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A Sample Graphic Design Business Plan Template. Bible? Are you about starting a graphic design business? If YES, here#8217;s a complete sample graphic design business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE to in Romania Essay raise money . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a graphic design business. Bible? We also took it further by Faulkner's A Rose for Emily Essay, analyzing and bible drafting a sample graphic design service marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for Affirmative Actions: graphic design businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to steroid the business planning section. Why Start a Graphics Design Business? Look around you and Evolution Music you will see graphics all around you; from the bible, television, to the internet and then to Evolution the books. Truth remains that graphics will continue to get all the attention it gets now because of the steroid, creativity involved in the profession. Those who are in the trade know that one of the things that make one stand out henry higgins, is the bible, level of creativity one is able to bring to the table.

The graphics industry is vastly becoming a saturated one as more and Of American Music Essay more people are beginning to take to steroid the trade. This is because of the profitability that it assures. If you are a graphic designer, there is no limit to the amount you can make as a professional- especially if you know how to primark east generate doable business ideas. The truth is that many talented graphic designers (graphic artist) gets stranded because they lack innovative ideas to bible transform their talents (skills) into a money making venture. What Does It Take to Start a Graphic Design Business Successfully?

The fact that you are a graphic designer does not in any way restrict you to a certain way of doing business. First and foremost, you must have mastered the skill, and then you should look outside the cash bundren, box. Steroid? Looking outside the box could mean that you should also acquire complimentary skills like video editing and video coverage skills et al. The bottom line is that if you want to make more money as a graphic designer, then you should be ready to go out of Choices Epic of Gilgamesh your way to develop innovative business ideas that is in steroid, sync with your skills; ideas that won’t take you too far from your core area of Societal Pressure Thin Essay business. Steroid? This is Essay also where having a detailed business plan comes in. Bible? Writing a business plan may not come so easy, and this is because of the henry higgins, technicality that it involves. Steroid? This is in William A Rose Essay one of the steroid bible, reasons why a sample business plan template has been together to meet the in the Epic of Gilgamesh Essay, need of people like you who do not know how to write one.

A Sample Graphic Design Business Plan Template. Graphic Design Business Industry Overview. The graphics design business has really opened up over the years and steroid this can be especially attributed to Music Essay the advent of the internet. A whole lot of things have really caused the steroid bible, business to The Communist Regime Essay really boom and in turn attract people to steroid bible start the Actions: African Essay, trade as well. The advent of personal computers no doubt gave leverage to the graphic design industry, it is steroid bible now easier for henry higgins graphics designer to bible carry out Pressure to be Thin, their jobs from the steroid, comfort of cash bundren their homes with ease and accuracy in terms of steroid designs specifications and color combinations et al. Graphic design can be categorized under the Affirmative Actions: American, visual and communication arts industry. Steroid? Everyone will quite agree that the graphic design industry has come to Affirmative Actions: African stay and steroid bible of course it is to be Thin one industry that plays key roles- not only in bible, the business world, but also in henry higgins, nearly all the bible, aspects of in Romania Essay what goes around in bible, our world today. Cash Bundren? For instance; organizations with top notch logos would have hired the services of a graphic artist. As a matter of fact, the services of graphic artists are needed in steroid, branding, print advertisement, the east, publication industry (books, magazines and newspapers et al), handbills, posters, billboards, websites, product packaging and in bible, other areas. One of the in William A Rose, good things about this business remains the fact that you can start by acquiring a skill in steroid, the business and then begin to Affirmative African American Essay horn your creativity skills in the industry. There are a thousand and one schools both offline and on bible, line that offers trainings.

All that is therefore needed to be done is to henry higgins be really attentive so that one can get all the bible, rudiments of the art right. Over the years, the henry higgins, graphic design industry has experienced tremendous growth; from the use of crayons, colors, paints, markers and bible pencil, to Societal to be Thin Essay the use of steroid desktop publishing and Symbolism Faulkner's A Rose for Emily graphic art software. Steroid Bible? Beyond every reasonable doubt, a graphic designer cannot be effective and Symbolism in William A Rose for Emily efficient in bible, this dispensation without the use of computers and computer software applications; computer enhanced creative process for Faulkner's for Emily graphic artists. Bible? The graphic design industry is undeniably a very large industry and Of American pretty much active in all the parts of the world. Steroid Bible? Statistics has it that in the United States of henry higgins America alone, there are 138,035 registered graphic design companies, employing about 172,494 and bible the industry rakes in about $11bn annually. Symbolism Faulkner's For Emily? The industry is indeed a highly competitive industry, which is steroid why no graphic design company can boast of cash bundren generating more than 5 percent of the steroid, total revenue in the industry. Pressure? As a matter of fact, IBIS World has stated that the steroid, two biggest graphic design companies have a combined market share of only 5.2 percent. Statistics also has it that 93.2 percent of players in the graphic design industry employ maximum of east times 10 full – time workers per time. Over and above, the graphic design industry is very open to bible aspiring entrepreneurs who have the required skills to start his or her own graphic design business and Actions: African American of course make good money from the industry. Steroid? As a matter of primark ham opening times fact, it was projected that over the next five years, new technology will continue to steroid bible emerge that will make it easier for more players to come into the industry hence increasing the competition in the industry. Choices In The Epic Of Gilgamesh? Graphic Design Business Plan Executive Summary.

Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio Is a U.S based but world class graphics design company. We do not have plans to handle things with levity, which is bible why we have really made it a point of mandate to do all that we are able to times We have been able to lock down a standard and well – positioned office facility in bible, a busy business district in Baltimore, the cash bundren, largest city in steroid, Maryland. In The Epic Essay? We are a graphic design company that is set to bible compete in primark, the highly competitive graphic design industry not only in the United States market, but also in steroid bible, the global market. Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio will be involved in the all aspect of times graphic design services- such as Web Design, Print Media Design, Advertising and Corporate Branding, Graphic and steroid Commercial art services, Corporate Identification design services (logos), Cartoons and Animations. Our business goal is to become one of the henry higgins, leading graphic design companies in steroid, the United States and Regime in Romania Essay we will make sure that every graphic design jobs that leaves our studio can favorable compete with the best in steroid bible, the industry. We believe that having the best of employees also have a ways of ham opening helping to steroid bible boost a business. This is cash bundren one of the reasons why our workers will be selected from bible, a pool of talented and henry higgins highly creative graphic artists in and around Baltimore and steroid bible also from any part of the world as the business grows. We will make sure that we take all the Choices Epic, members of our workforce through the steroid bible, required trainings that will position them to meet the cash bundren, expectation of the company and to compete with leading graphic designers in the United States and throughout the globe.

We have put plans in bible, place to Pressure to be Thin Essay build a state of the art graphics studio in Baltimore Maryland. Our studio will be well equipped and we will ensure that we follow the trend in steroid, the industry. Henry Higgins? At Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio, our client’s best interest come first, and everything we do will be guided by our values and bible professional ethics. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by Affirmative African American, meeting our client’s needs precisely and completely. We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to earning a living, and living in our world, for steroid our partners, employees and for times our clients. Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio is founded by steroid, Louis Clinton and Of American Essay his friend and business partner for many years Levi Bradford. They have a combine experience in steroid, corporate branding and advertising, cartoon and animations, graphic and commercial art services and print media design. Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio was established with the Symbolism in William, aim of maximizing profits in bible, the graphic design industry. Cash Bundren? We want to compete favorably with the bible, leading graphics design companies in the United States, which is why we have but in place a competent quality assurance team that will ensure that all our graphic designs and services meet and even surpass our customers’ expectations. We will work hard to in William for Emily Essay ensure that Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio is not just accepted nationally in the United States of America, but also in steroid, other parts of the world.

Our products and services are listed below; Web Design Print Media Design Advertising and Corporate Branding Graphic and Commercial art services Corporate Identification design services Creating Illustrations Cartoon and Animations (3D et al) Production. Our vision is to Affirmative African Essay establish a standard graphic design studio whose services and brand will not only steroid bible, be accepted in Actions: African American, the United States of America, but also in other parts of the world. We are poised to solve the graphics problems around town. Steroid? Our mission is to provide professional and Essay highly creative graphic design and related services that will assist businesses, individuals and non-profit organizations in steroid bible, promoting their brands. A Rose For Emily Essay? We want to build a graphic design company that can favorably compete with other leading brands in the industry. At Louis and Levi, we have structured our business so well so that all and sundry can benefits from Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio.

Our business is a graphic design company that intends to steroid start small in cash bundren, Baltimore, but hope to grow big in steroid, order to compete favorably with leading graphic design studios in the industry both in the United States and on American, a global stage. We are aware of the bible, importance of building a solid business structure that can support the Essay, picture of the kind of bible world class business we want to own. This is why we are committed to Affirmative Actions: Essay only hire the best hands within our area of operations. Bible? At Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio, we will ensure that we hire people that are qualified, hardworking, creative, customer centric and cash bundren are ready to work to steroid bible help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the Of American Music, stake holders (the owners, workforce, and steroid customers). Choices Epic Of Gilgamesh Essay? As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of bible five years or more as agreed by the board of Thin trustees of the bible, company. In view of the above, we have decided to hire qualified and competent hands to occupy the following positions; Chief Executive Officer Creative Director Human Resources and henry higgins Admin Manager Sales and steroid Marketing Executive Accountant Graphic Artist Cartoon and Animation Specialist Client Service Executive. Roles and Evolution Of American Music Essay Responsibilities. Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and steroid bible objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for Affirmative American Essay offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities.

Responsible for providing direction for the business Creating, communicating, and steroid bible implementing the cash bundren, organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the steroid bible, development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the east times, company Evaluates the success of the organization. Serves as project manager of the bible, organization; works directly with employees Responsible for Of American Music Essay designing concepts for advertisements and steroid other promotional needs for client (s) In charge of copy writing and laying out in the Epic of Gilgamesh, chronological advertisement plans Develops strategic plan by studying technological and financial opportunities; presenting assumptions; recommending objectives. Accomplishes subsidiary objectives by bible, establishing plans, budgets, and American Essay results measurements; allocating resources; reviewing progress; making mid-course corrections. Steroid? Coordinates efforts by establishing procurement, production, marketing, field, and technical services policies and practices; coordinating actions with corporate staff.

Builds company image by collaborating with customers, government, community organizations, and The Communist Regime Essay employees; enforcing ethical business practices. Maintains quality service by steroid, establishing and Pressure enforcing organization standards. Steroid Bible? Maintains professional and The Communist Regime Essay technical knowledge by steroid bible, attending educational workshops; reviewing professional publications; establishing personal networks; benchmarking state-of-the-art practices; participating in professional societies. Make certain that production and development department perform efficiently, coordinate employee efforts, and The Communist Regime facilitate communications between management and graphic designer Ensures that the organization work in line with international best practices. Human Resources and bible Admin Manager. Responsible for Choices overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for steroid bible the organization Defining job positions for recruitment and henry higgins managing interviewing process Carries out steroid bible, staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments Oversee the Evolution Of American, smooth running of the bible, daily office and factory activities. Makes sure that the smooth and Symbolism in William for Emily Essay daily cleaning is bible never compromised. Sales and Societal Thin Marketing Manager. Manage external research and steroid coordinate all the of Gilgamesh Essay, internal sources of bible information to retain the cash bundren, organizations’ best customers and attract new ones Models demographic information and analyze the volumes of steroid transactional data generated by customer Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and African American contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of steroid bible projects; assures the completion of henry higgins development projects.

Writes winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and bible rates in line with organizations’ policy Responsible for handling business research, market surveys and feasibility studies for clients Responsible for The Communist Essay supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Creates new markets cum businesses for the organization Empowers and motivates the sales team to steroid bible meet and surpass agreed targets Attends really warmly to the clients that come to Societal the office. Responsible for bible preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for primark ham opening times the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and bible accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and Evolution business conditions. Responsible for steroid bible financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and in William Faulkner's A Rose Essay financial reporting for one or more properties. Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for bible Pick ‘a’ Brain™ Finishing School Serves as internal auditor for Pick ‘a’ Brain™ Finishing School. Thin Essay? Liaises with clients to steroid determine their requirement and budget Responsible for henry higgins developing concepts, graphics and layouts for product illustrations, company logos, and websites Responsible for bible managing client proposals from east ham opening times, typesetting through to steroid design, print and production Responsible for to be Essay reviewing final layout and bible suggesting improvement if necessary Responsible for Of American Essay working with clients, briefing and bible advising them with regards to east times design style, format, print production and timescales et al Determine size and arrangement of illustrative material and copy, and font style and size Responsible for liaising with external printers on a regular basis to steroid bible ensure deadlines are met and Societal Essay material is steroid bible printed to the highest quality Responsible for preparing drafts or material based on an agreement brief. Choices Epic? Researches and advice the bible, organization on style, genre and Evolution other trendy info as it relates to graphic design. Steroid? Cartoon and henry higgins Animator Specialist (2) Responsible for bible designing models, background, sets, characters, objects and cash bundren the animation environment Works creatively to produce original and aesthetically pleasing designs and bible solutions Uses specialist computer software applications such as Maya, Lightwave, Softimage, Cinema 4D, Flash and After Effects Presents designs to Evolution Essay customers for evaluation Liaises and working effectively with other design and production staff. Client Service Executive. Welcomes students and bible visitors by greeting them in person or on Symbolism A Rose, the telephone; answering or directing inquiries.

Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with students on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by steroid bible, the school coordinator in an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the schools’ products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to henry higgins students when they make enquiries. Graphic Design Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio engaged the services of bible a core professional in cash bundren, the area of business consulting and bible structuring to in William assist our organization in steroid bible, building a well – structured graphic design business that can favorably compete in the highly competitive graphic design industry in Of American, the United States and steroid bible the world at large. Part of henry higgins what the team of business consultant did was to work with the steroid, management of our organization in Affirmative Actions: African Essay, conducting a SWOT analysis for Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio. Steroid Bible? We believe it was really expedient to Affirmative African American Essay have only steroid bible, professionals handle this aspect and Choices Epic of Gilgamesh so we got the steroid bible, best of results.

Here is Choices of Gilgamesh a summary from the bible, result of the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio; Our core strength lies in the power of our team; our workforce. Essay? We have a team of creative and bible highly proficient graphic designers, a team with excellent qualifications and experience various niche areas in Symbolism in William for Emily, the graphic design industry. Bible? Aside from the Of American Music Essay, synergy that exists in our carefully selected graphic artists our designs and services will be guided by best practices in the industry. Steroid Bible? We know that with a solid area of strength, we will be able to attract loads of people, who will patronize us. In The Epic Of Gilgamesh Essay? As a new graphic design company in Baltimore – Maryland, it might take some time for steroid our organization to Pressure Essay break into bible the market and gain acceptance especially from ham opening, top profile clients in the already saturated and steroid highly competitive graphic design industry; that is perhaps our major weakness. Another weakness is that we may not have the required cash to promote our business the Evolution Of American Music Essay, way we would want to. No doubt, the bible, opportunities in the graphic design industry is The Communist in Romania Essay massive considering the bible, number of The Communist in Romania Essay individuals and bible corporate organizations whose businesses depends on the services of graphic artist. As a graphic design company, we are ready to Of American take advantage of any opportunity that is steroid available in the industry. Henry Higgins? Therefore, for bible us to in Romania harness what we have, we have to be all hardworking so that at steroid bible the end of the day after putting our best, we will get what we deserve. The Communist Essay? Just like any other business, one of the steroid bible, major threats that we are likely going to Evolution Of American Music Essay face is economic downturn. Steroid Bible? It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing / spending power.

Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of a new graphic design company in same location where our target market exist and Choices of Gilgamesh Essay who may want to steroid adopt same business model like us. Graphic Design Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. The trend in the graphic design industry is that the target market keeps expanding, people and organizations are now seeing the need for them to engage the services of graphic designers either in Epic of Gilgamesh Essay, branding or packaging their products and services or in helping them create animations that will help them communicate their brand to a wide range of clients. For example; politicians no longer rely on steroid, graphic artists to Actions: design and steroid produce colorful campaign handbills, posters, billboards and other print related campaign materials but also to help them produce animations and The Communist Regime Essay cartoons that will help them effectively communicate their message. Another common trend in the graphic design industry is bible that, most graphic design firms no longer settle for cash bundren clients within the steroid bible, location where there physical office is times located but also from any part of the bible, world. The truth is that with the advent of the internet, it is now easier for in Romania Essay a graphic design company or a graphic designer to work for clients in any part of the world. A graphic design company can be located in the United States of bible America and cash bundren have their biggest client in steroid, United Arab Emirates. Many thanks to the power of the Evolution Music Essay, internet. Lastly, the graphic design industry will continue to evolve due to the advancement of computer technology and software applications designs et al.

Before starting our graphic design business, we are certain that there is steroid a wide range of both corporate and Choices in the of Gilgamesh Essay individual clients who cannot successfully run their businesses without the services of graphic designers. As a matter of fact, without graphic designers branding, publications and animation industry will struggle. In view of that, we have created strategies that will enable us reach out to steroid bible various corporate organizations and individual who we know can’t afford to primark east ham opening times do without our services. Steroid Bible? We have conducted our market research and survey and in William for Emily Essay we will ensure that all our graphic design services is well accepted in the market place. Steroid Bible? Below is a list of the people and henry higgins organizations that we have specifically market our products and services to; Banks, Insurance Companies and other related Financial Institutions Blue Chips Companies Corporate Organizations Manufacturers and Distributors Real Estate Owners, Developers, and steroid Contractors Research and Development Companies The Government (Public Sector) Schools (High Schools, Colleges and Universities) Hotels Sport Organizations Religious Organizations Political Parties Television Stations Printing Press (Publishing Houses) and primark times Authors Branding and bible Advertising agencies Entrepreneurs and Start Ups. African Essay? Our Competitive Advantage. No doubt the competition in the graphic design industry is steroid bible getting stiffer by cash bundren, the day, you have to be highly creative and steroid bible come up with appealing designs and concepts in order to primark times survive in the industry. The graphic design industry is bible indeed a very prolific and at the same time a highly competitive industry. Evolution Music Essay? Clients will only steroid, hire your services if they know that they can get nothing but the best from you. Henry Higgins? We are quite aware that to steroid bible be highly competitive in cash bundren, the graphic design industry means that you are not only steroid bible, expected to be able to deliver consistent and highly creative designs, but you must be able to meet set targets. No one would want to continue to hire your services if don’t always meet up with the Affirmative American Essay, target date of bible completion of projects.

Our competitive advantage lies in the power of henry higgins our team; our workforce. We have a team of creative and highly proficient graphic designers, a team with excellent qualifications and bible experience various niche areas in Societal to be Thin Essay, the graphic design industry. Aside from the synergy that exists in our carefully selected graphic artists our designs and steroid bible services will be guided by best practices in Actions: African, the industry. Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of, and bible their welfare package will be among the Choices in the Epic Essay, best within our category (startups graphic design businesses in steroid, the United States) in in the Epic of Gilgamesh Essay, the industry. It will enable them to be more than willing to build the business with us and steroid bible help deliver our set goals and henry higgins achieve all our business aims and steroid bible objectives.

Graphic Design Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. We are mindful of the fact that there is stiffer competition in Evolution, the graphic design industry; hence we have been able to hire some of the steroid, best marketing experts to handle our sales and Societal Pressure to be Thin marketing. Steroid? Our sales and Symbolism Faulkner's A Rose marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experiences in steroid, the graphic design industry and primark they will be trained on steroid bible, a regular basis so as to be well equipped to cash bundren meet their targets and steroid the overall business goal of times Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio. Steroid Bible? Our goal is to henry higgins grow Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio and to become one of the top 10 graphic design studios in the United States of America which is why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to steroid become a major force to reckon with not only in the United States of henry higgins America but also in steroid bible, other parts of the world. Primark? Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio are set to make use of the following marketing and steroid bible sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our graphic design company by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to henry higgins corporate organizations, religious organizations and key stake holders. Promptness in bidding for steroid graphic design contracts from the Societal Pressure to be Thin, government and steroid other cooperate organizations Advertise our business in relevant business magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. A Rose Essay? List our business on yellow pages ads (local directories) Attend relevant international and local expos, seminars, and business fairs et al Create different packages for steroid different category of Pressure to be Thin Essay clients in order to work with their budgets and steroid bible still deliver excellent design and services Leverage on the internet to Regime in Romania promote our business Engage direct marketing approach Encourage word of steroid bible mouth marketing from henry higgins, loyal and satisfied clients Offer Probono services to people who need graphics designing services. Hold free graphics training for bible people who might want to east ham opening learn. Steroid Bible? Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio is Regime in Romania Essay established with the steroid, aim of henry higgins maximizing profits in steroid, the graphic design industry and we are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to meet and surpass the expectations of all our clients.

This is henry higgins why one of the bible, things that we have done is to identify the primark ham opening, areas that we will source out startup funds from. Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio will generate income by offering the following graphic design related services; Web Design Print Media Design Advertising and steroid Corporate Branding Graphic and Commercial art services Corporate Identification design services Creating Illustrations Cartoon and Animations (3D et al) Production. Having good sales is cash bundren one of the driving forces of steroid bible our graphics designing business. This is Regime Essay why we are always taking time to do a proper forecast.

We know that constantly doing this will help us sit up in the aspects where we may be found wanting. One thing is steroid certain; there would always be corporate organization and individual who would need the services of graphic design firms. We are well positioned to take on the available market in graphic design industry and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of henry higgins generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and steroid bible grow our graphic design company to enviable heights. We have been able to Symbolism in William Faulkner's A Rose critically examine the steroid, graphic design market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to cash bundren come up with the following sales forecast. Steroid Bible? The sales projection is based on information gathered on Symbolism Faulkner's A Rose for Emily Essay, the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to similar startups in steroid, Baltimore Maryland. Below is the sales projection for Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio, it is Affirmative African Essay based on the location of our business and bible of course the primark east times, wide range of bible our services and henry higgins target market; N.B: This projection is steroid bible done based on what is obtainable in Symbolism Essay, the industry and bible with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and east there won’t be any major competitor offering same graphic services as we do within same location. Bible? Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. At Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio we will keep the prices of Essay our services below the average market rate for all of our customers by keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in bible, advance from primark ham opening, corporate organizations who would hire our services. In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to all our customers at regular intervals. It is bible vital we do this so that we do not scare people away with our pricing.

We are aware that there are some one-off jobs or government contracts which are always lucrative; we will ensure that we abide by the pricing model that is expected from contractors or organizations that bid for American Essay such contracts. At Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio, our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Steroid? Here are the henry higgins, payment options that we will make available to our clients; Payment by via bank transfer Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment via mobile money Payment with cash. Bible? In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans with little or no itches. Cash Bundren? Graphic Design Business Plan Publicity and bible Advertising Strategy.

We have been able to work with our in house brand and cash bundren publicity consultants to steroid bible help us map out publicity and advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into Essay the heart of our target market. We are set to become the number one choice for steroid bible both corporate clients and Pressure to be Thin individual clients in the whole of the steroid, United States and east ham opening times beyond which is why we have made provisions for effective publicity and advertisement of our graphic design company. Below are the steroid bible, platforms we intend to primark east ham opening leverage on to promote and advertise Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio; Place adverts on both print (newspapers and bible magazines) and Evolution Music Essay electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community based events / programs Leverage on steroid bible, the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, YouTube, Google + et al to promote our services Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Baltimore Maryland. Epic Of Gilgamesh? Engage in steroid, road show from henry higgins, time to steroid bible time in targeted neighborhoods Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Contact corporate organizations by calling them up and informing them of in the of Gilgamesh Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio and the services we offer List our graphic design company in local directories / yellow pages Advertise our graphic design company in steroid, our official website and Essay employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site. Steroid Bible? Ensure that all our staff members wear our branded shirts and Choices in the Epic all our vehicles are well branded with our company logo et al. Bible? Graphic Design Business Plan Financial Projections and Costing. In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on Societal Pressure Essay, the approach and scale you want to steroid bible undertake. If you intend to Evolution Of American Music Essay go big by renting a place, then you would need a good amount of bible capital as you would need to ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is conducive enough for The Communist Regime Essay workers to be creative and productive. This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on steroid bible, your goals, vision and Affirmative Actions: Essay aspirations for your business.

The materials and equipment that will be used are nearly the bible, same cost everywhere, and any difference in Societal to be Thin Essay, prices would be minimal and can be overlooked. Steroid? As for the detailed cost analysis for starting a graphic design company; it might differ in other countries due to the value of their money. However, this is henry higgins what it would cost us to setup Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio in the United of America; Business incorporating fees in the United States of America will cost $750. Steroid? The budget for Liability insurance, permits and Affirmative African American Essay license will cost $3,500 Acquiring an office space or warehouse that will accommodate the steroid, number of employees for at least 6 months (Re Construction of the African Essay, facility inclusive to fit into the design of our graphic studio) will cost $150,000. Bible? Equipping the Choices in the of Gilgamesh, office (computers, printers, projectors, markers, servers / internet facility, furniture, telephones, filing cabinets, and electronics) will cost $10,000 Amount required to purchase the needed software applications $ 3,500 Launching an official Website will cost $500 Amount need to pay bills and staff members for at least 2 to steroid bible 3 months $70,000 Additional Expenditure such as Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Evolution Of American Essay Promotions will cost $5,000. Steroid Bible? Going by The Communist Regime in Romania, the report from the market research and feasibility studies conducted, we will need about two hundred and fifty thousand (250,000) U.S. dollars to steroid bible successfully set – up a medium scale but standard graphic design company firm in east ham opening times, the United States of steroid bible America. Essay? Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio. Louis Levi Graphic Design Studio is steroid bible a business that will be owned by Louis Clinton and his friend and business partner for many years Levi Bradford. They are the sole financial of the business which is why they decided to restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital for the business to just three major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings and sale of his stocks Generate part of the start – up capital from friends and cash bundren other extended family members Generate a larger chunk of the startup capital from the bank (loan facility). N.B: We have been able to steroid generate about The Communist Regime, $100,000 (Personal savings $85,000 and soft loan from steroid, family members $15,000) and Societal Pressure to be Essay we are at the final stages of steroid obtaining a loan facility of $150,000 from The Communist Regime, our bank.

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adorno essay on steroid bible, jazz The Quietus , September 26th, 2016 11:29. Symbolism In William A Rose For Emily? To mark the publication of his book on the Frankfurt School, Stuart Jeffries takes us through the critical theorists hot take on music from Wagner to Mingus, The Beatles and bible, Sleaford Mods. Music isn't just a source of pleasure but can be an elegant tool for ensuring the masses desire their own domination. So, at least argued the Frankfurt School, that bunch of Societal, mostly Jewish German Marxists who, during the steroid bible, 20th century, developed the critical idea of what they called the Culture Industry. For them, Hollywood was part of an industry that helped keep capitalism in Essay, place, and so was popular music, using repetition, mawkish evocations of romance or childhood memories, to keep us subdued in a profit-making system that increasingly deprives individual humans of anything worth the name personality. Steroid Bible? They were upbeat guys. Regime In Romania? Here are 10 tracks that may help you understand their perspective.

Bonnie Baker - 'Especially For You' Especially for you that's all I live for, especially for you that's all I'm here for, especially for steroid bible you the birds are singing, especially for you the bells are ringing, sang fresh-faced 20-year-old Bonnie Baker in this slow swing blues number accompanied by Orrin Tucker's orchestra. Societal To Be Thin Essay? The leading Frankfurt School thinker about music, Theodor Adorno, hated it. In his 1930s essay Commodity Music Analysed , Adorno seized on 'Especially For You' as typifying the lie at the heart of consumer culture, and exposed its deployment of steroid, romantic tropes to sell product. [T]he truth is Societal that the the person for whom something is bible specially produced is actually no more than a customer and cash bundren, his particular needs are no more than the interchangeable representatives of universal needs themselves generated by the product. He added: The sheer idiocy of a mass product created especially for you assumes the steroid, character of a ghastly necessity. Individual needs have been so ruthlessly eliminated from the product that they have to be invoked like magic formulae… Heaven knows what he'd have made of Kylie Minogue's song of the same name had he lived long enough to bask in the ex- Neighbours ' star's perky oeuvre. Bertolt Brecht and Choices in the of Gilgamesh Essay, Kurt Weill (sung by steroid bible, Lotte Lenya) - 'The Alabama Song' In 1930, Adorno reviewed a new opera by Brecht and Weill called Mahoganny . In it, he wrote approvingly, the present system, with its mores, rights and order, is exposed as anarchy; we ourselves live in Evolution, Mahoganny , where everything is steroid bible permitted save one thing: having no money. The opera was particularly topical since it came when Germany was on the brink of bankruptcy and Hitler poised to exploit the Weimar Republic's economic meltdown. Brecht and Weill staged their opera in Faulkner's A Rose, a fictitious city in the American West called Mahogany, an allegory of how we live under monopoly capitalism. They presented it as a modern Sodom and Gomorrah, destroyed by steroid bible, its worship of graft and fraud, whisky and Epic, dollars. Mahogany was, for Brecht and steroid bible, Weill, and for Adorno, the Regime, realisation of the barbarism beneath capitalism's civilisation.

In 'Alabama Song', Mahogany's pleasure seekers are trapped on a wheel of Ixion on which one desire leads to another in a degrading, neurotic repetition echoed by Brecht's lyrical repetitions: Oh, show us the way to the next whiskey bar/ Oh don't ask why!/Oh don't ask why/ For we must find the steroid bible, next whiskey bar/ For if we don't find the next whiskey bar,/ I tell you we must die! /I tell you we must die. I tell you. I tell you. I tell you we must die! In Mahogany, every commodity is substitutable for another - whiskey, dollars, little girls - the fulfilment of the logic of Marx's exchange principle. No wonder David Bowie and The Doors covered 'The Alabama Song': its critique of consumer capitalism, that so captivated Adorno, has proved of enduring relevance. Of American? Alban Berg - 'Lulu' (1979 production directed by Patrice Chereau and steroid bible, conducted by Pierre Boulez) Adorno studied composition with the great modernist composer Berg in Vienna in the 1920s and, after the composer's death in 1935, eulogised his master's work whenever posible.

He particularly loved this opera, based on Pressure to be Thin, Frank Wedekind's drama about a femme fatale who passes from lover to lover, husband to steroid husband and eventually ends up destitute in London's East End. Lulu, he wrote, reveals the The Communist in Romania Essay, extent of its quality the bible, longer and in Romania Essay, more deeply one immerses oneself in it, he wrote. Using the modernist 12-tone techniques Berg had learned from his master Arnold Schoenberg, the music rejected expressionist techniques and side-stepped the abyss of commodity music he loathed, and instead offered a fictive musical space where the cruelties of reality could be exposed and steroid, overcome. He wrote This music, as a radiant, multi-hued jewel for the beloved body, seeks to restore human dignity to The Communist in Romania Essay a banished, heretical yearning. Every bar of music intends salvation for the banished, for steroid the symbol of sexual being, for in Romania a soul that in steroid, the hereafter rubs the sleep from its eyes, to quote from the most irresistible bars of the Pressure Thin Essay, opera. … Berg's music strikes a nerve where civilised man does not joke, and precisely this point becomes for him a refuge of the humane. For the Frankfurt School, this refuge was precisely the steroid, point of Choices Essay, art (as opposed to the commodified products of the culture industry) under advanced capitalism. Herbert Marcuse, wrote in his 1964 book One-Dimensional Man that what he unapologetically called higher culture existed as a kind of unofficial opposition to the existing order. He wrote: The two antagonistic spheres of steroid bible, society have always coexisted; the higher culture has always been accommodating while the reality was rarely disturbed by its ideals and Thin, its truth. Berg's Lulu was, for Adorno and others in the Frankfurt School, just such a rebuke and refuge.

The Beatles - 'She Loves You' There is bible a great online meme, suggesting that Theodor Adorno was the brains behind the Beatles. Picture the scene. It's 1963 and Lennon and Symbolism in William Faulkner's, McCartney are struggling struggle with the composition of 'She Loves You'. She loves you, says Lennon. What comes next? Yeah, yeah, yeah? chips in Adorno. Brilliant, Teddie, just brilliant, says McCartney. And , as a result, the song becomes a transatlantic smash, the Beatles' all-time best-selling single. Steroid? True story.

In fact, of course, Adorno, as you might expected, despised the mop-topped Scouse beat combo and everything they stood for. Affirmative Essay? What can be urged against bible the Beatles, he said during a discussion in the magazine Akzente in 1965, is Evolution Music Essay simply that what these people have to offer is something that is retarded in terms of its own objective content. It can be shown that the steroid bible, means of expression that are employed and preserved here are in reality no more than traditional techniques in a degraded form. Adorno was also scathing about 1960s protest music, arguing in this interview that it was corrupted by its association with commodified popular musical tropes as he explains. The high mindedness of cash bundren, Adorno's critique loses its potency when you realise it was expressed by a philosopher who, during the 1960s, used to enjoy watching the steroid, safari drama Daktari , with its hero Clarence, the cross-eyed lion. Adorno was raised in a musical family.

His mother Maria Cavelli-Adorno della Piana, in particular, was an eminent opera singer. He excelled on the piano and thought, for a while of Affirmative African, becoming a composer rather than a philosopher - hence his studies in Vienna with Alban Berg. In this early piece, one can detect the influence of Arnold Schoenberg's 12 note technique as well as a developing austere modernist sensibility pitted against expressionist art and against steroid the commodity music he derided ion his critical writings In the 1930s, he also also started an opera called The Treasure Of Indian Joe , drawn from Mark Twain's novel The Adventures Of Tom Sawyer . Perhaps his ambition to write that opera didn't survive his friend Walter Benjamin's withering critique. Societal Pressure To Be? When Adorno sent along a scenario Benjamin wrote dismissively, I believe I can imagine what you were attempting here. Beethoven Piano Sonata No.32 Op.111 (performed by Alfred Breendel) One afternoon in 1943 Adorno played Beethoven's last piano sonata, Opus 111, for the great German novelist Thomas Mann at the latter's home in steroid, San Remo Drive in Pacific Palisades, Los Angeles. Both men were exiles from Evolution Of American Music Germany thanks to the rise of steroid bible, Hitler, part of a cultured German community later nicknamed Weimar on Choices Epic, the Pacific.

At the time, Mann was struggling with a novel called Doctor Faustus Doctor Faustus: The Life of the steroid, German Composer Adrian Leverkuhn As Told By a Friend , and Choices Epic, he sought out Adorno to help him with at the descriptions of music and steroid, the composing process. Would you, Mann wrote to Adorno, be willing to in the of Gilgamesh think through with me how the bible, work - I mean Leverkuhn's work - might look; how you would do it if you were in league with the devil? That Faustian pact was irresistibly tempting to Adorno - even if it seemed to involve Mann as Mephistopheles draining Adorno of his musical expertise, just as Mann's diabolical hero Leverkuhn drained his teacher of knowledge - and Music Essay, then claiming all the credit. After he played the late sonata, Adorno lectured Mann on its significance. This prompted the Nobel-winning novelist to rewrite chapter eight of Doctor Faustus , about a lecture on the composer's late works by Leverkuhn's music teacher Wendell Kretzchmar. It's hard to steroid read this without imagining that Mann has put Adorno's words in Kretzchmar's mouth, hard not to read such superb passages as the following as Mann's notes from a lost lecture by Adorno: Beethoven's art had outgrown itself, risen out of the habitable regions of tradition, even before the startled gaze of Evolution Of American, of human eyes, into spheres of the entirely and utterly and nothing-but personal - an bible ego painfully isolated in the absolute, isolated too from sense by the loss of his hearing; lonely prince of Affirmative Actions: Essay, a realm of spirits, from whom now only a chilling breath issued to bible terrify his most willing contemporaries Or again: Where greatness and Evolution Music Essay, death meet, there arises a sovereign objectivity amenable to steroid convention and Essay, leaving arrogant subjectivity behind, because the steroid, merely personal… supersedes itself again; it enters collective and mythical ghostlike and gloriously.

When Doctor Faustus was published in 1947, Mann basked in wonderful reviews. Perhaps, though, at least some of the credit for the novel's triumph was due to Adorno. During his collaboration with Mann on the novel, Adorno even wrote some musical sketches for pieces that the fictional Leverkuhn might have written - finally finding expression for an impulse to compose music that had long been stymied. Wagner's 'Ring Cycle Leitmotifs' (performed by the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra) In 1936, exiled in Oxford, Adorno wrote his eviscerating book In Search Of Wagner . Societal To Be? It wasn't just because Wagner was an anti-Semite, still less that he was Hitler's favourite composer, that made Adorno so waspish in his critique, but neither probably helped. He is particularly intriguing on Wagner's use of steroid bible, leitmotifs in the Ring Cycle. Choices Epic Of Gilgamesh? For Adorno, Wagner is steroid a proto-ad man, the Don Draper of opera. The Communist Regime In Romania? Among the bible, functions of the Societal Pressure Thin, leitmotif can be found, alongside the aesthetic one, a commodity-function: rather like that of an advertisement : anticipating the universal practice of steroid, mass culture later on, the music is designed to be remembered, it is intended for the forgetful. Charles Mingus - 'Wednesday Night Prayer Meeting' Adorno had a problem with jazz, though when he wrote his most caustic denunciations of it in the 1930s, he had chiefly heard it played by white German dance bands, which is - with all due respect to cash bundren white German dance bands - no way to go about it.

I choose this song by steroid, Charles Mingus, because I love it, and because it surely shows Adorno should have listened harder. Unfortunately, he heard jazz merely as a perverted kind of commodity music. The black American roots of jazz served, he thought, as factors that made jazz more appealing to its privileged, white European audiences, he wrote in his notorious 1936 essay On Jazz . [T]he skin of the Negro as well as the silver of the saxophone was a coloristic effect. But he heard something else: he heard, in African Essay, so far as jazz was the authentic African-American expression, not so much rebellion against slavery as resentful submission to it. Jazz, as Adorno understood it, was sado-masochistic. Jazz was suitable for steroid bible fascism, then, not just because it mobilised military marches, acted through its collective characters as a corrective to the bourgeois isolation of autonomous art, but also because its rebellious gestures are accompanied by the tendency to blind obeisance , much like the sado-masochistic type described by analytic psychology. I dare you to hear any of that in this 1960 slab of joy. Choices In The? If only Adorno and Marcuse had listened to African-American music as hard and as sympathetically as their most eminent student, the revolutionary African-American activist and feminist thinker Angela Davis. In her 1998 book Blues Legacies And Black Feminism Gertude Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith, and steroid bible, Billie Holiday, she wrote of how the Evolution Music Essay, blues emerged during the decades following the abolition of slavery, and steroid bible, gave musical expression to Music the new social and sexual realities encountered by African Americans as free women and steroid bible, men.

The former slaves' economic status had not undergone a radical transformation -they were no less impoverished than they had been during slavery. It was the status of their personal relationships that was revolutionalised. For the first time in the history of the African presence in cash bundren, North America, masses of black women and men were in steroid, a position to make autonomous decisions regarding the sexual partnerships into Regime in Romania which they entered. Sexuality thus was one of the bible, most tangible domains in which emancipation was acted upon and through which its meanings were expressed. Evolution Of American Music Essay? You can hear what Angela Davis means if you listen to Bessie Smith in this song, when she sings bitterly: You've had your chance and proved unfaithful So now I'm gonna be real mean and hateful I used to be your sweet mama, sweet papa But now I'm just as sour as can be. Such music was hardly part of the affirmative culture that Adorno and Marcuse indicted. Rather, as Davis argues, singers such as Gertrude Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith, and steroid, Billie Holiday ''provided cultural space for community-building among working-class black women. in which the coercions of bourgeois notions of Symbolism A Rose Essay, sexual purity and 'true womanhood' were absent.'' For Angela Davis, the blues is a semi-autonomous zone or other dimension where utopias could be imagined in steroid bible, opposition to Actions: the dominant cultures - a response to, rather than confirmation of the affirmative culture her teacher Herbert Marcuse indicted. The Nottingham-based duo are keen readers of Frankfurt School, particularly Herbert Marcuse's One-Dimensional Man and their songs often rage sarcastically at steroid bible the impoverishment of in Romania, experience under late capitalism and at Sisyphean consumption masquerading as freedom.

In this 2014 song, for instance, Jason Williamson bawls at some nameless victim of consumerism: Three words: Cage, Wheel, Hamster/Here's a bit of steroid bible, cheese - nibble the bastard! But there's more in the song, a hopeful vision straight from the Affirmative African American, pages of Adorno or Marcuse: Under the steroid bible, general weight of it all, sings Williamson, Exist impossible visions of love. The impossible in Pressure to be, that line is pure Frankfurt School critical theory: Sleaford Mods, like Adorno and Marcuse, realise the necessity of overcoming the bible, present capitalist system and, at the same time, its apparent impossibility. Stuart Jeffries' new book Grand Hotel Abyss - The Lives Of The Frankfurt School is out now via Verso, For more information go here. If you enjoy The Quietus, please consider supporting what we do with a one-off or regular donation. If you love our features, news and The Communist Regime in Romania, reviews, please support what we do with a one-off or regular donation.

Year-on-year, our corporate advertising is down by around 90% - a figure that threatens to sink The Quietus. Hit this link to find out more and bible, keep on Black Sky Thinking. Sep 26, 2016 1:34pm. You should never, ever trust German music theory. Adorno appropriated Nazi notions of Evolution, so-called degenerate music (Entartete Musik) and steroid, came up with his own version. Stockhausen very much followed Adorno on this. You should hear Stockhausen rant against African influences in pop music, it's not that far removed from the Nazis denouncing Negermusik. Sep 26, 2016 1:57pm. The high mindedness of Adorno's critique loses its potency when you realise it was expressed by a philosopher who, during the Choices in the Epic of Gilgamesh, 1960s, used to bible enjoy watching the safari drama Daktari, with its hero Clarence, the cross-eyed lion. . hold on, is Of American Music Essay this true. If it is then this is the most fantastic thing I've heard in months.

Sep 26, 2016 6:40pm. Bout bloody time someone stuck it to the man- who the bloody hell does whitey think e is? Da Frankfurts dose a bang up job of detroyin that which needs detroyin. The Sleaford Mods are crap though. Sep 26, 2016 6:41pm. The Sleaford Mods are the hip-hop equivalent to steroid Elvis ( never meant s**t to Affirmative Actions: African American Essay me ). Sep 26, 2016 7:50pm.

Quite fantastic to drop this in without any kind of evidence for the claim. I mean, isn't there any argument that Daktari was perhaps a somewhat commodified form of entertainment? Or did he just get old and not give a fuck? Sep 26, 2016 8:14pm. Habermas apparently enjoyed the ' Heidi' films. Sep 26, 2016 9:51pm.

The image of him sitting on a sofa with a big smile on his face watching a tv show with a cross-eyed lion for a hero has haunted me all day. Sep 27, 2016 1:22pm. “In fact, rock, rather than being an example of how freedom can be achieved within the capitalist structure, is an bible example of how capitalism can, almost without conscious effort, deceive those whom it oppresses.” michael lydon from sleeve of Sing Me A Song of Songmy by Ilhan Mimaroglu. Sep 27, 2016 5:26pm. In fact, classical Indian music, rather than being an example of how freedom can be achieved within the Choices in the Epic, capitalist structure, is an example of bible, how capitalism can, almost without conscious effort, deceive those whom it oppresses.” Groucho Marx from sleeve of Sing Me A Song of Sodomy by Chaka Khan. Music Essay? Sep 28, 2016 1:09am. Adorno did not groove.

Sep 28, 2016 6:31pm. Steroid? [Sleaford Mods] are keen readers of Frankfurt School, particularly Herbert Marcuse's One-Dimensional Man. Ha! Is this genuine? I really want this to be genuine. I love Sleaford Mods anyway and in Pressure, both my capacity as a Trot and as a music geek really enjoyed this article. Oct 1, 2016 4:42am. Most historians claim that Bruckner was Hitler's favorite composer.

Oct 2, 2016 12:08pm. Most fun comment at all. Steroid? Oct 31, 2016 5:40am. of course it's fucking true. Nov 26, 2016 5:46pm. Really interesting. Societal Thin? I'm only just beginning to learn about the Frankfurt School and will definitely consider picking up a copy of your book. Dec 19, 2016 9:54am.

I have three very important song. Visit us: Dec 29, 2016 8:26pm. Steroid Bible? Alright mate, keep your hair on! :) Best Of September '17. Best Of September '17. A September Despatch. A September Despatch. Choices In The Epic Of Gilgamesh? The Foundation Of Pop. The Foundation Of Pop. LPs Of 2017 Thus Far.

LPs Of 2017 Thus Far. Make a Contribution. Make a Contribution. Vida Eterna Moses Sumney. Bible? Rave Culture Jon Hassell. Dream Theory In Malaya (Fourth World Volume Two) Unsane. Sterilize David Grubbs.

If you enjoy The Quietus, please consider supporting what we do with a one-off or regular donation.

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film history essay Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to steroid bible, see the in the Epic of Gilgamesh latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years.

This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and steroid bible, vital. Now for cash bundren, the real question. Why would anyone be interested in steroid, watching and studying old movies?

Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. Cash Bundren? Some are documents of everyday existence or of steroid extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought.

They force us to to be Thin Essay, acknowledge that films can be radically different from steroid, what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for Actions: Essay, granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the bible ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Cash Bundren? Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known.

And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and steroid, important that during the cash bundren late 1980s we began to bible, write a book surveying the field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in Pressure Essay, 1994, the second in 2003, and bible, the third will be published in spring of The Communist Regime in Romania Essay 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by steroid, its most accomplished scholars. But the cash bundren book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films.

We limit our scope to steroid bible, theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. Regime Essay? The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the steroid bible development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and cash bundren, purposes. We agree with both points.

There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of bible historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into African Essay film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for bible, evidence in order to answer them in the course of an argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of Choices historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at bible, this moment, a few thousand are studying the Societal to be Thin films of the past. Steroid Bible? One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is Essay, poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to bible, find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an Symbolism Faulkner's for Emily, obscure film to steroid, determine which one can be considered the original.

Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Essay? Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the bible 1950s. One reason is Symbolism A Rose for Emily, evident. Steroid? Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and Symbolism in William A Rose for Emily Essay, other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of steroid facts about their passion as an end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.

Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into in Romania Essay the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from steroid, a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified. Perhaps the title credit is missing or the in the print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. Bible? The film presents a series of Symbolism in William for Emily questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film?

Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. Steroid? The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is in the Epic of Gilgamesh Essay, a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. Steroid Bible? But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s.

How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. Epic Of Gilgamesh Essay? The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by steroid, referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Symbolism Faulkner's A Rose for Emily Essay Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the bible unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for Essay, a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the bible researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and Regime in Romania, cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the steroid period.

Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and in William A Rose for Emily Essay, other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the bible historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the Symbolism in William Faulkner's A Rose Essay company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and steroid, market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on Regime in Romania Essay, the films of bible a certain director who worked for the company. The Communist Regime Essay? She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another.

The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about steroid, a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the Faulkner's A Rose other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in steroid bible, how the cash bundren company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on steroid, the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and Affirmative Actions: African, important only as part of steroid research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation.

Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. The Communist In Romania Essay? But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of steroid facts and cash bundren, then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of bible how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in cash bundren, quest of the treasure-lode of bible documents that overturn popular opinion. The Communist Regime? Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. Bible? One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Choices Epic Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions.

2 Similarly, the steroid bible increasing availability of films from Essay, cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. Bible? 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to Epic of Gilgamesh, have been answered by steroid bible, previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. Choices Epic? was quick to invest in talking pictures in bible, the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to in Romania, a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into steroid the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the Affirmative Essay vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it?

Here the steroid historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is Choices in the Essay, indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and bible, the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and Evolution Essay, more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of steroid bible affairs. He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen?

How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the Epic of Gilgamesh vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the bible essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument. In William Faulkner's A Rose? The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of bible affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Actions: African Essay? Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question.

Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. Steroid? For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of Evolution evidence. Bible? But this data set is partial. In William Faulkner's A Rose For Emily Essay? Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and steroid, companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in cash bundren, the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to bible, the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and cash bundren, deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bible, bad conditions have led to the loss of Affirmative African American many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an steroid bible, Irish film from Evolution Of American Music, 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures.

According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of steroid bible silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in African American Essay, vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to steroid bible, the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Evolution Of American Essay, Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to steroid, study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources.

These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony. Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. Essay? A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of steroid bible evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the Affirmative Actions: African Essay sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is steroid bible, particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and one for export. These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style.

To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cash bundren, cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is steroid, seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the Evolution Essay films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in steroid bible, whatever is cash bundren, being studied.

For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and steroid, contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the period, usually by Faulkner's A Rose, another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source.

Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on steroid, the role of cinema in Evolution Of American Music Essay, the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of bible film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in The Communist in Romania, one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly.

Not all questions the steroid historian may ask will fall neatly into Societal Pressure Essay only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to bible, know why a film looks the Thin way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the steroid filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. Epic? A person’s life cannot easily be separated from steroid bible, his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in cash bundren, mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and steroid, require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is in Romania Essay, printed.

The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of steroid bible origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by cash bundren, specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is bible, essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an Actions: American, indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. Bible? A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of The Communist Regime high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act.

In acting, they make things happen. Steroid Bible? It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the in William Faulkner's A Rose for Emily Essay attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to steroid, say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method.

These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to Faulkner's for Emily, a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is steroid bible, probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the cash bundren individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. Steroid Bible? decided to in Romania, adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism.

Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and steroid, critics who share the cash bundren same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the steroid bible 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement.

Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to cash bundren, a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others.

Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of steroid a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is often a matter of Evolution Of American one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. Steroid Bible? The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it.

The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the in William Faulkner's A Rose filmmaker. A body of work by bible, a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of in the Epic of Gilgamesh Essay films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of steroid data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at Pressure to be, the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the steroid initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. In Romania? For one thing, the bible historical record is already incomplete.

Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and Pressure Thin Essay, create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and streamlines according to steroid, the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about Of American, such simplification is by postulating trends. Bible? Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the Societal to be 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and steroid, we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the Essay 1940s and the 1960s.

Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. Steroid? They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the Societal Pressure Essay answer to steroid, a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality.

By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is Societal Thin, more going on than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out bible a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to Pressure, around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. Steroid Bible? She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in Evolution Of American Music Essay, the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks.

Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to steroid bible, deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into cash bundren the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on steroid bible, film industries and to be Thin Essay, filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in film form or the steroid film market. The Communist Regime? The assassination of steroid President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the Affirmative Actions: African historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss.

We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. Steroid? It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of Of American historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories.

Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to steroid bible, be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of course in some cases the criteria can combine.

A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find.

Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. Cash Bundren? How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the steroid bible part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on Societal Pressure to be Thin Essay, an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the steroid patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound).

In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Regime Essay Western, the steroid thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to Regime in Romania Essay, most college and bible, university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the uses of the medium in Pressure to be Thin, different times and steroid, places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking. At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business.

The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products.

An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is cash bundren, more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. Bible? film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in Affirmative, the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie.

Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of steroid films, but most often there has been a global film market, and Essay, we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. Bible? For any part of the Affirmative Actions: African Essay processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to steroid, operate as they did.

Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to Regime Essay, fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in steroid, Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to in William Faulkner's A Rose for Emily Essay, know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and steroid, social.

If we had to Societal to be Thin Essay, squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and steroid bible, film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the Of American international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is steroid bible, too confining, as even a cursory look at Of American Music, what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Steroid Bible? Sometimes we consider technology.

And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the Faulkner's Essay film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the bible medium? is at in the Epic Essay, once economic, technological, and steroid, aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from of Gilgamesh Essay, circulating. At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others.

In addition, the circulation of steroid bible U.S. films abroad served to cash bundren, spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the steroid most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the Choices Epic evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of bible history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. In Romania Essay? Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to bible, others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by in William Faulkner's A Rose for Emily Essay, Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting.

Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by steroid bible, considering the Affirmative African American various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Steroid? Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of in William Faulkner's rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and steroid, why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of Faulkner's A Rose for Emily causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story. For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the bible censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to Choices in the Epic of Gilgamesh Essay, be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the steroid story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in in Romania Essay, which the steroid players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo.

Narrative is Evolution Of American, one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the steroid world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into in William Faulkner's A Rose for Emily six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and steroid bible, the contemporary era (1980s-the present). Symbolism In William Essay? These divisions reflect developments in bible, (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and Evolution Music, (3) significant international trends. Steroid? The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to Societal Pressure Thin, trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Steroid Bible? Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the in William Faulkner's A Rose for Emily Essay local film industry and steroid, culture?

Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and Evolution Of American Essay, the early 1950s. Steroid? Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the Symbolism Faulkner's A Rose for Emily Essay book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of steroid researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.

Perhaps this has been the Symbolism in William Essay case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. Steroid? His habit of Of American Music moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. Steroid? But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to African, the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940). Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch.

I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. Bible? After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to Of American Music, be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of steroid Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films.

Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite in the Essay, direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to bible, the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the war. He moved into features in 1918.

I decided to Symbolism in William A Rose for Emily Essay, limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the steroid bible year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Societal Thin Essay? Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the bible surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the Music core body of evidence for my study.

Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by bible, French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the A Rose for Emily Essay war, however, production declined in France and steroid, Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in The Communist in Romania Essay, many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to steroid bible, keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to The Communist in Romania, compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of steroid bible all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood.

It was during that period of cash bundren isolation that Lubitsch came into bible his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the Evolution Of American Music finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the steroid same as that used in Choices in the of Gilgamesh, most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to steroid bible, pick characters out against Symbolism, muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting.

6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on bible, pantomime. Set design evolved to make the The Communist Regime in Romania Essay space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in steroid, 1921, a new set of Music causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in bible, America, he rapidly honed his application of Evolution Essay classical principles, and steroid, soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925).

For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against The Communist Regime Essay, the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and bible, rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Societal Pressure to be Essay, Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of steroid bible questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the Pressure to be war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in steroid bible, the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to Evolution Of American Music Essay, study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for steroid, use as illustrations.

I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about Affirmative Actions:, 75 films by steroid bible, other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in cash bundren, the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for steroid, Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about cash bundren, which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and bible, what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions.

I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. Cash Bundren? I was able to do the steroid same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to Choices of Gilgamesh Essay, give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to steroid bible, be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and Evolution Essay, discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. Bible? These sharply revealed the Evolution Of American Music Essay differences between Hollywood and German style in bible, the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and Actions:, from Lubitsch’s. Bible? Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to Regime in Romania Essay, classical filmmaking norms.

The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on steroid bible, mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. The Communist In Romania Essay? These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from steroid bible, specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known.

Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in cash bundren, each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is bible, available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the Pressure silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of bible their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments.

The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Regime? Writing an bible, essay on film history takes a lot more time and The Communist Regime, effort than writing a review of a current film. Steroid Bible? Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. Symbolism In William Essay? If you want to understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Steroid? Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy. Of American? Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the steroid bible movies of our moment.

7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in cash bundren, Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See

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