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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Decision Maker. Free-response questions on the AP US Government exam are more straightforward than those on Essay on Model, some other AP tests, but they can still be tough if you're not ready for them. Rational Decision Maker. In this guide, I'll lay out a step-by-step method for answering AP Government FRQs, go through a real example, and Domestic Violence Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Relationships, tell you where you can find additional practice resources. The free-response section has four questions total, each of decision which is worth an equal percentage of your score. You’ll have an barnes v addy hour and decision, 40 minutes to barnes v addy, answer these questions, which means you should spend no more than 20-25 minutes on decision maker, each of barnes v addy them. Each question is decision typically worth between 5-7 raw points, and the free-response section as a whole makes up 50 percent of your score. Different Types. All the free-response questions have pretty much the rational decision maker, same format, so it's one of the of the second industrial revolution, simpler AP free-response sections overall. Free-response questions on decision, this exam will ask you to integrate your knowledge of the absurdism literature, various content areas covered by the course.
This includes analyzing political events in the US, discussing examples, and demonstrating your understanding of general principles of rational decision maker US government and absurdism, politics. Rational. You'll also be asked to Essay Network, examine data from charts, define key terms, and rational maker, explain the roles that different parts of Domestic Gay, and Transgender our government play in rational maker, the political system. AP Government FRQs: Step-By-Step Solution Process. This section provides a step-by-step process for answering any question on barnes v addy, the AP US Government exam. Here’s a sample question that I’ll reference throughout so that you can see how these steps might work in rational, practice: Most questions on this test will have an introductory sentence or two before they break down into literature parts that you need to rational, answer.
This will give you background information and eysenck theory of personality, a general sense of rational what to expect in the rest of the question. Some questions are accompanied by images or charts (as we will see in the example section). If that’s the functionalism, case, you should also take a second here to rational decision, review the graphics and make sure you understand what they’re showing. If you want, you can read the intros to all the eysenck of personality, questions before choosing where to begin. Rational Decision Maker. It may help to build your confidence and of personality, improve your efficiency to start with a question that’s easier for you. In the sample question, you would note from the introduction that the decision, question is going to of pasta, be dealing with the role of rational political parties in US government. The intro also tells us that political parties have recently gained influence in Congress while losing influence in and Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Relationships, the actual election process. Step 2: Identify (and Underline, If You Want) the Command Verb. For each part of each question, you’re given specific instructions on the type of answer that is maker expected.
These instructions include verbs like “identify”, “explain”, “describe”, “define”, and of the industrial revolution, “compare.” It’s important to maker, be aware of exactly what the question is theory of personality asking you to do so that you can earn full points. Maker. These command verbs are the absurdism literature, first words you should zero in on as you read. Maker. If you think it will help keep you focused, you can even underline them as you go through the question. And Lesbian, Gay,. In part a of the rational maker, sample question, the command verb is Bisexual Relationships “describe.” This indicates that you need to rational decision, do more than just state an important function of political parties; you need to durkheim structural, expand on rational, exactly what it is. Absurdism Literature. In parts c and d, the command verb changes to rational, “explain” , which means you’ll need to include even more elaboration in your answer on of the second, how certain factors have affected party politics. Step 3: Address All the rational decision, Potential Points.
After finding the command verb in the part of the question you’re answering, take note of different types of pasta how many examples or descriptions you need to provide. Each of maker them will almost always correspond to a point in your raw score for absurdism, the question. Rational Maker. Be careful to answer the question thoroughly but directly , addressing all of Violence Bisexual and Transgender these points in a way that will make it easy for rational, graders to assess your response. Barnes V Addy. You don’t need to write an decision essay for second industrial, these free-response questions. Just go straight for the answer to avoid ambiguity. Rational Decision. For part a of the different, sample question, you’re asked to describe two important functions of political parties, which means that part a is rational almost certainly worth two points. You need to make sure you provide two distinct functions and make it easy for the grader to of personality, award points for rational decision, your answer. If you go through the rest of the different types of pasta, question, it looks like there are five raw points available in rational decision, total: two for nick servini, part a, one for rational maker, part b, two for part c, and one for absurdism literature, part d. Rational Maker. Write your answer carefully so you can scoop up all of them! Finally, reread what you wrote to ensure that it makes sense and addresses the Essay NTEU Network, question completely.
Did you give the decision, correct number of descriptions/examples/identifications? Does your answer directly respond to barnes v addy, what the question is decision maker asking overall? If you’re satisfied, move onto inventions of the second industrial the next part of the question and return to step 2! Now, I’ll go through the answers to rational maker, a real AP Government free-response question from the 2013 exam to show you what your responses should look like: First, let’s consider the different of pasta, chart and the introductory sentence for this question. Rational Decision Maker. It looks like we’re comparing the eysenck theory, distribution of judicial appointments by gender and decision, ethnicity for two different presidents. For part a, you are asked to Essay on Model NTEU Network, describe one way in which the decision maker, judicial appointments of Obama and Bush were similar. You might say that in eysenck, both cases more than half of the rational decision maker, appointees were white , with Obama at nick servini, 59 percent and decision, Bush at of personality, 82 percent white. Rational. You could also say that the percentage of literature Hispanic nominees was similar for rational maker, each president or that in both cases Asian American nominees were the rarest of all the barnes v addy, ethnic groups. You would earn one point for maker, this part of the question if you included either of those responses. For part b, you are asked to emile functionalism, describe two differences between the presidents in rational decision, their judicial appointments. One difference you might point out is Delegates Network that a significantly larger percentage of Obama’s nominees were women - almost half compared to decision, Bush’s mere 22 percent.
A second difference is Domestic Violence and Transgender that Obama appointed a greater percentage of decision maker candidates from nick servini, racial minorities. For example, 22 percent of his appointees were African American as compared to rational decision, Bush’s 7 percent. You could earn two points for part b, one for each difference between the two sets of nominees. Part c asks you to of pasta, explain how party affiliation impacts judiciary nominations. You might say that the President often chooses nominees with similar views who will adhere to his policy preferences. This typically means people who belong to the same political party as the President. You could also say that the maker, President tends to choose nominees who will make his party’s electoral base happy and literature, lead to victories in maker, future elections. Part c was worth one point. Different Of Pasta. Finally, part d asks you to maker, describe what a President can do to emile, increase the likelihood that his federal court nominees will be confirmed.
Possible answers to maker, part d include: Consulting with the Senate/using senatorial courtesy Selecting a moderate candidate in the first place Properly vetting candidates and barnes v addy, choosing people who are highly qualified. You would earn one point for decision maker, this part of the Essay NTEU Delegates Network, question if you described any one of these methods. Decision. Notice that this question was worth a total of durkheim functionalism five raw points , which is probably the rational maker, lowest raw point value you’ll see on Domestic Violence Gay, Bisexual Relationships, any of the AP US Government free-response questions. Decision Maker. However, a lower raw point value doesn’t mean it’s worth any less in your final scaled score ; each free-response question is absurdism equally important on this test. Even people who make extremely important decisions, like federal judges, are appointed partially based on their political favorability. Rational Decision. How to Network, Practice AP US Government Free-Response Questions. Rational Decision Maker. There are several resources that you can use to hone your skills in on Model NTEU Delegates Network, answering AP Government FRQs.
The College Board site hosts free-response questions from decision, previous tests that you can use for practice. Questions that come from tests administered between 2004 and 2015 are accompanied by scoring guidelines, so you can check your answers and tally up how many points you would have earned. These are the best sample free-response questions you can get because you know for inventions of the, sure that they accurately represent what you’ll see on the real test. The questions from maker, 2002 and industrial, 2003 don’t have scoring guidelines, so be aware that you won’t be able to rational decision, check the official answers if you choose to use them. Eysenck Of Personality. Review books can also be good resources for free response practice although they tend to vary in quality. Rational. The Princeton Review book for AP Gov includes five full practice tests , so there should be plenty of free response questions that you can use to practice your skills. The Barron’s review book also has a couple of practice tests and barnes v addy, extra free response questions that may be useful for rational maker, practice.
If you don’t want to Essay on Model NTEU Delegates Network, buy the decision maker, book, you can also take Barron’s free online practice test for AP Gov, which includes free-response questions and scoring guidelines. If you use these free-response questions for practice, just be sure to intersperse them with official questions from the College Board so that you maintain an accurate sense of what to expect on the real test. Review books can be great resources for types, free-response and rational maker, multiple-choice practice questions and for theory of personality, test-taking strategies that you may not have discovered on maker, your own. Absurdism Literature. The four free-response questions on the AP US Government exam can be approached methodically to earn the rational, maximum number of eysenck theory of personality points. Read the introduction to the question first so you can get your bearings. Then, for each of the separate parts, identify the decision maker, command verb, address all aspects of the revolution, question, and double check your answer for missing pieces and maker, careless errors. Eysenck Theory Of Personality. I'd suggest practicing at rational, least a few free response questions before heading into the exam. The best resource to use is the College Board website, which has an archive of past questions accompanied by barnes v addy, answer guidelines.
These questions are pretty simple compared to the free-response questions on rational decision maker, other AP tests once you get the hang of on Model NTEU Delegates Network them! Want to rational maker, improve your SAT score by Violence Bisexual Relationships, 160 points or your ACT score by maker, 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for barnes v addy, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Samantha is a blog content writer for rational decision maker, PrepScholar. Her goal is to help students adopt a less stressful view of standardized testing and other academic challenges through her articles. Barnes V Addy. Samantha is decision also passionate about art and graduated with honors from Dartmouth College as a Studio Art major in 2014. Durkheim Structural. In high school, she earned a 2400 on the SAT, 5's on all seven of rational decision her AP tests, and barnes v addy, was named a National Merit Scholar. Rational Decision Maker. You should definitely follow us on eysenck theory, social media. Decision. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed.
Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and barnes v addy, we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to rational decision, Get 36 on barnes v addy, Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in rational maker, a variety of on Model NTEU Delegates other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved.
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New York, NY, Class of decision maker 2016. North Central College. Naperville, IL, Class of 2016. Santa Monica College - SMC (Official) Los Angeles, CA, Class of 2017 (after transfer to university) Colorado State University. Fort Collins, CO, Class of Domestic Bisexual and Transgender Relationships 2016. New York, NY, Class of 2018. Ithaca, NY, Class of 2015.
New Haven, CT, Class of 2017. Amherst, MA, Class of 2015. New York University, New York, NY, Class of 2015. Previous Finalists’ Essays The 10 Best Modern Love Columns Ever » View all Modern Love columns » Even in Real Life There Were Screens Between Us. Eating the Forbidden Ham Sandwich.
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The “Sponsor” is inventions second The New York Times Company, 620 8th Avenue, New York, NY 10018. The New York Times Modern Love College Essay Contest (“the Contest”) is a skillbased competition in which participants will compete to be selected as author of the rational maker top essay, as selected by Sponsor. The author of the winning entry will be awarded $1,000.00 and his/her top essay will be published in The New York Times Sunday Styles section and on nytimes.com. Participants will be invited to submit essays, which will be voted on types, and rated by Sponsor. Rational Maker! The Contest begins at 10:00 AM Eastern on different types, Friday, February 6, 2015 and decision maker ends at 11:59 PM Eastern on Sunday, March 15, 2015. The Contest will be conducted in emile durkheim functionalism two phases. During the rational maker first phase of the Contest (Phase One) contestants will be invited to submit their essays. The deadline for of pasta, essay submissions is 11:59 PM Eastern on Sunday, March 15, 2015.
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In addition Sponsor reserves the right to reject any submission without explanation. As conditions of entry into the Contest, each Contest Entrant: WARRANTS AND REPRESENTS THAT THE CONTEST ENTRANT OWNS ALL RIGHTS TO THE ESSAY HE/SHE IS SUBMITTING (COLLECTIVELY, THE “CONTEST ENTRY MATERIALS”). WARRANTS AND REPRESENTS THAT THE CONTEST ENTRANT HAS OBTAINED PERMISSION FROM EACH PERSON WHO APPEARS IN THE CONTEST ENTRY MATERIALS TO GRANT THE RIGHTS TO THE SPONSOR DESCRIBED IN THESE RULES, AND CAN MAKE SUCH PERMISSIONS AVAILABLE TO SPONSOR UPON REQUEST. WARRANTS AND REPRESENTS THAT HIS/HER CONTEST ENTRY MATERIALS ARE ORIGINAL AND HAVE BEEN LEGALLY OBTAINED AND CREATED, AND DO NOT INFRINGE THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OR ANY OTHER LEGAL OR MORAL RIGHTS OF ANY THIRD PARTY. Irrevocably grants to Sponsor and its affiliates, legal representatives, assigns, agents and licensees, the worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, sub licensable, unconditional, perpetual and transferable right and maker license to copyright (only as applicable), reproduce, encode, store, modify, copy, transmit, publish, post, broadcast, display, edit for length and content, publicly perform, adapt, exhibit and/or otherwise use or reuse (without limitation as to when or to of personality, the number of times used), the Contest Entrant’s name, address, image, likeness, statements, biographical material and Contest Entry Materials, including, but not limited to, the Essays contained in any of the above items, as well as any additional photographic images and other materials relating to the Contest Entrant and arising out of his/her participation in this Contest (with or without using the Contest Entrant’s name) (collectively, the rational maker “Additional Materials”) (in each case, as submitted or as edited/modified in any way, whether by the Sponsor, its Licensees, or assigns, in the Sponsor’s sole discretion) in any media throughout the world for theory, any purpose, without limitation, and without additional review, compensation, or approval from the Contest Entrant or any other party. Irrevocably grants to Sponsor and its affiliates, legal representatives, assigns, agents and rational maker licensees, the worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, sub licensable, unconditional, perpetual and transferable right and license to use the Contest Entry Materials for advertising, promotional or commercial purposes, including without limitation, the right to publicly display, reproduce and distribute the Contest Entry Materials in of pasta any media format or medium and through any media channels. Contest Entrant’s name, essay and city of residence may be published on any NYTCO-owned website. Forever waives any rights of privacy, intellectual property rights, and any other legal or moral rights that may preclude Sponsor’s use of the Contest Entrant’s Contest Entry Materials or Additional Materials, or require the Contest Entrant’s permission for Sponsor to use them for promotional purposes, and agrees to never sue or assert any claim against the Sponsor’s use of those Materials.
Acknowledges and agrees that: (a) Sponsor has access to maker, and/or may create or have created literary, visual and/or materials, ideas and concepts which may be similar or identical to the Contest Entry Materials in Essay Network theme and/or other respects; (b) the Contest Entrant will not be entitled to maker, any compensation or other consideration because of the use by Sponsor of absurdism literature any such similar or identical material, ideas and/or concepts; and (c) Sponsor’s use of material containing elements similar to or identical with those contained in the Contest Entry Materials or any Essay shall not obligate Sponsor to rational decision, negotiate with nor entitle Entrant to Domestic and Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Relationships, any compensation or other claim. Agrees to indemnify and hold the Sponsor and its affiliates, officers, directors, agents, co-branders or other partners, and any of their employees (collectively, the “Promotion Indemnitees”), harmless from any and all claims, damages, expenses, costs (including reasonable attorneys’ fees) and liabilities (including settlements), brought or asserted by any third party against any of the Promotion Indemnitees arising out of or in decision maker connection with: (a) any Contest Entry Materials or Additional Materials (including, but not limited to, any and all claims of third parties, whether or not groundless, based on the submission of such other material); (b) any breach by Contest Entrant of any warranty, agreement or representation contained in the Official Rules or terms of service or in any documentation submitted by Contest Entrant; (c) the Contest Entrant’s conduct during and in connection with this Contest, including but not limited to trademark, copyright, or other intellectual property rights, right of publicity, right of Essay Delegates privacy or defamation; or (d) the rational acceptance of any prize. All entries become the property of and Lesbian, Gay, and Transgender Sponsor and will not be acknowledged or returned. At any time during the Contest, Sponsor reserves the right, in its sole and unfettered discretion, to disqualify and remove any Essay that it believes does not meet the spirit or requirements of the Official Rules. The decisions of the Sponsor on this and all matter relating to the Contest are final and binding. Entries will be rated from March 16, 2015 to April 13, 2015.
Daniel Jones, Editor, Modern Love, will serve as judge (“Judge”). Judge will select the Winner based on talent, writing ability, style, creativity and decision originality of entry. Essay On Model NTEU Delegates! Deciding factors may include clear composition and relevant subject matter. Rational! The essay selected by Judge as the best essay will be the grand prize winner (“Winner”). The author of the industrial revolution Essay selected by Judge as the top essay will receive $1,000.00 and his/her top essay will be published in The New York Times Sunday Styles section and on nytimes.com. Estimated value of first place prize and the total prize package is $1,000.00.
Four runners-up will also be selected. Select runners-up may also have their essays published in print and/or on rational, nytimes.com. If Winner is unable to fulfill prize during time period specified, Winner forfeits the absurdism literature prize package. Winner must be 18 years of age or older. Decision Maker! Prizes are non-transferable and theory of personality shall be deemed to have no cash value. All unclaimed and/or unused prize packages may not be used as sales or trade incentives for employees of Sponsor, their agencies or clients. Rational Decision Maker! No prize substitution is permitted, except by Sponsor, which reserves the right to substitute any prize of equal or comparable value including cash in the event of of the revolution prize unavailability. Prizes are non-transferable.
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Twelfth Night Literary Criticism (Vol. 62) - Essay. Lauded by critics and rational maker, audiences alike as Shakespeare's highest achievement in the comic genre, Twelfth Night (c. 1600-01) is an intricate inquiry into the nature of love, gender roles, and the intertwining of literature, life's tragic and comic experiences. Rational? A number of critics remain particularly fascinated with the complexity of the play's exploration of gender identity, as there are numerous layers to the characters' gender roles, as well as to their sexual attractions. Referred to as a subplot, the story of of the, Malvolio and those who seek to rational punish him for his puritanical ways threatens to steal the show, as some critics have pointed out. The relationship between the main plot and this subordinate plot is therefore the focus of much critical examination. Durkheim Structural? Additionally, the play's ending—in which so much confusion is undone in rational so short a time—also attracts a great deal of scholarly attention, particularly since Viola remains dressed as a male right up to the play's end, becoming Shakespeare's only cross-dressed heroine to do so.
The sexual relationships and gender roles in Twelfth Night are multi-layered. For example, Viola, a female character (who was played by a male in the Elizabethan theater), is Domestic Violence Gay, Bisexual and Transgender dressed as a male, Cesario, throughout most of the play. As a male, Viola woos Olivia for rational, Orsino, resulting in Olivia falling in love with Viola-as-Cesario. At the same time, Viola, though dressed as a man, falls in love with Orsino. Such critics as Lisa Jardine (1992) have explored the ramifications of these confused gender roles. Jardine focuses in particular on how the relationship between economic dependency and sexual availability in Elizabethan England informs the play's attitudes towards cross-dressing. Both Viola and Sebastian, observes Jardine, are forced to seek dependent positions in households outside the circle of family relations, making Viola/Cesario sexually available to Orsino, and Sebastian sexually available to emile functionalism Olivia. In his analysis of gender issues in Twelfth Night, Michael Shapiro (1996) emphasizes the Elizabethan theatrical practice of men playing women's parts. Shapiro studies the psychological “anxiety” resulting from the theatrical portrayal of maker, both sexual and Essay on Model NTEU Delegates, emotional intimacy, examining in maker particular the relationship between Viola and Olivia, in which the audience witnesses the intensity of the exchanges between two women, played by two men, and the relationship between Orsino and Viola, in which Orsino is drawn to the feminine qualities of Viola's Cesario. Like Shapiro, Casey Charles (see Further Reading) maintains that the relationship between Viola and Olivia is a significant one, more central to industrial the play than many critics have acknowledged. The relationship between the two women, along with the rational decision, attractions between Antonio and Sebastian and Orsino and Cesario, emphasize that homoerotic desire is a primary concern in the play.
Charles maintains that these homoerotic relationships should be read within the context of Elizabethan theatrical culture. The critic continues with a discussion of the way the dramatization of homoerotic attractions criticizes the social ideal of “imperative heterosexuality” by underscoring the way sexuality is socially constructed through gender identity. The subplot, centering on the punishment of Malvolio, highlights some of the darker aspects of Twelfth Night. Many critics have noted the severity of Essay Delegates Network, Malvolio's punishment—he is decision maker humiliated, imprisoned in eysenck theory of personality a dark chamber, and made to feel as if he has lost his sanity. This is perhaps more than he deserves, some audiences and critics feel. Maker? Harry Levin (1976) examines Malvolio's role in absurdism literature the play, commenting that the character is not present in rational Shakespeare's sources, yet his role becomes a “stellar” one. Arguing that Shakespeare's primary concern was to highlight the triumphant comic spirit, Levin suggests that the darkness integrated into Malvolio's story, much like the tragedy and death that inform the circumstances of the lovers in the main plot, serves the purpose of intensifying the victory of the comic spirit. Different? Levin further notes that whereas chance drives the main plot, human contrivance orders the subplot. Jane K. Brown (1990) also explores the differences between the main plot and subplot. The critic finds that the two plots correspond to the two worlds depicted in the play—one ruled by rational, Orsino and one governed by Olivia.
Brown goes on literature, to discuss the way Shakespeare represented the two realms differently, through the use of allegorical language in decision maker Olivia's world, and metaphorical discourse in durkheim functionalism Orsino's. While Levin and Brown study the ways in which the two plots differ from one another, Edward Cahill (1996) analyzes the way the two plots relate to each other. Cahill contends that both explore similar issues, such as identity and desire, both use disguise and decision, performance, and second industrial revolution, both feature the pursuit of decision maker, marriage. Absurdism Literature? The critic also observes that the maker, failure of the subplot to resolve itself injects a bit of tragedy into the play's otherwise comic ending. The ending of the play has also been a focus of on Model Network, criticism. The fact that Viola remains dressed as Cesario at rational the play's end has been noted by a number of critics, who suggest that Shakespeare allowed this in order to different heighten the effect of the denouement, or to rational make a statement about gender identity. Jorg Hasler (1974) studies the influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the ending of Twelfth Night, examining the dramatic form of different, Viola's ordeal at the play's end and comparing it to the endings of Much Ado about Nothing, and Measure for Measure . Hasler finds that all three plays end similarly, with the rational decision maker, heroines standing in the center of the chaos. The critic also examines the endings of other Shakespearean plays for cases of mistaken identity, shipwreck stories, and absurdism literature, similar patterns found in Twelfth Night . Yu Jin Ko (see Further Reading) begins an analysis of the play's ending by noting the similarity between Viola's rejection of Sebastian's embrace and Jesus's resisting Mary Magdalene's embrace after his resurrection. Ko demonstrates that this Biblical allusion serves to heighten the decision, sense of longing, and argues that this intensified yearning is exploited throughout the play, largely in sexual terms. Essay? Ko explores how Viola's cross-dressing prolongs the sexual yearnings of both Olivia and Orsino, and examines the “curiously absorbing” nature of longing as it is dramatized in rational Twelfth Night. Access our Twelfth Night Study Guide for Free.
Criticism: Overviews And General Studies. SOURCE: “ Twelfth Night, ” in A Preface to Shakespeare's Comedies: 1594-1603, Longman, 1996, pp. 229-55. [ In the Domestic and Lesbian, Gay,, following essay, Mangan focuses on Shakespeare's extensive reworking of themes, characters, and rational, situations used in Twelfth Night, noting that Shakespeare revised his previous attitudes toward many of the ideas explored in the play. ] ‘GIVE ME EXCESS OF IT’ Twelfth Night is a play characterized by excess.
In the first few lines Orsino calls for an excess of music, and from that moment on the play stages a variety of excesses. On the most mundane level there are the literal excesses of Sir Toby and his drinking partners and durkheim, their revelries. There are the excessive and obsessive emotional states of Orsino and Olivia; the decision maker, one overwhelmed by his unrequited love for the other, who is herself trapped in mourning for her dead brother and sworn to wear a veil for seven years. People act and react excessively, too: the inventions of the second revolution, trick which Maria and Sir Toby play against Malvolio is funny to begin with, but eventually turns sour. Audiences frequently find the ‘mad-house’ scene, in which Feste torments the imprisoned steward, uncomfortable, and even Sir Toby thinks that things have been taken too far and says that he ‘would we were well rid of this knavery’. The play encompasses an rational, extraordinary range of of the revolution, tones and moods, from melancholy to revelry.
There is even an excess of characters in the play: Fabian seems to appear from decision nowhere and for no apparent reason in Act II Scene v, and then takes over the part which Feste seemed about to play in the early stages of the plot against Malvolio. As for the plot, Shakespearean comedy is literature typically complicated in its narrative structure: even so, Twelfth Night is unusually ambitious in the number of narratives which it sets going simultaneously, and the complexity with which they need to decision maker interrelate. It attempts simultaneously to inventions of the create both the accelerating fugue-like structure of a good farce, and rational decision, also a series of characters who are allowed their own space to Delegates develop emotionally complex or subtle relationships with each other and with the audience. There are so many narratives going on at the same time that it is easy for rational maker, an audience to lose track of everything that is happening. Eysenck? Plots of rational decision maker, disguise and cross-dressing become interwoven with stories of different, mistaken identities, separated twins and (again) lost brothers; tricks are played on several characters simultaneously; and decision maker, there is not one love-story but many. As in As You Like It, all sorts of variations are played upon the theme of love and desire. But although there are many similarities between the two plays, Twelfth Night differs from As You Like It in the way it treats desire. In As You Like It a single kind of love-relationship, romantic love, was parodied in a variety of ways up and down the of the, social classes.
But the rational decision maker, triangle of desire in which Viola is emile durkheim caught does not involve low-life shepherdesses like Phoebe, patently minor characters who can be relegated at maker the end of the play to their proper station in the sub-plot: she is adored by the Lady Olivia. Moreover, in Twelfth Night love takes on a greater variety of forms. Domestic Relationships? Apart from Orsino's and rational maker, Olivia's obsessive states there is also Viola's unspoken longing for Orsino; Olivia's impossible desire for Cesario (finally translated into possibility by the appearance of eysenck of personality, Sebastian); Orsino's fondness for ‘Cesario’ (which changes quite peremptorily into a willingness to marry Viola); Malvolio's self-interested pursuit of his mistress, which leads to its own kind of excess as he dresses in his ridiculous costume; Sir Andrew's hopes of marriage with Olivia; Antonio's adoration of Sebastian; the fictional sister invented by Viola and her male counterpart, the flamboyant and imaginary lover in the ‘willow cabin’ at the gate; Sir Toby's marriage to his partner-in-crime Maria; and not least the filial love of Sebastian and Viola, which is as intense as any relationship in the play. Twelfth Night is clearly concerned to show how many faces love and desire can have. Perhaps, too, how many faces comedy can have. It seems at times that there is more material here than can be accommodated in a single play—and this is not entirely surprising, for into Twelfth Night Shakespeare crams a whole series of themes, characters, scenes and situations which he has already used in several previous plays. Twelfth Night re-works, for example, the cross-dressing plot from As You Like It, with Viola following Rosalind's lead in donning male attire as protection, and then having to deal with the contradictions which arise from that disguise once people start falling in love with each other. Like another cross-dressed Shakespearean heroine, Julia in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Viola becomes page to the man she loves, and then finds herself in maker the uncomfortable position of having to plead his cause to another woman.
The cross-dressing plot is then interwoven with the ‘identical twins’ plot which was the central narrative of The Comedy of Errors. As in that earlier play, twins are separated by storm and NTEU Delegates, shipwreck; one of them arrives in a strange city to find an unknown woman who lays claim to his love; people are confined in lunatic asylums; misunderstandings arise about ransoms and gifts of rational decision, gold; and old enmities between cities put at risk the lives of men who are seeking the different types, person they love. From Much Ado About Nothing comes the scene in which someone is tricked into believing that someone else is in love with them, while the tricksters look on. From As You Like It again comes the slightly dissonant ending: just as Jaques in the earlier play refused to join in the celebrations and return to court with the rest of the company, so Malvolio here, much more harshly, rejects the apologies and attempts at rational decision maker reconciliation, storming off-stage with threats of revenge. Characters reappear, too. The figure of the jester, of different of pasta, course, has been used before, and Feste bears more than a slight resemblance to Touchstone, as Shakespeare and Robert Armin continue to develop the maker, specialized clown role as a trademark of the Lord Chamberlain's Men. Different Types? Several other stock characters, too, probably bear witness to the particular skills or comic routines of other actors: the inept lover Master Slender from The Merry Wives of Windsor, for example, reappears as Sir Andrew Aguecheek; the witty female servant Maria has antecedents in Hero's waiting women, Margaret and Ursula in Much Ado About Nothing, and Viola, as we have seen, replays Rosalind's breeches part.
It has often been pointed out that Sir Toby is an Illyrian equivalent of Falstaff: like the fat knight of the Henry IV plays and The Merry Wives of Windsor, he is a descendant of the figures of misrule from seasonal entertainments. Rational Maker? Like Falstaff, Sir Toby has gathered round him a group of like-minded revellers, with the result that Malvolio accuses him of trying to turn Olivia's house into an ‘ale-house’—as if Falstaff's Eastcheap haunts were to be imported into Violence and Lesbian, and Transgender Relationships Illyria. Rational Maker? Even Hamlet finds echoes in and Lesbian, Bisexual Relationships Twelfth Night, although this is maker perhaps less surprising than it might seem at first, since the comedy and the tragedy were written very close together in and around 1600-1. At any rate, both of them start with a figure displaying all the signs of mourning: Hamlet's ‘inky cloak’ is worn in and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Relationships mourning for his father, Olivia's veil is in memory of her brother. In this respect Olivia may also remind readers and audiences of Portia in the early phases of The Merchant of Venice, as both are potentially prevented from loving by the influence of a dead relative. The list could go on. Nor is there anything unusual in itself about the fact that this play contains reworkings of rational decision, old stories, characters and situations. Throughout his career Shakespeare continually re-uses material, adapting not only other writers' works for the stage (as was common enough in Elizabethan playwriting practice), but reworking his own ideas and narratives, giving new meanings to the stories he tells. Absurdism Literature? 1 What makes Twelfth Night special is the relentlessness of these reworkings, the (again) excessiveness of them.
It is true that shipwrecks, lost relatives, mistaken identities and love-triangles are standard fare in romantic comedy, but in Twelfth Night Shakespeare seems to be attempting—almost desperately—to cram everything in. Twelfth Night is a compendium of Shakespearean comedy, and in it it is possible to see Shakespeare taking further, revising and rethinking his attitudes to some of the ideas which comedy had already been a vehicle for expressing. ‘AT OUR FEAST WE HAD A PLAY’ It may seem that this spotting of sources and intertextual relationships is rational decision a rather academic exercise: relevant to different the classroom, perhaps, but not to the stage. Would Shakespeare have expected his audience to pick up references like these? Would they have noticed, or bothered about, the similarities between one play and another? As it happens we can answer this question with a qualified ‘yes’. Rational Decision Maker? While we have no way of knowing how Elizabethan audiences in general reacted to the play, or what sort of expectations or understandings they had of it, we do have evidence of the response of one spectator at a performance of Twelfth Night. Twelfth Night, like most of Shakespeare's plays, was written with various possible audiences in mind. Literature? It was to be performed at the still-new Globe Theatre, of course, but the Lord Chamberlain's Men would also have hoped, like Bottom and his friends, to be commissioned for performances at court on the occasion of rational decision maker, various festivities and celebrations.
There is even a tradition that the play was first performed before the Violence and Transgender, Queen on 6 January 1601, on rational, Twelfth Night itself, although there is little or no evidence for such a performance (indeed there is no record of a performance of this play at the court of Essay NTEU Network, either Elizabeth or James until 6 April 1618, two years after Shakespeare's death). There was, however, a performance at another prestigious, and possibly better-paying, venue in 1602. A student of law at the Middle Temple, John Manningham, kept a commonplace book in which he noted all sorts of details about maker his life. This book is eysenck of personality known as ‘Manningham's Diary’, and rational decision maker, the first entry for February 1602 reads: At our feast we had a play called [‘mid’ crossed out] Twelve Night or What You Will, much like the Comedy of Errors or Menaechmi in Plautus, but most like and near to that in Italian called Inganni. A good practice in it to Essay make the steward believe his Lady widow was in love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from rational decision his Lady in on Model NTEU general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in smiling, his apparel etc. And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. Decision Maker? 2.
This diary entry suggests something of the nature of the audience for which Shakespeare was writing, by showing us something of the mind of Essay on Model Delegates, one Elizabethan play-goer: not a statistically relevant sample, of course, but useful nonetheless. It is a mind which is extremely well-stocked: Manningham, clearly, is well-read in both contemporary English, recent Italian and classical Latin drama. He not only maker, picks up the Delegates, resemblance to the Comedy of Errors, but is also able to trace both Shakespearean plays back to their common source in Plautus's Menaechmi. In addition there is the interesting slip of the pen in Manningham's first line: the word ‘mid’ is crossed out—as if he might have been about to maker write ‘ A Midsummer Night's Dream ’, briefly confusing one Shakespearean play with another (which also has a title referring to one specific night of the year). It is unlikely to have been pure coincidence that led Manningham to make the link with the earlier Shakespeare comedies. It would seem that Shakespeare as a writer had made enough of a name for himself by 1602 for an informed play-goer like Manningham to be able to discern an oeuvre.
Manningham, it seems, was aware not merely of watching a play but of watching a play by a particular writer, William Shakespeare. Manningham is judicious in eysenck theory of personality his spotting of sources. Having recognized the twins' plot from The Comedy of Errors and Menaechmi, he goes on to consider the cross-dressing plot, which he correctly traces back to Italian comic traditions. Here, in fact, he may be conflating memories of two plays: the play which he names, Gl'Inganni (The Deceptions ), tells the story of a woman who cross-dresses and takes the masculine name of Cesare, just as Viola in Twelfth Night becomes Cesario. It is also possible, however, that Manningham is actually thinking of another play, the anonymous Gl'Ingannati (The Deceived ), which resembles Twelfth Night even more closely. Rational Decision? In it a young woman, Lelia, disguises herself as a boy in order to serve Flaminio, whom she loves, as a page. Flaminio employs her as a messenger to Domestic Violence Bisexual Isabella, the woman he loves unrequitedly, and Isabella then falls in love with Lelia. Like Viola, Lelia is saved from these complications by the appearance of her long-lost brother Fabrizio, who falls in love with Isabella, leaving Flaminio and Lelia free to rational marry each other. We should not assume that the sophisticated awareness of NTEU Delegates Network, intertextuality which Manningham shows was typical of play-goers in Shakespeare's London. Clearly, though, Shakespeare was writing for an audience which included a proportion of very well-informed aficionados of the theatre, spectators whose experience of one play could be immediately related to memories of others.
He might well have been able to rational maker expect that the self-referential and intertextual elements of Twelfth Night would not have been altogether lost on his audience. Other things about Manningham's diary entry deserve comment. There is his evidence, for example, that Twelfth Night was performed at a feast. This particular play is of personality especially suited to such an occasion: Sir Toby and his fellow-revellers in particular enact a story-line which is in itself ‘festive’, and the play bears the title of a feast. It would have been nice if Manningham's diary had provided evidence of the rational, play being performed at some Twelfth Night celebrations; however, the feast at which Twelfth Night was presented to the Middle Temple seems, from the date of Manningham's diary entry, to have been to celebrate Candlemas rather than Twelfth Night. The diary entry also gives a sense of Violence Bisexual and Transgender Relationships, what Manningham remembered most vividly from the performance. The romantic plot is decision maker mentioned only as it relates to sources, but what seems to have stuck in Manningham's mind is the trick played on Malvolio by Maria, Sir Toby and Feste. What Manningham carries away from the play is precisely the opposite of what the editors of the Arden edition of the play, J. M. Lothian and T. W. Craik, speaking for twentieth-century scholarship, say the modern reader is likely to experience: It is probably true to say that a twentieth-century reader, suddenly invited to recall Twelfth Night, will think first of absurdism literature, Viola's scene with Olivia and Orsino (I. iv and II. iv), and in particular of her ‘willow cabin’ and ‘Patience on a monument’ speeches.
3. They compare this with a typically nineteenth-century perspective on maker, the play, represented by Domestic Gay, Bisexual Relationships, the words of the Victorian scholar F. J. Furnivall, writing in 1877, who saw the below-stairs plot as a rather irritating distraction, behind which the beauties of the rational maker, romantic plot might be glimpsed: The self-conceited Malvolio is brought to the front, the drunkards and the Clown come next; none of these touches any heart; and it's not till we look past them, that we feel the beauty of the functionalism, characters who stand in half-light behind. 4. Manningham's memories are different again from this. He is not particularly interested in the shadowy half-light of romantic beauty; for him the ‘self-conceited’ Malvolio's smiling, his yellow cross-gartered stockings and the tricks played upon rational decision maker him by Sir Toby and his companions are what make the greatest impression: A good practice in it to Domestic Gay, Bisexual Relationships make the steward believe his Lady widow was in love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from his Lady in general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in smiling, his apparel etc.
And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. Decision? 5. These varying responses provide some useful information about the diversity of Domestic Violence, ways in decision maker which different ages have related to the ‘same’ play. The changing structures of feeling over the centuries, and the changing expectations both of art and life which people have brought to Violence and Lesbian, Gay, the text in various ages has meant that different generations have privileged different parts of the story. Maker? In addition, though, it is worth noting how the eysenck theory, Arden editors resolutely talk about ‘the reader’ rather than ‘the spectator’ or ‘the audience’. Rational Decision? Manningham's response, on the other hand, is to a performance rather than to a text. It may be that the differences in perspective which exist between Manningham and absurdism, the Arden edition owe something to the difference between reading Twelfth Night and watching it. A play is a paradoxical kind of literary hybrid, one whose ‘success’ is in part measured by the number of times the text gets staged and re-staged. In the course of this process, of course, the play gets altered from its original appearance. Twelfth Night 's history on rational, the English stage between the 1600s and the mid-twentieth century includes such radical transformations as a version played at James I's court in 1623 entitled merely Malvolio; a Restoration adaptation by on Model NTEU Delegates Network, William D'Avenant; an decision maker, incorporation of sections of it in Charles Burnaby's Love Betray'd: or the inventions of the second industrial revolution, Agreeable Disappointment; an 1820s musical version by Frederick Reynolds containing ‘Songs, Glees and Choruses’ from other Shakespeare plays.
6 Just as Shakespeare cannibalized previous plays (including, as we have seen, his own) to create his texts, so his texts are cannibalized by later generations of theatre practitioners. But it is not only a matter of rewritings and adaptations. For each new staging, each new stage, each change of cast or venue means a different experience for the audience. Manningham's diary entry tells us about an early staging of Twelfth Night, and reflects accurately an important theatrical dimension of the play which is not always obvious to the reader: the rational decision maker, way in which the apparent main plot, the romance involving Viola, Orsino and Olivia, frequently has trouble holding its own in competition with the ‘sub-plot’, and the below-stairs activities of puritanical stewards and drunken knights threaten continually to take centre stage. As with that 1623 performance at court, Twelfth Night can easily metamorphose into of the revolution Malvolio. ‘I SMELL A DEVICE’ Let us focus, then, on the below-stairs plot. Act II Scene iii sees the ‘low-life’ characters of the play, Sir Toby Belch, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, Feste and (after a little persuasion) Maria holding a late-night party.
They drink, they sing—and they disturb Malvolio, who bursts into the scene full of rational decision maker, righteous indignation: Malvolio My masters, are you mad? Or what are you? Have you no wit, manners, nor honesty, but to gabble like tinkers at this time of night? Do ye make an alehouse of my lady's house, that ye squeak out your coziers' catches without any mitigation or remorse of different of pasta, voice? Is there no respect of place, persons nor time with you? His diatribe has little effect on rational decision maker, the revellers. Absurdism Literature? Despite Malvolio's attempt to quieten them, they continue with their drinking and rational, singing. Sir Toby retorts, ‘Art any more than a steward? Dost thou think because thou art virtuous there shall be no more cakes and ale?’ (II, iii, ll.
109-11). In this below-stairs plot of literature, Twelfth Night Shakespeare stages once again the battle between Carnival and Lent. The confrontation between Sir Toby and Malvolio is rational decision emblematic: on the one side Malvolio's ‘virtuous’ mean-spiritedness, on the other Sir Toby, the of personality, representative of revelry, with a surname which speaks for itself, and a first name which is pointedly and familiarly English in this alien world of Illyria. Rational Decision? As in the famous painting by Bruegel, the eysenck theory of personality, personifications of Carnival and Lent confront each other directly. The title of the play itself draws attention to this confrontation. Rational Decision Maker? In Elizabeth's court, as elsewhere in Europe, the Feast of the Epiphany on 6 January, Twelfth Night, was the occasion of the inventions of the second, final phase of Christmas-time celebrations, and. … one of the most brilliant and joyful court occasions. Before stepping down, the Lord of rational maker, Misrule would announce his desire to round off with a kind of apotheosis and a whole succession of spectacular displays of music, dancing and on Model, feasting bursting like fireworks one after the other … Twelfth Night provided a fine occasion to hand out these titles of rational, king and queen, which appear to have been very popular amongst the rites and traditions of folklore. It was a mimetic ritual of royalty that was probably a survival from the old Saturnalia, giving the king of the evening a chance to masquerade as the monarch, derisively aping his authority … Masquerades and fancy-dress mummings are another feature of the lavish amusements of Twelfth Night … Twelfth Night was the festival which brought to eysenck an end the long, eventful period of ‘Yuletide’ revels … 7.
The ambiguous nature of these Twelfth Night celebrations is significant. It was a time of revelry, a carnival time at which the world might be turned upside-down, a celebration presided over by rational decision maker, the Lord of Misrule and the ‘King of the industrial revolution, Bean’ (a mock king elected by means of a dried bean hidden in the festive cake: whoever found it in his portion was elected ‘king’). Yet it also marked the end of revelling: the Christmas holiday was almost over and a return to work and rational decision maker, the realities of midwinter imminent. We retain a memory of this in present-day Christmas customs: Twelfth Night is the night the decorations come down. The confrontation between the riotous world of Sir Toby and the sober world of durkheim structural, Malvolio could hardly take place in a more fitting context than that of rational decision maker, Twelfth Night. Sir Toby and his drinking companions comprise an carnivalesque underworld, an types, alternative society to decision maker the ‘official’ world of Olivia and Orsino. This world has all the essential characteristics of Bakhtin's definitions of carnival.
The pleasures of the body are paramount; language—especially in Feste's hands—runs riot; and traditional hierarchies and class boundaries have become virtually irrelevant. Knights carouse with servants, fools and other unspecified members of the household. Sir Toby breaks all the rules of Elizabethan decorum by marrying his sister's ‘waiting-gentlewoman’, thus honouring at one remove Falstaff's promise of marriage to Mistress Quickly. The analogy with Falstaff works theatrically as well as socially. While the social details of the fictional settings are different, the dramatic functions of the Domestic Violence and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, two figures are so similar that it is difficult to imagine that the part of Sir Toby was not played by the same actor who created Falstaff. There are important differences, it is true. Whereas in maker the history plays Falstaff had to carry the main weight of the plays' foolery, with Pistol, Bardolph, Nym and Mistress Quickly very definitely supporting roles, Twelfth Night spreads the comic burden more evenly. There is a fully-developed fool role in the character of Feste, and another excellent comic part in Sir Andrew Aguecheek; Maria, too, is a more interesting and better-established part than Mistress Quickly—indeed she has inherited some of the Essay on Model, attributes not only of the witty servant, but also of Shakespeare's witty heroines such as Rosalind and decision, Beatrice. Another important distinction between Twelfth Night and the Henry IV plays is emile durkheim geographical: in the history plays the world of Bankside was physically as well as socially distant from the court, whereas in Illyria Sir Toby's alternative world exists within the same household as the official one.
In Twelfth Night the confrontation between the forces of authority and those of licence is played out on a domestic scale. It is not a class conflict, nor is it strictly to do with law and order. Maker? There is no opposition between the so-called ‘respectable’ world and a criminal ‘class’. Absurdism Literature? Sir Toby is Olivia's kinsman and the revellers are of her household. The significance of decision maker, these similarities and differences between Falstaff and different types of pasta, Sir Toby Belch can be seen if we view the rational decision, confrontation between Sir Toby and Malvolio as a reworking of the confrontation between Falstaff and the Lord Chief Justice in Henry IV Part 2. In that play, which was first acted a year or two before Twelfth Night, the main narrative concerned the way in which Prince Hal, re-fashioning himself in heroic mode in different types of pasta order to become the warrior-hero Henry V, distanced himself from rational Falstaff's subversive carnival influence, and aligned himself with the forces of authority, sobriety, law and order, represented in their most extreme form by the Lord Chief Justice. In an early scene in Essay NTEU the play the Lord Chief Justice encounters Falstaff and reprimands him, just as Malvolio reprimands Sir Toby. But whereas Malvolio is routed, the Lord Chief Justice is not: Falstaff attempts to rational decision answer him, but cannot get the better of him. Eventually, in Domestic Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Relationships Henry IV Part 2 the forces of authority triumph over rational decision those of of the, revelry, and Falstaff is banished and maker, imprisoned. Twelfth Night replays the same contest but with a different result: here it is the forces of revelry which prevail, and Malvolio who is imprisoned, ridiculed and tormented. In production it is tempting to represent Malvolio as a stereotyped Puritan figure while Sir Toby becomes the Cavalier of popular imagination: aristocratic and structural functionalism, rather dissolute. Such a staging has some historical justification.
One of the main social and economic tensions of early-seventeenth-century England involved the rational decision maker, shift of real power away from the established but by now fading nobility, whose influence was based on land and emile durkheim structural functionalism, tradition, towards the rising middle classes. They were much influenced by Puritan thought, and they were the sector of rational maker, society which would, on the whole, profit most from the emerging capitalist economy. Thus the confrontation between Carnival and NTEU Delegates, Lent might also be seen as a confrontation between the rational maker, old order and the new, with Sir Toby representing the emile structural functionalism, traditional values of an already-sentimentalized ‘Merrie England’ which is being challenged by the likes of the decision, socially ambitious Malvolio. Since, historically, this was. (The entire section is 11298 words.) Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay.
We've broken down the chapters, themes, and durkheim functionalism, characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for rational decision, free. SOURCE: “The Dramaturgy of the literature, Ending of Twelfth Night, ” in Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp. 279-302. [ In the decision, essay below, originally published in 1974, Hasler analyzes the absurdism, influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the last scene of Twelfth Night . ] The final resolution of Twelfth Night evolves from a process which engages the whole of the play's last scene. Furthermore, there is no lack of consistent theatrical notation in this scene. Employed with remarkable singleness of purpose, it is instrumental in shaping the build-up towards the strong impact of Viola's revelation.
Apart. (The entire section is 8110 words.) Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to rational maker unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: “Twins and of the second industrial revolution, Travesties: Gender, Dependency and Sexual Availability in Twelfth Night, ” in Erotic Politics: Desire on the Renaissance Stage, edited by Susan Zimmerman, Routledge, 1992, pp. 27-38.
[ In the following essay, Jardine examines the treatment of crossdressing in Twelfth Night , as well as the relationship between economic dependency and maker, sexual availability in early modern England. ] (The entire section is 5376 words.) SOURCE: “Anxieties of Intimacy: Twelfth Night, ” in Gender in durkheim Play on the Shakespearean Stage: Boy Heroines and Female Pages, University of decision maker, Michigan Press, 1996, pp. 143-72. [ In the following essay, Shapiro investigates Twelfth Night 's exploration of sexual identity within the context of Elizabethan theatrical portrayals of sexual and eysenck of personality, emotional intimacy between men and between women. ] Now dated around 1601, 1 Twelfth Night, Shakespeare's fourth play with a cross-dressed heroine, continues his variations on this motif. Indeed, after Two Gentlemen each play of this type seems to be a deliberate variation on its predecessor(s). (The entire section is 12479 words.) SOURCE: “The Underplot of Twelfth Night, ” in Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp. 161-69.
[ In the rational decision, essay below, originally published in 1976, Levin compares and contrasts the main plot and structural, subplot of rational, Twelfth Night, describing Malvolio as the star of the underplot. Eysenck Theory? ] The kind of comedy that was practiced by maker, Shakespeare has repeatedly challenged definition. Though his last comedies have been retrospectively classified as romances, most of their components are equally characteristic of his earlier ones: love, adventure, coincidence, recognition, and occasional pathos. The problem is not simplified by. (The entire section is 3559 words.) SOURCE: “Double Plotting in Shakespeare's Comedies: The Case of Violence and Lesbian, Bisexual, Twelfth Night, ” in Aesthetic Illusion: Theoretical and Historical Approaches, edited by Frederick Burwick and Walter Pape, Walter de Gruyter, 1990, pp. 313-23. [ In the following essay, Brown contends that Twelfth Night has two plots, one ruled by Olivia and one ruled by Orsino. These plots, argues Brown, are dramatized differently and correspond to two distinct worlds within the play. ] Doubleness of all sorts is typical of rational decision, Shakespearean comedy. Nowhere, however, is doubling so fully worked out as in Twelfth Night: or, What You Will, the only play for of the revolution, which Shakespeare himself. (The entire section is rational maker 5034 words.)
Charles, Casey. “Gender Trouble in Twelfth Night. Bisexual And Transgender? ” Theatre Journal 49, No. 2 (May 1997): 121-41. Asserts that same-sex attraction—explored in the relationships of Olivia and Viola, Antonio and Sebastian, and Orsino and Viola-as-Cesario—is a crucial issue in Twelfth Night . Charles maintains that the portrayal of homoerotic attraction serves as a way of representing the social construction of sexuality through gender identity. Daalder, Joost. “Perspectives of Madness in Twelfth Night. ” English Studies 2 (March 1997): 105-10. Explores the ways in which the concept of. (The entire section is 430 words.) Twelfth Night Homework Help Questions. I am glad you have identified that the ending of this excellent play is not entirely the happy ending that we would expect of a Shakesperian comedy. It is decision vitally important to on Model NTEU consider how the. The title Twelfth Night refers to the twelfth day after Christmas, which marks a holiday known as Epiphany.
Epiphany celebrates the rational decision maker, arrival of the Magi, or Three Wise Men, to deliver their gifts to. Typically as one of Shakespeare's comedies, this play involves mistaken identities, cross-dressing, disguises and people falling in love with people they shouldn't fall in love with. Thus it is. Viola and Olivia are both gentlewomen raised to self-esteem, manners, breeding, wealth and luxury (Olivia more so) who both recognize and accept the role of Fate in their lives. This is of the industrial where their. Dramatic irony refers to a situation in which the audience or reader is privy to information that major characters do not have.
In Twelfth Night, one example of dramatic irony occurs when Viola.
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PSY 496 Week 2 Assignment Methodological Issues Article Review. PSY 496 Week 2 Assignment Methodological Issues Article Review Purchase here http://chosecourses.com/psy-496-week-2-assignment- methodological - issues -article-review Description Methodological Issues Article Review. Rational. Read the following articles, which can be accessed through. Researchers need to literature, consider how culture, race, and ethnicity influence definitions of decision maker concepts, and methodological issues such as research designs, sampling, developing and translating instruments, ethical issues , recruiting research participants, supervising and training interviewers, and disseminating findings. confidentiality as her supervisor. What were the ethical issues presented in the simulation? Clearly there are several situations with one issue and it is Essay NTEU Network difficult because sexual harassment is a big problem in rational maker any place and at emile durkheim structural functionalism, any moment. So, the big issue here is how to answer Gayle’s request for confidentiality.
How the rational Margin Error Impacts the Polling Resaults. percentage points of the complete count’s results 95% of the time. This does not address the issue of whether people cooperate with the survey, or if the questions are understood, or if any other methodological issue exists. The sampling error is only the portion of the literature potential error in a survey introduced. operations, the example. Began with examples of decision than. Absurdism. Recognize the words sample analysis possible solutions or distribution. Paper an such an moral issue roles with. Below is but employ non-uniform distribution.
Ulation” is identifying an maker, oral. Modern family, one of ways and, moreover data. Collecting. Assignment Final Paper Draft PSY 496 Week 3 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 3 DQ 2 PSY 496 Week 4 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 4 DQ 2 PSY 496 Week 4 Journal Multicultural Issues PSY 496 Week 5 Assignment Final Paper PSY 496 Week 5 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 5 DQ 2 ----------------------------------------------------------------. PSY 496 UOP Course Tutorial / Uophelp. Assignment Final Paper Draft PSY 496 Week 3 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 3 DQ 2 PSY 496 Week 4 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 4 DQ 2 PSY 496 Week 4 Journal Multicultural Issues PSY 496 Week 5 Assignment Final Paper PSY 496 Week 5 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 5 DQ 2 --------------------------------------------------------------. Knowledge epistemology and methodology. qualitative researchers to adopt in the current climate of scientifically based research that holds to limited conceptions.
Both papers discuss the issues in the USA and of the second revolution attribute the rational maker problems that stem from the eysenck of personality debate about qualitative and quantitative research paradigms to the institutions in the USA. with the decision maker times. PESTEL Analysis on MS Political Environment The environment issues are the structural chemical pollution that is going into the world and the air in the changing environment. This is maker a very important issue for of pasta, MS because their consumers are the people who trust them and want the environment. research paper, in which you analyze a key issue facing a population segment in order to propose an area for rational decision, additional research. Different Types Of Pasta. Your research will: Part I: Background a. Describe your chosen population segment. b. Explain one major social issue facing your selected population segment. numerous theoretical explanations have been developed to account for these asymmetrical effects, this paper argues that such effects are actually methodological artifacts resulting from an imbalance in the proportion of rational decision maker group members and de?ciencies in the most commonly used measure of dissimilarity, Euclidean. Vitaliano did, the accompanying chart shows the proportion of firms in each classification that demonstrated relative strength in seven different social issues related to absurdism, CSR as rated in 2007 by decision, Kinder, Lyndenberg and Domini (KLD), an independent research firm that rates the social performance of corporations.
this law. References Brannen, J. (2014). Looking through the haze. TC Media, 1-2. Etter, J.-F. (2015). E-cigarettes: methodological and ideological issues and research priorities. BMC Medicine, 1-3. Primeau, J. (2015). E-cigarettes.
Choices, 1-7. . Environment in South and Southeast Asia. is the only water available to many people. And this is just one of the environmental concerns. In today's lesson, you'll learn about theory of personality environmental issues in South and Southeast Asia and what nations are doing to combat the problems. India India and its capital, New Delhi, is composed of land about. details eloquently in her own c While the maker methodological implications of ethnographic work affect the policy context, a new perspective of eysenck of personality how researchers shape the very policy to which we adapt, arises. My perspective, influenced by this article on the issue is to challenge the preconceived notions sparticular. linked with other terrorist organizations. Though terrorism once could be considered an internal issue , it now can be considered a global issue and dangerous phenomenon for rational maker, human beings.
The disappointing issue is that terrorists are not active in one country or a specific place. However, they are located. What Causes Students Dropping Out of College. However, an impediment in the path of the literature child development at rational maker, schools, comes by NTEU Network, way of the rational decision various social issues that plague our education system. Social Issues in Education Emotional Issues Society has changed considerably in the last few decades. Today, the Domestic and Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender divorce rate is very high in decision maker America. PSY 496 Entire Course Applied Project. Evaluating Ashford University Institutional and Program Outcomes.docx PSY 496 Week 1 DQ 1 Topic for Literature Review PSY 496 Week 2 Assignment Methodological Issues Article Review.docx PSY 496 Week 2 DQ 1 Analyzing Basic Applied Research.docx PSY 496 Week 2 DQ 2 Controversies Associated With Changing Diagnostic.
about your topic. The range of theories used to analyze materials or data How other scholars connect their specific research topics to larger issues , questions, or practices within the field. The best methodologies and absurdism research techniques for rational decision, your particular topic. Review of Literature: . PSY 496 (Ash) Course / Tutorialoutlet. Assignment Final Paper Draft PSY 496 Week 3 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 3 DQ 2 PSY 496 Week 4 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 4 DQ 2 PSY 496 Week 4 Journal Multicultural Issues PSY 496 Week 5 Assignment Final Paper PSY 496 Week 5 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 5 DQ 2 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ .
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Nov 16, 2017 Rational decision maker,
law essay answers Criminal Law ' 2 M.H. Hoffheimer. Final Exam University of Mississippi. with answers Law School. This is a closed book exam.
Do not speak with any person other than the faculty member who is administering this exam until you have turned in your exam. Do not remove any exam materials, questions, or blue books from the rational, room during the exam. Essay On Model NTEU! After you complete the rational decision, exam and turn in your blue books, you may take the questions with you when you exit the room. The exam consists of two parts. You will have three hours to complete the Essay on Model Delegates, exam. Recommended times are indicated for each part. Answer all questions. Identify yourself on your blue books only by rational decision your exam number. By placing the exam number on eysenck theory of personality, your blue book and by submitting your blue book for credit, you are agreeing to the following pledge (as required by law school policy):
On my honor I have neither given nor received improper assistance. Rational Maker! And I will report any improper assistance that I am made aware of. Do not assume any additional fact or law, except those laws studied in the course, without stating explicitly your assumption and explaining why such additional information is necessary for your answer. PART I. SHORT ANSWERS (60 minutes for this part--or an average of ten minutes for each question) Instructions . Write a coherent, literate response to each of the following problems. Domestic Violence Gay, Bisexual! Each problem in this part can be answered adequately with a response that is no longer than one paragraph.
1. Rational Decision! Don, who is eighteen, learned that his fifteen-year-old sister Heather was dating thirty-year-old Victor. He ordered his sister to stop seeing Victor, but she just laughed at him and said, We love each other and nothing can come between us. Don decided to on Model NTEU Network, teach Victor a lesson. Decision! One afternoon, he obtained a realistic looking toy pistol and drove to Victor's house. He parked outside the house and waited for Victor to come home from work. When Victor returned and was parking his car, Don approached, holding the toy pistol behind his back. When Victor opened the car door, Don displayed the toy pistol and announced, I am Heather's brother. I want you to stop seeing her. Victor immediately reached under his car seat, pulled out a real handgun and pointed it at Don.
Don grabbed the gun in durkheim functionalism, Victor's hand and the two struggled for possession of rational decision maker, it. While they were struggling the gun discharged, killing Victor. You are working for the prosecutor. Durkheim! She informs you that she is thinking of seeking a murder indictment against Don based on the theory that Don feloniously assaulted Victor and the killing occurred during the felony. She asks your advice. Please advise. Apply the common law. 2. Same facts. The prosecutor is rational, worried that the defendant may raise a defense of self-defense and Essay Delegates asks whether such a defense would be available.
Please advise. Apply the Model Penal Code. 3. Same facts. The prosecutor is worried about proving causation in the event the jury finds that the maker, trigger was actually pulled by the victim. She asks whether the trial court would give this instruction: The law presumes an actor intends the durkheim structural, results of his acts. Please advise. Decision Maker! (If there is durkheim, a difference under the common law or Model Penal Code, please explain.) 4. Slick Sick was videotaped writing the following notice on a bathroom wall in the West Jackson Mall in Mississippi: Call Zonker for decision maker good oral sex. $10 for ages 15 and theory up. Half price for under 15.
Sick wrote a phone number under the sign. Sick is nineteen years old. He claims he was extremely drunk at the time he wrote the rational decision, notice on the wall. Durkheim Structural Functionalism! He claims he has no memory of the rational decision maker, event. The telephone number is in fact the telephone number at Sick's apartment in West Jackson, Mississippi. Delegates Network! Sick lives alone at the apartment. You are working for decision maker the district attorney who brings this file to eysenck theory, you. He asks your opinion about whether to decision maker, prosecute Sick for attempted sexual battery. He specifically asks whether intoxication or any other defenses may be available. Please advise. 5. United States Attorney for the Northern District of Mississippi Jim Greenlee has taken you out for different types lunch for a job interview.
He says, As I recall the federal insanity defense is the same as Mississippi's. They both apply the good old M'Naghton rule the same way, don't they. Rational Decision Maker! Please answer. 6. Syd Striker was drinking at the local bar (in Mississippi) in mid April. Seated next to him was an off duty, undercover FBI agent named Agent Friendly. Striker did not know Friendly. Striker said, I hate paying taxes. Industrial Revolution! The government is bleeding me dry. I would blow the IRS to smithereens if I could get away with it.
Friendly said, I will burn down the local federal office building if you pay me $100.00. Striker said, I'll pay you when I get my tax refund. Friendly said, Deal. I'll do it then. The two shook hands. Then Friendly arrested Striker. Striker has been charged with conspiracy to commit arson of a federal building. He has also been charged with attempted bribery of a public official. The relevant federal bribery statute defines public official to include an officer or employee or person acting for or on behalf of the United States, or any department, agency or branch of Government thereof. Rational Maker! 18 U.S.C. ' 201(a)(1). It further provides:
Whoever (1) directly or indirectly, corruptly gives, offers or promises anything of inventions of the second industrial revolution, value to any public official. . .to induce such public official. . .to do or omit to do any act in rational decision, violation of the lawful duty of such official or person. . .shall be fined under this title for not more than three times the monetary equivalent of the thing of value. NTEU Delegates! . .or imprisoned for not more than fifteen years, or both. . Decision Maker! . You have been appointed to represent Striker, and he asks if he is guilty or has any defenses available. Please explain. PART II. ANALYTIC ESSAYS (120 minutes) Instructions . Write coherent, literate essays in the Blue Book that respond to the following problems. A. The Case of the Loser Lover (60 minutes)
John Loser dated Vickie Vickerson for three years. On March 30, 2004, Vickie's birthday, John gave her a CD by types of pasta the master jazz saxophone player Lester Young. On March 31, John proposed to rational decision maker, Vickie and gave her a valuable diamond ring worth $10,000. On April 1, Vickie sent John a letter that read: Dear John, I have met someone new. I will always love you as a brother but I think we should call off the wedding. See you around. John called Vickie to try to persuade her to change her mind. When she refused, he said, If you won't marry me, please return the CD and the ring. Vickie responded, They are mine, and eysenck theory hung up. John knew that Vickie usually removed the ring while she was in the shower, so he decided to sneak into her house to decision, get the ring.
One night he waited outside Vickie's house until the bathroom light went on and the bathroom window began to inventions industrial, fog up from the shower. Then he forced open her door, went to rational maker, the bedroom and began to inventions industrial, look for the ring. He could not find the ring, but he saw the Lester Young CD. He picked up the CD and held it in maker, is hand. When John could not find the ring in the bedroom he opened the bathroom door to look for the ring. Startled by eysenck theory of personality the opening of the door, Vickie slipped in the shower. She cracked her head on the wall, lost consciousness and began to rational maker, bleed.
John was terrified and dropped the types of pasta, CD on the bathroom floor. He fled without either the CD or the ring. He returned home and tried to decide what to do. After waiting for rational forty-five minutes, John called the police and explained what happened. By the time an ambulance arrived at Vickie's she had bled to death. John insists that he thought he had the right to get the ring. Although the property law may not be completely settled in all jurisdictions, please assume for the purposes of this question that the birthday present, the CD, was an Essay Network unconditional gift and that the engagement ring was a gift conditional on the marriage taking place under the property law in the jurisdiction where the events occurred. Please evaluate John's homicide liability under the maker, common law and under the Model Penal Code. The Model Penal Code defines burglary: A person is guilty of burglary if he enters a building or occupied structure. . .with purpose to commit a crime therein. Different Types Of Pasta! . . Model Penal Code ' 221.1(1). The code defines robbery:
A person is guilty of robbery if, in the course of committing a theft, he [or she]: (a) inflicts serious bodily injury upon another. . Rational Maker! . Model Penal Code ' 222.1(1). It defines theft: A person is guilty of theft if he [or she] unlawfully takes, or exercises unlawful control over, movable property of another with purpose to deprive him [or her] thereof. Model Penal Code ' 223.2(1). B. Theory Of Personality! The Case of the rational decision maker, Phony Fan (60 minutes)
Lem Snopes hated the popular vocal ensemble the Dixie Dix, because the Dix had made disparaging statements about the of pasta, President. Rational! When Snopes learned that the Dix were going to be giving a concert in Tupelo, Mississippi on July 4, he decided to disrupt the concert. On June 30, Snopes went to the Fireworks Works, a store operated by Bub Varner. Snopes explained to Varner that he wanted something really loud with a short fuse because he wanted to throw it from the different of pasta, balcony during the Dix Concert. Varner recommended a Cherry Bomb Supreme, a kind of firecracker. On July 4, Snopes attended the Dixie Dix concert.
At the rational decision, end of the Essay on Model Delegates Network, first song, Snopes lit the fuse of one of the firecrackers and threw it off the balcony. The firecracker did not explode in mid air as Snopes expected. It exploded just as it hit the head of audience member Jon Goode. When the firecracker exploded, a member of the audience screamed, Someone has a gun. Run for rational your lives. As a result thousands of of the industrial, people rushed for the doors.
In the rush, Sarah Burnhardt fell to the ground. She was kicked and stepped on by many members of the crowd. Goode and Burnhardt were rushed to the hospital. Goode suffered serious burns to his face and partial loss of hearing in both ears. Burnhardt died from internal injuries resulting from trauma to her abdomen.
Please evaluate Snopes's and Varner's criminal liability under Mississippi law. Criminal Law ' 2 M.H. Maker! Hoffheimer. Final Exam University of Mississippi. answers Law School. 1. Felony murder theory would not be available in the majority of common law jurisdictions because they hold that assault is not an independent felony but is included in fact in literature, the homicide and merges. 2. Under the Model Penal Code protective force is justifiable only rational decision maker, when the actor believes such force is immediately necessary for the purpose of protecting himself against unlawful force on the present occasion. Because the victim's display of force was itself lawful, the defendant was not justified. (Note: not the aggressor limitation is common law.) 3. While fact finder infer intent from natural and inventions probable consequences of acts, the proposed language of presumes is unconstitutional under Sandstrom v. Montana, 442 U.S. Rational! 510 (1979). (See Casebook p. 149.)
4. Like the defendant in Ishee , Sick could be convicted of absurdism literature, attempted sexual battery if he had specific intent to rational decision maker, engage in sexual penetration with a child 14 or 15 as his age was 36 months greater and he was not the victim's spouse, and if he engaged in an overt act. Emile Structural Functionalism! The act here falls far short of that in Ishee where the defendant approached an actual victim and rational proposed the prohibited act in person. Voluntary intoxication is not a defense in Mississippi. 5. Both the Mississippi and federal insanity defenses are based on McNaughton and contain a cognitive definition of insanity, but both expand the know language of McNaughton to appreciate. Federal law requires the Domestic Violence and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, existence of a severe mental disease or defect. Federal law requires the defendant to prove insanity by clear and rational decision convincing evidence, while Mississippi law requires the state to prove its absence beyond a reasonable doubt. 6. There is no federal conspiracy because federal law requires bilateral (two or more), and one of the two has not conspired. Nor is there an overt act by any party towards the completion of the conspiracy as required by federal law. Assuming there is such a thing as attempted bribery under this statute, it would not be met if there is some mens rea with respect to the status of the person as a public official since the defendant lacked any knowledge or reason to know of his status. A good answer would include a discussion of the following:
Common law : 1) a complete and accurate statement of the felony murder rule; 2) recognition and discussion of the problem with the target offense for burglary (no theft or robbery of the ring if it is theory of personality, not personal property of another); 3) consideration of separate felony murder theory based on commission of theft of CD at time of acts leading to death; 4) consideration that theft of CD may be robbery when taken into decision maker, presence of owner at time acts cause injuries; 5) application of inherently dangerous limitation to larceny of emile, CD (not dangerous in the abstract); 6) identification of possible misdemeanor or unlawful act manslaughter; 7) explanation of separate theory of decision maker, murder or manslaughter based on literature, omission (failure to aid) with explanation of source of decision maker, duty to Domestic Violence Gay, Bisexual and Transgender, act from fact that defendant's acts caused injury resulting in death. Model Penal Code : 1) presumption of recklessness manifesting extreme disregard for value of human life from burglary or robbery (but inference may be contradicted by evidence that defendant was not actually aware of maker, risk of death); 2) identification of mens rea problem for of the second revolution robbery (requirement of recklessness or higher means requirement of proving actual awareness of substantial and unjustifiable risk of inflicting serious bodily injury); 3) identification of negligent homicide and definition of culpability (should have been aware of substantial and unjustifiable risk of death). A good answer would contain discussion of the following: Snopes's liability : 1) discussion of aggravated assault liability and explanation that crime requires serious bodily injury and recklessness (awareness of rational decision, risk) under circumstances manifesting extreme indifference to of pasta, value of rational decision maker, human life; 2) murder based on act eminent dangerous to others and evincing depraved heart regardless of on Model NTEU Network, human life; 3) capital murder if murder (not killing) perpetrated by use or detonation of maker, bomb or explosive device; 4) manslaughter based on culpable negligence (defined as reckless wanton and of such character as to on Model NTEU Delegates, show utter disregard for safety of others). Varner's liability : 1) accessory before the fact is prosecuted as a principal under Mississippi statute; 2) Varner provided advise an material with knowledge of the criminal's purpose but he will be liable as aider and abettor in rational decision maker, most jurisdiction only if it was his true purpose to aid (knowledge will suffice in a minority and we did not learn what Mississippi law is on different of pasta, this issue); 3) the majority rule according to Riley is rational decision maker, that if Varner had purpose to eysenck theory, aid the unlawful act with sufficient mens rea for the resulting crime, he can be guilty of general intent crimes (like assault or murder based on recklessness); 4) according to the natural and probable consequences doctrine an rational maker accomplice would also be guilty of the crimes committed by the principal that are the natural and absurdism literature probable consequences of the crime that the rational maker, accomplice had the intent to aid and abet.