board of Directors. This results in music downloading, reduction of the Board by 9 members. Clearly, if felt appropriate, one could lift the number of At large members to some higher number to compensate. Of American Music Essay! 5. Size of the Work Emirates Essay, Company, its Officers, and its Staff. Essay! We felt uncomfortable with the number of officers contemplated by ICANN's by-laws.

In our view, the new enterprise will be a small organization, particularly at the outset. The various registries and other external organizations will do most of the buju banton net worth, actual work. We believe that the new enterprise should start initially with the minimum set of officers required by Evolution Of American Music, law. Of course, there remains the ability to add more if required at future points. We see no major benefit in appointing the President as a Member of the Board. Meat Industry Climate Change! A clear separation between the Board (as policy maker) and the President (who as the CEO executes Board policy) removes potential for Of American Essay conflict and enhances governance within the new company. Furthermore, we foresee that there could be legal difficulties that arise due to the self-extending nature of allowing the board to designate a non-Board member as President who thereby assumes a seat on the Board. Illegal! 6. Conflicts of Interest, particularly in relation to staff. The Articles state how conflicts of interest should be handled for members of the Board. We would like to see similar provisions for Officers and Employees too, as there is real potential for conflicts to arise.

For instance, one current scenario has potential to see an employee of the company being, the delegated manager for Evolution Of American Music a country domain a Board member of a regional IP registry the creator of protocol parameters. The company needs to constitutionally address these issues to protect its interests as well as those of Resistance: Largest Essay its employees. 7. Balance between the By-Laws and the Articles. We were both surprised and troubled by the fact that the Evolution Essay, by-laws were used to define the basic structure of the corporation rather that the Articles, where we believe the more basic and immutable principles must be stated and preserved. Music Downloading! Clearly we accept there are different ways of doing things.

One can argue that so long as all of the key points are recorded somewhere, it does not really matter where that is. Changing Articles involves a modification of the basic agreement by which the membership submits itself to Music Essay, governance by the organization and four quartets, must require general consensus of the Evolution, members. Climate Change! The by-laws should only involve the details of such governance (or administrivia) and may be subject to change by the board. We would like the Articles to be strengthened by moving major company issues from the By-laws into the Articles. This means that change to Of American Music Essay, the Articles can be effected by a 3/4 majority of member votes cast. This would leave changes to the By-laws permissible with majority vote of the Board. The IANA/NSI draft 4 does not state how the initial board should be chosen. Such board is charged with completing the IFWP process and must represent the IFWP membership and consensus rather than any other set of concerns or compromises. Otherwise, it can not be trusted to illegal music, faithfully perform its function.

Furthermore, we believe that the discussion and resolution must be concluded by the people who have been involved in Of American Music, the discussions, understand the issues and our consensus, and are representative of and feel responsible to our diverse membership rather than to some other set of persons or interests. Therefore, we suggest and require that the initial board be elected by the IFWP utilizing a system to foster proportionate representation (called Single Transferable Vote or STV).

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Essay on Trade Union: Top 13 Essays. Read this essay to Evolution Of American Music, learn about four quartets, Trade Union. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Trade Union 2. Definition of Trade Union 3. Objectives 4. Principles 5. Why Workers Join Trade Unions? 6. Functions 7. Tactics 8. Evolution Of American Music Essay. Trade Union Movement in India 9. Present Position 10. Toilet Which. Recommendations of the National Commission on Labour 11. The Trade Unions Act, 1926 and Other Details. Essay on Meaning of Trade Union Essay on Definition of Trade Union Essay on Objectives of Trade Union Essay on Principles of Trade Union Essay on Why Workers Join Trade Unions? Essay on Functions of Trade Union Essay on Tactics of Trade Union Essay on Trade Union Movement in India Essay on Present Position of Trade Union Essay on Recommendations of the National Commission on Labour Essay on The Trade Unions Act, 1926 Essay on Problems of Trade Union Movement in India Essay on Measures for Strengthening Trade Union Movement. Over the years, trade unions have emerged as an essential feature of industry in every country.

The main reason for their emergence is the factory system and Music capitalistic society. In the early stages of industrialisation, there was lack of meat industry climate legal protection for workers. The workers felt exploited at the hands of the employers. They joined hands to protect their interests through collective action. A trade union is an organised expression of the needs, attitudes and expectations of the workers. To an average person, a trade union signifies an organisation of Evolution Of American Music workers engaged in securing certain economic benefits for its members. In the modern context, however, activities of trade union are not confined to mere securing the economic benefits. The purview of activities now includes even the political and welfare activities undertaken by them for the benefits of its members. A trade union has many facets—economic, social, and political.

It strives to four quartets, protect, maintain and improve economic, social and Evolution Of American vocational interests of their members. A few important definitions of a trade union are as follows: According to Sec. 2 (b) of the Trade Unions Act, 1926. “A trade union is any combination of persons, whether temporary or permanent, primarily for Holocaust Jews Revolt Essay, the purpose of regulating the relations between workers and employers, or between workers and workers, and for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business and includes the federation of two or more trade unions.” According to Dale Yoder. “A trade union is a continuing, long term association of employees, formed and maintained for Evolution Music Essay, the specific purpose of change advancing and protecting the interest of members in their working relationships.” According to S.D. Punnekar, “A union is a continuous association of persons in Evolution Of American Music Essay industry-whether employees or independent workers—formed primarily for the purpose of the pursuit of the interests of its members of the trade they represent.”

According to V.V. Giri, “Trade union is a voluntary organisation of Work Transition to the United Emirates Essay workers formed to Evolution Of American Music, promote and protect their interests by collective action.” According to Edwin B. Work Transition To The United Arab Emirates Essay. Flippo, “A trade union is an organisation of workers formed to promote, protect and improve through collective action, the social, economic and political interests of its members.” To summarise, it can be said that a trade union is an organisation of employees formed on a continuous basis for the purpose of securing diverse range of benefits. An analysis of the Of American above definitions reveals the following characteristics of banton a trade union: (i) Trade union is an association of employers, employees or independent workers. (ii) Trade union is generally a permanent combination. It is not a temporary or casual combination of workers. (iii) The main aim of a trade union is to protect and further the economic, vocational and other interests of Essay their members. (iv) Members of a trade union have common interests and problems, which motivate them to unite. (v) Trade unions always act collectively i.e. through united action of members.

(vi) The unions are ready to adapt according to change, technological and Evolution environmental changes. Essay # Objectives of Trade Unions : According to the Trade Unions Act, 1926, “A trade union must work to protect and promote the interests of the workers and the conditions of their employment.” To be specific, the trade unions generally pursue the following objectives: The subject which drew the major attention of the trade unions is the wages and salaries of the workers. This item relates to four quartets, the policy matter of the enterprise. However, differences may arise in the process of their implementation.

In the case of unorganised sector, trade unions play a crucial role in bargaining the pay scales. Trade unions aim to improve working conditions by securing shorter working hours, better leave facilities, adequate social security, better housing and education and other welfare benefits. 3. Rationalisation of Personnel Policies: The economic security of an employee is determined not only by the level of wages and duration of Music his employment but also by the management’s policies in respect of recruitment, selection, promotions, transfers, training etc. If such decisions are governed by statutory rules and rational policies, there is greater assurance of fair treatment and equal justice; otherwise there is no security for workers. A trade union should also strive for harmonious relations between the employees and employer. Trade union, being the representative of all the workers, may carry out continuous negotiations with the management with a view to promote industrial peace.

Another objective that unions seek to achieve is winning recognition for workers that they are equal partners with management in the task of production. The unions try to secure for workers a say in the management and industrial democracy thereby bringing about a new social order. To provide legal sanctions to its demands, the unions attempt to downloading, get these framed in the form of Acts so that they become permanent features of the contract between the employers and the workers. For this purpose, the unions may take recourse to political action in terms of supporting some political party or forming their own political party. Modern trade unions also engage in providing educational, medical and other facilities for the development and welfare of Of American Music Essay their members, if they have sufficient funds at their disposal. Essay # Principles of Largest Jews Holocaust Essay Trade Unions : The trade unions have the following principles:

The strength of trade unions is their unity. Of American. The unity among members will enable the union to have a good bargaining power. If the members stay divided then employers or others to toilet training takes which of freud's psychosexual stages?, whom unions put their demands will not take them seriously. So the Music unity in the association will be its strength. The union’s strike on the principle of Work to the United Emirates equal pay for equal work of the same type. Evolution Music Essay. They oppose discrimination among workers and demand same wages for industry climate, similar work. The managements may indulge in paying different wages to create divisions among employees. Evolution Of American Music Essay. The ILO charter also suggests that men and women should receive equal remuneration for work of equal value. The security of net worth service of Evolution employees is the other principle of trade unions. The continuity of service will ensure social and economic security for meat, union members. Essay # Why Workers Join Trade Unions?

The trade union movement is gaining momentum with the passage of time. Workers and others are joining unions to Evolution Of American Music Essay, protect and further their interests. Why do Workers Join Unions? The working classes are increasingly depending upon them to take up its issues with managements. The main reasons for the workers joining unions are as follows: 1. The workers join unions to get economic security. They want steady employment and proper income. The unions take up the issue of layoffs or wage increases for workers with managements and protect the interest of their members. 2. The unions protect workers and refrain management from taking any action which is irrational, discriminatory or prejudicial to the interest of labour. The workers want a proper policy for buju, giving rewards, punishment, layoffs, transfers, promotions, etc.

The unions will represent worker’s side to the management and ensure fair and just policies for service matters. 3. The unions are the voice of workers in communicating their views, aims, feelings and frustrations to management. 4. The unions also help workers in getting employment. 5. The unions provide protection to workers against economic hazards such as accident, illness, death, disability, etc. The functions of modern unions are comprehensive.

These functions can be categorised as: 1. Intramural functions. 2. Extramural functions. 3. Political functions. 4. Social functions. These functions are termed as militant functions too because unions may resort to strikes and other pressure tactics to get their demands implemented. Intramural functions include wage rises, proper working conditions, sanitation, safety, continuity in employment and so on. The unions try to resolve these issues through collective bargaining. If discussions and meetings do not help in resolving these issues then unions use strike and other pressures as tools in getting these demands accepted.

Trade unions also undertake functions which are required for the welfare of their members. These functions include provision of educational, recreational and housing facilities. Of American Essay. The unions raise funds in the form of subscription from members and spend them for the welfare of workers. In case of untimely deaths, unions provide financial help to the members of the deceased’s family. Extramural functions are very important as they inculcate the spirit of co-operation against members. The trade unions indulge in political activities in order to help in improving the economic conditions of workers through legislative and administrative measures. The unions hold political meetings to put pressure on the government to bring new legislations which will improve the plight of working class. The unions may also collect funds for political functions.

These functions include carrying out social service activities, discharging social responsibilities through various sections of the society like educating the customers. Trade unions employ certain tactics to deal with the management. During Psychosexual. These are: Organising drive is Evolution Of American one of the net worth major instruments of force that unions employ. Organising drive is nothing but forming a union where none exists. The mere threat of a union may bring the management to terms. Similarly, a successful drive may also bring the management to terms. The organiser tries to capitalise on Evolution Music, employee dissatisfaction and remises workers that their dissatisfaction would be removed if they join the union. The most important union tactic is strike.

Strike directly suspends production, cuts the creation of profit, cut off the employer from the market, may lose the source of industry climate materials and fixed charges such as interest, taxes and salaries for officials continue to be incurred during the strike period. The very existence of an enterprise may be threatened by Of American Music a prolonged strike. By its very nature, strike is a test of strength and if it succeeds in wrecking damage on the management, it does so only at the expense of the workers. Furthermore, strike is a weapon which can easily fail and which has often failed in the past, leaving strikers destitute and jobless. Unions often invoke political patronage to beat the management. Several unions owe their recognition and patronage to political parties and it is industry climate not surprising that employee organisations look to them for direction and sustenance. Unions often blackmail the management, at some critical point, of time to Music, get their demands met.

Essay # Trade Union Movement in India: The trade union movement in India started with the forming of Bombay Mill Hands Association in 1890 by N.K. Lokhands. Illegal Music. In 1897, Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, Printers Union of Calcutta in 1905, Madras and Calcutta postal Unions 1907 were the other associations formed in the beginning of this movement. These were no trade unions in true sense but rather social organisations. The main aims of these organisations were to promote welfare activities and Evolution Essay spread literacy among workers. These associations were not affiliated to any central organisation or federation. The leadership to these unions was provided mostly by social reformers, careerists and politicians-cum nationalists. The trade union movement developed fast particularly during and after World War I. The factors like economic hardship due to rise in cost of living, rising tide of nationalism, emergence of union leadership contributed to development of trade unionism in India. A number of unions such as Indian Seamen’s Union at Calcutta and Bombay, Punjab Press Employees’ Association, Madras Textile Labour Union, Railway Workers’ Unions were formed with a view to ameliorate the conditions of working class.

A number of nationalist leaders like C.R. Four Quartets. Das, Moti Lal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, V.V. Giri, S.A. Dange, S.V. Ghate, some of them to mention, associated themselves with trade union movement. In 1920 All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was formed under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai. By 1926-27, workers’ and Evolution Of American Music Essay peasants’ parties sprang up and in 1928; various local units of these parties were united into in All India Workers’ and Peasants’ party.

The formation of this union gave impetus to left thinking and many unions opted for left- wing leadership. There was a split in AITUC and All India Trade Union Federation (AITUF) was formed under N.M. Joshi. AITUC had another split in industry climate 1931 and Red Trade Union Congress (RTUC) was formed by B.T. Ranadive and S.V.

Deshpande. In 1935 RTUC merged into AITUC. After nine years of split NTUF also merged with AITUC (1940) making it again a sole representative of the organised labour. Those favouring the ideals of socialism and sharing the views of Evolution Essay Indian National Congress separated from Transition to the United Emirates, AITUC and formed Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) in Music Essay 1947. The socialists later formed Hind Mazdoor Panchayat (H.M.S.). In 1962 a new organisation called Confederation of buju banton Free Trade Unions (CFTU) was formed. The split in political parties was followed by a split in the trade union it was dominating. This process has continued in the Indian scene right upto now.

Essay # Present Position of Trade Union : There are five central organisations which dominate the trade unions in India. These organisations are briefly discussed here: 1. The India National Trade Union Congress (INTUC): This organisation which was formed by Essay congress party in 1947 has 3153 affiliated trade unions with a total membership of over 30 lakh workers. It has strong roots in West Bengal, Assam, Gujrat, Bihar and Maharashtra. The largest number of four quartets workers in this organisation belongs to textile, jute, tea plantation, hosiery, transport and mining industries. 2. The All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC): AITUC which is affiliated to Communist Party of Evolution Music India is four quartets considered to be the Of American Music second largest federation of trade unions with over 26 lakh members. It has basis in engineering, petroleum, building and construction industries. AITUC is strong in West Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Delhi.

HMS is the labour wing of Praja Socialist Party. The focus of this federation is more on peaceful, legitimate and democratic methods. It has affiliations in railways, cotton textile, coal mining, engineering industries, etc. It has also a base in post and telegraph department of central government. 4. The United Trade Union Congress (UTUC): Some socialist leaders formed UTUC in April 1949 with an objective to establish a workers’ and peasants’ state in India.

It has influences in West Bengal, Bihar, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Its members come from plantation, textile, ports, shipping and agricultural areas. 5. The Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU): It was formed by CPM members in 1970. CITU believes that the exploitation of the working class can be ended only be socialising all means of production, distribution and exchange and establishing a socialist state.

CITU claims a membership of over 12 lakh workers. Essay # Recommendations of the National Commission on Labour : National Commission on Labour feels that the primary function of Work Transition to the Emirates Essay a union is to promote and protect the interests of its members. Their goals should be to improve the economic position of workers. Evolution Essay. These objectives will be achieved only if the illegal unions are strong enough to take up workers’ issues with managements and the government. The commission made following recommendations to strengthen the unions: 1. It recommended that the formation of craft and occupation unions be discouraged. Industrial trade unions and Of American Music Essay federations should be encouraged. 2. Net Worth. The number of outsiders in Essay a union should be limited to 30 percent only and this percentage should even be less if the members of a union are 10,000 or more. 3. The ex-employees of an The Largest Revolt, organisation should be treated as insiders.

In some cases the Of American Music union leaders resign their jobs to shoulder increasing responsibility of union or they might be victimised by managements for The Jews Revolt Resistance, their active participation in Evolution Of American Music Essay union activities. So the commission recommended that these persons be treated as inside members of a union. 4. The commission recommended that there should be no ban on non-employees holding office. 5. Efforts should be made to illegal music downloading, encourage leadership from amongst members of the working class. 6. The management should be penalised for victimisation of members of unions and also for adopting unfair practices to Of American Music, discourage members from joining unions. 7. The commission also recommended that registration of a union be cancelled if its membership falls below a certain number and if it fails to file its returns in time and rectify the illegal downloading defective returns in a specified time.

8. The unions with 100 c. more members should be recognised, if there is more than one union then the one with more members should be recognised. The Trade Unions Act, 1926, legalises the formation of trade unions by allowing employees the right to form and organise unions. The Act was passed on March 25, 1926 and Evolution Music Essay was brought into Transition United Arab Essay, force from Evolution Essay, June 1, 1927. It extends to whole of Work to the Arab India. The main objective of the Act is to provide for the registration of trade unions and to give registered trade unions a legal status and immunity to their office bearers and members from Music Essay, civil and criminal liability in respect of downloading legitimate trade union activities. In pursuit of its primary objective, the Of American Music Essay Act contains 33 sections. The provisions of the Act are divided into eight sections namely: 2. Registration of meat climate change unions. 3. Duties and responsibilities of registered trade unions. 4. Right and liabilities of registered trade unions.

5. Amalgamation and Of American dissolution of unions. 6. Submission of returns. 7. Penalties and fines. 8. Power to make regulations. The Act is a central legislation, but is administered by the state governments. Central Government handles all unions which are not confined to one state. It has the power to amend the Act. Essay # Problems of banton Trade Union Movement in India: Trade unions are concentrated more or less in major metropolitan cities in India and traceable only in Evolution Music large scale units especially in cotton textile industry.

The degree of unionism also varies from industry to four quartets, industry, iron and Evolution Music steel, tobacco, railways, cement, banking, insurance etc. There is very little trade union activity in music small scale sector, agricultural sector and domestic sector. Most of the unions have low membership. Though the number of unions and union membership are increasing, average membership is inadequate. Because of Music Essay their small size, unions suffer from lack of adequate funds and find it difficult to engage the services of experts to aid and advise members in times of need. Holocaust The Largest Resistance Essay. They can’t bargain with employers effectively on their own.

Most of the trade unions in India suffer from inadequate funds. This unsound financial position is mostly due to low membership and Music low rate of membership fee. Trade Union Act, 1926 prescribed the membership fee at 25 p. per member per month. But the Holocaust Resistance: Jews Essay National Commission on labour recommended the increase of rate of membership subscription from 25 paisa to Re. Of American Music Essay. 1 in the year 1990. But the Government did not accept this recommendation. Due to the financial weakness, most of the unions are not in a position to undertake welfare programmes for their workers. Most of the trade unions in India have professional political leadership. The leadership of politicians is interested in exploiting workers for Transition to the United Emirates, their political purposes.

Strikes are organised and prolonged for personal prestige and negotiations with employer’s breakdown due to political considerations. The interest and welfare of the workers are very often ignored. Thus, the political leadership is very harmful to Of American Music Essay, the trade union movement in music India. Multiple unions both at the plant and industry levels are responsible for unhealthy growth of trade union movement. There exist several unions in the same establishment or industry. The existence of this phenomenon can be attributed partly to the domination of outside leaders and partly to the labour laws. Trade unions Act encourages a small sector of workers to form separate unions. Political outsiders establish unions of their own to increase their political influence. In some cases, employers encourage split in unions to undermine their bargaining power. Due to the multiplicity of Evolution Of American Essay unions, inter-union rivalry takes place.

Unions try to play down each other in a bid to gain greater influence on the workers. In the training during psychosexual stages? process, they do more harm than good to the cause of unionism as a whole. Employers take advantage of infighting between unions and play unions against each other. They can also refuse to Of American, bargain on the plea that there is no representative union. Inter union rivalry cuts at training during stages? the root of trade union movement, weaken the power of collective bargaining and reduces the effectiveness of workers in securing their legitimate rights. Many a times, the employers refuse recognition to Of American Essay, trade unions under the contention that unions consist of only during which a small number of workers or because of multiplicity of union. Employers are under no obligation to give recognition to unions. Weak finances and Of American political leadership do-not permit unions to engage the services of full time, paid office bearers. Union activists, who work on a part-time basis, neither have the time nor the energy to take up union activities sincerely and diligently.

Workers join factories with varying backgrounds and Holocaust The Jews Revolt Holocaust therefore, it is difficult for them to put up a joint front in Evolution case of trouble. Employers exploit the situation, under the circumstances, by dividing workers on the basis of race, religion, language etc. In order to make the trade union movement succeed, the members of the trade unions should take keen interest in the union affairs. But majority of workers do-not take interest in union activities. The attendance at to the Arab Essay the general meetings of unions is very poor.

Under such circumstances, trade unionism cannot be expected to Evolution Of American Music, make much progress and outside political leaders exploit the situation to serve their own personal agenda. Many unions in India undertake only limited welfare activities. They feel that their major activity is to fight with the employer for more wages and allowances. Moreover, paucity of funds also hamper the welfare activities of the four quartets unions. In the absence of welfare activities, workers are not attracted towards unions. The general public is Of American Music adversely affected due to strikes, go slow policy and other practices of music downloading unions.

As a result, public support or sympathy is not available to the unions. The general public opinion is unfavourable to unions and their unfair practices. Essay # Measures for Strengthening Trade Union Movement: Unions must put a joint front. A strong and united trade union movement is necessary to safeguard the interests of the members and to help in achieving the targets of Evolution production. Work Arab Emirates Essay. To develop a strong trade union, it is necessary to expand the Of American trade union movement to unorganised sector and small towns.

The membership of unions should also be increased. The principle of one union in four quartets one industry should be adopted to avoid multiplicity of Essay unions and inter union rivalry. Four Quartets. This will help in eliminating the Of American Music problems created by illegal music downloading multiplicity of unions. The financial problems of the unions can be solved by raising the Of American Music membership and collecting for fees from all the members, the membership fees should be raised as the amount of the wages of the workers increased significantly compared to the situation in 1926 when Trade Union Act provided for the collection of 25 paisa per month per four quartets, member as subscription fees. Political leadership has developed due to the absence of internal leadership. Outside leadership is the main cause of multiple problems of the trade unions. These problems can be removed through the development of leadership talents from within. Management should encourage internal workers to lead their own movement. Both managements and trade unions should provide education and training for the development of internal leadership. Paid union officials should be employed who are persons of proven integrity and who are competent and sincere.

They should be able to Evolution, evaluate workers’ aspirations and strong enough to negotiate with employers on equal basis. It should be made obligatory on the part of the employers to give recognition to the trade unions. Illegal. The Royal Commission observed as early as in 1931 that the fact that unions consist of only a minority of employees is not adequate reason for with-holding recognition. Some procedure must be worked out Music, so that the most representative union in the plant is recognised by the management. The National labour conference (1982) has suggested a check off system for verifying membership of different trade unions.

Under this, workers will authorise managements to four quartets, deduct, from their wages, dues to Essay, any of the unions of their choice. This would provide the basis for finding the strength of each union and industry determining which of the unions would act as a bargaining agent. Unions should widen the Evolution Of American scope of their activities and provide certain benefits and Work United Arab facilities to the workers. Music. This will attract more workers towards unions and will make the unions strong and popular. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the illegal music downloading following pages:

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Essay:Is File-sharing a Moral Action? Is the free sharing of copyrighted material on the internet a morally acceptable action? Can we apply different moral philosophies to such a modern problem? In recent history, with the advent of peer-to-peer sharing programs and Music the free availability of many different types of media on the internet, the morality of the sharing of copyrighted material has come into question. In order to gain understanding on issue, we can apply several universal moral theories, including the Kantian, Utilitarian, and Rights Ethics philosophies. There are many users of the industry change internet today, and a majority of them participate in file-sharing via the Of American Music Essay use of a wide variety of peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. These people believe that what they are doing is not wrong, but rather one of their rights as consumers of media. In contrast to this, many people of the net worth movie and music industries believe that their creative works are protected property and that file sharing takes away from the benefits that they receive from Music Essay, those works. By having the consumer purchase the media, it gives the creator both money to create more work and the added affirmation to generate more creations. This situation has arisen due to music, several factors; these factors include technological advances that provide the ability for free sharing of media, the opinions of several creators driving the Of American Music Essay arguments against sharing, and the wide popularity of the four quartets internet. Napster was one of the Evolution Music Essay first widely used free-sharing networks.

In June 1999, Shawn Fanning released his creation that provided free music for download to any anonymous user that chose to climate change, obtain the Napster program. Napster soon exploded in popularity, with millions of Evolution Music Essay users downloading the service and obtaining hundreds to thousands of songs each day. Eventually, the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) filed a lawsuit against the service and the Ninth Circuit Court issued an injunction against Napster. Since then, Napster has taken the form of to the United Emirates a pay-per-song style service, eliminating the free-sharing aspect of the program. After Napster, however, many other P2P programs were established on the internet (Carlsson et al. 2001). Today, the Kazaa service is one of the most widely used, offering the free download of music and Of American Music movies to anonymous users. Kazaa has carefully avoided the problems that Napster ran into, however, by downloading not physically storing the files on their servers; unlike Napster, Kazaa functions solely as a P2P network, facilitating communication between a user who has a specific file and a user who wants the specific file. By not functioning as a download service, Kazaa cannot be targeted by the same type of lawsuits that were filed against Napster. Kazaa is under constant judicial pressure to make sure that its users are not sharing copyrighted material, but it is still running today (www.kazaa.com). [1] These programs have stimulated a serious discussion on the rights of the consumer versus the rights of the creator.

Several moral questions can be asked to determine what rights can be enforced by the consumer or the creator. Regarding the rights of the consumer, we have to ask whether they have a right to the free access to the entire library of creative works today, and whether or not they can enforce this “right”, ignoring the copyright laws that are enforced today. The rights of the creator are more clearly defined than the rights of the Evolution Essay consumer. The rights of the creator, as protected by law today, include the right to govern the distribution of their creation and the right to seek damages for infringement of their right to distribute. Regardless of the lawful protection of the rights of the four quartets creator, however, we can still ask moral questions about Essay those rights. Does the creator really have the right to meat, sue for the unlicensed distribution of their work? And if so, should the Of American consumer seek damages from the distributor or the consumer? In September 2003, the RIAA sued several users of P2P networks, seeking damages for toilet place during which each song downloaded.

In one particular instance, a 30-year-old single mother named Jammie Thomas was sued by several recording companies for each group of songs that were downloaded. Evolution Of American? This sum, including $9,250 per 24 songs shared on the Kazaa network, amounted to Work Arab Essay, approximately $500,000 dollars . This is an important aspect to the morality of the creators seeking damages, as the woman did not have half of a million dollars to give to Evolution Of American Essay, the record companies. Should the creators be able to sue individual users? Obviously, the amount of moral questions posed by the issue is insurmountable without the Work Transition United application of universal theories. One might question if the older philosophies can be applied to such a modern problem, and in response to that I say that even though the philosophies are many decades old, they still hold true today. Because the theories are universal, they are able to be applied to any situation. In addition to this, they provide an alternative point of view to the current state of the argument, which has recently boiled down to Evolution Music Essay, the creators stating that consumers cannot share their work and the consumers maintaining that they can. Thus, the application of Transition to the United Arab these theories is not only useful but almost necessary to Essay, be able to meat industry change, give order to such a chaotic situation. The first moral theory that can be applied is the philosophy of Kant, and his Moral Imperatives. Evolution? The first categorical imperative states “act only four quartets, according to that maxim whereby you can at Music the same time will that it should become a universal law” (Boss 2008).

If we take the users of the P2P networks as the moral agents, there are two different applications of the to the United Emirates Essay first categorical imperative that can be made. The first application is Of American Music from the viewpoint of the music users themselves; the proponents of Evolution Essay P2P programs claim that all creative works should be freely available for the enrichment of buju society. Thus, they would state that their actions were moral because they would agree that file-sharing would be a good universal maxim. Evolution? In contrast to Work Transition to the, this, from the viewpoint of the creators who are protesting against file-sharing, the first categorical imperative would state that the users of the P2P programs are actually committing theft, as they are taking something without paying what has been deemed the product is worth. Thus, the users are making theft a moral maxim, which isn’t morally acceptable. Universally, theft has been considered an immoral action, and Of American Music Essay Kant himself stated “do not steal” as one of his universal imperatives.

The real question, then, is whether or not the creator has a right to set an arbitrary price on a creation and if the unlicensed distribution of the creation is really “theft”. Alternatively, is the price set for the creation really arbitrary? Should the prices be set so high considering the music downloading minimal costs of production? Due to the laws that are enforced today, including the laws of copyright, the first categorical imperative has to be interpreted from the creators’ point of view; the Evolution Of American moral agents in this case are clearly making theft a moral maxim and thus are acting immorally. Like the first, the Holocaust Resistance: The Largest Jews Resistance Essay second categorical imperative also deems the Evolution Of American Music actions of the users of P2P programs as immoral.

The second imperative states “act in buju such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in Music Essay the person of any other, always at four quartets the same time as an end and never merely as a means to an end” (Boss 2008). The users of P2P programs are obviously acting against the instruction of the Essay second imperative, treating the illegal music downloading creators not as ends themselves but rather as means only. By freely taking the media from the P2P program and not giving the creator any sort of compensation, either monetary or in the form of the affirmation of their efforts, the users are treating the creators as a means for entertainment. Thus, according to the second categorical imperative, file-sharing is an immoral activity. The next moral theory that is useful is Utilitarian theory, specifically the Greatest Happiness Principle. The principle states that an action is right as it tends to promote the happiness of the greatest amount of people, and an action is Of American Music Essay wrong as it tends to buju, promote the opposite of happiness, or pain, and is the hallmark of the Utilitarianism movement (Boss 2008). As it applies to this moral question, we have to ask whether allowing or prohibiting file-sharing would promote the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest amount of Evolution Of American Essay people. Thus, we have to examine how many people are affected by the prohibition or permission of file sharing.

In December 2005, 9,670,552 simultaneous users were recorded worldwide using P2P networks. Eliminating P2P networks would thus cause pain for at least that many people, not including any that weren’t on the network at that time. Buju? The pain mentioned would be that caused by Of American the inability to freely access desired media. If we were to permit P2P sharing, it would harm the people in change the movie and music industries. This is Of American Essay where Utilitarian theory would consider file-sharing a moral action. The USA has the highest amount of entertainment export, and toilet takes place during which of freud's psychosexual thus can be used as the prototypic example of the number of laborers that could be “harmed” by file-sharing, in this case being in the tens of Evolution millions. The problem with this particular argument is that most of the laborers aren’t being harmed by file sharing; the grips still get paid the same amount regardless of the sales the movie or album receives. Thus, to Work to the United Emirates, claim that allowing file-sharing harms a greater amount of people is inaccurate- the pleasure that most laborers in the entertainment industry receive remains unchanged. One could state that in the future jobs could be lost, which would directly harm the laborer’s happiness, but in the 11 years that P2P programs have existed, the job market for the entertainment industry has not changed.

In addition to this, the Music profits that the buju banton industry receives have not changed more than a single percent (www.bigchampagne.com). Essay? Therefore, Utilitarianism would probably side with the consumers of the media using P2P networks, given that they are receiving a greater amount of pleasure than if P2P networks were banned and that the pain received by the members of the industry does not outweigh that pleasure. [2] [3] The last moral theory that will be applied falls under Rights Ethics. Liberty rights can be defined as “the right to be left alone to pursue our legitimate interests” (Boss 2008). Legitimate interests are those interests that do not violate other people’s similar and equal interests.

Because of the four quartets definition of “legitimate interests”, we must determine if file-sharing is a legitimate interest of the consumer or if it violates the right of the creator to gain benefits from Of American Music Essay, their creation. According to the copyright laws that are in effect today, it is clear that file-sharing cannot be a legitimate interest (and is thus immoral) because it directly violates copyright, which is protected by law as a legitimate interest. The issue is not so clear cut, however, when we examine exactly how much file-sharing affects the legitimate interests of the creators. In terms of financial benefits, it has been shown that profits for the movie and music industries have not changed more than a percent. In terms of intangible benefits, such as the affirmation of the Work to the United creator’s work giving them the motivation to continue, the impact of file-sharing changes from person to Of American Music, person. Metallica, one of the original proponents of the Holocaust The Holocaust Resistance suit against Napster, believed that they were being seriously harmed by file-sharing and as such refused to create any more music until the dispute was resolved. On the other hand, The Grateful Dead promoted the distribution of their music and took unlicensed distribution as a motivation to continue creating.

Because of the minimal impact that file-sharing has on the interests of the creators, it could be argued that file-sharing is Evolution Of American Music Essay not a violation of the legitimate interests of the meat change creators and thus is a legitimate interest itself, and thus it is a morally acceptable action. Regardless of this, however, due to the laws are in place, file-sharing will remain a violation of the Music creators’ legitimate interests and thus is not a legitimate interest and is immoral. Given all of the different factors that influence the morality of Holocaust Resistance: Resistance Essay file-sharing, determining an absolute answer is Essay a difficult task. Different philosophies have generated different answers, but most, including the Kantian and Liberty Rights theories, summarily dismiss file sharing as an immoral activity. My personal belief is that file-sharing should be allowed and promoted, due to the benefits that the illegal free availability of media gives to society.

If a person is unable to afford to obtain media that might enrich or educate them, it is society’s duty to provide them the access to Of American Essay, that media. While the definition of Transition to the education generally applies to what is traditional (school rooms, paid teachers, etc.), I believe that the Of American Essay ideas and concepts depicted by many movies and musical forms can educate in ways that traditional education cannot. With the availability of file-sharing, people who previously did not have access to music and movies now can enrich themselves. In addition to this educational aspect, I also believe that most people who are involved with the production of music and movies are grossly overpaid and for illegal them to demand compensation for the minute amounts they’ve lost to file-sharing seems both greedy and immoral. Once a particular production has been released to Of American, the public, and the creator has received an appropriate compensation (one that provides them with a good quality of life and the ability to pursue their legitimate interests, which is all cases is illegal music far less than most creators normally make), the creation becomes the property of the consumers and thus public domain and free to Evolution, share. Until the buju banton net worth impact of Evolution Essay file-sharing reaches severe proportions, as in directly harming the quality of life of the majority of laborers in the entertainment industry, I see no reason why file-sharing should be banned.

Until we reach a universal agreement between the entertainment industry and the P2P networks, file-sharing will continue to be debated on both a moral and judicial basis and right now will be considered an immoral action.