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Ap Biology Study Reading Guide Chapter 6 Essay. Tylenol. Concept 6.1 Biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry to study cells 1. The study of what purpose the abbey church cells has been limited by tylenol scandal their small size, and so they were not seen and described until 1665, when Robert Hooke first looked at dead cells from an oak tree. His contemporary, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, crafted lenses and with the improvements in run away jury, optical aids, a new world was opened. Magnification and resolving power limit what can be seen. Tylenol. Explain the james wright a blessing, difference. Magnification is the scandal, ratio of an objects image size to language development its real size. Resolution is a measure of the clarity of the scandal, image; it is the minimum distance two points can be separated and still be distinguished as two points. 2. The development of electron microscopes has further opened our window on the cell and its organelles.

What is considered a major disadvantage of run away jury electron microscopes? The methods used to tylenol scandal prepare the specimen kill the Chinese Essay, cells. Tylenol Scandal. 3. James Wright. Study the tylenol, electron micrographs in your text. Describe the different types of what is an embedded images obtained from: scanning electron microscopy (SEM): Answers may vary, but should describe the tylenol, 3-D component of the specimen image. A Rose For Emily Pdf. transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Answers may vary, but should mention that this type of microscopy profiles a thin section of a specimen, resulting in tylenol scandal, various views of the cells prepared. 4. In cell fractionation, whole cells are broken up in a blender, and this slurry is vygotsky development centrifuged several times.

Each time, smaller and tylenol, smaller cell parts are isolated. Was Suger’s The Abbey Church Of Saint-denis?. This will isolate different organelles and allow study of tylenol their biochemical activities. Which organelles are the smallest ones isolated in this procedure? Ribosomes Concept 6.2 Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions 5. Which two domains consist of run away jury prokaryotic cells? Bacteria and Archaea 6. A major difference between prokaryotic and tylenol scandal, eukaryotic cells is the location of their DNA.

Describe this difference. In a eukaryotic cell, most of the DNA is in an organelle called the nucleus, which is in reconstructing the abbey church bounded by tylenol a double membrane. In a prokaryotic cell, the run away jury, DNA is tylenol concentrated in what embedded system, a region that is not membrane enclosed, called a nucleoid. Tylenol. Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Language Development. -1- On the sketch of scandal a prokaryotic cell, label each of who is of the declaration these features and scandal, give its function or description. See page 98 in your text for the labeled figure. cell wall: rigid structure outside the plasma membrane plasma membrane: membrane enclosing the for emily, cytoplasm bacterial chromosome: carries genes in tylenol, the form of DNA nucleoid: region where the cells DNA is vygotsky located (not enclosed by scandal a membrane) cytoplasm: interior of cell flagella: locomotion organelles of some bacteria. Why are cells so small? Explain the Chinese Religion Essay, relationship of surface area to volume. Tylenol. Cells are small because a high surface-to-volume ratio facilitates the exchange of a blessing materials between a cell and its environment. As a cell (or any other object) increases in scandal, size, its volume grows proportionally more than its surface area. (Area is proportional to a linear dimension cubed.) Thus, a smaller object has a greater ratio of surface area to volume.

What are microvilli? How do these structures relate to the function of run away jury intestinal cells? Microvilli are long, thin projections from the cell surface, which increase surface area without an appreciable increase in volume. Tylenol Scandal. A sufficiently high ratio of declaration of independence surface area to volume is especially important in cells that exchange a lot of materials with their surroundings, such as intestinal cells. Tylenol. Concept 6.3 The eukaryotic cells genetic instructions are housed in vygotsky, the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes 10. In the scandal, following figure, label the james wright, nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, and pore complex. See page 103 of your text for the labeled figure. 11.

Describe the nuclear envelope. How many layers is it? What connects the layers? The nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the scandal, cytoplasm. The nuclear envelope is. a double membrane, meaning that there are two lipid bilayers. Wright. The nuclear lamina, a netlike array of tylenol scandal protein filaments, connects the is an system, layers of the tylenol scandal, nuclear envelope. 12. What is the james, nuclear lamina? Nuclear matrix? The nuclear lamina is the netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by scandal mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope. Critical Samples. The nuclear matrix is a framework of protein fibers extending throughout the nuclear interior.

The nuclear matrix and tylenol scandal, nuclear lamina may help organize the genetic material so it functions efficiently. Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Found within the nucleus are the chromosomes. Language. They are made of tylenol chromatin. Run Away Jury. What are the tylenol, two components of chromatin? When do the thin chromatin fibers condense to james wright a blessing become distinct chromosomes? Chromatin is composed of proteins and scandal, DNA. Was Suger’s In Reconstructing Church. Chromatin fibers condense to become distinct chromosomes as a cell prepares to divide. When are the nucleoli visible? What are assembled here?

Nucleoli are visible in tylenol, a nondividing nucleus and in cells active in protein synthesis. Within the nucleoli, proteins imported from the cytoplasm are assembled with rRNA into large and small subunits of vygotsky ribosomes. What is the function of tylenol scandal ribosomes? What are their two components? Ribosomes are the cellular components that carry out vygotsky language, protein synthesis. Their two components are a large subunit and tylenol, a small subunit. Ribosomes in who is considered the author declaration, any type of organism are all the same, but we distinguish between two types of scandal ribosomes based on where they are found and the destination of the wright a blessing, protein product made. Complete this chart to tylenol scandal demonstrate this concept.

Location Suspended in the cytosol Product. Type of Ribosome Free ribosomes Bound ribosomes. Proteins that function within the cytosol Attached to the outside of the Proteins for insertion into language development, endoplasmic reticulum or membranes nuclear envelope. Concept 6.4 The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and scandal, performs metabolic functions in the cell 17. List all the structures of the who is considered declaration of independence, endomembrane system. Nuclear envelope Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vesicles Vacuoles Plasma membrane 18. Scandal. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) makes up more than half the total membrane system in run away jury, many eukaryotic cells.

Use this sketch to explain the lumen, transport vesicles, and the difference between smooth and rough ER. See page 104 of your text for the labeled figure. Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The ER lumen is the cavity, or cisternal space. Because the ER membrane is continuous within the nuclear envelope, the tylenol scandal, space between the two membranes of the envelope is a rose pdf continuous with the lumen of the ER.

Transport vesicles bud off from scandal a region of the a rose for emily, rough ER called transitional ER and tylenol, travel to the Golgi apparatus and vygotsky development, other destinations. Smooth ER is so named because its outer surface lacks ribosomes. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the tylenol scandal, membrane and thus appears rough through the electron microscope. 19. 1. What Embedded. 2. 3. 20. List and describe three major functions of the smooth ER. Synthesis of lipids: Enzymes of the tylenol scandal, smooth ER are important in a blessing, the synthesis of lipids, including oils, phospholipids, and steroids. Detoxification of drugs and poisons: Detoxification usually involves adding hydroxyl groups to drug molecules, making them more soluble and easier to flush from the tylenol, body. Pdf. Storage of tylenol scandal calcium ions: In muscle cells, the language, smooth ER membrane pumps calcium ions from the tylenol scandal, cytosol into the ER lumen.

Why does alcohol abuse increase tolerance to other drugs such as barbiturates? Barbiturates, alcohol, and many other drugs induce the proliferation of smooth ER and a blessing, its associated detoxification enzymes, thus increasing the rate of tylenol detoxification. This, in turn, increases the tolerance to essay samples drugs, meaning that higher doses are required to achieve a particular effect, such as sedation. Tylenol Scandal. 21. Declaration. The rough ER is tylenol scandal studded with ribosomes. As proteins are synthesized, they are threaded into the lumen of the is an embedded system, rough ER. Some of these proteins have carbohydrates attached to them in the ER to form glycoproteins. What does the ER then do with these secretory proteins? After secretory proteins are formed, the ER membrane keeps them separate from proteins that are produced by free ribosomes and tylenol, that will remain in is an, the cytosol.

Secretory proteins depart from the ER wrapped in scandal, the membranes of vesicles that bud like bubbles from a specialized region called transitional ER. 22. Besides packaging secretory proteins into transport vesicles, what is another major function of the rough ER? The rough ER grows membrane proteins and Chinese Religion Essay, phospholipids for the cell by tylenol adding them to its own membrane. The ER membrane expands, and portions of vygotsky it are transferred in the form of transport vesicles to other components of the endomembrane system. 23. The transport vesicles formed from the scandal, rough ER fuse with the essay, Golgi apparatus. Use this sketch to label the tylenol, cisternae of the critical analysis, Golgi apparatus, and tylenol, its cis and what was suger’s purpose in reconstructing the abbey church, trans faces. Describe what happens to scandal a transport vesicle and its contents when it arrives at the Golgi apparatus. See page 106 of your text for the labeled figure. Was Suger’s In Reconstructing. Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

What is a lysosome? What do they contain? What is the tylenol, pH range inside a lysosome? A lysosome is vygotsky language development a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses to digest (hydrolyze) macromolecules. Scandal. The pH range inside a. lysosome is acidic.

25. One function of a rose lysosomes is scandal intracellular digestion of particles engulfed by language development phagocytosis. Scandal. Describe this process of digestion. What human cells carry out phagocytosis? Amoebas and many other protists eat by engulfing smaller organisms or food particles, a process called phagocytosis. The food vacuole formed in for emily pdf, this way then fuses with a lysosome, whose enzymes digest the food. Digestion products, including simple sugars, amino acids, and other monomers, pass into the cytosol and become nutrients for the cell.

Some of the scandal, human cells that carry out phagocytosis are macrophages, a type of white blood cell that helps defend the body by engulfing and destroying bacteria and other invaders. Chinese. 26. A second function of lysosomes is to tylenol recycle cellular components in a process called autophagy. Describe this process. During autophagy, a damaged organelle or small amount of cytosol becomes surrounded by run away jury a double membrane, and a lysosome fuses with the outer membrane of this vesicle.

The lysosomal enzymes dismantle the enclosed material, and scandal, the organic monomers are returned to the cytosol for reuse. With the help of the lysosomes, the a blessing, cell community renews itself. Tylenol Scandal. A human liver cell, for example, recycles half of its macromolecules each week. For Emily. 27. What happens in Tay-Sachs disease? Explain the role of the lysosomes in scandal, Tay-Sachs. Run Away Jury. In Tay-Sachs disease, a lipid-digesting enzyme is missing or inactive, and the brain becomes impaired by an accumulation of lipids in the cells. In Tay-Sachs, the lysosomes lack a functioning hydrolytic enzyme normally present.

28. Tylenol Scandal. There are many types of run away jury vacuoles. Briefly describe: food vacuoles: Food vacuoles are formed by tylenol scandal phagocytosis. contractile vacuoles: Contractile vacuoles pump excess water out of the cell, thereby maintaining a suitable concentration of ions and molecules inside the cell. central vacuoles in plants: Central vacuoles in was suger’s in reconstructing the abbey church, plants develop by tylenol the coalescence of smaller vacuoles, contained in Essay, mature plant cells. Solution inside the central vacuole, called cell sap, is the tylenol scandal, plant cells main repository of inorganic ions, including potassium and chloride. The central vacuole plays a major role in the growth of plant cells, which enlarge as the pdf, vacuole absorbs water, enabling the cell to become larger with a minimal investment in new cytoplasm. Tylenol Scandal. (give at least three functions/materials stored here) Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

29. Pdf. Use this figure to explain how the elements of the tylenol scandal, endomembrane system function together to secrete a protein and to vygotsky language digest a cellular component. Label as you explain. See page 108 in your text for the labeled figure. Nuclear envelope is connected to tylenol rough ER, which is run away jury also continuous with smooth ER. Tylenol. Membranes and run away jury, proteins produced by tylenol scandal the ER flow in what is an embedded, the form of transport vesicles to the Golgi apparatus. Golgi apparatus pinches off transport vesicles and tylenol, other vesicles that give rise to lysosomes, other types of specialized vesicles, and analysis samples, vacuoles.

Lysosome is available for fusion with another vesicle for digestion. Scandal. Transport vesicle carries proteins to run away jury plasma membrane for tylenol scandal, secretion. Plasma membrane expands by fusion of vesicles; proteins are secreted from cell. Concept 6.5 Mitochondria and Chinese Religion Essay, chloroplasts change energy from scandal one form to another 30. What is an endosymbiont? An endosymbiont is Religion a cell living within another cell. 31. What is the tylenol scandal, endosymbiont theory? Summarize three lines of evidence that support the model of endosymbiosis. The endosymbiont theory states that an run away jury, early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed an tylenol, oxygenusing nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell, and over the course of considered the author declaration of independence evolution, the host cell and its endosymbiont merged into a single organism, a eukaryotic cell with a mitochondrion. At least one of these cells may have taken up a photosynthetic prokaryote, becoming the tylenol scandal, ancestor of james wright a blessing eukaryotic cells that contain chloroplasts.

Three lines of evidence that support the model of endosymbiosis: 1. Rather than being bound by tylenol scandal a single membrane, like organelles of the endomembrane system, mitochondria and Chinese Religion Essay, typical chloroplasts have two membranes surrounding them. 2. Tylenol. Like prokaryotes, mitochondria and chloroplasts contain ribosomes, as well as circular DNA molecules attached to their inner membranes. 3. Also consistent with their probable evolutionary origins as cells, mitochondria and chloroplasts are autonomous organelles that grow and reproduce within cells. 32. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are not considered part of the endomembrane system, although they are enclosed by Chinese Essay membranes. Sketch a mitochondrion here and label its. outer membrane, inner membrane, inner membrane space, cristae, matrix, and ribosomes. See page 110 of your text for scandal, the labeled figure. 33. Now sketch a chloroplast and label its outer membrane, inner membrane, inner membrane space, thylakoids, granum, and stroma. Run Away Jury. Notice that the scandal, mitochondrion has two membrane compartments, while the chloroplast has three compartments.

See page 111 of the author of the declaration your text for the labeled figure. Tylenol. Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Rose For Emily Pdf. What is the tylenol, function of the mitochondria? Mitochondria are the sites of vygotsky language cellular respiration, the metabolic process that uses oxygen to generate ATP by scandal extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels. Critical Samples. What is the function of the chloroplasts? Chloroplasts are sites of scandal photosynthesis. These organelles convert solar energy to Essay chemical energy by tylenol scandal absorbing sunlight and a rose pdf, using it to drive synthesis of tylenol scandal organic compounds such as sugars from carbon dioxide and water.

Recall the what is an embedded, relationship of scandal structure to run away jury function. Why is the inner membrane of the mitochondria highly folded? What role do all the individual thylakoid membranes serve? (Notice that you will have the same answer for both questions.) As highly folded surfaces, the cristae give the inner mitochondrial membrane a large surface area, thus enhancing the productivity of cellular respiration. As in mitochondria, thylakoid membranes serve to tylenol increase the surface area and what is an embedded, thus the tylenol scandal, function of the chloroplasts. 37. Run Away Jury. Explain the important role played by tylenol peroxisomes. Peroxisomes contain. James Wright. enzymes that remove hydrogen atoms from various substrates and transfer them to oxygen, thus producing hydrogen peroxide as a by-product. Tylenol. SUMMARY On these diagrams of plant and is an system, animal cells, label each organelle and give a brief statement of its function. See pages 100101 of your text for scandal, the labeled figures and development, a brief statement of each organelles function. Concept 6.6 The cytoskeleton is a network of tylenol scandal fibers that organizes structures and run away jury, activities in scandal, the cell 38. Religion. What is the cytoskeleton?

The cytoskeleton is tylenol a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm. Essay. 39. What are the three roles of the cytoskeleton? 1. Maintenance of cell shape 2. Mechanical support 3. Cell motility (movement) both of the cell as a whole and more limited movement of parts of the tylenol, cell 40. There are three main types of fibers that make up the cytoskeleton.

Name them. Microtubules, Microfilaments, Intermediate Filaments Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 41. Microtubules are hollow rods made of a globular protein called tubulin. Each tubulin protein is analysis essay a dimer made of tylenol two subunits. These are easily assembled and disassembled. What are four functions of microtubules? 1. Wright. Maintenance of cell shape 2. Cell motility 3. Chromosome movement in cell division 4. Organelle movement 42. Animal cells have a centrosome that contains a pair of centrioles. Scandal. Plant cells do not have centrioles. What is james another name for centrosomes?

What is believed to be the role of centrioles? Another name for scandal, centrosome is microtubule-organizing center. The centrioles function as compression-resisting girders of the cytoskeleton. 43. Describe the organization of microtubules in a centriole. Make a sketch here that shows this arrangement in cross section.

See page 114 of critical your text for the labeled figure. The two centrioles are at right angles to each other, and tylenol scandal, each is made up of nine sets of three microtubules. 44. Who Is Declaration. Cilia and flagella are also composed of microtubules. Scandal. The arrangement of microtubules is said to be 9 + 2. Make a cross-sectional sketch of a cilium here. (See Figure 6.24b in your text.) See page 115 of your text for james wright a blessing, the labeled figure. Scandal. 45. Development. Compare and tylenol, contrast cilia and flagella. Pdf. Cilia and flagella are both microtubule-containing extensions that project from tylenol some cells. Cilia. and flagella share a common structure, each having a group of microtubules sheathed in an extension of the plasma membrane.

Flagella and cilia differ in their beating patterns. A Rose For Emily Pdf. A flagellum has an undulating motion that generates force in scandal, the same direction as the flagellums axis, like the of the declaration, tail of tylenol a fish. In contrast, cilia work more like oars, with alternating power and recovery strokes generating force in a direction perpendicular to the ciliums axis. Run Away Jury. 46. How do motor proteins called dyneins cause movement of cilia? What is the role of tylenol ATP in wright a blessing, this movement? This figure might help you explain.

See page 116 of scandal your text for the labeled figure. Dyneins are responsible for the bending and analysis essay samples, movements of the organelle. A dynein molecule performs a complex cycle of scandal movements caused by changes in the shape of the protein, with ATP providing the energy for analysis, these changes. Tylenol. 47. Microfilaments are solid, and vygotsky development, they are built from tylenol scandal a double chain of actin. What Is An System. Study Figure 6.27 in your text, and explain three examples of movements that involve microfilaments. Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 1. Myosin motors in muscle cell contraction: The walking of myosin projections (the so-called heads) drives the parallel myosin and actin filaments past each other so that the actin filaments approach each other in scandal, the middle.

This shortens the who is considered of the declaration of independence, muscle cell. Tylenol. Muscle contraction involves shortening of many muscle cells at the same time. See also Figure 6.27a on who is the author declaration, page 117. 2. Amoeboid movement: Interaction of actin filaments with myosin causes contraction of the cell, pulling the cells trailing end forward. See also Figure 6.27b on scandal, page 117. 3. Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells: A layer of cytoplasm cycles around the run away jury, cell, moving over a carpet of parallel actin filaments. Myosin motors attached to organelles in scandal, the fluid cytosol may drive the streaming by interacting with the vygotsky language development, actin. See also Figure 6.27c on page 117.

48. Tylenol Scandal. What are the development, motor proteins that move the scandal, microfilaments? Myosin 49. Intermediate filaments are bigger than microfilaments but smaller than microtubules. They are more permanent fixtures of cells. Give two functions of intermediate filaments. What. Possible answers include: 1. Tylenol. Maintenance of cell shape (tension-bearing elements) 2. Anchorage of run away jury nucleus and certain other organelles 3. Formation of nuclear lamina Concept 6.7.

Extracellular components and tylenol scandal, connections between cells help coordinate cellular activities 50. Essay Samples. What are three functions of the scandal, cell wall? 1. Was Suger’s Purpose In Reconstructing The Abbey Church. Protects the tylenol, plant cell 2. Maintains its shape 3. Prevents excessive uptake of water 51. What is the critical analysis essay, composition of the cell wall? Microfibrils made of the polysaccharide cellulose are synthesized by tylenol scandal an enzyme called cellulose synthase and secreted to the extracellular space, where they become embedded in a matrix of other polysaccharides and proteins. 52. What Is An. What is the relatively thin and tylenol, flexible wall secreted first by a plant cell? Primary cell wall 53. Chinese. What is the tylenol, middle lamella?

Where is it found? What material is it made of? The middle lamella is a thin layer of sticky polysaccharides called pectins, located between the primary walls of Chinese Religion Essay adjacent cells. 54. Explain the deposition of a secondary cell wall.

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The secondary wall, often deposited in several laminated layers, has a strong and scandal, durable matrix that affords the cell protection and support. 55. Run Away Jury. On this sketch, label the primary cell wall, secondary cell wall, middle lamella, plasma membrane, central vacuole, and plasmodesmata. See page 119 of your text for tylenol scandal, the labeled figure. 56. Animal cells do not have cell walls, but they do have an Essay, extracellular matrix (ECM). On this figure, label the elements indicated, and scandal, give the wright a blessing, role of scandal each. See page 120 of your text for the labeled figure. 57.

What are the critical analysis essay, intercellular junctions between plant cells? What can pass through them? Plasmodesmata are the intercellular junctions between plant cells. Cytosol passes through the plasmodesmata and joins the internal chemical environments of adjacent cells. 58.

Animals cells do not have plasmodesmata. This figure shows the scandal, three types of for emily pdf intercellular junctions seen in animal cells. Label each type and scandal, summarize its role. See page 121 of your text for the labeled figure. There is an excellent chart of page 123 of your text that summarizes Concepts 6.36.5. The Author Of The Declaration. Be sure study it, and tylenol, answer the Chinese Religion, three questions there. Tylenol Scandal. Testing Your Understanding Answers Now you should be ready to test your knowledge. Place your answers here: 1. b 2. d 3. b 4. Vygotsky Development. e 5. a 6. Tylenol. d 7. What Embedded System. c cytosol, Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Tylenol. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

Date: 27 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Ap Biology Study Reading Guide Chapter 6. for essay, only $16.38 $13.9/page. Tylenol Scandal. Haven't found the vygotsky, Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.

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lab format ASA 7 th /8 th grade Scientific Reports Handout. This handout provides a general guide to tylenol writing reports about scientific research you've performed. In addition to is an embedded describing the conventional rules about the format and content of a lab report, we'll also attempt to convey why these rules exist, so you'll get a clearer, more dependable idea of how to approach this writing situation. Why do we write research reports? You did an experiment or study for your science class, and now you have to write it up for tylenol your teacher to james a blessing review. You feel that you understood the background sufficiently, designed and scandal, completed the study effectively, obtained useful data, and can use those data to draw conclusions about a scientific process or principle. But how exactly do you write all that?

What is your teacher expecting to see? To take some of the guesswork out of answering these questions, try to analysis think beyond the classroom setting. Scandal. In fact, you and your teacher are both part of a scientific community, and run away jury, the people who participate in this community tend to share the same values. As long as you understand and respect these values, your writing will likely meet the expectations of your audienceincluding your teacher. So why are you writing this research report? The practical answer is Because the teacher assigned it, but that's classroom thinking. Generally speaking, people investigating some scientific hypothesis have a responsibility to the rest of the scientific world to report their findings, particularly if these findings add to or contradict previous ideas. As you can probably imagine, people reading such reports have two primary goals: They want to gather the information presented. They want to tylenol scandal know that the findings are legitimate. Your job as a writer, then, is to fulfill these two goals.

Good question. You're probably familiar with the basic format scientists have designed for research reports: This format, sometimes called IMRAD, may take slightly different shapes depending on the discipline or audience; some ask you to include an abstract or separate section for the hypothesis, or call the Discussion section Conclusions, or change the order of the sections (some professional and academic journals require the is an embedded, Methods section to appear last). Overall, however, the IMRAD format was devised to represent a textual version of the scandal, scientific method. The scientific method, you'll probably recall, involves developing a hypothesis, testing it, and deciding whether your findings support the hypothesis. In essence, the Religion, format for tylenol a research report in the sciences mirrors the scientific method but fleshes out the process a little. Is An Embedded System. Below, you'll find a table that shows how each written section fits into the scientific method and tylenol, what additional information it offers the reader. Scientific method step.

states your hypothesis. explains how you derived that hypothesis and how it connects to previous research; gives the purpose of the experiment/study. details how you tested your hypothesis. clarifies why you performed your study in that particular way. provides raw (i.e., uninterpreted) data collected. (perhaps) expresses the data in run away jury, table form, as an easy-to-read figure, or as percentages/ratios. considers whether the scandal, data you obtained support the hypothesis.

explores the critical, implications of your finding and tylenol scandal, judges the potential limitations of your experimental design. Thinking of your research report as based on the scientific method, but elaborated in the ways described above, may help you to meet your audience's expectations successfully. Actually, we're going to proceed by explicitly connecting each section of the lab report to the scientific method, then explaining why and run away jury, how you need to elaborate that section. It's important to understand that although this handout takes each section in scandal, the order in which it should be presented in the final report, you may for practical reasons decide to compose sections in another order. For example, many writers find that composing their Methods and Results before the other sections help to clarify their idea of the considered declaration, experiment or study as a whole. You might consider using each assignment to practice different approaches to scandal drafting the report, to find the run away jury, order that works best for scandal you. What should I do before drafting the lab report? The best way to prepare to write the lab report is to make sure that you fully understand everything you need to who is considered the author declaration about the experiment. Obviously, if you don't quite know what went on tylenol during the lab, you're going to find it difficult to james wright explain the lab satisfactorily to someone else. To make sure you know enough to write the scandal, report, complete the following steps:

Read your lab manual thoroughly, well before you start to carry out the experiment. Ask yourself the following questions: What are we going to do in this lab? (That is, what's the run away jury, procedure?) Why are we going to do it that way? What are we hoping to learn from this experiment? Why would we benefit from this knowledge? Answering these questions will lead you to a more complete understanding of the experiment, and this big picture will in tylenol scandal, turn help you write a successful lab report. Make use of your lab supervisor as you perform the lab.

If you don't know how to answer one of the analysis essay, questions above, for example, your lab supervisor will probably be able to explain it to you (or, at least, help you figure it out). Plan the tylenol, steps of the experiment carefully with your lab partners. The less panicky running around you do, the more likely it is that you'll perform the experiment correctly and record your findings accurately. Also, take some time to think about the best way to organize the data before you have to start putting numbers down. If you can design a table to account for a rose the data, that will tend to work much better than jotting results down hurriedly on a scrap piece of paper. Record the data carefully so you get them right. You won't be able to trust your conclusions if you have the wrong data, and your readers will know you messed up if the other three people in your group have 97 degrees and you have 87. Consult with your lab partners about everything you do. Scandal. Lab groups often make one or two mistakes: two people do all the work while two have a nice chat, or everybody works together until the group finishes gathering the raw data, then scrams outta there. Collaborate with your partners, even when the experiment is over.

What trends did you observe? Was the hypothesis supported? Did you all get the what is an embedded system, same results? What kind of figure should you use to represent your findings? The whole group can work together to answer these questions. Tylenol. Consider your audience. You may believe that audience is a non-issue: it's your lab TA, right? Well, yesbut again, think beyond the classroom. If you write with only Essay your lab instructor in scandal, mind, you may omit material that is crucial to a complete understanding of your experiment, because you assume the what embedded, instructor knows all that stuff already. Tylenol Scandal. As a result, you may receive a lower grade, since your TA won't be sure that you understand all the who is considered the author of the of independence, principles at work. Try to tylenol scandal write towards a student in a blessing, the same course but a different lab section.

That student will have a fair degree of scandal scientific expertise but won't know much about your experiment particularly. Alternatively, you could envision yourself five years from now, after the reading and james, lectures for this course have faded a bit. What would you remember, and what would you need explained more clearly (as a refresher)? Once you've completed these steps as you perform the experiment, you'll be in scandal, a good position to draft an effective lab report. How do I write a strong Introduction? For the purposes of this handout, we'll consider the Introduction to contain four basic elements: the purpose, the scientific literature relevant to the subject, the Chinese, hypothesis, and the reasons you believed your hypothesis viable.

Let's start by going through each element of the Introduction to clarify what it covers and scandal, why it's important. Wright A Blessing. Then we can formulate a logical organizational strategy for the section. The inclusion of the purpose (sometimes called the objective) of the tylenol, experiment often confuses writers. The biggest misconception is that the purpose is the same as the hypothesis. Not quite.

We'll get to hypotheses in a minute, but basically they provide some indication of what you expect the experiment to show. The purpose is broader, and deals more with what you expect to gain through the experiment. In a professional setting, the hypothesis might have something to do with how cells react to a certain kind of genetic manipulation, but the considered of the declaration, purpose of the experiment is to learn more about potential cancer treatments. Undergraduate reports don't often have this wide-ranging a goal, but you should still try to maintain the distinction between your hypothesis and your purpose. Tylenol. In a solubility experiment, for Chinese Religion Essay example, your hypothesis might talk about the tylenol, relationship between temperature and the rate of solubility, but the purpose is what is an embedded probably to learn more about some specific scientific principle underlying the scandal, process of solubility. For starters, most people say that you should write out your working hypothesis before you perform the experiment or study. Many beginning science students neglect to do so and a rose for emily pdf, find themselves struggling to remember precisely which variables were involved in the process or in scandal, what way the researchers felt that they were related. Write your hypothesis down as you develop ityou'll be glad you did. As for the form a hypothesis should take, it's best not to be too fancy or complicated; an inventive style isn't nearly so important as clarity here.

There's nothing wrong with beginning your hypothesis with the phrase, It was hypothesized that . . . Be as specific as you can about the relationship between the different objects of your study. In other words, explain that when term A changes, term B changes in this particular way. Readers of scientific writing are rarely content with the who is considered the author of the, idea that a relationship between two terms existsthey want to know what that relationship entails. Not a hypothesis : It was hypothesized that there is a significant relationship between the temperature of a solvent and the rate at which a solute dissolves. Hypothesis : It was hypothesized that as the temperature of a solvent increases, the tylenol scandal, rate at who is the author of the declaration of independence, which a solute will dissolve in that solvent increases. Put more technically, most hypotheses contain both an independent and a dependent variable. The independent variable is what you manipulate to test the tylenol, reaction; the dependent variable is analysis what changes as a result of your manipulation. In the example above, the independent variable is the temperature of the solvent, and the dependent variable is the rate of solubility. Be sure that your hypothesis includes both variables. Justify your hypothesis.

You need to do more than tell your readers what your hypothesis is; you also need to assure them that this hypothesis was reasonable, given the tylenol, circumstances. In other words, use the Introduction to explain that you didn't just pluck your hypothesis out of thin air. For Emily. (If you did pluck it out of thin air, your problems with your report will probably extend beyond using the tylenol scandal, appropriate format.) If you posit that a particular relationship exists between the analysis essay samples, independent and the dependent variable, what led you to believe your guess might be supported by evidence? Scientists often refer to this type of justification as motivating the hypothesis, in scandal, the sense that something propelled them to make that prediction. Often, motivation includes what we already knowor rather, what scientists generally accept as true (see Background/previous research below). But you can also motivate your hypothesis by relying on logic or on your own observations. If you're trying to decide which solutes will dissolve more rapidly in a solvent at increased temperatures, you might remember that some solids are meant to run away jury dissolve in hot water (e.g., bouillon cubes) and some are used for a function precisely because they withstand higher temperatures (they make saucepans out of something). Or you can think about whether you've noticed sugar dissolving more rapidly in your glass of tylenol iced tea or in who is the author of the declaration, your cup of coffee.

Even such basic, outside-the-lab observations can help you justify your hypothesis as reasonable. This part of the tylenol, Introduction demonstrates to the reader your awareness of how you're building on other scientists' work. If you think of the scientific community as engaging in a series of run away jury conversations about various topics, then you'll recognize that the scandal, relevant background material will alert the reader to which conversation you want to enter. Generally speaking, authors writing journal articles use the essay, background for scandal slightly different purposes than do students completing assignments. Religion Essay. Because readers of academic journals tend to be professionals in tylenol, the field, authors explain the background in order to permit readers to evaluate the study's pertinence for run away jury their own work. Tylenol Scandal. You, on the other hand, write toward a much narrower audienceyour peers in the course or your lab instructorand so you must demonstrate that you understand the run away jury, context for the (presumably assigned) experiment or study you've completed. For example, if your professor has been talking about polarity during lectures, and you're doing a solubility experiment, you might try to connect the polarity of a solid to scandal its relative solubility in certain solvents. Chinese Religion Essay. In any event, both professional researchers and undergraduates need to connect the tylenol, background material overtly to their own work. Organization of run away jury this section. Most of the tylenol, time, writers begin by stating the purpose or objectives of their own work, which establishes for a rose pdf the reader's benefit the nature and scope of the problem investigated (Day 1994).

Once you have expressed your purpose, you should then find it easier to move from the general purpose, to relevant material on the subject, to your hypothesis. Tylenol Scandal. In abbreviated form, an a rose pdf Introduction section might look like this: The purpose of the tylenol scandal, experiment was to test conventional ideas about solubility in the laboratory [purpose] . . . James. According to Whitecoat and tylenol scandal, Labrat (1999), at higher temperatures the run away jury, molecules of solvents move more quickly . Tylenol Scandal. . A Rose Pdf. . We know from the class lecture that molecules moving at tylenol scandal, higher rates of speed collide with one another more often and thus break down more easily [background material/motivation] . . . Thus, it was hypothesized that as the temperature of a solvent increases, the rate at which a solute will dissolve in that solvent increases [hypothesis]. Againthese are guidelines, not commandments. Some writers and readers prefer different structures for the Introduction. The one above merely illustrates a common approach to organizing material. How do I write a strong Materials and Methods section? As with any piece of writing, your Methods section will succeed only if it fulfills its readers' expectations, so you need to be clear in your own mind about the purpose of this section. Let's review the purpose as we described it above: in this section, you want to describe in run away jury, detail how you tested the hypothesis you developed and also to clarify the rationale for tylenol your procedure. In science, it's not sufficient merely to design and carry out an experiment.

Ultimately, others must be able to verify your findings, so your experiment must be reproducible, to the extent that other researchers can follow the same procedure and obtain the same (or similar) results. Here's a real-world example of the a rose pdf, importance of reproducibility. In 1989, physicists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischman announced that they had discovered cold fusion, a way of producing excess heat and tylenol, power without the nuclear radiation that accompanies hot fusion. Such a discovery could have great ramifications for the industrial production of energy, so these findings created a great deal of interest. When other scientists tried to duplicate the experiment, however, they didn't achieve the same results, and as a result many wrote off the conclusions as unjustified (or worse, a hoax). To this day, the viability of cold fusion is debated within the scientific community, even though an increasing number of researchers believe it possible. So when you write your Methods section, keep in who is the author of the declaration, mind that you need to describe your experiment well enough to allow others to replicate it exactly. With these goals in mind, let's consider how to write an scandal effective Methods section in terms of content, structure, and style. Sometimes the hardest thing about wright, writing this section isn't what you should talk about, but what you shouldn't talk about. Writers often want to include the results of their experiment, because they measured and recorded the results during the course of the experiment. But such data should be reserved for the Results section.

In the Methods section, you can write that you recorded the results, or how you recorded the results (e.g., in a table), but you shouldn't write what the results werenot yet. Here, you're merely stating exactly how you went about testing your hypothesis. How much detail? Be precise in providing details, but stay relevant. Tylenol Scandal. Ask yourself, Would it make any difference if this piece were a different size or made from a different material?

If not, you probably don't need to get too specific. If so, you should give as many details as necessary to run away jury prevent this experiment from going awry if someone else tries to carry it out. Probably the most crucial detail is scandal measurement; you should always quantify anything you can, such as time elapsed, temperature, mass, volume, etc. Rationale: Be sure that as you're relating your actions during the experiment, you explain your rationale for the protocol you developed. If you capped a test tube immediately after adding a solute to a solvent, why did you do that? (That's really two questions: why did you cap it, and why did you cap it immediately?) In a professional setting, writers provide their rationale as a way to explain their thinking to a rose pdf potential critics. Scandal. On one hand, of who is of the course, that's your motivation for talking about protocol, too. On the other hand, since in practical terms you're also writing to your teacher (who's seeking to evaluate how well you comprehend the principles of the experiment), explaining the rationale indicates that you understand the reasons for conducting the scandal, experiment in that way, and that you're not just following orders. Critical thinking is crucialrobots don't make good scientists.

Control: Most experiments will include a control, which is what system a means of comparing experimental results. (Sometimes you'll need to have more than one control, depending on scandal the number of hypotheses you want to test.) The control is exactly the same as the other items you're testing, except that you don't manipulate the independent variable-the condition you're altering to check the effect on the dependent variable. Run Away Jury. For example, if you're testing solubility rates at tylenol, increased temperatures, your control would be a solution that you didn't heat at all; that way, you'll see how quickly the solute dissolves naturally (i.e., without manipulation), and you'll have a point of reference against which to compare the solutions you did heat. Describe the james wright a blessing, control in the Methods section. Two things are especially important in writing about the control: identify the control as a control, and explain what you're controlling for. Example: As a control for the temperature change, we placed the tylenol scandal, same amount of solute in the same amount of solvent, and let the solution stand for five minutes without heating it. Structure and style. Organization is especially important in the Methods section of a lab report because readers must understand your experimental procedure completely. Many writers are surprised by the difficulty of conveying what they did during the experiment, since after all they're only reporting an event, but it's often tricky to present this information in a coherent way. There's a fairly standard structure you can use to what guide you, and following the conventions for style can help clarify your points. Subsections: Occasionally, researchers use subsections to report their procedure when the scandal, following circumstances apply: 1) if they've used a great many materials; 2) if the is an system, procedure is unusually complicated; 3) if they've developed a procedure that won't be familiar to many of their readers.

Because these conditions rarely apply to tylenol scandal the experiments you'll perform in class, most undergraduate lab reports won't require you to Religion use subsections. In fact, many guides to writing lab reports suggest that you try to limit your Methods section to a single paragraph. Narrative structure: Think of this section as telling a story about a group of people and the experiment they performed. Describe what you did in the order in which you did it. You may have heard the tylenol, old joke centered on the line, Disconnect the what is an embedded, red wire, but only tylenol after disconnecting the green wire, where the person reading the Religion, directions blows everything to kingdom come because the directions weren't in order.

We're used to scandal reading about events chronologically, and critical analysis essay, so your readers will generally understand what you did if you present that information in the same way. Also, since the Methods section does generally appear as a narrative (story), you want to avoid the recipe approach: First, take a clean, dry 100 ml test tube from the scandal, rack. Next, add 50 ml of distilled water. You should be reporting what did happen, not telling the reader how to perform the experiment: 50 ml of distilled water was poured into a clean, dry 100 ml test tube. Hint: most of the time, the recipe approach comes from copying down the steps of the procedure from your lab manual, so you may want to draft the Methods section initially without consulting your manual. Later, of course, you can go back and fill in any part of the procedure you inadvertently overlooked. Past tense: Remember that you're describing what happened, so you should use past tense to is an system refer to scandal everything you did during the experiment. Writers are often tempted to use the imperative (Add 5 g of the solid to the solution) because that's how their lab manuals are worded; less frequently, they use present tense (5 g of the solid are added to the solution). Instead, remember that you're talking about an event which happened at a particular time in the past, and which has already ended by the time you start writing, so simple past tense will be appropriate in this section (5 g of the wright, solid were added to the solution or We added 5 g of the solid to the solution).

Passive voice vs. first person: In the past, scientific journals encouraged their writers to avoid using the first person (I or we), because the researchers themselves weren't personally important to tylenol the procedure in the experiment. Remember that other researchers should ideally be able to what is an system reproduce experiments exactly, based on the lab report; using first person indicates (to some readers) that the experiment cannot be duplicated without the original researchers present. Scandal. To help keep personal references out of lab reports, scientific conventions also dictated that researchers should use passive voice, in which the subject of a sentence or clause doesn't perform the action described by run away jury the verb. You can learn more in our handout on passive voice , but these examples might explain the distinction between active and tylenol scandal, passive voice: Active: We heated the solution to 80C. (The subject, we, performs the action, heating.) Passive: The solution was heated to wright 80C. (The subject, solution, doesn't do the heating--it is acted upon, not acting.) Increasingly, especially in tylenol scandal, the social sciences, using first person and active voice is acceptable in scientific reports. Most readers find that this style of james wright writing conveys information more directly and therefore more clearly and concisely. This rhetorical choice thus brings two scientific values into conflict: objectivity versus clarity. Since the scientific community hasn't reached a consensus about which style it prefers, you may want to scandal ask your lab instructor. How do I write a strong Results section?

Here's a paradox for you. For Emily. The Results section is often both the shortest (yay!) and most important (uh-oh!) part of your report. Your Materials and tylenol scandal, Methods section shows how you obtained the is an, results, and your Discussion section explores the significance of the tylenol, results, so clearly the Results section forms the backbone of the lab report. This section provides the most critical information about your experiment: the data that allow you to pdf discuss how your hypothesis was or wasn't supported. But it doesn't provide anything else, which explains why this section is generally shorter than the others. Before you write this section, look at all the data you collected to figure out what relates significantly to your hypothesis. You'll want to highlight this material in your Results section. Resist the urge to include every bit of tylenol scandal data you collected, since perhaps not all are relevant. Is An Embedded System. Also, don't try to draw conclusions about the resultssave them for the Discussion section. In this section, you're reporting facts.

Nothing your readers can dispute should appear in tylenol scandal, the Results section. Most Results sections feature three distinct parts: text, tables, and declaration, figures. Let's consider each part one at tylenol, a time. This should be a short paragraph, generally just a few lines, that describes the results you obtained from your experiment. A Rose Pdf. In a relatively simple experiment, one that doesn't produce a lot of data for tylenol you to repeat, the text can represent the critical, entire Results section. Don't feel that you need to include lots of extraneous detail to compensate for a short (but effective) text; your readers appreciate discrimination more than your ability to recite facts. In a more complex experiment, you may want to tylenol scandal use tables and/or figures to help guide your readers toward the is an system, most important information you gathered. In that event, you'll need to refer to each table or figure directly, where appropriate: Table 1 lists the rates of solubility for each substance or Solubility increased as the scandal, temperature of the solution increased (see Figure 1). If you do use tables or figures, make sure that you don't present the Chinese, same material in both the text and the tables/figures, since in essence you'll just repeat yourself, probably annoying your readers with the redundancy of your statements. Feel free to describe trends that emerge as you examine the data.

Although identifying trends requires some judgment on your part and so may not feel like factual reporting, no one can deny that these trends do exist, and tylenol scandal, so they properly belong in who is the author declaration, the Results section. Example: Heating the solution increased the tylenol, rate of james wright solubility of tylenol scandal polar solids by 45% but had no effect on the rate of solubility in solutions containing non-polar solids. This point isn't debatableyou're just pointing out what the data show. As in the Materials and Methods section, you want to refer to wright your data in the past tense, because the events you recorded have already occurred and have finished occurring. Tylenol. In the example above, note the use of increased and had, rather than increases and has. (You don't know from your experiment that heating always increases the solubility of pdf polar solids, but it did that time.)

You shouldn't put information in scandal, the table that also appears in the text or use a table to what embedded system present irrelevant data, just to show you did collect these data during the experiment. Tables are good for some purposes and situations, but not others, so whether and how you'll use tables depends upon what you need them to accomplish. Tables are useful ways to show variation in data, but not to scandal present a great deal of unchanging measurements. If you're dealing with a scientific phenomenon that occurs only within a certain range of temperatures, for example, you don't need to use a table to show that the phenomenon didn't occur at any of the other temperatures. Who Is Declaration. How useful is this table?

As you can probably see, no solubility was observed until the trial temperature reached 50C, a fact that the tylenol, text part of the Results section could easily convey. The table could then be limited to a rose pdf what happened at 50C and scandal, higher, thus better illustrating the differences in solubility rates when solubility did occur. As a rule, try not to use a table to analysis essay samples describe any experimental event you can cover in tylenol, one sentence of who is considered the author of the declaration of independence text. Here's an tylenol scandal example of an unnecessary table from How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper, by Robert A. Chinese. Day: As Day notes, all the information in tylenol scandal, this table can be summarized in one sentence: S. griseus, S. coelicolor, S. everycolor, and S. rainbowenski grew under aerobic conditions, whereas S. nocolor and S. greenicus required anaerobic conditions.

Most readers won't find the table clearer than that one sentence. When you do have reason to pdf tabulate material, pay attention to the clarity and readability of the format you use. Here are a few tips: Number your table. Then, when you refer to the table in the text, use that number to tell your readers which table they can review to tylenol scandal clarify the Essay, material. Give your table a title. Tylenol Scandal. This title should be descriptive enough to communicate the contents of the table, but not so long that it becomes difficult to follow. The titles in the sample tables above are acceptable. Arrange your table so that readers read vertically, not horizontally. For the most part, this rule means that you should construct your table so that like elements read down, not across.

Think about what you want your readers to compare, and put that information in the column (up and down) rather than in the row (across). Usually, the point of comparison will be the numerical data you collect, so especially make sure you have columns of numbers, not rows. Here's an example of how drastically this decision affects the readability of your table (from A Short Guide to Religion Essay Writing about Chemistry, by Herbert Beall and John Trimbur). Look at this table, which presents the relevant data in horizontal rows: It's a little tough to scandal see the considered declaration, trends that the author presumably wants to present in this table. Compare this table, in which the scandal, data appear vertically: The second table shows how putting like elements in what embedded, a vertical column makes for easier reading.

In this case, the like elements are the measurements of length and height, over five trials--not, as in the first table, the length and height measurements for tylenol scandal each trial. Make sure to include units of measurement in wright, the tables. Readers might be able to guess that you measured something in millimeters, but don't make them try. Line up numbers on the right, like this: or on the decimal point. It may help to pretend that you're going to add the numbers together and align them accordingly. Don't use vertical lines as part of the scandal, format for your table. This convention exists because journals prefer not to have to reproduce these lines because the Chinese, tables then become more expensive to print. Even though it's fairly unlikely that you'll be sending your Biology 11 lab report to Science for publication, your readers still have this expectation. Consequently, if you use the table-drawing option in tylenol, your word-processing software, choose the is an, option that doesn't rely on a grid format (which includes vertical lines). How do I include figures in my report?

Although tables can be useful ways of showing trends in the results you obtained, figures (i.e., illustrations) can do an even better job of emphasizing such trends. Lab report writers often use graphic representations of the data they collected to provide their readers with a literal picture of how the experiment went. When should you use a figure? Remember the scandal, circumstances under which you don't need a table: when you don't have a great deal of data, or when the data you have don't vary a lot. Under the same conditions, you would probably forgo the figure as well, since the figure would be unlikely to provide your readers with an additional perspective. Essay Samples. Scientists really don't like their time wasted, so they tend not to respond favorably to redundancy.

If you're trying to decide between using a table and creating a figure to present your material, consider the following a rule of thumb. The strength of a table lies in its ability to supply large amounts of exact data, whereas the strength of a figure is its dramatic illustration of important trends within the experiment. Tylenol Scandal. If you feel that your readers won't get the full impact of the results you obtained just by looking at the numbers, then a figure might be appropriate. Of course, an undergraduate class may expect you to create a figure for your lab experiment, if only to Religion Essay make sure that you can do so effectively. If this is the case, then don't worry about whether to use figures or notconcentrate instead on tylenol scandal how best to accomplish your task. Figures can include maps, photographs, pen-and-ink drawings, flow charts, bar graphs, and section graphs (pie charts).

But the most common figure by far, especially for undergraduates, is the line graph, so we'll focus on that type in run away jury, this handout. At the tylenol, undergraduate level, you can often draw and run away jury, label your graphs by hand, provided that the result is clear, legible, and drawn to scale. Computer technology has, however, made creating line graphs a lot easier. Most word-processing software has a number of functions for transferring data into graph form; many scientists have found Microsoft Excel, for example, a helpful tool in graphing results. If you plan on pursuing a career in the sciences, it may be well worth your while to learn to use a similar program. Computers can't, however, decide for you how your graph really works; you have to know how to design your graph to meet your readers' expectations. Some of these expectations follow: Keep it as simple as possible.

You may be tempted to signal the complexity of the information you gathered by trying to design a graph that accounts for tylenol scandal that complexity. But remember the purpose of your graph: to dramatize your results in a manner that's easy to analysis see and grasp. Try not to make the reader stare at tylenol, the graph for a half hour to pdf find the important line among the mass of other lines. For maximum effectiveness, limit yourself to three to five lines per graph; if you have more data to demonstrate, use a set of graphs to tylenol account for them, rather than trying to for emily cram it all into scandal a single figure. Plot the independent variable on the horizontal (x) axis and the dependent variable on the vertical (y) axis. Remember that the independent variable is the critical analysis essay samples, condition that you manipulated during the experiment and the dependent variable is the condition that you measured to tylenol scandal see if it changed along with the a rose for emily, independent variable. Placing the variables along their respective axes is mostly just a convention, but since your readers are accustomed to tylenol viewing graphs in this way, you're better off not challenging the convention in your report. Label each axis carefully, and for emily, be especially careful to include units of tylenol scandal measure. You need to make sure that your readers understand perfectly well what your graph indicates.

Number and title your graphs. As with tables, the title of the graph should be informative but concise, and you should refer to your graph by number in the text (e.g., Figure 1 shows the increase in the solubility rate as a function of temperature). Many editors of pdf professional scientific journals prefer that writers distinguish the lines in their graphs by attaching a symbol to them, usually a geometric shape (triangle, square, etc.), and using that symbol throughout the tylenol, curve of the Chinese Religion, line. Generally, readers have a hard time distinguishing dotted lines from tylenol scandal dot-dash lines from straight lines, so you should consider staying away from this system. Editors don't usually like different-colored lines within a graph, because colors are difficult and expensive to reproduce; colors may, however, be great for your purposes, as long as you're not planning to submit your paper to run away jury Nature. Use your discretiontry to employ whichever technique dramatizes the results most effectively. Try to gather data at regular intervals, so the plot points on your graph aren't too far apart. You can't be sure of the tylenol, arc you should draw between the plot points if the run away jury, points are located at the far corners of the graph; over a fifteen-minute interval, perhaps the change occurred in tylenol scandal, the first or last thirty seconds of that period (in which case your straight-line connection between the points is for emily misleading). If you're worried that you didn't collect data at sufficiently regular intervals during your experiment, go ahead and tylenol scandal, connect the points with a straight line, but you may want to examine this problem as part of your Discussion section. Make your graph large enough so that everything is legible and clearly demarcated, but not so large that it either overwhelms the rest of the Results section or provides a far greater range than you need to illustrate your point.

If, for example, the of the, seedlings of your plant grew only tylenol 15 mm during the trial, you don't need to construct a graph that accounts for 100 mm of growth. The lines in is an embedded, your graph should more or less fill the space created by the axes; if you see that your data is confined to scandal the lower left portion of the graph, you should probably re-adjust your scale. Chinese Religion Essay. If you create a set of graphs, make them the same size and format, including all the verbal and visual codes (captions, symbols, scale, etc.). Tylenol. You want to critical analysis samples be as consistent as possible in tylenol scandal, your illustrations, so that your readers can easily make the comparisons you're trying to get them to see. How do I write a strong Discussion section? The discussion section is a rose pdf probably the least formalized part of the report, in tylenol scandal, that you can't really apply the same structure to every type of experiment.

In simple terms, here you tell your readers what to make of the Results you obtained. If you have done the Results part well, your readers should already recognize the what system, trends in the data and have a fairly clear idea of whether your hypothesis was supported. Because the Results can seem so self-explanatory, many students find it difficult to tylenol know what material to critical analysis samples add in this last section. Basically, the Discussion contains several parts, in no particular order, but roughly moving from specific (i.e., related to your experiment only) to general (how your findings fit in the larger scientific community). In this section, you will, as a rule, need to: Explain whether the data support your hypothesis Acknowledge any anomalous data or deviations from what you expected Derive conclusions, based on your findings, about the process you're studying Relate your findings to earlier work in the same area (if you can) Explore the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings. Let's look at some dos and don'ts for each of tylenol these objectives. Explain whether the data support your hypothesis. This statement is usually a good way to begin the Discussion, since you can't effectively speak about the what embedded, larger scientific value of your study until you've figured out the particulars of this experiment.

You might begin this part of the Discussion by explicitly stating the relationships or correlations your data indicate between the independent and dependent variables. Tylenol. Then you can show more clearly why you believe your hypothesis was or was not supported. For example, if you tested solubility at various temperatures, you could start this section by noting that the rates of solubility increased as the temperature increased. If your initial hypothesis surmised that temperature change would not affect solubility, you would then say something like, The hypothesis that temperature change would not affect solubility was not supported by the data. Note: Students tend to view labs as practical tests of undeniable scientific truths. As a result, you may want to say that the is an system, hypothesis was proved or disproved or that it was correct or incorrect. These terms, however, reflect a degree of certainty that you as a scientist aren't supposed to have. Remember, you're testing a theory with a procedure that lasts only a few hours and relies on tylenol scandal only a few trials, which severely compromises your ability to run away jury be sure about the truth you see. Words like supported, indicated, and suggested are more acceptable ways to evaluate your hypothesis.

Also, recognize that saying whether the data supported your hypothesis or not involves making a claim to be defended. As such, you need to show the readers that this claim is warranted by the evidence. Make sure that you're very explicit about the relationship between the tylenol, evidence and the conclusions you draw from wright it. This process is difficult for many writers because we don't often justify conclusions in our regular lives. For example, you might nudge your friend at tylenol scandal, a party and critical samples, whisper, That guy's drunk, and scandal, once your friend lays eyes on the person in question, she might readily agree. In a scientific paper, by for emily pdf contrast, you would need to scandal defend your claim more thoroughly by Religion Essay pointing to data such as slurred words, unsteady gait, and the lampshade-as-hat.

In addition to pointing out these details, you would also need to tylenol scandal show how (according to previous studies) these signs are consistent with inebriation, especially if they occur in conjunction with one another. To put it another way, tell your readers exactly how you got from point A (was the hypothesis supported?) to point B (yes/no). Acknowledge any anomalous data, or deviations from what you expected. You need to take these exceptions and divergences into Essay account, so that you qualify your conclusions sufficiently. For obvious reasons, your readers will doubt your authority if you (deliberately or inadvertently) overlook a key piece of data that doesn't square with your perspective on what occurred. In a more philosophical sense, once you've ignored evidence that contradicts your claims, you've departed from the scientific method. The urge to tidy up the experiment is often strong, but if you give in to scandal it you're no longer performing good science. Sometimes after you've performed a study or experiment, you realize that some part of the methods you used to test your hypothesis was flawed.

In that case, it's OK to suggest that if you had the chance to Religion conduct your test again, you might change the design in this or that specific way in order to avoid such and such a problem. The key to making this approach work, though, is to be very precise about the weakness in scandal, your experiment, why and how you think that weakness might have affected your data, and run away jury, how you would alter your protocol to tylenol scandal eliminateor limit the effects ofthat weakness. Often, inexperienced researchers and writers feel the need to account for run away jury wrong data (remember, there's no such animal), and so they speculate wildly about what might have screwed things up. These speculations include such factors as the unusually hot temperature in the room, or the scandal, possibility that their lab partners read the meters wrong, or the potentially defective equipment. These explanations are what scientists call cop-outs, or lame; don't indicate that the experiment had a weakness unless you're fairly certain that a) it really occurred and b) you can explain reasonably well how that weakness affected your results. Derive conclusions, based on your findings, about the process you're studying. If, for example, your hypothesis dealt with the run away jury, changes in solubility at tylenol scandal, different temperatures, then try to a blessing figure out what you can rationally say about the process of solubility more generally. If you're doing an undergraduate lab, chances are that the lab will connect in some way to the material you've been covering either in lecture or in your reading, so you might choose to return to these resources as a way to help you think clearly about the tylenol, process as a whole. This part of the Discussion section is another place where you need to make sure that you're not overreaching.

Again, nothing you've found in one study would remotely allow you to claim that you now know something, or that something isn't true, or that your experiment confirmed some principle or other. Hesitate before you go out on a limbit's dangerous! Use less absolutely conclusive language, including such words as suggest, indicate, correspond, possibly, challenge, etc. Relate your findings to previous work in the field (if possible) We've been talking about run away jury, how to show that you belong in a particular community (such as biologists or anthropologists) by writing within conventions that they recognize and accept. Another is to try to identify a conversation going on tylenol among members of that community, and use your work to contribute to james that conversation. In a larger philosophical sense, scientists can't fully understand the value of tylenol their research unless they have some sense of the context that provoked and nourished it. That is, you have to recognize what's new about your project (potentially, anyway) and how it benefits the wider body of scientific knowledge.

On a more pragmatic level, especially for for emily pdf undergraduates, connecting your lab work to previous research will demonstrate to scandal the TA that you see the big picture. You have an opportunity, in the Discussion section, to distinguish yourself from the students in who is, your class who aren't thinking beyond the barest facts of the study. Capitalize on this opportunity by tylenol scandal putting your own work in context. If you're just beginning to work in samples, the natural sciences (as a first-year biology or chemistry student, say), most likely the tylenol scandal, work you'll be doing has already been performed and what is an system, re-performed to a satisfactory degree. Hence, you could probably point to a similar experiment or study and tylenol scandal, compare/contrast your results and conclusions.

More advanced work may deal with an issue that is somewhat less resolved, and so previous research may take the is an embedded system, form of an ongoing debate, and you can use your own work to weigh in on that debate. If, for example, researchers are hotly disputing the value of tylenol scandal herbal remedies for the common cold, and the results of what is an your study suggest that Echinacea diminishes the symptoms but not the actual presence of the cold, then you might want to tylenol take some time in the Discussion section to recapitulate the specifics of the dispute as it relates to Echinacea as an herbal remedy. (Consider that you have probably already written in the Introduction about critical, this debate as background research.) Explore the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings. This information is scandal often the best way to end your Discussion (and, for all intents and purposes, the report). James Wright. In argumentative writing generally, you want to tylenol scandal use your closing words to convey the main point of a blessing your writing. Scandal. This main point can be primarily theoretical (Now that you understand this information, you're in a rose, a better position to understand this larger issue) or primarily practical (You can use this information to take such and such an action). In either case, the concluding statements help the reader to comprehend the significance of your project and your decision to scandal write about it.

Since a lab report is run away jury argumentativeafter all, you're investigating a claim, and judging the legitimacy of that claim by generating and collecting evidenceit's often a good idea to end your report with the same technique for establishing your main point. If you want to go the theoretical route, you might talk about the consequences your study has for the field or phenomenon you're investigating. To return to the examples regarding solubility, you could end by reflecting on what your work on solubility as a function of temperature tells us (potentially) about solubility in general. (Some folks consider this type of exploration pure as opposed to scandal applied science, although these labels can be problematic.) If you want to go the practical route, you could end by critical analysis samples speculating about the medical, institutional, or commercial implications of your findingsin other words, answer the question, What can this study help people to do? In either case, you're going to make your readers' experience more satisfying, by helping them see why they spent their time learning what you had to teach them.

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How to Find Resumes on the Internet with Google. Want to learn how to find resumes on the Internet using Google? Youve come to the right place! Whether you are new to searching the Internet for scandal resumes or you are a veteran Interent sourcer, Ive included some tips, tricks, and observations for the novice and expert alike. When using Google to search specifically for resumes, its a good idea to analysis begin by searching for the word resume in the title and/or the url of scandal, web pages. For example: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) Here is analysis essay samples, a sample result to illustrate how this works we can see the word Resume in the blue TITLE line, as well as in scandal, the green URL line.

The first line of any search result is the title of the webpage, and the url is the specific web pages address. Targeting the word resume in Religion, the title and/or url is very handy, because for many people, its simply common sense/instinct to either title the web page containing their resume with the word resume, and/or save their resume using the word resume in tylenol scandal, the name of the file. Eliminating False Positive Results. A false positive result is a search result that contains your search terms, but does not match the who is the author declaration essence of what you are actually trying to tylenol find. What! For example if youre searching for resumes, there are many sites that will be returned in your search results that are in fact not resumes, such as sites advertising resume samples and job postings that mention phrases such as, submit resumes to In order to remove most non-resume false positive results, you can use Googles version of the tylenol Boolean NOT operator, which is the minus sign, to prevent your search from returning results with words such as sample, job, etc. (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples. Other ideas of terms you can try to eliminate that may return false positive results:

-eoe -submit -free -resume service -template -resume service -resume writers -resume writing Some people who decide to make their resume available on the Internet also decide to publish a phone number. To find these folks, you can try and include local area codes in your search in attempt to find them. Here is an example of a search using area codes to target people who live in wright a blessing, Northern VA: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples -resume service (703 OR 571) What youll notice, however, is that searching for area codes can easily produce false positive results, as can be seen in the screenshot below which are the first 4 results from the search.

Result #3 and #4 mention the scandal number 571, but its not referenced as an area code, so they are false positive, non-local results. To clean up the false positive results that mention 571 or 703 but are not of resumes of people who live in VA, you can add the state and state abbreviation to the search as well as exclude more non-resume terms and run away jury, phrases: While there are still a good number of non-resume false positive results, this can be expected because we didnt even search for any keywords/skills. Once we do, we will notice a significant drop off in false positives. Another way to search for tylenol scandal local resumes is to target a zip code radius. While Google doesnt support true zip code search functionality, we can leverage the fact that Google supports searching for numbers within a range, otherwise known as numrange search.

You can perform a numrange search on any sequential (low to high) set of critical analysis essay samples, numbers by typing two periods between the numbers without any spaces. Tylenol Scandal! This is wright, especially helpful because we can exploit this search functionality and adapt it to tylenol scandal performing a zip code radius search. For example, take your target zip code and wright a blessing, use this handy zip code radius lookup application, which you can use to search for zip codes in a radius and sort the zip codes within the radius from low to high. Using a central zip code of 75201 in scandal, Dallas, TX and targeting a 20 mile radius, we can use that zip code radius application to wright get a range of zip codes from a low zip code of 75001 to a high zip code of 76155. Using Googles numrange search syntax, here is an example of a search string targeting people within a 20-mile radius of tylenol, 75201 in TX: Sample results: you can see the zip code search worked beautifully: Here are a couple of things to keep in mind when searching for local resumes: Not everyone will publish a phone number on their resume If they do publish a phone number on what is an system their resume, it could be a cell phone with a non-local area code if they relocated from another area this is tylenol, why is can be helpful to search for zip codes as well as area codes If they dont publish a phone number at all, they should at least mention a city and/or state. Targeting Resumes That Are Not Titled As Resume Although plenty of people do title their resume or the web page containing their resume with the Chinese Essay word resume, there are some people who dont.

After searching for all of the results that DO contain the word resume in the URL or title of the tylenol scandal web page, you need to analysis essay try to eliminate them from future search results using Googles NOT operator, the minus sign, to specifically target the tylenol scandal results that dont mention resume in the title or URL. For example: Dont be tempted to what is an try and write that as -(inurl:resume OR intitle:resume), because Google will not read that search string in the manner in which you intend. Instead of eliminating results with the word resume in either the URL or the tylenol scandal title, Google will in fact will do the exact opposite. Click here to see the sad reality. Sorry Google. Next, youll have to what is an system think about words that are commonly found on resumes, such as objective, summary, experience, employment, skills, history, education, etc. Then youll have to scandal try and reduce false positive results of job postings, resume sample sites and such, and also target local results. Putting it all together, your search string could look like this: First page results: We can see that the first result is essentially of a resume, yet the embedded person saved their work history as biodata. See?

Some people dont use the tylenol scandal word resume. :-) Looking at the second result, we can see that the Chinese Religion word resume is tylenol, actually highlighted in the url of the second result which technically should not happen, as we coupled Googles NOT/- operator with inurl:resume. Chinese Religion Essay! Yet more proof that Boolean search does not = Internet search. Thats 2 strikes, Google. The third result is definitely not a resume it is a LinkedIn directory by name, within which is at tylenol least one positive hit on our search terms. While there are no doubt resumes on the Internet that do not mention the analysis essay samples word resume, anywhere within them, I have found that when you stray from targeting the word resume in web page titles and URLs, you can quickly find yourself swimming in tylenol, a sea of false positive results, which is a huge time drain.

I believe the 80/20 Pareto principle solidly applies here: You will get 80% of run away jury, your viable results from targeted resume searches and the other 20% from searching without targeting the word resume. Likewise, you can easily waste 80% of your time trying to sort through the sea of false positives in order to dig up the 20% of scandal, resumes that do not mention the a rose for emily pdf term. Ive provided you with a quick overview of scandal, how to effectively utilize Google to search for resumes on the Internet. Run Away Jury! Be aware though all is not perfect in tylenol, when hunting for resumes in Google land if you have not already, please read these 2 posts: The Internet has Free Resumes So What?and Boolean search does not = Internet search. For those of you who read this post and asked why I: didnt talk about a rose pdf, searching for CVs didnt suggest using the tilde. operator in conjuntion with the word resume didnt use - job when trying to eliminate false positive results didnt talk about targeting filetypes didnt talk about just searching for the word resume without using it in conjunction with inurl: or intitle: didnt mention Google CSEs. Excellent Article! Real insight seen in the description and also hands on expertise.

I believe this way you could simply recruit using an internet connection and nothing else. This is scandal, very impressive. Also you will be able to what embedded system get better candidature as opposed to people using job boards. Thanks Glen! This really was a value addition to my efforts! I have tried the search as Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume (objective OR summary) (experience OR history) education -job -jobs -sample -samples which you have mentioned. But I didnt get any result from linkedin site. Tylenol! If I modify the search keyword as Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume -job -jobs then I got result from linkedin site but it displays events also along with candidates. I found this article very interesting and appealing as I have been trying to learn ways to do sourcing for for emily resumes on the internet. I am trying to learn ways to form such a string on either google or any other tool/site. I am new to this and can hardly understand all the tylenol scandal requirements.Could you be kind enough to post an article for the same?

I have already subscribed on this site. Thanks a lot for your article, i have heard about resume search in google but i dont know how to do it. After reading your article i have got an idea to do it.. i will try. please post me the articles related to this search and job search in US. i do appriciate your help Thank you so much. Hey, thanks a lot for all the information you are sharing with. Its real cool. How ever I would like to know more about sourcing the resume. Please help me out. Im really great full about this article.

Im currently new in the field of Human Resource. And Im currently using an online subscription based resume search. For Emily Pdf! But unfortunately, its not enough to fullfill my search. Tylenol Scandal! Im currently looking for a faster and the author, accurate resume search. Excellent article, with a ton of great search refining information.

I have what seems like a dumb question that I must ask. Tylenol! I am searching Google for james a blessing Android engineers and have used the tylenol following string: android engineer OR Mobile Programmer resume filetype:pdf -guide -events -hire -amazon -job -jobs -manual. I have returned ok results Here is my question, how do I eliminate European countries and Canada from Religion Essay my results? I look forward to your reply. Thanks again. Internet Resume Search 2.0 does all the internet search work for you using the major search engines including Google, Yahoo and Bing at:

Thank you so much for this article. Can you send me few tips with example to my personal gmail id Great article! Thank you for tylenol sharing this knowledge. Its going to considered the author declaration be very useful for my searches. I do have one question though, how do I narrow a search for a SEO expert who needs to tylenol have worked on james a blessing one of the top Alexa 100 sites?

Basically, how do I add criteria to my search? how to type the tylenol keywords for the need requirment Designing was passion so got it worked for, have a look on the new trends of Designers. Hi Glen; I tried your string on system Google and indeed was very helpful i getting resumes in tylenol scandal, USA, but i mostly work on European requirements, can you please advise how to critical source if i am looking out for profiles in multiple countries in tylenol scandal, Europe with Bilingual language option. Critical Analysis Essay! Thanks. Very informative, thats exactly what i am looking for.

Specially in tylenol scandal, finding that quality resume which sometimes tends to be not so inviting after all,. You got a good theme but sometimes fail in editing, thats sometimes the sickness of Chinese Essay, a resume. Youre right. And, are you kiddinme, ive been looking that information for weeks. Tylenol Scandal! Great Post plus i like the websites layout. Im going to bookmark this up for the reliable information that i think im gonna be needing sooner or later. Awesome! I was looking for Boolean for zipcode and essay samples, radius and got here exactly what I was looking for plus lot of scandal, additional new stuff..Excellent way of putting the concept and explaination..Thanks for the article!

I am looking for guides on what system recruitment sales techniques such as how to tylenol close a candidate or a manager does anyone can help? Thanks a lot in who is declaration of independence, advance for your help! I learnt a lot from this article..thanks a lot Finding the resume is easy but finding the good resumes with all the contents is very difficult!! Need job send your resume to resumes@reclutaconsultant, For what type of Position and Company? there is an advanced search in scandal, google homepageu can search for resumes from there in different formats and techniquestry them till u find the right one. What Is An! thanks. Thank you so much for writing this article! It is by far the tylenol most useful and easy to understand introduction to Religion Essay Boolean I have found. I have a bit of a tailored question for you, what is tylenol, your success in using Boolean to critical analysis find data scientists?

Ive been having a hard time finding them and was wondering if I was doing something wrong or if they just dont tend to post their resumes online. I would greatly appreciate any insights you have to offer! (I didnt see an article about this in tylenol scandal, your blog but sorry in advance if it is in run away jury, there and I missed it.) can u please mention the strings to search resumese with complete details. oh i need to fix my problem in various ways, how could help me in this situation Cathey is a sourcing and tylenol scandal, recruiting thought leader with over 16 years. of experience working in large staffing agency and global RPO. environments (1,000 recruiters and nearly 100,000 hires annually).

Starting out who is the author declaration of independence his career as a top producing recruiter, he quickly. advanced into senior management roles and now currently serves as the. SVP of Strategic Talent Acquisition and Innovation for tylenol scandal Kforce, working. out of their renowned National Recruiting Center with over 300. recruiters. Often requested to who is the author of the declaration of independence speak on sourcing and scandal, recruiting best. practices, trends and strategies, Glen has traveled internationally to. present at many talent acquisition conferences (5X LinkedIn Talent. Connect U.S. What Embedded! 10, 11, 12, Toronto 12, London 12, 2X Australasian. Talent Conference Sydney Melbourne 11, 12, 6X SourceCon, 2X. TruLondon, 2X HCI) and is regularly requested to present to scandal companies.

(e.g., PwC, Deloitte, Intel, Booz Allen Hamilton, Citigroup, etc.). This. blog is who is considered declaration of independence, his personal passion and does not represent the tylenol views or. opinions of anyone other than himself. See more at: Good afternoon, this seems very interesting. I am a recruiter and trying to search for a position within a certain area how do I do this?

Maria Gomez. pls tell about a article on web designer that work on the web designer company and also know the method of create websites.

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34 things you should remove from your resume immediately. Hiring managers rarely have the time or resources to look at each resume closely, and tylenol, they typically spend about six seconds on their initial fit/no fit decision. For Emily Pdf? If you want to pass that test, you need to have some solid qualifications and the perfect resume to highlight them. Here are 34 things you should strike from your resume right now. If you applied, it's already obvious you want the job. The exception: If you're in a unique situation, such as changing industries completely, it may be useful to include a brief summary. Yes, you might have been the tylenol, king of making milkshakes at of the declaration of independence the restaurant you worked for in high school. But unless you are planning on redeeming that title, it is time to tylenol scandal, get rid of all that clutter. But as Alyssa Gelbard, career expert and founder of career-consulting firm Resume Strategists, points out: Past work experience that might not appear to be directly relevant to the job at hand might show another dimension, depth, ability, or skill that actually is what is an system relevant or applicable. Only include this experience if it really showcases additional skills that can translate to the position you're applying for. Don't include your marital status, religious preference, or Social Security number.

This might have been the standard in the past, but all this information could lead to discrimination, which is illegal, so there's no need to include it. A full street address is the first thing Amanda Augustine, a career-advice expert for TopResume, looks for to immediately cut from tylenol scandal, a resume . Nobody needs to have that on who is considered declaration their resume anymore, and, to be quite honest, it's a security concern, she tells Business Insider. Augustine suggests including only one phone number on your resume, and that number should really be your cellphone, so that you can control who answers your incoming phone calls, when, and what the voice mail sounds like. Also, you don't want employers trying to contact you in five different places, because then you have to keep track of that, she says. In many cases, nobody cares. If it's not relevant to the job you're applying for, it's a waste of space and tylenol scandal, a waste of the company's time. Pdf? A CareerBuilder survey asked 2,000 hiring managers for memorable resume mistakes, and blatant lies were a popular choice. Tylenol Scandal? One candidate claimed to be the Chinese Religion, former CEO of the tylenol scandal, company to which he was applying, another claimed to be a Nobel Prize winner, and Chinese Essay, one more claimed he attended a college that didn't exist. Rosemary Haefner, chief human-resources officer at CareerBuilder, says these lies may be misguided attempts to compensate for lacking 10o% of the tylenol, qualifications specified in the job posting. But Haefner says candidates should concentrate on the skills they can offer, rather than the what is an embedded system, skills they can't offer. Hiring managers are more forgiving than job seekers may think, Haefner explains.

About 42% of scandal, employers surveyed said they would consider a candidate who met only three out of five key qualifications for a specific role. When you use a 0.5-inch margin and run away jury, eight-point font in an effort to get everything to fit on one page, this is an epic fail, says J.T. O'Donnell, a career and scandal, workplace expert, founder of career-advice site, and author of the author of the of independence, Careerealism: The Smart Approach to a Satisfying Career. Tylenol Scandal? She recommends lots of white space and Religion, no more than a 0.8 margin. Augustine agrees, warning particularly against dense blocks of text. Let's be honest: You're looking this over quickly, you're glancing through it, your eyes glaze over when you get to a big, long paragraph, she says.

In the same vein, you can also overload your resume with too many bullet points, which Augustine calls death by bullets. If absolutely everything is bulleted, it has the same effect as big dense blocks of text your eyes just glaze over it, she says. Augustine explains that bullets are only to be used to scandal, draw attention to the most important information. Critical? If you bullet everything, everything is important, which means really nothing stands out, she says. If you took time off to travel or raise a family, Gelbard doesn't recommend including that information on your resume. Scandal? In some countries, it is james a blessing acceptable to include this information, especially travel, but it is not appropriate to scandal, include that in the body of a resume in the US. 11. Details that give away your age. If you don't want to be discriminated against for a position because of your age, it's time to remove your graduation date, says Catherine Jewell, author of New Resume, New Career. Another surprising way your resume could give away your age: double spaces after a period. If your employers want to Chinese, speak to your references, they'll ask you.

Also, it's better if you have a chance to tell your references ahead of time that a future employer might be calling. If you write references upon request at the bottom of your resume, you're merely wasting a valuable line, career coach Eli Amdur says. The format of your resume is just as important as its content, Augustine says. She says the best format is the scandal, format that will make it easiest for critical analysis samples the hiring manager to scan your resume and still be able to pick out your key qualifications and career goals. Once you pick a format, stick with it. If you write the day, month, and year for one date, then use that same format throughout the rest of the resume.

Your resume shouldn't include the words I, me, she, or my, says Tina Nicolai, executive career coach and tylenol, founder of Resume Writers' Ink. Don't write your resume in the third or first person. Pdf? It's understood that everything on your resume is scandal about you and your experiences. Never describe past work experience using the present tense. James Wright A Blessing? Only your current job should be written in the present tense, Gelbard says. 16. A less-than-professional email address. Tylenol? If you still use an old email address, like or, it's time to pick a new one. Run Away Jury? It only takes a minute or two, and it's free. Amdur says there is tylenol scandal no reason to put the for emily pdf, word phone in front of the actual number.

It's pretty silly. They know it's your phone number. The same rule applies to email. 18. Your current business-contact info. This is tylenol not only dangerous; it's stupid. Do you really want employers calling you at work? How are you going to run away jury, handle that? Oh, and by the way, your current employer can monitor your emails and phone calls. So if you're not in the mood to get fired, or potentially charged with theft of services (really), then leave the business info off.

19. Headers, footers, tables, images, charts. These fancy embeddings will have hiring managers thinking, Could you not? While a well-formatted header and footer may look professional, and some cool tables, images, or charts may boost your credibility, they also confuse the applicant-tracking systems that companies use nowadays, Augustine tells Business Insider. The system will react by scrambling up your resume and spitting out a poorly formatted one that may no longer include your header or charts. Scandal? Even if you were an ideal candidate for the position, now the hiring manager has no way to contact you for wright an interview. Don't include your boss' name on your resume unless you're OK with your potential employer contacting him or her.

Even then, Gelbard says the only reason your boss' name should be on tylenol scandal your resume is if the person is someone noteworthy, and if it would be really impressive. The Author? Companies often have their own internal names for scandal things like customized software, technologies, and processes that are only known within that organization and not by who is considered of the, those who work outside of it, Gelbard says. Tylenol? Be sure to exclude terms on your resume that are known only to one specific organization. 22. Social-media URLs that are not related to the targeted position. Links to your opinionated blogs, Pinterest page, or Instagram account have no business taking up prime resume real estate. Candidates who tend to think their personal social media sites are valuable are putting themselves at risk of landing in the 'no' pile, Nicolai says. But you should list relevant URLs, such as your LinkedIn page or any others that are professional and directly related to the position you are trying to acquire, she says. 23. More than 15 years of experience. When you start including jobs from before 2000, you start to lose the hiring manager's interest.

Your most relevant experience should be from the past 15 years, so hiring managers only need to see that, Augustine says. On the same note, never include dates on education and certifications that are older than 15 years. Some people include past hourly rates for jobs they held in college, Nicolai says. This information is unnecessary and may send the wrong message. A Rose For Emily? Amy Hoover, president of Talent Zoo, says you also shouldn't address your desired salary in tylenol scandal a resume. What Is An Embedded System? This document is scandal intended to showcase your professional experience and skills. Salary comes later in the interview process. Don't use Times New Roman and serif fonts, as they're outdated and old-fashioned, Hoover says. Use a standard, sans-serif font like Arial. Also, be aware of the font size, she says.

Your goal should be to make it look nice and sleek but also easy to Chinese Religion Essay, read. Scandal? Curly-tailed fonts are also a turn-off, according to O'Donnell. People try to make their resume look classier with a fancy font, but studies show they are harder to read and the recruiter absorbs less about you. CareerBuilder asked 2,201 US hiring managers: What resume terms are the biggest turnoffs? They cited words and phrases such as, best of what is an system, breed, go-getter, think outside the box, synergy, and people pleaser. Tylenol? Terms employers do like to see on resumes include: achieved, managed, resolved, and launched but only if they're used in moderation. 28. Reasons you left a company or position. Candidates often think, If I explain why I left the for emily, position on tylenol scandal my resume, maybe my chances will improve. Wrong, Nicolai says. Listing why you left is irrelevant on your resume.

It's not the time or place to Chinese, bring up transitions from one company to the next. Use your interview to address this. Once you're out of school, your grades aren't so relevant. Tylenol Scandal? If you're a new college graduate and a rose for emily, your GPA was a 3.8 or higher it's OK to leave it. But, if you're more than three years out of school, or if your GPA was lower than a 3.8, ditch it. This may become the tylenol, norm at james wright a blessing some point in tylenol the future, but it's just weird and a rose, tacky and tylenol, distracting to considered of independence, include a photo with your resume for tylenol scandal now. 31. An explanation of why you want the job.

That's what the cover letter and interviews are for! Your resume is not the is an embedded system, place to start explaining why you'd be a great fit or why you want the tylenol, job. Your skills and is an embedded, qualifications should be able to do that for you and if they don't, then your resume is either in bad shape, or this isn't the right job for you. Don't try to sell yourself by using all sorts of subjective words to describe yourself, O'Donnell says. I'm an excellent communicator or highly organized and motivated are opinions of tylenol, yourself and critical analysis samples, not necessarily the truth. Recruiters want facts only. They'll decide if you are those things after they meet you, she says. 33. Tylenol? Generic explanations of accomplishments.

Don't just say you accomplished X, Y, or Z show it by quantifying the facts. For instance, instead of, Grew revenues try, X project resulted in an Y% increase in revenues. For Emily Pdf? Avoid including a job on your resume if you only held the position for a short period of time, Gelbard says. Tylenol Scandal? You should especially avoid including jobs you were let go from or didn't like. Religion Essay? Vivian Giang and Natalie Walters contributed to tylenol, earlier versions of this article. SEE ALSO: 9 phrases on run away jury your resume that make hiring managers cringe.

DON'T MISS: We took a real resume from a mid-level employee and turned it into something fantastic. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. 34 things you should remove from your resume immediately. Hiring managers rarely have the time or. Tylenol? Get the best of Business Insider delivered to your inbox every day.

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erotic essay Sex and Sexuality in Islam. by Muslim Women's League. Even though it comprises only part of our identities, the tylenol sexuality of women represents so much more; such that women's sexuality has been viewed as something to be controlled, hidden, or mastered, most often by men. Through the ages, sexuality has an impact on one's identity, self-esteem, relationships with others, societal mores, legal codes and so on. If sexual behavior simply existed to allow for procreation, so much controversy and fascination would have no reason to for emily pdf exist. Unfortunately, in many societies and for scandal, many years women have been principally defined by their roles as sexual beings whose chief purpose is to satisfy men's sexual needs; this perception contributed to maintaining women in positions of inferiority and for emily often subservience to men.

Even today, women are singled out as sex objects, either as victims of rape or willing participants in industries such as advertising or pornography, that exploit women's sexuality. The purpose of scandal, this chapter is to explore important issues of sexuality from an Islamic point of view in an effort to expose demeaning cultural habits which have no basis in Islam, and to offer alternative understandings of these issues based on the primary sources of Qur'an and Hadith. The view of sexuality as taboo and the author declaration shameful is by no means unique to any particular religious or ethnic group. The Victorian era in England and tylenol scandal the US(late 19th century) was characterized by such a strong inhibition of sexuality that was subsequently blamed for psychological problems seen in women by psychiatrists such as Sigmund Freud. Breaking free from the oppressiveness of that era was an important goal for women through most of the 20th century since the prevailing attitudes were not confined to sexual issues as women were denied many other essential human rights. Laila Ahmed addresses some of the misogynistic conditions and beliefs that preceded Islam in the Mediterranean area, heavily influenced by Jewish and Christian thinking at that time(6th and 7th centuries). She points out the church's attitude on abortion and contraception . formed part of is an system, a broader negative ethos concerning the body and sexuality -- a sense of these as sinful and shameful and of sexuality as legitimate only for scandal, procreation. women were evidently perceived as innately more implicated in physicality and sexuality than men. (Women and a rose for emily pdf Gender in Islam, p.35) Unfortunately, a similar view of women has been adopted by scandal, some Muslims and james wright may actually be rooted in the cultural values which existed when Islam was introduced. Human sexual development goes through several well-defined stages. Throughout growth, opportunities exist to teach children about their bodies, to inculcate values and tylenol attitudes, and most importantly to foster self-esteem. The success or failure (as determined by a woman's overall understanding and pdf value of herself as well as her ability to maintain a satisfying relationship) can be determined by prevailing attitudes of the family and surrounding culture. Sexual development occurs throughout the scandal life-cycle, beginning in infancy and childhood.

The healthy progression from one stage of development to the next is dependent upon fulfillment of basic requirements at run away jury, each stage. For example, an infant must develop trust that the caregiver will consistently respond to her cries before she can safely venture into the world and test the budding independence of toddlerhood. The ultimate achievement is the development of an intact, secure adult with a high sense of self-esteem and self-worth. If a girl is constantly being told that she is naughty, shameful, stupid or ugly, she will come to believe it and obviously have low self-esteem which will interfere with relationships, school, work and so on. Scandal! This illustration in general terms introduces the argument that cultural habits which teach girls excessive shame breed guilt and reinforce a negative self-image contributing to low self-esteem and even dysfunctional sexual lives. This stage of development has been referred to as the latent stage in Freudian terms. It was felt that between early childhood and puberty children had no interest in run away jury their or others sexuality; they are essentially dormant in this regard until hormonal changes signal the onset of puberty. However, this argument has been challenged by other experts in the field.

Regardless of tylenol scandal, psychological theories, certain facts must be considered about children at this age. They are developing mentally and as such are often extremely curious about themselves, others, animals and analysis essay samples so on. This is a good time to reinforce concepts of tylenol, cleanliness, privacy and self-respect and to begin to teach them about sexuality and reproduction in an age appropriate manner. Some girls will start menstruating as early as age nine and should be prepared ahead of time by frank and who is of the open discussions with their parents. For many girls, the most significant thing to happen during this time is the scandal onset of menstruation. If a girl has not been prepared for what, this event, the sight of the first few drops of blood can be terribly frightening. The signs that a girl is entering this stage of development include breast development, growth of hair under the arms and in the pubic area, increase in scandal height and finally onset of system, menses. Scandal! At this time, cultural and wright a blessing familial attitudes about menstruation are critical in impacting a girl's acceptance or rejection of this milestone in her life. Because of the rapid rate of change and accompanying sense of awkwardness, adolescents are often insecure and preoccupied with appearances, with a strong desire to be accepted by their peers. This stage is characterized by a heightened interest in and awareness of members of the opposite tylenol scandal sex.

In the United States and in many other countries, young people begin to develop relationships during the teenage years. Over half of the a blessing students graduating from scandal, high school have been sexually active. Many communities are working hard to teach abstinence before marriage but they are working against difficult odds especially when dating is embedded system, viewed as normal, age-appropriate behavior. Yet, a primary task at this stage is to achieve a healthy, intimate relationship, which, for Muslims, can only exist in the context of marriage. Once women become sexually active, they then must deal with issues related to pregnancy, such as attitudes toward child-bearing, timing and tylenol spacing of children, and contraception. Ideally, decisions are made within a mutually supportive monogamous relationship.

Also, during this time, sexual satisfaction as well as sexual dysfunction or incompatibility become important issues as part of an run away jury, overall relationship and can contribute to its well being or be a source of tension and stress. Historically, older women and scandal men were considered asexual as aging and for emily sexuality seemed incompatible. Especially today, as women and scandal men live well into their eighties, sexuality is still an system, important part of tylenol, many people's lives. While some may experience a decreased sex drive, others do not notice any change at all. Early in life, children become aware of their sexuality even to the point that infants can experience sexual pleasure (see Your Baby and Child, P. Leach, p. 212). Essay! Infants develop awareness of the tylenol function and form of all body parts as they grow. To a child, the penis or vagina is just another part of the body, like arms and legs. The focus on the genitals is particularly evident during the toilet training years. If a child is Chinese, taught that her genitals are dirty and shameful , but she wants to explore them just the same, naturally she will feel ashamed and naughty if she does so. Tylenol! Therefore, early on what system, she sees part of herself as negative. Most child development experts encourage parents to remain neutral about a child's interest in her genitals to avoid preoccupation with that body part and to enhance the development of tylenol, a positive sexual identity.

As the child grows, it becomes important to teach her about privacy and appropriate behavior when around others. Oftentimes, parents fear that by james a blessing, not discouraging their children from touching themselves, they are encouraging them to explore sexuality at an early age. Scandal! But teaching children to respect and understand their bodies will more positively impact their self image compared to emphasizing the sense of shame ('ayb) that many children are taught. Such a sense of shame can be taken to extremes; for example, a mother refuses to apply necessary medication to her three year old daughter's vagina because to touch her there is 'ayb. Other girls are afraid to cleanse their genitals properly because to touch themselves is 'ayb. The concept of shame or disgust regarding one's body has no basis in Islam. During adolescence, sexuality becomes of interest to who is considered the author of the declaration of independence young people as their bodies experience hormonal upheavals which result in physical and emotional changes.

Again, a girl's experience through childhood will influence her passage through this difficult time. Tylenol Scandal! If she is taught that the onset of menstruation is a curse, then her experience and coping mechanisms will be affected negatively. A positive attitude will enable a young woman to view it as a milestone, not a hindrance. Unfortunately, much folklore and negative cultural beliefs abound regarding a woman's menses. Indeed, for some women menstruation is a physically difficult, unwelcome disruption every month. But it is a simple biological process that can be managed like any other physical condition, and needn't impair a woman's ability to function. Several hadith exist regarding menstruation. The only Qur'anic reference is who is the author of the, found in Surah 2, verse 222 where Muslims are told to avoid sexual intercourse during a woman's menses: And they will ask thee about (woman's) monthly courses.

Say, 'It is a vulnerable condition. Keep, therefore, aloof from women during their monthly courses, and do not draw near unto them until they are cleansed; and when they are cleansed, go in unto them as God has bidden you to do.' In a hadith found in Muslim (No. 592, also reported in Sunan Abu Dawud, No, 258), a discussion occurs whereby the Prophet emphasizes that the Islamic view of menstruation differs significantly from the Jewish attitude during his time, which strongly restricted women from several arenas while they were menstruating. Tylenol Scandal! In this hadith he says, Associate with them in the houses and do everything except sexual intercourse. The Author! Aisha and the other wives of the Prophet were instrumental in scandal pointing out his attitude of tolerance; for example, Maimuna recalled an occasion when she was sitting near him while he was praying. She happened to be menstruating and during his prayers he knelt on her garment but did not displace it, meaning that being in the presence of a menstruating woman had no impact on his prayers ( Mishkat ul Masabih, No. 550; for other hadith along similar lines see Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 212-213, 267-273; Muslim, Nos.

269, 577-588 and Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. 293-300) Also, the Prophet commanded menstruating women and those observing purdah to participate in Eid festivities. Samples! They sat behind those who prayed but joined in takbir ( Muslim, Nos. 1932-34; Bukhari, Vol.1, No. 321). Exemptions from Rituals.

Today, as in the time of the Prophet, women do not pray or fast while on their menses. The Qur'an does not address this practice at all; several hadith exist which expressly forbid women to pray while on their period. Scandal! (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 271-287, Bukhari, Vol.1., No.327). Several traditions show that menstruating women were not supposed to perform tawaf (circumambulation) around the Kaaba during Hajj while they were menstruating (Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. 302,321,325; al-Muwatta, 20.16) The menses were viewed as a temporary illness such that days not fasted had to pdf be made up as any ill person would do after Ramadan.

The Qur'an states that those who are ill or on tylenol, a journey can desist from fasting and make the days up later (2:184). There are no hadith which expressly forbid women from fasting while menstruating, but based on embedded, the text from the following, one concludes that menstruating women did not fast: Aisha is reported to have said that during menstruation in the time of the Prophet, the women were commanded to complete the fast (abandoned during menses) but were not commanded to scandal complete the (abandoned) prayer (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 262-3, Muslim, Nos. 660-662). Women who have prolonged menses because of an underlying medical problem can resume prayers , fasting, and intercourse after a certain number of days (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos.

274-306, Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. 303,306,322,324). In view of the verse mentioned above which admonishes against run away jury sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman in order to avoid causing her harm, the scandal exemptions from the above-mentioned rituals could be viewed as an extension of God's consideration of women. Perhaps abstention from prayer and fasting during one's menses is a divine acknowledgement of women's increased difficulty during that period. Pdf! God gave them permission not to pray or fast as a sign of mercy, just as He allows travelers to shorten their prayers to ease their burden. Many Muslims believe that menstruating women are not allowed to tylenol enter the mosque or touch the Qur'an.

This relates to the view of the menstruating woman as unclean. System! Since she cannot be purified with ablution until after her menses stop, she is not in the proper state to enter a mosque or recite Qur'an. Conflicting hadith exist regarding these habits. When looking at the whole body of hadith regarding the subject of menstruation, it appears that many of the injunctions were made because of the tylenol physical problems associated with active bleeding. Women at that time did not have access to modern amenities which protect a woman and her garments from the blood flow. One hadith points out that one of the Prophet's wives (Um Salamah, who was having irregular bleeding) needed a dish underneath her to Chinese Religion catch the menstrual blood while she was observing I'tikaf in the mosque during Ramadan (Bukhari No. 306, Sunan Abu Dawud, No.

2470, Muslim, No. 2470). Therefore, practically speaking , women might have been restricted in their activities if they did not have the means to tylenol deal with a heavy period, for example. Today, women have so many options so that there are rarely fears of is an, such difficulties. In addition, the Prophet once asked Aisha to fetch his mat which was in the mosque.

She said, But I am menstruating to which he replied Your menstruation is not in your hand. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 261) However, another hadith exists which states that menstruating women should not enter the mosque: The Prophet is tylenol scandal, reported to have said, I do not make the mosque lawful for a menstruating woman and for a person who is junub. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 232) The act of analysis samples, not touching the Qur'an while menstruating is based on the hadith that the Prophet wrote a letter in which he said that no one should touch the Qur'an but one who is pure. (Mishkat-ul-Masabih, No. 465;). Also, in Surah 56, verses 77-79 we find: That this indeed is a Qur'an most honorable, in a Book well-guarded, which none shall touch but those who are clean (tahir). In Mishkat-ul Masabih a hadith from Tirmidhi states that the Prophet said that the menstruating woman and one who is junub should not recite anything from the Qur'an (No.

461). In general, since, in either of these states, women or men are not yet physically purified (tahir) they cannot touch or formally recite the Qur'an until that state comes to an end. By performing ghusl (complete ablution) after the menses are over, one achieves the prerequisite physical state which allows for tylenol scandal, the resumption of prayers, fasting, reciting Qur'an and sexual relations. This does not imply impurity of spirit nor does it necessarily have to mean that a menstruating woman is unclean or dirty. The Prophet was known to perform ghusl after intercourse before reciting Qur'an, and what is an embedded system he also would recite Qur'an while resting his head in Aisha's lap and she happened to be menstruating. (Mishkat, No.

460, Muslim, Nos. 260, 591) It is possible to understand why Muslims might view menses as a negative aspect of the female identity. A well known and oft-quoted hadith which leads to the conclusion that menstruating women neither prayed nor fasted is found in Bukhari with several versions: The Prophet is reported to have said, Isn't it true that a woman does not pray and does not fast on menstruating? And that is the defect in her religion (Vol.

3, No. 172, see also Vol. Scandal! 1, No. 301). The conclusion usually derived from this hadith is that women can never achieve the same level of a blessing, faith or spirituality as men because they cannot fulfill their religious duties all the time. The weakness in tylenol scandal this argument and therefore in the hadith is that it contradicts the undisputed image expressed in the Qur'an of women and system men as equal in terms of their duties and scandal expectations as Muslims, servants of God. To say that one's faith is determined only by the extent to which she can carry out the rituals negates all of the other aspects of faithfulness and observance that cannot be quantified. Wright A Blessing! God rewards or punishes according to deeds and intentions; how, then, can something that is biologically determined, not chosen or willed by the individual, serve as a measure of faith?

Would God punish women for something that He created? Because this hadith is found in Bukhari, it is scandal, rarely questioned or reinterpreted and unfortunately reinforces a negative view of critical analysis samples, women in Islam. The large volume of hadith regarding menstruation reflects the need for practical guidance on the part of the Muslim community at the time of the Prophet. After reviewing all of the texts, one can't help but feel the scandal burden of menstruation for the Muslim woman. Wright A Blessing! Regardless of the deficiency hadith and in view of modern advances, Muslim women today can view menstruation as a simple fact of life that has no negative bearing on scandal, her value as a human being. Modern medicine has enabled us to manipulate the menstrual cycle in Chinese Religion Essay a myriad of ways so that women can continue to carry out their activities without being disabled once a month. Indeed, many women take advantage of medical technology to avoid menstruating during Hajj which, for tylenol scandal, many, is truly a once in what embedded a lifetime event not to be missed because of bad timing. Virginity and the Hymen: The Double Standard. Throughout childhood and adolescence, girls are sometimes prohibited by their parents from engaging in any activities that might interfere with the integrity of the hymen which is a small circular membrane at the opening of the tylenol scandal vagina which allows the passage of menstrual flow.

The opening is very narrow and is torn when penetration occurs (as in sexual intercourse). This is occasionally accompanied by bleeding. Such blood loss has been required in some cultures to prove that the woman is a virgin at marriage so a blood stained cloth would be given to the groom's family on the wedding night to verify the bride's pure state. If a woman did not bleed, the repercussions could be severe. So it became vitally important that the hymen remain intact as a sign of virginity with the Chinese family's honor at stake. While many of the cultural traditions involving proof of a woman's virginity are less prevalent than in the past, one can still find a persistent concern about the hymen as a marker for tylenol scandal, virginity today throughout many parts of the a rose pdf Muslim world. (It should be noted that the concern about the hymen is not limited only to Muslims.) As a result, any activity that might cause tearing of the hymen would be forbidden, such as bicycle riding, horseback riding, gymnastics, etc. Unfortunately, the prohibitions against these activities are rarely accompanied by an explanation (most likely due to scandal shyness on the part of the parents); thus, the critical analysis young girl learns that because she is a girl she cannot participate in tylenol scandal activities enjoyed by Essay, other children. Again, such an attitude promotes a negative self-image. These attitudes are culturally entrenched and not based on Islam. While virginity of both men and women is tylenol, emphasized in Islam, there is considered, no text in Qur'an or Hadith which specifically addresses the intactness of any part of a woman's anatomy as a marker for virginity.

As will be discussed in detail later, the tylenol Islamic position on critical analysis samples, sexual behavior is scandal, explicit. Both men and women are required to be chaste and to seek fulfilling relationships in marriage. Consequently, pre- and extra-marital relations are prohibited (Qur'an, 17:32, 24:26, 25:68; Bukhari, Vol. 8, Nos. 798-802). Wright A Blessing! Of course, then, there is no debate that Muslims, male and tylenol female, must be virgins before they enter into their first marriage.

Each individual is who is, responsible and accountable to God for maintaining a state of purity prior to matrimony. Why should a woman have to prove that she is a virgin with physical evidence, when the man is taken on his word? Naturally, a woman who marries for the second or third time cannot give the same proof, meaning the status of the hymen is truly irrelevant for determining sexual purity. The hymen exists as a remnant of embryological development which serves no purpose physiologically speaking (K. L. Moore, The Developing Human). If it tears because a girl goes bike riding or uses a tampon or even has a pelvic exam by tylenol, a physician as part of an evaluation of a medical condition, must it then follow that she is no longer a virgin? The restriction against james wright vaginal penetration applies to premarital sexual behavior with a member of the opposite sex. The prohibition against premarital sex exists because of tylenol, multiple negative social, psychological and physical consequences that do not apply if the Essay hymen is torn by an act that does not involve sexual intercourse.

An unfortunate consequence of focusing on tylenol, the shamefulness of sexuality is the inability of many women to james enjoy a fulfilling sexual life once married. Tylenol! If a woman is taught from childhood that her genitals are unclean, untouchable, and basically an area off limits, and if inadequate discussion takes place to prepare her for her first sexual experience, then naturally she would be horrified to imagine the penetration of that area by another person such as her husband. And if the first encounter is wright a blessing, painful, the tylenol scandal stage is set for inhibition and fear so that a fulfilling sexual relationship is practically impossible. Problems that ensue include the Chinese Essay inability to consummate a marriage, vaginismus (spasm of the vaginal muscles which causes pain and prevents penile penetration), dyspareunia (painful intercourse), and the emotional and psychological consequences for the individuals involved in the relationship. Also, the strong sense of fear and tylenol scandal shame often prevents adequate medical evaluation during pelvic examinations because some women are unable to who is of the declaration sufficiently relax even if they are married and have already borne children. While our religion stresses the importance of mutual sexual satisfaction between marriage partners, negative cultural factors can prevent such an scandal, outcome. By educating children and young adults properly about sexuality, and by eliminating the features or habits which contribute to a negative self-image, and by critical, focusing on the positive language found regarding these issues in Islamic literature women and scandal men will be able to enjoy a fulfilling sexual relationship in marriage that is each person's right. Sexuality in Qur'an and Hadith. The references to sexuality found in Qur'an and hadith will now be discussed. In the following verse, men and samples women are referred to as the garments of tylenol scandal, one another, implying a sense of balance and mutual nurturance from analysis samples, one to the other.

It is lawful for you to go in unto your wives during the night preceding the (day's) fast: they are as a garment for you, and you are as a garment for tylenol scandal, them. God is aware that you would have deprived yourselves of this right, and so He has turned unto you in Religion His mercy and removed this hardship from you. Now, then, you may lie with them skin to skin, and avail yourselves to tylenol scandal that which God has ordained for you.(2:187) Also, by reviewing this and the verses below one appreciates the fact that sexual relations are sanctioned by God and run away jury are viewed as part of the spiritual relationship that exists between a husband and wife. As mentioned earlier, the tylenol scandal Qur'an specifically prohibits intercourse during a woman's period (2:222) to avoid causing her discomfort.

In verse 223 of the same Surah, the Qur'an says: Your wives are your tilth; go, then, unto your tilth as you may desire, but first provide something for your souls, and remain conscious of God, and know that you are destined to meet Him. And give glad tidings unto those who believe. Based on these verses and james a blessing some hadith, Muslim couples are encouraged to enjoy sexual relations in any manner the two prefer. The only prohibitions involve avoiding intercourse while a woman is menstruating, and avoiding anal penetration (Muslim, No.3365); this explains the text in the verse mentioned above since it was revealed when one of the scandal Sahaba was concerned about having sexual intercourse from behind. He was worried that he committed a sin. The Author Of The Declaration Of Independence! So the Prophet said that any position was lawful as long as anal penetration did not occur. Therefore, if the couple is mutually agreeable, no other restrictions apply. Other verses that address sexuality focus on the unlawfulness of extra-marital sexual relationships which will be discussed later. Sexual Rights of the Wife. Several hadith also address the issue of sexual satisfaction with reference to the wife's rights in this matter.

The Prophet advised Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As (who spent all day fasting and all night in prayer) to fast sometimes and not at tylenol scandal, other times; to is an embedded system pray at night and to tylenol sleep at night. Your body has a right over you, your eyes have a right over you and your wife has a right over you. (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 127) The wife's rights include a right to companionship from her husband and fulfillment of her sexual needs. A woman's satisfaction is particularly referred to in the james a blessing interpretation of the hadiths which discuss penile withdrawal as a method of contraception. One stipulation is that the woman must consent because such a practice could interfere with her sexual fulfillment to which she is tylenol scandal, entitled. James! Also, if she desires to bear children, coitus interruptus practiced by her husband would violate that right as well. This viewpoint is based on a hadith transmitted by Umar ibn-al-Khattab who said that the Prophet forbade the practice of coitus interruptus with a woman except with her permission This reference is found in Sex and Society in scandal Islam, by B. Critical Analysis Essay Samples! F. Musallam who also points out that this hadith was considered weak by some Medieval jurists (see also al-Muwatta, 29.34, No. 100).

Nevertheless, the position regarding the woman's right to orgasm was developed over scandal time by several Muslim jurists during the same period (Busallam, Chapter 2 and footnotes). Also, one undisputed justification for divorce on behalf of the wife is her sexual dissatisfaction. The most explicit discussions of sexual relations with respect to fulfilling the embedded system wife's needs are found in the Book on the Etiquette of Marriage, part of Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali's larger work, Revival of the tylenol Religious Sciences (Ihya Ulum al-Din), written in the eleventh century. In spite of some of his comments that are generally disparaging of women, he argues forcefully regarding the wife's right to sexual fulfillment. He quotes the Prophet as saying, Let none of you come upon his wife like an Chinese, animal, let there be an tylenol, emissary between them. When asked what is the who is of the declaration of independence emissary, he replied, The kiss and sweet words.

In another hadith, the Prophet points out tylenol that one of the deficiencies of run away jury, a man is that he should approach his wife and scandal have sexual contact with her before exchanging words and james a blessing caresses, consequently, he sleeps with her and fulfills his needs (i.e. orgasm) before she fulfills hers. Al-Ghazali further elaborates on the importance of a woman achieving orgasm by stating, Congruence in attaining a climax is tylenol scandal, more gratifying to run away jury her because the tylenol man is not preoccupied with his own pleasure, but rather with hers. Rights of the Chinese Essay Husband. The sexual rights of the husband are also elucidated in the traditions, but the language is such that it appears that his rights supersede those of his wife. Scandal! For example, in Bukhari, AbuHuraira reports that the Prophet said, If a man invites his wife to run away jury sleep with him and she refuses, then the angels send their curses on her till morning. (Vol. Tylenol Scandal! 7, No. Wright! 121-2; in Muslim, the text reads that God is displeased with her until the husband is tylenol, pleased with her Nos. 3366-68). In Riyadh-us-Salaheen, a hadith attributed to Tirmidhi and critical samples Nisai states that the Prophet said, When a man sends for his wife for scandal, the satisfaction of his need, she should go to him even if she may be occupied in wright baking bread. Tylenol Scandal! (No. 284) Similarly, Muslim women are advised not to fast without the permission of their husbands since fasting would interfere with sexual relations (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 2452-3; Muslim, Nos.

3366-68; Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 120). Clearly, Islamic literature stresses the importance of the sexual relationship between a husband and wife, but the above traditions seem to show that the husband's right to have sex is more important than the wife's right of refusal if she is not willing for whatever reason. Run Away Jury! The only time she can refuse intercourse, then, is during menstruation. The verse (2:222) commands Muslims to avoid sex during that time because it may be associated with discomfort on the part of the woman. A logical conclusion would be that sexual relations are better avoided for any circumstances (physical or otherwise) that would lead to discomfort. A common view of tylenol scandal, sex is that the who is considered of the declaration of independence stronger sexual urges of men (compared to women) can be controlled only to a certain extent; according to tylenol scandal some, this justifies the practice of polygamy even though the Qur'an makes no mention of sexual desires in the verses on polygamy (4:3-5). James Wright A Blessing! Also, the same argument is made to tylenol scandal justify forcing women to have sex against their will, as they are forbidden to who is considered declaration of independence refuse to have sexual relations. Since the husband's urges are so strong, and to prevent him from acting out on them illicitly, a wife's duty therefore is to submit in order to tylenol scandal preserve the essay samples marriage. Yet, human beings are endowed with self control not seen in any other species, such that we do not act on every instinctual impulse because of some uncontrollable force.

This is what distinguishes humankind since God gave us the ability to think and make choices. Therefore, there is tylenol scandal, no justification for james a blessing, forcing women to have sex against their will, even in marriage. One does not find any traditions that show the Prophet as an scandal, aggressive or coercive husband. Considered The Author! Similarly, behavior involving coercion and tylenol force goes against the philosophy of mutual satisfaction outlined in the Qur'an (see verses above) and against the hadith which states that the best among Muslims are those who are best towards their wives (Riyadh-us-Salaheen, No. 278). Also, the Prophet expressed his strong disapproval of those who physically beat their wives and then had sexual relations that night (Bukhari, Vol. 7, No. A Blessing! 132, Vol.9, 81-82; see also Riyadh us-Salaheen, No. 274). The example of the tylenol scandal Prophet clearly reveals that he and his wives enjoyed physical affection not necessarily related to intercourse thus reflecting an attitude of considered the author of independence, loving behavior in a variety of circumstances.

Based on the hadith transmitted by his wives (particularly regarding physical intimacy while they were menstruating), this behavior included kissing, caressing, embracing and bathing together. Tylenol Scandal! (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 267-273, 2376-2379; Muslim, Nos. 577-586, 629) Husbands and what is an system wives should strive to tylenol satisfy one another's sexual needs as much as possible. This can be achieved by honest, open discussions; care, kindness and a desire to please one another. Viewing sexual intimacy as an important part of the relationship will enable a couple to achieve mutual satisfaction that enhances the overall success of the marriage. Clearly, coercion and a rose for emily lack of tylenol, consideration for one's spouses feelings will result in tension that can have negative effects on the rest of the relationship. Unfortunately, if a Muslim woman is raised to abhor and fear any matters related to sex, then in most instances of sexual contact she would be a passive and perhaps unwilling participant, and for emily pdf definitely not one who derives pleasure from sex. Also, the general view of sex as a shameful and dirty act contributes to inhibitions of both men and tylenol scandal women, preventing them from enjoying an act sanctioned by God.

The following hadith highlights the importance of privacy in analysis samples sexual relationships: the Prophet is reported to have said, The most wicked among the people in the sight of God on tylenol scandal, the Day of Judgement is the man who goes to his wife and she comes to him, and run away jury then he divulges her secret. (Muslim, Nos. 3369-70). Consequently, Muslims would be very unlikely to tylenol scandal discuss matters of their sexual lives outside of the home. By keeping sexual issues private, the couple ensures mutual respect and what is an system avoids the chances of tylenol scandal, violating trust by divulging personal tastes and practices to others. However, this attitude would also prevent couples from seeking necessary help, thus diminishing opportunities for alleviating any problems related to sexual dysfunction.

Consultations with professionals, such as physicians, would not violate the code of privacy, and could help the of the individual or couple in matters that significantly impact the scandal marriage. Sex Outside of Marraige. As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an specifically prohibits sexual acts outside of marriage (zina). Interestingly, the text does not go into detail to explain why such behavior is sinful. Run Away Jury! The verses which mention illicit sexual relations do so while admonishing Muslims to avoid other grave sinful deeds such as murder and stealing (Qur'an 25:68, 60:12). Scandal! Muslims acknowledge and believe in Divine wisdom which is understood, to some extent, by the application of common sense and an exploration of the ramifications of fornication and adultery which include but are not limited to unwanted pregnancy, transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, negative emotional and psychological consequences, and physical intimacy without emotional commitment. In addition to Qur'an, numerous hadith exist which point out that zina is considered a major sin (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 148; Vol. 8, Nos. 798-802).

The issue of is an embedded system, extramarital sexual relations takes on even more profound importance because laws exist in Islamic jurisprudence which outline the punishment (hadd) for this behavior which is considered a sex crime. Scandal! Clearly, the threat of punishment authorized by God serves as a very effective deterrent for illicit sexual behavior which results in negative social consequences beyond those experienced by the couple in what embedded question. Even though the text is clear regarding the unlawfulness of zina, the following references point out tylenol scandal how difficult it is to accuse someone of such a crime. James A Blessing! According to the Qur'an, those who accuse another of zina are required to produce four eyewitnesses of the act of genital penetration (meaning the act of intercourse would practically have to scandal be committed in public view). According to hadith, other incriminating evidence include confession and pregnancy (Bukhari, Vol.

8, No. 816; Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4518; Muslim, No. Run Away Jury! 4194). While the seriousness of the crime is not in question, the Prophet himself demonstrated reluctance in reacting to accusations and even confessions without giving individuals the opportunity to avoid punishment and repent to God, with the hopes of tylenol scandal, avoiding punishment in the hereafter as well. Chinese Religion! In addition, the Prophet himself advised the believers not to make public their misbehaviors. Tylenol! When a man came to confess that he had been with a woman and did everything except sexual intercourse, Omar ibn al Khattab said, Allah has concealed your fault; it would have been better if you had concealed it yourself.

The Prophet then quoted the run away jury verse, And be constant in praying at the beginning and the end of the day. for, verily, good deeds drive away evil deeds: this is a reminder to tylenol scandal all who bear (God) in mind. (11:114). In addition, the Qur'an elsewhere clearly stresses the critical samples importance of sincerely repenting as God is ever merciful (4:15-16). Several hadith refer to an instance in which the Prophet tried to give a man the opportunity to tylenol avoid punishment. Maiz ibn Malik came to the Prophet insisting on confessing his sin of fornication with a slavegirl. The Prophet responded by turning away from him, then insisted that the couple must have just looked at each other, or only embraced or kissed; but Maiz persisted with his confession of actual intercourse. The Prophet gave him ample opportunity to conceal his sin, and repent privately with the hopes of receiving God's forgiveness. Yet, Maiz also knew that punishment in this life would replace the possible punishment awaiting in the Hereafter. So upon acknowledgement and confession of fornication, the Prophet ordered the punishment. (Bukhari, Vol. 8, Nos.

806, 810, 812-14; Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4413). A similar story involves a pregnant woman who also wanted to pdf confess and tylenol receive punishment. Again, the Prophet first told her to Go back to her tribe, but she returned again wishing to confess. The Prophet told her to go back until the what system child was born. She returned again with the infant and he told her to suckle him until you wean him. She returned when the boy was weaned, again confessing fully, resulting in the prescribed punishment. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4428). For a couple (or individual) convicted of zina, the punishment would be harsh. Tylenol! According to the Qur'an , 100 lashes for a rose, each (24:2).

In several hadith collections, the punishment of stoning to death is described for those guilty of adultery. This divergence is significant because stoning resulted in tylenol scandal death while flogging did not.. Chinese! The Qur'an does not distinguish between fornication and adultery but uses one word to tylenol describe both, zina. Belief in the Qur'an as the final word would argue that the wright use of stoning to death instead of flogging is inappropriate; indeed a hadith in Bukhari states that a transmitter of one of the stoning hadiths did not know if stoning was practiced before or after the revelation of the above Qur'anic verse (Vol. .8, No. 804).

Interestingly, both Bukhari and scandal Muslim report a hadith transmitted by Ibn Abbas who narrated that Umar ibn al-Khattab feared that in future times Muslims would not use stoning as punishment because it is not mentioned in the Qur'an. But he spoke to confirm the obligation of its use as punishment for proven cases of adultery. For Emily! (Bukhari, Vol.8, No. 816; Muslim, No. Tylenol! 4194). All of these issues dealing with punishment must be reviewed by modern Islamic jurists to develop laws (in those countries where Islamic law is applied) that incorporate the Islamic principles of justice, due process and compassion. In countries where Muslims live as minorities (where Islamic law does not prevail), these punishments cannot be carried out by zealous individuals or communities who may feel that they are required to carry out God's law in spite of the for emily prevailing legal system. Yet, the system of Islamic jurisprudence must guarantee basic rights of individuals accused of serious crimes: these rights cannot possibly be upheld without a court system with checks and balances to ensure enforcement of the law while respecting the rights of scandal, individuals. The main point is that, while the punishment for zina is severe and extreme, the who is the author requirements for proof of guilt are so strict that the tylenol chances of one actually being convicted and a rose pdf then punished are very small. Thus the tylenol scandal individual Muslim who commits such acts in is an system private, without fear of retribution should pay heed to the following verses:

Verily, God's acceptance of repentance relates only to those who do evil out of ignorance and scandal then repent before their time runs out. And it is they unto whom God will turn again in His mercy - for God is all-knowing, wise; whereas repentance shall not be accepted from those who do evil deeds until their dying hour and then say, Behold I now repent; nor from those who die as deniers of truth; it is these for whom We have readied grievous suffering.(4:17-18) While it may seem obvious to some, the definition of zina is not without controversy. Again, using the analysis essay samples hadith mentioned above(Bukhari, Vol. 8, No. Tylenol! 806, etc.), the Prophet did not consider Maiz ibn Malek of a crime until he confessed of actual sexual intercourse involving penile penetration. This does not mean that other behaviors such as kissing, heavy petting, oral sex are not prohibited but that the requirements needed to justify a harsh punishment are strict. Chinese Essay! Obviously, many couples can engage in all of tylenol, these activities without being exposed to a rose pdf witnesses and thus avoid punishment in this life. Tylenol! But they still must answer to a rose for emily pdf God who, in no uncertain terms, admonishes against any sexual contact outside of scandal, marriage. False Accusations and Honor. If a husband accuses his wife of adultery by Essay, swearing four times and she denies any wrongdoing under oath, then she is vindicated (Qur'an 24:6-9).

According to tylenol scandal Muhammad Asad (footnote 10, Surah 24) the system same applies if a woman accuses her husband. If the tylenol accusation is found to be false the punishment of the accuser is what is an embedded, severe: And as for those who accuse chaste women (of adultery), and then are unable to produce four witnesses (in support of thier accusation), flog them with eighty s stripes; an ever after refuse to accept from them any testimony- since it is they, they that are truly depraved!- excepting only those who afterwards repent and made amends for, behold, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace. And as for those who accuse their own wives, but have no witnesses except themselves, let each of scandal, these (accusers) call God four times to witness that he is who is considered the author of independence, indeed telling the truth, and scandal the fifth time, that God's curse be upon him if he is telling a lie. (As for run away jury, the wife, all) chastisement shall be averted from her by tylenol, her calling God four times to witness that he is indeed telling a lie, and the fifth (time), that God's curse be upon her if she is telling the truth . (24:4-8) These verses were revealed in response to accusations against Aisha, the essay samples Prophet's wife, who was left behind the caravan when she went looking for a lost necklace. A young soldier happened upon her and escorted her to the camp where they arrived the following day. Rumors about sexual misconduct spread, causing great upheaval and emotional distress in the household of the Prophet. The above verses point out that a woman's word to swear to her innocence is sufficient to both preserve her reputation and result in punishment of her accusers.

The following verse admonishes the tylenol scandal community for not questioning the rumors and giving Aisha, the accused, the benefit of the doubt: Why do not the believing men and women, whenever such (a rumor) is critical analysis, heard, think the best of one another and say, 'This is an obvious falsehood'. and were it not for God's favor upon you, and His grace in this world and in the life to come, awesome suffering would indeed have afflicted you in result of all (the calumny) in which you indulge when you take it up with your tongues, uttering with your mouths something of which you have no knowledge, and deeming it a light matter whereas in the sight of God it is an awful thing. Verily, as for those who like (to hear)foul slander spread against (any of) those who have attained to faith - grievous suffering awaits them in this world and in scandal the life to a rose pdf come: for God knows (the full truth), whereas you know (it) not (24:12-19). Slander is considered a grave offense since it taints the reputation of individuals and tylenol scandal disrupts relationships The verses, while referring to Aisha's particular case, universally applied, serve to protect women from any unfair accusations about their chastity. Unfortunately in many communities throughout the is an Muslim world the, honor of the tylenol entire family is caught up in and determined by the reputation of the female members, who can be accused of sexual misconduct, even if it is only suspected. As is critical analysis, clear from the above verses, singling out women for punishment based only on tylenol scandal, accusations or assumptions has no basis in Islam. Even if a woman is accused of fornication, and for emily she denies the accusation, no punishment is carried out (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4451). Thus, even the tylenol suggestion of a blessing, misbehavior (usually acts other than intercourse) cannot possibly serve as evidence of wrongdoing to tylenol scandal Islamically justify retribution (such as honor killings) on the part of the woman's family.

The sin of false accusations and the focus on absolving the one who is falsely accused has become problematic regarding the Essay punishment of rape. If a woman accuses a man of raping her and he denies that he did, she is basically confessing to illicit sexual contact and tylenol scandal therefore punishable. This is even more problematic if the woman has no other evidence besides her testimony. This is the current state of pdf, affairs in Pakistan where rape victims are punished for tylenol scandal, the crime committed against them. According to Imam Malik, if a man is convicted of rape, he receives the punishment as mentioned for zina and also must pay a mahr (bride-price) to critical analysis essay the victim (al-Muwatta, 36.16). Imam Malik also states that if an tylenol, unmarried woman is pregnant and run away jury claims to have been raped, unless there is physical evidence, she is presumed to be guilty of fornication and therefore punished (al-Muwatta, 41.4). Again, based on earlier interpretations, the woman is tylenol, made to suffer for a crime committed by another because the focus is erroneously on the sexual act and not on rape as an act of violence.

Rather than viewing the act of sex as the issue requiring jurisdiction, the judges should view rape as an act of violence perpetrated against an unwilling victim who cannot be considered guilty of a sex crime. Along the lines of sexual behavior arises the issue of homosexuality about james wright which the Islamic position is clear. Based on numerous verses in the Qur'an which refer to tylenol scandal Prophet Lot and a rose pdf the sins committed by scandal, his community, one concludes that homosexual relations are prohibited. (7:80-84, 11:77-83, 15:57-77, 26:160-175, 27:54-58, 29:28-35)) Again, the Qur'an does not go into great detail to explain why; and again Muslims first accept God's wisdom and then apply reason to come to an understanding. The most basic argument is that homosexual behavior is ultimately detrimental to the survival of run away jury, thehuman race. Also, it is contrary to the Islamic position of the importance of the scandal bond between husbands and a rose for emily pdf wives which is a goal for which Muslims are encouraged to strive. (based on a well known hadith that marriage is half of one's religion.) Like zina, punishment has been described for those who are found to engage in homosexual acts. The Qur'an is somewhat vague on the issue of punishment. The only verse which alludes to this behavior again calls for four witnesses to tylenol scandal confirm the immoral conduct (fahishah) between two women or two men; if they are found guilty, they are to be punished, but if they repent they are to be left alone (4:15-16). The type of punishment is not defined. The hadith are more specific. In Sunan Abu Dawud, Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet said if anyone is found doing as Lot's people did, to kill the one who does it (sodomy) and to run away jury whom it is done (No.

4447). In the tylenol footnote to this hadith it is pointed out that the jurists differed in opinion regarding how the punishment would be carried out. Basically, homosexual acts are considered illicit and if verified by witnesses or confession, then the individuals would be punished like those who commit zina. What occurs in private is between individuals who are ultimately accountable to God. Naturally, sexual feelings can arise for people who are not yet married. An oft quoted hadith advises fasting to help quell the sexual appetite (Bukhari, Vol. 3, No. 129). For some this may not really help.

But feelings of frustration do not justify acting them out with someone outside of the marital relationship. Therefore, one could argue for the benefit of masturbation which would relieve the frustration and prevent illicit sexual contact (see Musallam, p.33 and Qaradawi, pp. 170-1). According to Al-Qaradawi in The Lawful and Religion Essay Prohibited in Islam, the tylenol majority of james wright, scholars consider masturbation haram (forbidden). But, he does point out that the Hanbali jurists permit masturbation for those afraid of scandal, committing fornication or adultery or for those without the means to marry. While the value of family and raising children is undisputed among most Muslims, it is well known that contraception is permitted and can be practiced for a variety of reasons at the discretion of the couple.

This is consistent with the view that the purpose of sexual behavior between husband and wife is what embedded, not limited to procreation. The Prophet did not prohibit contraception (the withdrawal method or coitus interruptus practiced at the time) and did not mention any stipulations in any of the hadith except one mentioned earlier which refers to the importance of obtaining the wife's consent before practicing withdrawal. Similarly, use of female controlled methods, such as the birth control pill, would require the husband's consent in consideration of his desires for tylenol, bearing children. (Bukhari, Vol. 7, Nos. 135-6; Muslim, Nos. 3371-88; al-Muwatta, 29.34) While withdrawal was the method practiced during the Prophet's time, by analogy, contraception by the means available today is is an, also permitted. In almost every hadith that discusses withdrawal ('azl) the Prophet is reported to have said that even if it is practiced, if God intends a child to be born she/he will be born. Scandal! Although the methods used today for what is an system, contraception are very effective, not a single one provides 100% assurance that pregnancy will not occur; so, as always, God's will prevails when He so ordains a matter such as conception. Some Muslims argue that sterilization of men or women is not allowed as a method of contraception because it alters the human body.

They use the hadith which admonish against altering one's features for cosmetic reasons (Y. Al-Qaradawi, The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, pp. Tylenol! 88-9). Surgery done for beautification is what is an embedded, clearly not the same as that done for contraception so the connection is flawed at best, and does not offer a convincing argument against sterilization. Like the other monotheistic religions, Islam prohibits the taking of the life of another human being without just cause (i.e. in self-defense, see 5:32) Therefore the question arises, at what point in gestation does the fetus become a human, such that to remove it would be described as murder.

The debate in modern Western society centers around the issue of choice. Since the pregnancy is scandal, part of the run away jury woman's body, she has the right to make decisions regarding the outcome. On the other hand, the fetus is scandal, a potential human being who has rights of her/his own, one of them being the right to james wright a blessing life. Scandal! By the early third trimester, when an infant born can survive outside of the womb, to terminate a pregnancy is considered illegal. Prior to that stage of gestation, the fetus definitely cannot survive, therefore, it is what embedded, not yet considered a human being . Others believe that the fetus's status as a human begins at conception. In spite of the positions of the major jurists, many Muslims today ( and some earlier jurists) believe that abortion is unlawful under any circumstances unless the woman's life is endangered by the pregnancy.

Modern technology (not available to early jurists) enables the physician to see the beating heart of a 21 day old embryo; whether the embryo qualifies as a person is really only known by God. Many feel that life and the human spirit are present at conception meaning pregnancy termination at any stage would involve the unlawful taking of a life ( see Islamic Perspectives in Obstetrics and tylenol scandal Gynecology, by Dr. Analysis Essay! Hassan Hathout, pp. Tylenol Scandal! 61-78 ). Analysis Essay! While some modern day scholars also feel that the fetus' right to life prevails even in scandal cases of incest or rape, others consider those situations exceptional and think abortion is allowed to preserve the emotional and james psychological well-being of the tylenol scandal woman. Female Genital Mutilation. Since female genital mutilation (FGM , known also as female circumcision). is a custom among some Muslims, the Islamic position must be made clear. This practice which involves varying degrees of mutilation (from removing the clitoris to removing all labia and sewing the vagina to such an extent that only a small opening exists to allow passage of menstrual blood) presumably is performed to limit the sexual activity of women . By eliminating their ability to experience orgasm , they will be less likely to misbehave before or during marriage. This practice pre-dated Islam and samples is currently a custom in scandal a few Muslim countries, particularly in Africa. Only one hadith exists which specifically addresses FGM.

In Sunan Abu Dawud, Um Atiya said that the Prophet told a woman who performed circumcision in Medina to not cut severely as that is better for a woman and more desirable for a husband (No. 5251). According to Abu Dawud, this is a weak hadith (mursal). In the a rose for emily footnote of tylenol scandal, this hadith, the translator, Ahmad Hasan, points out that all of the major scholars maintained that FGM was recommended (but to what degree was not specified). As mentioned throughout this chapter, focusing on sexuality in a positive manner can be a difficult task for Muslims. Cultural views of women in general, fear of Essay, committing and being punished for sin, and the use of sex as a means of tylenol scandal, domination have all contributed to the silence and repression that prevent people from being comfortable with their sexuality as individuals and in run away jury relationships. Through education and understanding, a more positive approach can lead to a better outcome. Teaching children to accept their bodies and sexuality contributes to developing strong self-esteem which is a major determinant of tylenol, future sexual activity. Young people, particularly women, with low self-esteem are more likely to engage in sexual behavior at a young age.

Fostering self-esteem occurs mainly within the family unit and also in schools and wright a blessing society at large. Informing children and young adults about the changes that occur as they grow and tylenol then teaching them about developing healthy relationships with others is possible through formalized educational settings (especially if the parents feel too uncomfortable discussing sexuality.) Also, a willingness on what is an, the part of adults to answer questions openly and to discuss difficult issues such as homosexualty or sexually transmitted diseases will enable young adults to approach their parents and educators and therefore be less likely to obtain inaccurate information from tylenol scandal, their peers or the media. The Prophet was well-known for a rose pdf, his frankness in tylenol discussing all issues, including those related to sex and sexual development. In one hadith, he is Religion Essay, asked by a woman if, when a woman has an orgasm while asleep (during dreaming), does she have to perform complete ablution (ghusl) prior to tylenol doing her prayers. The Prophet answered that she does because such an experience is akin to the nocturnal emissions of men which require ghusl. (Muslim, Nos. 607-613; Bukhari, Vol.1, No. 280) This is james wright, a well known hadith which shows that the early Muslims felt no inhibition about addressing the Prophet about sensitive issues such as female orgasm (see also Muslim, No. 649). Muslims today must follow the example of the Prophet to use wisdom and beautiful preaching to talk to tylenol scandal one another and their children about all matters. Teaching about sexuality from an Islamic perspective is necessary for Muslim young people who are growing up in critical essay a society full of tremendous pressures.

Regarding menstruation, it is important to teach our daughters that this is a special part of development that signals the tylenol onset of adulthood and james a blessing possible future child-bearing. A supportive attitude by parents is essential as girls struggle to deal with a change that may leave them feeling uncomfortable and scandal sometimes embarrassed. Pre-adolescents are usually preoccupied with the opinions of their peers. So, a Muslim girl who isn't praying or fasting because it is that time of the month naturally feels exposed and maybe even isolated. Again, this points to the importance of teaching respect to all children to minimize the potential for hurt feelings and shame. Also, discussing this in appropriate sex education courses for young Muslims enables them to be educated and informed so that mature attitudes will be engendered among boys and girls. One could argue that the strong language found in the Qur'an and Hadith against unlawful sex contributes to a negative attitude regarding sex in general. Indeed, fear of retribution is often used to discourage young adults from engaging in premarital sexual behavior, thus contributing to inhibition, guilt and repression that interfere with healthy sexuality in marriage. Run Away Jury! Muslims must be willing to scandal discuss these issues openly with their children to point out the wisdom of postponing sexual behavior until marriage and to focus on all of the positive aspects that a healthy sexual relationship contributes to that union. Rules without explanation only stimulate a young person's curiosity and interest in risky behavior that is glorified by for emily, the media and often practiced by one's peers.

Also, when instilled with a strong sense of self esteem and identity, young people are better equipped to deal with the pressures they face particularly during adolescence when many of their friends are experimenting sexually.