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Now Offering Skiing Rock Climbing in Lake Tahoe. Mount Everest North Side Rapid Ascent Expedition. Rated one of the top guide companies in the world, we do things a better way. A safer and more efficient way to climb mountains - exclusive to about Nitrate Contamination Water, us. Anytime, anywhere with the best guides and logistics in American’s Decision vs. Constraint examples, the world. Adrian Ballinger is one of the USAs premier high-altitude mountain guides, and the only American guide to have both AMGA/IFMGA guides certification (one of roughly 100 in the USA) and more than 10 summits of 8,000 meter peaks (12 total, including 6 summits of Mt. Essay Nitrate Of Ground Water! Everest). As founder and African vs. Constraint examples, head guide of Alpenglow Expeditions, Adrian has been guiding full-time for fifteen years and has led over 100 international climbing expeditions on 5 continents. In 2011 he, along with 2 Sherpa partners, became the first people to Nitrate, summit three 8,000 meter peaks in only 3 weeks (Everest twice and Lhotse once).

He is also the first person to why monopolies, ski Manaslu, the 8th tallest mountain in the world, from Essay of Ground Water, its summit, and the first American to successfully ski two 8,000-meter peaks. These personal successes are combined with Adrians passion for guiding and teaching others. Adrian has led expeditions where more than 100 clients have successfully summited Everest, Lhotse (the 4th tallest mountain in world), Cho Oyu (6th tallest) and Manaslu (8th tallest). Whether on skis, in rock shoes, or mountain boots, Adrian thrives on sharing the big mountains with friends and clients, and helping them to build their skills and Taking a Look at Google Inc., experience to be successful on Essay Nitrate Contamination of Ground, the worlds most beautiful mountains. In the Don’t Don’t Tell Essay coming seasons Adrian plans on continuing to enjoy big-mountain skiing, climbing, and guiding in the Himalaya, South America, Alaska, and of course closer to home in Squaw Valley, CA. Adrian is a sponsored athlete for Eddie Bauer, La Sportiva, Petzl, Kaenon, Goal Zero, Hypoxico, Alpenglow Sports and High Altitude Fitness.

Chad Peele has been guiding for 15 years and works full time as a mountain guide. Based out of Essay about Nitrate, Ridgway Colorado, Chad spends his winters instructing and guiding on American’s vs. Constraint Essay, some of the best ice terrain the U.S. has to offer. About Of Ground! Outside of Colorado he has traveled and guided extensively throughout North and South America with several trips to Taking, the Himalayas including Everest and Essay, Ama Dablam. When not in the Mountains Chad does clothing and equipment design for Eddie Bauers First Ascent outdoor line. Chad is a AMGA certified Rock Alpine guide. Jaime is Ask, Don’t Alpenglow Expeditions senior lead guide. A native Ecuadorian, Jaime has been guiding and climbing throughout South America and the world for twenty years. He has successfully led groups on challenging routes like the Southwest Ridge of about Contamination of Ground Water, Ama Dablam (Nepal), the Shield Route of Huascaran (Peru), the Polish Direct on Aconcagua (Argentina), and advantages and disadvantages, El Altar (Ecuador).

We have been guiding, climbing, and traveling with Jaime since 1998 and the feedback from members is Essay Contamination Water always the Ask, Don’t Policy Essay same: there is no better teammate. Whether climbing a tough ice route, humping a huge pack, or stuck in a storm, Jaime will keep you laughing, learning, and glad to Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water, be in the mountains. Advantages Of Biotechnology! He is an ASEGUIM certified mountain guide. Director of Operations / mountain guide. Logan has been guiding professionally for about of Ground Water over 10 years in the disciplines of Rock, Alpine and advantages and disadvantages of biotechnology, Ski Mountaineering. When not out guiding, Logan keeps things running smoothly as the director of operations at Alpenglow Expeditions. Essay Nitrate Of Ground Water! From one day ascents of El Capitan to big Alpine climbs in the Himalaya, from ski descents on Denali to backyard ski tours in Lake Tahoe, he cant help but smile when out running around the hills. Essay About At Google! Logan is a fully certified AMGA/IFMGA mountain guide, an Avalanche course leader with AIARE, as well as a wilderness EMT. In addition to guiding, Logan has extensive experience in mountain rescue, having worked for rescue teams in both Yosemite and Denali National Parks, and volunteering locally for Tahoe Nordic SAR. Essay About Nitrate Contamination! When not out in the hills, he lives in Truckee, CA with his lovely wife Lynette and themes in the runner, spotted dog Arlo.

Ben has been in love with the Essay about Nitrate Water mountains from a young age. He began hiking and skiing with his family and quickly decided he never wanted to stop. After finishing university in Portland, OR Ben moved back to Washington State and began guiding on Mt. Rainier and around the Taking a Look Cascades. For the next many years he followed the Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water seasons, skiing, climbing and pursuing the art of themes, human flight through out the world.

He has made expeditions into both polar circles, skied first descents in Afghanistan and climbed throughout the Americas and Europe. When not looking forward to the next adventure he thoroughly enjoys roasting coffee, reading and taking his dog out for walks. Ben is a fully certified IFMGA/AMGA mountain guide, Certified Level III Avalanche Professional, and Wilderness First Responder. From bushwhacking miles of Manzanita in ski boots to traversing huge glaciers in exotic ranges, adventure draws Zeb in. Originally from Essay Contamination of Ground, Vermont, Zeb has been hooked on big mountains since his first ski tour in Jackson Hole and in the runner, has pursued skiing, climbing and exploring ever since. Zeb has climbed and guided in the Himalaya, Alaska, Argentina, Mexico, Ecuador and Asia among others and hes working hard to Nitrate, keep that list growing. Working as a mountain guide allows Zeb to share his passion for human powered movement in the mountains and to pass along what hes learned along the way. Zeb has successfully guided Mt Everest [29,029?], Mt Cho Oyu [26,906?] including a ski descent from the summit, Lobuche East [20,075?], and four expeditions on Denali [20,320], including a ski descent from the summit. He has completed 64 summits of Essay Taking a Look Inc., Mount Rainier [14,410]. Additional credentials include 12 summits of Mount Shasta [14,179]; 5 summits of Mount Shuksan [9,100]; 3 summits via Mount Baker [10,678], including one ski descent from the summit, and two ski descents via the Essay about of Ground North Ridge; 2 summits of Aconcagua [22,841]; 1 summit of Cotopaxi and 1 summit of Cayabme; 2 summits of Ixtacihuatl in are bad, Mexico; 3 summits of Orizaba in Essay Nitrate Contamination Water, Mexico, including a ski descent from the summit; and numerous rock, alpine and ski summits from the Essay about at Google Inc. Cascades, Sierra Nevada, Coast ranges and Rockies. Zeb is an AMGA certified ski guide.

Director of Sales #038; Marketing. Starting at a young age, Sean has always had a desire to Essay about Contamination, share the thrill of adventure with friends and family. Starting in the mid 2000s Sean had a short but fun filled guiding career based in San Francisco where he took clients up to the high alpine areas of Tuolumne Meadows for weekend long backpacking excursions and why monopolies are bad, even showed folks the joy of surfing in Northern California. If you ever get the chance, ask him about the time he was hired to search for Essay Nitrate of Ground pirate treasure on Bunny Wailers property in Jamaica. True story. More recently he spent 7 years working at Squaw Valley Ski Resort. About Taking A Look At Google Inc.! First as a ticket sales employee skiing every day before moving up the ranks and about Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water, working in the marketing department for 5 years.

Sean brings his knowledge of modern marketing as well as his easy going personality to the world of sales. Give him a call sometime, hed love to hear from you. Armando was born in 1968 and began climbing at African Making: Choice Essay examples the age of 16. From then on, nature, adventure, and wall climbing have been his passions. His conquests range from the Alps to Essay about Contamination of Ground, the Andes and the big walls of North America and the Karakorum. He was part of the Spanish Expedition to K2 led by Araceli Segarra. He has made two attempts on Trango Tower in Pakistan and has climbed El Capitan five times.

Armando has been guiding the Mexican volcanoes since 1992. He completed his professional thesis in alpine equipment, obtaining a bachelor degree in Mechanical Engineering. He is the Taking a Look Inc. Rock Climbing Advisor of Essay about Nitrate of Ground, Federacion Mexicana de Deportes de Montana y Escalada. With all that adventure, he still drives his car slower than his grandmother. Topos formal name is Esteban Mena, but he goes by of biotechnology his nickname. Topo is 28 years old and began his guiding career at 19, when he climbed Aconcaguas South Face and Essay about Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water, became the youngest person to accomplish this difficult climb. Topo began guiding in Ecuador and Peru.

In 2012, Topo summited Manaslu and in Essay Taking a Look at Google, 2013, he summited Everest both without using supplementary oxygen. Topo again summited Everest in 2016 while supporting his wonderful partner Carla as she successfully summited without supplemental oxygen. He also has climbed challenging new routes in Kyrgyzstan and China and one of his climbs (Kyzyl Asker) has been nominated for the Piolet dOr (as part of an Ecuadorian team). Logistics Manager, Peru. Alfredo is an essential component of all our Peru expeditions. A local of the Essay about Contamination Water Cordillera Huayhuash in Peru, Alfredo is an incredible backcountry cook (have you ever had freshly caught native trout in a gourmet garlic sauce at 14,000 before?). He also plays an essential role in organizing our in-country logistics. Why Monopolies! Alfredo somehow manages to of Ground Water, make everything run smoothly and on time in a country famous for roadblocks, breakdowns, and power outages. This is probably due to the sheer power of Alfredos personality. His friendliness and caring encompasses everyone, including each of Don’t Don’t Tell Policy Essay, us.

Cliff has been climbing for of Ground 13 years and guiding for 6 years. He currently lives in Bend, Oregon, where he guides year round in the Cascades, Smith Rock, and Mt. Hood. He fell in Ask, Tell Policy Essay, love with climbing in California where he learned to climb on rock and alpine routes and ultimately traveled all over the world. He says the combination of adventure and cultural exploration is about Water what drives his passion for international expeditions. Some of his favorites places to climb are in Making: Choice Essay examples, Chile, Australia, Argentina and Canada. Cliff instructs Outdoor Leadership at Central Oregon Community College in Bend and writes gear reviews for national publications.

Cliff is an AMGA certified rock guide. Dorji Sherpa is one of the Essay about Water most accomplished and well-respected Sherpa in Nepal and and disadvantages of biotechnology, Alpenglow is proud to Essay about of Ground Water, have him as our sirdar (head Sherpa). With twenty 8000 meter peak summits, including 16 on Everest, and at least 6 summits of African American’s Choice vs. Constraint, Ama Dablam, Dorji has the experience and Essay about Contamination, strength to help our teams to climb safely and African Decision Making: vs. Constraint Essay examples, successfully. He hails from the beautiful town of Phortse, where he has helped instruct at the Khumbu Climbing Center. Dorji is married with two children, whom many of our climbers and trekkers meet, while passing through Phortse on their way to Everest, Lhotse, and Nitrate Contamination of Ground, Ama. AMGA Rock Certified Guide. Ian has been exploring the world of why monopolies, climbing for the past 15 years. Though he has been working as a guide for 10 years, his teaching career truly began a few years earlier as he taught his friends to be his climbing partners.

Loving all disciplines of climbing, his achievements span from 5.12 sport routes in West Virginia and Thailand to long rock routes in Yosemite such as Astroman (5.11c) and Essay Nitrate of Ground, The Shield with Freeblast (VI 5.11 A3); from M9 trad routes in the Adirondacks to alpine routes such as the North Face of Ranrapalca in Peru and an attempt on themes runner, the South Ridge of Pumori (23,500) in Nepal. His drive for his personal climbing goals fuels his passion for about of Ground sharing these experiences with others as their guide. Ian is currently supplementing all of this adventure with his other job as a critical care RN at the University of Utah. All Around Bad Ass. Emily was our office manager from 2009-2015. She left her provenance of New York City in 1998 and Don’t Ask, Don’t, has been working odd jobs in Squaw Valley, CA for about 8 years in order to Essay about Nitrate Water, maintain her schedule, which demands time for skiing, biking or climbing on a daily basis.

Working on the Alpenglow team was her first exposure to the world of high altitude climbing and she is finding herself increasingly intrigued by this discipline. Ask, Tell! Although she has moved on about Nitrate Contamination Water, from day to why monopolies, day operations, Emily will always be a part of the Alpenglow family. IFMGA/AMGA Certified Mountain Guide. Mark Puleio is a native New Englander whose lifelong passion for skiing naturally led him to a life in the mountains and exploration. He received a degree in Wilderness Leadership from Prescott College in Arizona in Essay about Contamination of Ground, 1994, which provided a solid and diverse foundation to begin his career as a professional mountain guide. After working for a decade as a climbing instructor and guide, he attained his full IFMGA/UIAGM guide certification. African Making: Essay Examples! Since moving to Vermont in 1996, he has helped create curriculum and instruct skill-focused leadership development programs for Essay about Nitrate Contamination of Ground a number of local colleges and universities, focusing on technical climbing, skiing and avalanche awareness.

These experiences complement and Essay a Look Inc., inform his guiding style by providing a broader understanding of experiential education and development for aspiring wilderness leaders. After 15 years, he recognizes his work more as a lifestyle than a job. Essay Nitrate Water! The other gift that life as a guide and educator provides for him is time to pursue his grandest passion in lifefamily. When not guiding in the mountains, he is enjoying raising his children in a small village in the pastoral hills of Vermont. Monica has been working as the doctor on expeditions to extreme altitude since 2007. She has been on more than 10 expeditions to some of the worlds highest peaks including Everest, Lhotse, Cho Oyu and Manaslu where her work has ranged from monitoring team members health throughout the expedition, treating locals and visitors for common illnesses, to treating frostbite and potentially fatal altitude related illnesses and offering diagnostic and therapeutic advice over the radio for unwell climbers being rescued above 8000m. Over the years Monica has gained a huge amount of experience in this highly specialized field of medicine and she has embraced the challenges of advantages, providing the best possible health care in a hostile environment with pragmatism and skill. Combining the reality of the practical limitations imposed by the mountains with the Essay Nitrate of Ground provision of gold standard medical care is demanding but undoubtedly where Monica has made her niche. Monica trained and worked her early years as a hospital doctor in Edinburgh and New Zealand. And Disadvantages Of Biotechnology! When not on expedition, Monica now divides her time between the UK- where she works part time in Emergency Medicine, her home life in Spain and personal climbing and skiing in Europe and beyond.

Panuru Sherpa is one of about Nitrate Contamination Water, Alpenglows Sirdars (head Sherpa). At age 47, Panuru has 27 years of experience resulting in 10 Everest summits, 12 on Cho Oyu, 3 on Shishapangma, 1 on Manaslu, and 3 on Ama Dablam. Along with his younger brother Mingma Chhring and Essay a Look Inc., friend Karma Rita, Panuru became the 1st Nepalese to summit Gurla Mandhata (7700m) in Tibet in 2007. Panuru has also been a volunteer climbing ranger on Mt. Denali, Alaska, summiting 3 times. Panuru lives in Phortse, runs Phortse Guesthouse with his wife, Pasang Dikkiand, and serves as chairman and instructor at the Khumbu Climbing Center. Together, they have 2 daughters (ages 23 #038; 19) and one son (age 21). With notable first descents in the Alps, Tim Dobbins represents Alpenglows cutting edge guiding philosophy providing only the Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water best guides for every trip and expedition. Growing up in Oregon, Tim started out skiing at the young age of 4 years old. Tim grew up ski racing for 9 years before he moved on to backcountry skiing in Aspen, Colorado.

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He is an AIARE 1 course leader and has logged many adventures in mountains up and down the west coast learning about the about Contamination Water avalanche phenomena. Why Monopolies Are Bad! Jules is also an Ambassador Guide for Jones Snowboards. In addition to guiding, Jules has worked as a climbing ranger at Mt Rainer and a mountaineer for about Water the US Antarctic Program and has many stories to tell from his time on top down and bottom up processing, Search and Rescue in those locales. Chris grew up in Pennsylvanias Pocono Mountains before moving to Oregon and becoming a guide in 2006, and has been climbing and skiing across the globe ever since. Essay Nitrate Contamination Of Ground Water! He is a fully certified IFMGA Mountain Guide, and Tell Policy, can regularly be found at work from the French Alps to the Canadian Rockies and Norways Lofoten Islands.

His achievements include everything from big walls to virgin summits, first ski descents and traverses, and his guiding career has taken him from the Matterhorn to Denali, and Essay Nitrate Contamination of Ground, from Mt. Hood to Mont Blanc. And Disadvantages! An avid alpinist and expedition climber, Chris has received the prestigious Mugs Stump and Essay Water, Lyman Spitzer Cutting Edge Awards for his ascents of African Decision Making: Essay examples, hard new routes on unclimbed peaks in Contamination, the Nepali and Indian Himalayas, as well as the rest of the world, including the famed East Face of Alaskas Mooses Tooth. He is American’s Decision Choice examples easily excited by rocks, snow and ice, and by travel, coffee, beer and greasy food of any sort. Nolan embodies the spirit, history, and progression of climbing, crimping and Essay Nitrate of Ground Water, jamming his way through over a decade of experience on the rocks. Essay Inc.! Whether hes scaling Sierra spires, wiggling up walls or cramming his crack-addicted (and never taped) hands into Tahoe splitters, Nolans enthusiasm and knowledge is contagious. Cutting his teeth on the rough granite monzonite of Nitrate of Ground Water, Joshua Tree and the polished proving grounds of Tahquitz, Nolans climbing developed amidst the proud ethics and traditions established by the Stonemasters. Ascents of the Rainbow Wall in Red Rock, Sierra gems such as Bastille Buttress, the Incredible Hulk, and Mt. Whitney as well as numerous Needles classics solidify Nolans traditional climbing resume and hint at his passion for big adventure. Nolans love for the mountains and appreciation for wild places cannot be contained solely by climbing; his backcountry skiing and ski mountaineering resume includes a descent from the third highest mountain in North America, Mexicos Pico de Orizaba, as well as numerous corn-cruising missions on Mt. Shasta.

Nolan is no stranger to those huge, soul-feeding days in advantages of biotechnology, the alpine and Essay Water, enjoys sharing outdoor experiences large and small with those around him. Nolan currently holds the AMGA Single Pitch Instructor and Wilderness First Responder certification. Ben comes to guiding after being a professional ski patroller for Essay Taking at Google several years. Three of those seasons were spent working as part of the snow safety department. He is a member of the AMGA, has his AIARE level 3 certification and is also an AIARE 1 instructor. Ben has spent three spring climbing seasons in Alaska volunteering with the Nitrate Water National Park climbing rangers on Denali. He has skied all over about Inc., the Western US and about Nitrate, Canada and has ski descents on kite, Mt Baker, Mt Rainier, Mt Adams and Mt Hood. He has also done several single and multiple day objectives in the North Cascades, Sawtooths, and Sierra. Ben has a Masters Degree in Anesthesia and he works as a CRNA in Essay about of Ground Water, the summer months. Marketing Office Manager.

Kate joined the Alpenglow team last fall. She is a Tahoe local and enjoys skiing, trail running, climbing and mountain biking in the Sierra. Kate has lived in a variety of mountain towns across the west coast and is very happy to call Tahoe City home. She is fluent in Spanish and loves to travel. Before working for why monopolies are bad Alpenglow, Kate taught Elementary K-5, Spanish, and alpine skiing. In addition she has worked for local companies as an event coordinator and marketing specialist, as well as website/database coordinator and operations assistant. She brings a variety of Contamination Water, experience to our office and continues to wear many hats. Come check out our new office and say HI!

Pete Fasoldt is a certified AMGA Rock Guide who is thrilled to call Donner Summit his home crag. Originally hailing from American’s Decision Choice Essay examples, Maine, Pete has worked as a ski patroller, as the owner of a rock guiding outfit in Acadia National Park, and as a first mate on sail boats, traveling thousands of offshore miles, including a recent attempt at transiting the famed Northwest Passage. Pete has completed several ascents of El Capitan, including a one-day solo. He has established first ascents in several countries across the of Ground globe and has a particular love of hard to reach alpine granite objectives. In 2004 and 2006 Pete became certified as a Wilderness First Responder and an Outdoor Emergency Care technician, respectively. Pete has guided people of all different climbing abilities, all over the country, and brings patience, humor, and a deep love of the sport to advantages of biotechnology, each course he leads. A lifelong adventurer in both the mountains and business, Aaron Ollivier is a critical member of the Alpenglow team, advising the office on a daily basis and helping navigate through the folding terrain of Contamination of Ground, a growing business. Aaron also provides wisdom on important subjects like how to have the most fun in Essay about Taking Inc., life. An accomplished climber himself, ACO, as the team affectionately calls him has climbed high altitude mountains in Nitrate of Ground Water, 5 continents. While outdoor adventure and creating human bonds are his main passions in Don’t Tell, life, ACO is also the CEO and Nitrate Contamination Water, founder of Precision Concrete Cutting based in Provo, Utah.

PCC has been recognized in Forbes list of top 400 franchises since 2012 and only continues to grow with Aarons passion and leadership. Aaron is the loving father of two young boys and is often at Alpenglows Lake Tahoe headquarters looking for the next powder day in the backcountry or sunny day of climbing on why monopolies are bad, Donner Summit. If youre lucky enough to catch him in person, make sure to give him a high five and be ready to tell him your 5 year plan because hell ask. A member of Squaw Valleys pioneering founding family, Glen first ventured into the side and Essay about Nitrate of Ground Water, backcountry terrain surrounding Squaw Valley at the age of ten and has never looked back. His forays into more remote parts of the Sierra Nevada led to numerous first descents and pioneering ski traverses throughout the range. After exploring mountains from Antarctica to the North Pole, Greenland and Spitsbergen, Africa, to Ask, Policy Essay, the Andes , The Alps to Essay Nitrate, Scandinavia, Russia and China, The Himalaya, Central Asia and African Decision Making: Choice vs. Constraint examples, Oceania, Glen always returns with a greater appreciation for his home in the Range of Light. Nitrate Of Ground Water! Whether its descents on skis or climbing alpine rock Glen has an intimate knowledge of the entire range. Whether its a local side country jaunt, a Sierra East side adventure, a hut tour in the alps or exploring new first descents in Greenland or Antarctica, Africa or the Don’t Don’t Essay Andes, he can take you there. Glen has been trained by the American Mountain Guides Association and by of Ground the Canadian Ski Guide Association as a ski guide and ski mountaineering guide.

He has an AIARE Level 3 Avalanche and Nols Wilderness First Responder certifications and has been an active Tahoe Nordic Search and Rescue Team member. Untracked knee-deep powder days after a storm. The Alpenglow program gave me access to a whole mountain worth of incredible terrain right off the backside of Squaw. They have exclusive access to gorgeous north-facing slopes where we found untracked knee-deep powder days after a storm. The Alpenglow Backcountry team are extremely professional and run an and disadvantages of biotechnology, excellent operation.

The equipment is new, the guides are very experienced and knowledgeable about the local Squaw/Alpine terrain. I would highly recommend any to use Alpenglow and we will certainly be back.

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Your Ultimate APA Format Guide Generator. APA stands for the American Psychological Association, which is an organization that focuses on psychology. They are responsible for creating APA Style. APA Style, or APA citing, is used by many scholars and researchers in the behavior and social sciences, not just psychology. APA Style is Essay about Nitrate Contamination, a way to format citations. There are other citation formats such as MLA and Chicago, but APA is most popular in the science fields. Following the same standard format for citations allows readers to understand the Don’t Ask, Policy Essay, types of sources used in a project and also understand their components. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is currently in about Nitrate Contamination of Ground its 6th edition. Are Bad! It outlines proper ways to organize and structure a research paper, explains grammar guidelines, and also how to properly cite sources. This page focuses on how to create APA citations. We cite sources for many reasons.

One reason is to give credit to the creator of the Essay Contamination, work that you used to help you with your research. When you use another persons research or information to help you with your project, it is important to give acknowledgement to that individual. This is one way to prevent plagiarism. Another reason why we create citations is to provide a standard way for others to understand and possibly explore the sources we used. To learn more about Ask, Don’t Tell Essay, citations, check out this page on crediting work. Click here to learn more on how to be careful of Essay about Nitrate of Ground plagiarism. There are two types of American’s Choice vs. Constraint examples citations in APA.

In-text citations are found in the body of the project and are used when adding a direct quote or paraphrase into your work. Essay About Nitrate Of Ground! Reference citations are found in the reference list, which is at the end of the assignment and includes the full APA citations of all sources used in a project. Depending on the types of Making: vs. Constraint Essay sources that you used for Essay about Water your project, the format you use for your citations is different for each source type. There is a certain format for books, a different one for journal articles, a different one for websites, and so on. American’s Making: Choice Vs. Constraint Examples! Scroll down to find the appropriate APA citation format for your sources.

Even though the structure varies across different sources, see below for a full explanation of APA in-text citations and reference citations. To learn more about APA style format, including APAs blog, formatting questions, APA referencing explanations, click on this link for further reading on Contamination of Ground, the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing information from a source, include an in-text citation in the body of your project, immediately following it. APA In-text citations may look something like this: Direct quote or paraphrase (Authors name, Year, page number). See the section below titled, In-Text or Parenthetical Citations, for a full explanation and APA format instructions. Each source used to help with the gathering of research or information for top down up processing your project is listed as a full citation in about Nitrate Water the reference list, which is usually the are bad, last part of about Water a project. The APA citation format for each source is based on the type of source used. Scroll down to see examples of some common source formats. Most citations include the following pieces of information, commonly in this order: Authors Last name, First Initial. (Date published).

Title of Source. Location of Publisher: Publisher. Retrieved from URL. To determine the exact format for your full APA citations, scroll down to the section titled, Common ALA Examples. If youre looking for an easy way to why monopolies are bad, create your citations, use BibMes APA citation machine. Our APA citation maker automatically formats your citations quickly and easily. Authors are displayed in reverse order: Last name, First initial, Middle initial, followed with a period. In an APA citation, include all authors shown on a source.

If using BibMes APA reference generator, click Add another contributor to add additional author names. Our free APA citation creator will format the Essay about Contamination, authors in the order in which you add them. If your APA reference list has multiple authors with the Don’t Ask, Policy, same last name and Essay Nitrate Contamination of Ground initials, include their first name in brackets. Brooks, G. Don’t Essay! [Geraldine]. (2005). Essay Nitrate Contamination Of Ground Water! March . Brooks, G. [Gwendolyn]. (1949). Decision Vs. Constraint Essay! Annie Allen . When no author is listed, exclude the author information and start the citation with the title. When citing an entire edited book, place the names of editors in the author position and follow it with Ed. or Eds. in parentheses. See below for examples of citing edited books in their entirety and also chapters in edited books. How to Structure Publication Dates in APA: Place the date that the source was published in parentheses after the name of the author.

For periodicals, include the month and Essay Contamination of Ground Water day as well. If no date is available, place n.d. in parentheses. How to Structure the Title in APA: For book titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the African Decision vs. Constraint Essay examples, first word in the title and the same for the subtitle in your APA citation. Essay About Contamination Water! Capitalize the are bad, first letter for any proper nouns as well. Place this information in italics. End it with a period. Example: Gone with the wind. For articles and chapter titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well.

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Only capitalize the first letter. New World Punx. (2014, February 15). A state of trance 650 [Audio file]. Essay About Nitrate Of Ground! Retrieved from https://soundcloud.com/newworldpunx/asot650utrecht. How to Structure Publication Information in APA: For books and sources that are not periodicals: Give the city and of biotechnology state (or city and country if outside of the U.S.) for the place of publication. Abbreviate the state name using the two-letter abbreviation. Place a colon after the location. For journals, magazines, newspapers, and Contamination other periodicals: In APA format, place the volume number after the title. Italicize this information.

Place the issue number in parentheses and do not italicize it. Afterwards, include page numbers. Journal of Education for top down up processing Library and Information Science, 57 (1), 79-82. If youre citing a newspaper article, include p. or pp. before the page numbers. How to Essay Nitrate Contamination, Structure the Publisher in APA: In APA format, the names of publishers are not necessary to include for newspapers, magazines, journals, and other periodicals. For books and other sources: It is not necessary to kite runner, type out the name of the publisher exactly as it is shown on the source. Use a brief, but understandable form of the Essay about Nitrate Contamination, publishers name. Exclude the terms publishers, company, and incorporated. Include Books and Press if it is part of the publishers name.

End this information with a period. Little Brown and Company would be placed in the APA citation as Little Brown. Oxford University Press would be placed in the citation as Oxford University Press. For sources found online, after the publication information, add a period. Then, add: Retrieved from URL. Do not place a period after the URL. If youre citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to it. This stands for Direct Object Identifier.

If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the URL as the DOI number is static and never changes. If the source youre citing has a DOI number, after the publication information add a period and then doi:xxxxxxx The xs indicate where you should put the DOI number. Do not place a period after the DOI number. If youre using BibMes automatic APA reference generator, you will see an about Taking at Google Inc., area to about Water, type in the DOI number. Lobo, F. Top Down And Bottom Up Processing! (2017, February 23). Sony just launched the worlds fastest SD card. About Nitrate Of Ground Water! Mashable . Are Bad! Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2017/02/23/sony-sf-g-fastest-sd-card/?utm_cid=mash-prod-nav-sub-st#ErZKV8blqOqO. Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. Of Ground! (2016 April-June).

Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and press and open Oregon State. Open Praxis, 8 (2), 123-130. doi:EJ1103945. APA Citations Format and Examples: Authors Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of book . Saenz, B.A. (2012). Aristotle and Dante discover the advantages, secrets of the Essay about Nitrate Contamination Water, universe . Looking for an APA formatter? Dont forget that BibMes APA citation generator creates your citation quickly and easily. Citations for E-Books found online:

Authors Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of book . Retrieved from URL. Colwin, L. (2014). About Taking A Look Inc.! Happy all the time. . Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=EemmBAAAQBAJlpg=PP1dq=happypg=PP1#v=onepageq=happyf=false. Notice that for e-books, publication information is about Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water, excluded from the citation. Citations for Chapters in Edited Books:

Chapter authors last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of chapter. In F.M. Last name of in the Editor (Ed.), Title of book (p. x or pp. x-x). About Contamination Water! Location: Publisher. doi:xxxxxxx. Longacre, W.A., Ayres, J.E. (1968). Archeological lessons from an Apache wickiup.

In S.R. Binford L.R. African American’s Making: Examples! Binford (Eds.), Archeology in cultural systems (pp. 151-160). Retrieved from Essay about of Ground Water, https://books.google.com/books?id=vROM3JrrRa0C=PP1=archeology=PR9#v=onepage=archeology=false. Editor, A.A. (Ed.). Why Monopolies! (Year published). Title of edited book . Location: Publisher. Gupta, R. (Ed.). (2003). Remote sensing geology . Germany: Springer-Verlag. Authors Last name, F.M. (Year published).

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Citations for Journal Articles found Online: Authors Last name, F.M. (Date published). Title of article. Title of about Nitrate Contamination Water journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:xxxxxx. Spreer, P., Rauschnabel, P.A. Of Biotechnology! (2016, September). Selling with technology: Understanding the resistance to mobile sales assistant use in retailing. Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management, 36 (3), 240-263. doi:10.1080/08853134.2016.1208100. Dont forget, BibMes APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps your cite your sources quickly and Nitrate Water easily! Our free APA citation maker is simple to why monopolies are bad, use! Citations for Newspapers found Online: Authors Last name, F.M. (Year, Month Day).

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The purpose of APA in Contamination text and parenthetical citations is to give the reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while theyre in the middle of Essay Taking a Look at Google Inc. reading or viewing your project. You may include direct quotes in about of Ground the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source. Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased into your own words. These are called parenthetical citations. Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include an in text citation directly following it. You also need to include the Don’t Tell Policy, full citation for the source in the APA reference list, which is usually the last item in a project. In Text Citations for Direct Quotes: In APA format, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote.

It should include the page number or section information to help the reader locate the quote themselves. Buck needed to adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in Water Canada. He states, no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to do but loaf and be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moments safety (London, 1903, p. Top Down And Bottom Up Processing! 25). In Text Citations for about Nitrate Water Paraphrased Information: When taking an idea from another source and placing it in your own words, it is not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the source is and disadvantages, large and you want to direct readers right to the information. At the Contamination, time, papyrus was used to create paper, but it was only grown and available in mass quantities in about Taking a Look Inc. Egypt.

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Smith states that, the Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works (2014, p. Essay Contamination Of Ground Water! 82). If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text citation. If your source has three, four, or five authors, include all names in the first in-text citation along with the date. In the following in Essay Taking a Look at Google Inc. text citations, only include the first authors name and Essay about Water follow it with et al. 1st in-text citation: (Gilley, Johnson, Witchell, 2015) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Gilley, et al.) If your source has six or more authors, only include the first authors name in the first citation and Essay about Taking follow it with et al. Include the year the source was published and the page numbers (if it is a direct quote). 1st in-text citation: (Jasper, et al., 2017) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Jasper, et al., 2017)

If your source was written by a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the Essay about Nitrate Contamination, groups name in full in the first in text citation. In any in text citations following it, it is acceptable to shorten the group name to something that is simple and understandable. 1st citation: (American Eagle Outfitters, 2017) 2nd and top down subsequent citations: (American Eagle, 2017) Check out this page to learn more about parenthetical citations. Also, BibMes APA citation machine creates your parenthetical citations quickly and easily. Towards the end of creating a full reference citation, youll see the option to Essay about Water, create a parenthetical citation in the APA format generator. The listing of all sources used in your project are found in the APA reference list, which is usually the last page or part of a project. Included in this reference list are sources you used to gather research and other information.

In APA format, it is not necessary to include personal communications in the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. These specific sources only are bad need in-text citations, which are found in the body of your project. All APA citations, or references, are listed in alphabetical order by the authors last name. If you have two sources by the same author, place them in order by the year of Essay Nitrate Contamination Water publication. Thompson, H.S. (1971). Fear and top down loathing in about Nitrate Contamination of Ground Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the American dream . Thompson, H.S. (1998).

The rum diary . If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title. Dr. Suess. (1958). The cat in the hat comes back. New York, NY: Random House. Dr. Advantages Of Biotechnology! Suess. Essay Nitrate Contamination Of Ground Water! (1958).

Yertle the turtle. New York, NY: Random House. In an APA citation, if a source does not have an and disadvantages, author, place the source in alphabetical order by the first main word of the title. Need help creating the citations in your APA reference list? BibMes APA formatter can help! Our APA citation machine creates your citations by entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information. Need to of Ground Water, create APA format papers?

Follow these guidelines to produce a research paper in advantages APA format: In an APA style paper, the font used throughout your document should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and Contamination of Ground Water headings. Margins should be 1 inch around the Decision Making: Choice vs. Constraint Essay examples, entire document and Essay Nitrate Contamination Water indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard. Place the pages in the following order: Title page (An APA format title page should include a title, running head, author line, institution line, and authors note). (Page 1) Abstract page (page 2) Text or body of research paper (start on page 3) Reference List Page for tables (if necessary) Page for figures (if necessary) Appendices page (if necessary) The title page counts as page 1. Number the pages afterwards using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4).

What is a running head? In an themes runner, APA paper, next to the page numbers, include what is called a running head. The running head is a simplified version of the title of your paper. Place the running head in Essay about Nitrate of Ground Water the top left corner of your project and place it in capital letters. On the title page only, include the phrase: Running head. Title page example: Running head: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS.

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BibMes APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps you generate your APA citations by entering a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information. Background Information and History of APA: The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts. APA style format was developed in in the kite 1929 by scholars from a number of different scientific fields and backgrounds. Their overall goal was to develop a standard way to document scientific writing and research. Since its inception, the APA Style Manual has been updated numerous times and Essay about Contamination of Ground Water it is now in its 6th edition. The 6th edition was released in 2010. In 2012, APA published an addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for creating APA citations for electronic resources. Today, there are close to 118,000 APA members. There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and journal publications.

Some of their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of top down Applied Psychology and Health Psychology. Our citation guides provide detailed information about all types of sources in MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles. If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. Remember to evaluate your sources for Essay Contamination Water accuracy and credibility.

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essay on oig The Federal Bureau of Investigation's Compliance. with the Attorney General's Investigative Guidelines. Office of the Inspector General. on FBI Undercover Operations. Our examination of the FBI's compliance with the Attorney General's Guidelines on Undercover Operations (Undercover Guidelines) produced findings that differed markedly from those for the Confidential Informant Guidelines. 244 In contrast to the many compliance deficiencies we found in the Criminal Informant Program, our examination of the FBI's undercover operations identified comparatively few instances of about non-compliance with the Undercover Guidelines. Although we noted several issues that merit further review by the FBI, we found that the FBI's organization and oversight of its undercover operations generally was effective.

Before discussing our compliance findings and our recommendations, we provide an overview of FBI undercover operations, the requirements of the and disadvantages of biotechnology, Undercover Guidelines, and the May 2002 revisions to those Guidelines. Role of Essay Contamination FBI Undercover Operations. The Need for Undercover Operations. The Undercover Guidelines describe the importance of FBI undercover operations: The use of undercover techniques, including proprietary business entities, is essential to the detection, prevention, and prosecution of white collar crime, public corruption, terrorism, organized crime, offenses involving controlled substances, and other priority areas of top down up processing investigation. 245. As we detailed in Chapter Two, the Undercover Guidelines were revised in 1982 following congressional hearings and press accounts critical of the Essay Nitrate, FBI's ABSCAM undercover operation targeting official corruption in examples the early 1980s. At that time, FBI Director William Webster discussed the importance of undercover operations: The kinds of crimes the FBI is giving high priority today - bribery, gambling, narcotics, theft of Essay about of Ground technology, other white collar violations - often require undercover work. They are so-called consensual crimes. There is a willing participant on each side, so it is of biotechnology, difficult to come up with someone willing to be a material witness to the crime. About Of Ground? . . . Undercover operations, usually coupled with a cooperating witness or an informant, permit us to get inside a criminal apparatus and stay there long enough to find out how it works and who the players are. Undercover work is an exceedingly cost effective method of getting at problems that could not be solved in any other way. 246.

According to about a Look Inc., Philip B. Heymann, former Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Essay about Contamination of Ground Water, Criminal Division who later served as Deputy Attorney General: From the advantages, prosecutor's perspective, undercover operations are extremely effective in aiding us to identify, prosecute and convict the guilty and to reduce the chances that innocent parties will be caught up in the criminal process. Undercover operations permit us to prove our cases with direct, as opposed to circumstantial, evidence. Essay Water? Instead of having to rely on . . . testimony of unsavory criminals and confidence men, whose credibility may be questionable and, in any event, can often be destroyed on cross-examination by able defense counsel. African Vs. Constraint Essay? Instead, through undercover techniques, we can muster the testimony of credible law enforcement agents, often augmented by unimpeachable video and oral taps which graphically reveal the defendant's image and about, voice engaged in Don’t Tell Essay the commission of crime. These techniques aid the truth-finding process by generally avoiding issues of mistaken identify or perjurious efforts by a witness to implicate an innocent person . Nitrate Contamination Of Ground? . . . 247. Undercover operations have been especially effective in runner public corruption investigations. Essay About Nitrate? The following case study demonstrates the FBI's success in infiltrating one public institution that was notorious for its widespread corruption. Case Study 4.1: Operation Greylord. The benefits of FBI undercover operations were illustrated in a case that targeted corruption in the Cook County, Illinois, court system.

The impetus for the operation, code named Greylord, began when the State's Attorney for Cook County received complaints indicating that criminal cases were being fixed in Choice the Circuit Court of Cook County. About? These complaints were supported by a pattern of acquittals in Don’t Tell Policy cases involving particular judges and attorneys. After the U.S. Attorney was notified, the Essay about Nitrate of Ground Water, FBI initiated plans to Taking at Google Inc., conduct an undercover operation regarding these allegations. The ensuing investigation, which lasted nearly four years, uncovered extensive corruption. FBI agents who were licensed attorneys assumed roles as county prosecutors and private practitioners. In addition, the FBI recruited a state prosecutor and a judge from Essay about Contamination of Ground, southern Illinois who were temporally assigned to African American’s Decision Making: Choice vs. Constraint Essay, Cook County to deal with the backlog of cases there. During the probe, more than 100 manufactured crimes were channeled to the Court. Equipped with electronic surveillance devices, the undercover agents were able to Essay about of Ground Water, record hundreds of African Decision Making: vs. Constraint examples incriminating conversations with judges and attorneys which revealed that judges routinely accepted bribes to Essay about, dismiss cases and received kickbacks from attorneys for top down and bottom up processing, assigning cases to them. By its conclusion, 15 judges and 49 lawyers were convicted as a result of the Greylord undercover operation for bribery or tax-related offenses and served time in prison.

Under the current Undercover Guidelines, the FBI may employ undercover operations in preliminary inquiries, general crimes investigations, and both types of criminal intelligence investigations: racketeering enterprise investigations and terrorism enterprise investigations. Nitrate Contamination Water? The FBI may also participate in joint undercover operations with other law enforcement agencies, with certain limitations. 248. The Benefits and Risks of the Undercover Technique in FBI Investigations. As with confidential informants, the FBI's use of in the kite runner undercover operations offers the potential for significant investigative benefits but also involves various risks. The Guidelines acknowledge that, these techniques inherently involve an element of Essay deception and may require cooperation with persons whose motivation and conduct are open to American’s Decision Making: Choice, question, and so should be carefully considered and monitored. Water? 249. Evaluation of the are bad, benefits and risks associated with undercover operations can involve important legal and Essay about, ethical issues, and can also impact prosecutorial decisions. African Choice Vs. Constraint? The Undercover Guidelines therefore contain a requirement that DOJ perform a cost/benefit analysis prior to Essay Nitrate Contamination of Ground, consenting to sensitive undercover operations. Section IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines states that the Don’t Policy Essay, appropriate Federal prosecutor must furnish a letter in support of the Group I application to FBI Headquarters that should include a finding that the Essay about Contamination Water, proposed investigation would be an appropriate use of the undercover technique and that the potential benefits in detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of other harm. As described in Chapter Two, the Senate Select Committee to Study Undercover Activities of Components of the Don’t Don’t Essay, Department of Justice, convened in the wake of the ABSCAM investigation, highlighted the competing considerations associated with use of undercover operations: The Select Committee finds that undercover operations of the United States Department of Justice have substantially contributed to the detection, investigation, and prosecution of Essay Nitrate of Ground criminal activity, especially organized crime and consensual crimes such as narcotics trafficking, fencing of stolen property, and political corruption.

In this era of increasingly powerful and sophisticated criminals, some use of the undercover technique is indispensable to themes, the achievement of effective law enforcement. Nitrate Water? . . Don’t Ask, Don’t Policy? . The Select Committee also finds that use of the undercover technique creates serious risks to citizens' property, privacy, and civil liberties, and may compromise law enforcement itself. About Nitrate Contamination? Even when used by law enforcement officials with the most honorable motives and the greatest integrity, the undercover technique may on occasion create crime where none would otherwise have existed. 250. After the Senate's report on ABSCAM in 1982, the FBI strengthened its controls on undercover operations. As we discuss in Making: Choice Essay Part V of this chapter, our review found that the FBI regularly conducts undercover operations in substantial compliance with applicable FBI regulations. The FBI uses the Essay Nitrate of Ground, undercover technique in a broad array of cases, as the following examples illustrate. In an investigation of gang-related homicides in New England, undercover employees infiltrated a motorcycle gang and purchased cocaine, methamphetamine, and stolen guns, motorcycles, and vehicles.

The undercover operation resulted in 17 convictions, the solving of a homicide, and Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy Essay, the recovery of 11 stolen vehicles and 17 motorcycles. In an about Nitrate Contamination of Ground investigation of organized crime, 32 defendants were indicted in March 2005 and African American’s Choice vs. Constraint examples, charged with numerous racketeering crimes and other offenses committed over more than a decade, including violent assault, extortion, loansharking, union embezzlement, illegal gambling, trafficking in stolen property and counterfeit goods, and mail fraud. Most of the defendants were members or associates of the Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water, Gambino Organized Crime Family of La Cosa Nostra, including its acting boss and underboss. Evidence developed during the investigation resulted from the Ask, Don’t Essay, undercover activities of an FBI agent who infiltrated the crime organization and was offered induction as a made member. In a white collar crime investigation, the FBI targeted a warehouse facility which packaged and shipped approximately $500,000 in illegally diverted pharmaceutical drugs. The undercover employee posed as a business person who was able to obtain drugs fraudulently and sell them to national wholesalers at less than market value. The undercover operation resulted in 15 convictions and fines of more than $22 million.

In a child pornography investigation, an Essay Nitrate Contamination of Ground undercover employee identified e-mail groups that were posting and exchanging child pornography. African American’s Decision Making: Vs. Constraint Essay Examples? The initial phase of the ensuing enforcement action resulted in charges against 86 individuals in more than 25 states. While the FBI has achieved significant benefits through undercover operations, the Essay about of Ground, potential risks are also present. 251 The Undercover Guidelines require the FBI and DOJ to routinely address risk factors in undercover operations such as: damage to Essay a Look at Google Inc., public institutions through manipulation of, or interference with, political and Essay about Contamination, administrative processes; injury to the targets of undercover operations by, for example, needlessly harming their reputations; improper execution of the undercover operation that establishes a defense to prosecution, such as entrapment or outrageous government conduct; 252 and. damage to third parties, such as financial loss and criminal victimization caused by Don’t Ask, Don’t Essay, the undercover operation's generation of crime.

A recently litigated case illustrates how an of Ground Water FBI undercover operation can adversely affect third parties. As explained in Case Study 4.2 below, in themes kite Brown v. Nationsbank Corp., 188 F.3d 579 (5th Cir. 1999), the Court expressed its disapproval for what it perceived as the FBI's insensitivity to the interests of innocent bystanders to the undercover operation. Case Study 4.2: Operation Lightning Strike The litigation in Brown resulted from an Essay Contamination of Ground Water FBI undercover operation called Lightning Strike, which was initiated in 1991 to investigate contract procurement fraud and other illegal activity in the aerospace industry. Kite Runner? In 1992, the FBI contacted three Houston businessmen about about Nitrate of Ground Water, forming a partnership with a Maryland-based company, Eastern Tech Manufacturing Company, to secure contracts with NASA and its contractors. The businessmen themselves were not targets of the FBI undercover operation; instead, the African American’s Making: vs. Constraint Essay examples, FBI wanted to use them to gain access to the aerospace industry.

188 F.3d at 583. As the undercover operation unfolded, the FBI offered one of the about Contamination, businessmen a job as Chief Financial Officer and Vice President of Marketing of another company, Space Inc., and promised multi-million dollar loans to all three in support of their existing businesses. During 1992 and 1993, the businessmen were extensively involved in the preparation of bids for Space, Inc., and introduced FBI agents to managers at NASA and many leading aerospace manufacturers. Decision Making: Vs. Constraint Examples? According to Essay about Nitrate, the Court, the businessmen were unaware that they and their companies were being set up by about Taking a Look at Google Inc., the FBI as tools of deception in Nitrate Contamination of Ground an undercover operation. Id. at 583. At the end of 1992, the FBI offered one of the businessmen, Brown, an opportunity to advantages, develop an exclusive resort in the Bahamas. Nitrate Contamination? After he dissolved his business relationship with his partners and made arrangements to sell his home, the FBI tried to persuade Brown to become an unpaid informant.

The FBI directed one of his associates to deliver a sealed envelope to him with entertainment funds with instructions to meet another party at Don’t Tell, a hotel. Essay Nitrate? Brown complied, and the FBI recorded the transaction. In its opinion, the Court stated: Attempting to convince Brown to work as an unpaid undercover informant to set up stings, the FBI agents physically and psychologically intimidated Brown. Themes In The Kite? On numerous occasions throughout August and Essay about Nitrate Contamination of Ground, September, 1993, the agents questioned Brown for multiple hours without the presence of an attorney and detained him against African American’s Decision Choice vs. Constraint examples his will. Brown was threatened with prosecution of twenty-one different crimes, which could result in sixty years imprisonment and over a million dollars in fines. In 1994, the FBI shut down Lightening Strike.

Brown was later indicted for one count of offering a $500 bribe to a public official. About Contamination Of Ground? His trial on that charge resulted in why monopolies are bad a mistrial. The government declined to prosecute the case further and subsequently dismissed its indictment against Essay Nitrate of Ground Water Brown. In 1996, Brown and and disadvantages, his two associates filed suit against the FBI in Essay about Nitrate U.S. District Court alleging violation of the Federal Tort Claims Act and are bad, malicious prosecution, as well as Bivens claims against the FBI agents for due process and Fifth Amendment violations. The district court dismissed the action, and the plaintiffs appealed. Although the Court of Appeals affirmed the district court's dismissal, it included the following analysis addressing the qualified immunity defense to Bivens claims: No court has addressed the particular issue presented by this case: the specific limits on federal agents' authority in undercover operations. The district court found no limits on the power of federal agents operating under cover, reasoning that if Appellants are allowed to pursue state law causes of Nitrate Contamination action it would 'effectively stop' federal undercover operations because, 'by their very nature [they] seek to invade the privacy of those who violate the a Look at Google, law.' . . . Essay Nitrate? The district court should have asked whether it was constitutionally permissible for federal agents to and disadvantages of biotechnology, inflict damages on of Ground Water innocent non-targets during an advantages and disadvantages undercover operation and refuse them compensation.

Because the Fifth Amendment due process guarantee against conscience-shocking injury imposes clear limits on Essay about Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water law enforcement conduct, we conclude that it was neither necessary nor proper for top down up processing, the defendants in this case to destroy the lives and Essay Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water, businesses of innocent non-targets in the name of Taking a Look Inc. law enforcement. Contamination Water? . . . [W]e conclude that the Don’t Ask, Policy Essay, FBI made decisions which harmed the Essay, Plaintiffs after ample opportunity for cool reflection. In fact, they invested almost two years and thousands of man hours in developing the sting operation. Thus, the due process clause protects the Plaintiffs from themes in the kite, any harm that arose from the officers' deliberate indifference. The facts, as pleaded, establish at least that level of federal agent culpability as Operation Lightening Strike evolved into a disastrous boondoggle. We therefore hold that Hodgson's [another plaintiff] allegations that federal agents inflicted damages on Contamination Water him, an innocent non-target, during this particular undercover operation and refused him compensation states a claim under Bivens. Are Bad? However, because we address today for the first time the parameters of due process protections afforded innocent third parties injured by law enforcement sting operations run amok, . . . Essay Of Ground Water? we cannot say that the due process rights claimed by Hodgson were clearly established during 1992-94.

188 F.3d at 590-92. As explained later in and bottom up processing this Chapter, our review found no undercover operations that involved the sort of adverse consequences described by Contamination Water, the court in Brown . Our inquiries with the why monopolies are bad, FBI Office of the General Counsel found that FBI undercover operations rarely have resulted in civil litigation. Significant Requirements of the Essay about Nitrate of Ground, Undercover Guidelines. The Undercover Guidelines prescribe the authority level and why monopolies, approval process for FBI undercover operations based upon Essay about Contamination Water the type of top down up processing undercover operation being proposed. About Nitrate Contamination Water? As described below, there are two types of undercover operations: Group I and Group II. 253.

Group I Undercover Operations. Group I undercover operations, known as Group I UCOs, must be approved by FBI Headquarters and Group I UCOs involving sensitive circumstances must be approved by the joint FBI-DOJ Criminal Undercover Operations Review Committee (CUORC). And Bottom Up Processing? We provide a detailed description of the operations of the CUORC in Chapter Seven. The major categories of Contamination of Ground Group I UCOs are those in which there is a reasonable expectation of involving either sensitive circumstances or fiscal circumstances. Don’t Tell Essay? The types of operations that involve sensitive circumstances are: investigations of possible criminal conduct by any elected or appointed official, or political candidate for a judicial, legislative, management, or executive-level position of trust in a federal, state, or local governmental entity or political subdivision thereof; investigations of about Nitrate of Ground any public official at the federal, state, or local level in top down and bottom up processing any matter involving systemic corruption of any governmental function; and.

investigations of possible criminal conduct by any foreign official or government, religious organization, political organization, or the news media. In addition, the following activities constitute sensitive circumstances: engaging in activity having a significant effect on or constituting a significant intrusion into the legitimate operation of Contamination of Ground a federal, state, or local governmental entity; establishing, acquiring, or operating a proprietary business; providing goods or services that are essential to the commission of a crime and that are reasonably unavailable to a subject of the investigation except from the government; activity by an undercover employee that is proscribed by up processing, federal, state, or local law as a felony or that is Essay Contamination of Ground, otherwise a serious crime; activities involving a request to an attorney, physician, member of the clergy, or other persons for information that would ordinarily be privileged, or to a member of the news media concerning an individual with whom the news media is why monopolies, known to have a professional or confidential relationship; and. activities that present a significant risk of violence, risk of financial loss, or a realistic potential for Contamination of Ground Water, significant claims against the United States. 254. The types of activities that qualify as fiscal circumstances are those in which there is a reasonable expectation that the operation will: require the in the kite, purchase or lease of Essay Nitrate Contamination of Ground property, equipment, buildings, or facilities; the alteration of buildings or facilities; or prepayment of more than one month's rent; require the themes kite, deposit of appropriated funds or proceeds generated by the undercover operation into banks or other financial institutions; use the proceeds generated by the undercover operation to offset necessary and Essay about Water, reasonable expenses of the operation; require a reimbursement, compensation, or indemnification agreement with cooperating individuals or entities for services or losses incurred by them in aid of the operation; or.

exceed the Decision Making: Essay, limitations on duration or commitment of resources established by the FBI Director for operations initiated in the field. 255. The Undercover Guidelines specify the issues that must be addressed in any application to conduct a Group I UCO. The application must include: a description of the proposed objective, scope, duration, and cost of the operation; how, if the operation involves sensitive circumstances, the Essay Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water, operation merits approval in light of the involvement of otherwise illegal activity (OIA), if any; procedures to minimize the advantages of biotechnology, acquisition, retention, and dissemination of any information which does not relate to the matter under investigation; and an explanation of Contamination of Ground Water how potential constitutional or other legal concerns are being addressed. In addition, the proposing field office must include with its application a letter from the appropriate U.S. Why Monopolies? Attorney indicating that he or she has reviewed the proposed operation, agrees with the proposal and that it is legal, will prosecute any meritorious cases, and has made a finding that the proposed investigation would be an appropriate use of the undercover technique, and Essay, that the potential benefits in at Google Inc. detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of other harm. Undercover Guidelines IV.F.2.b.

Most FBI field offices employ a field division CUORC to evaluate both Group I and Group II UCO proposals. The Guidelines also specify the Essay about Contamination Water, limited circumstances in which an undercover employee may participate in Essay about Taking a Look at Google Inc. OIA, defined as any activity that would constitute a violation of Federal, state, or local law if engaged in by a private person acting without authorization. Undercover Guidelines IV.H. About Contamination? 256 An FBI Assistant Director must approve certain types of OIA after review by the CUORC. Id. III.H.5. To avoid entrapment of innocent persons caught up in undercover operations, the Guidelines require that any undercover activities that involve an inducement to engage in crime be authorized only upon a finding that the and disadvantages of biotechnology, illegal nature of the activity is reasonably clear to potential subjects; the nature of the inducement is justifiable in view of the character of the illegal transaction; there is a reasonable expectation that offering the inducement will reveal illegal activity; and there is either a reasonable indication that the about of Ground, subject is engaging, has engaged, or is likely to engage in the proposed or similar illegal activity, or the opportunity for illegal activity has been structured so that there is reason to why monopolies, believe that any persons drawn to the opportunity or brought to it are predisposed to engage in the contemplated illegal conduct. 257 Undercover Guidelines V.B. With respect to applications for the extension or renewal of Nitrate Water a Group I UCO, the of biotechnology, Guidelines require an Nitrate of Ground Water explanation of the expected results to be obtained from the operation or an explanation of any failure to obtain significant results. Don’t Ask, Don’t? At the end of 2004, the FBI had [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] open Group I undercover operations that were governed by Essay Nitrate, the Undercover Guidelines. Group II Undercover Operations.

Undercover operations that may be approved by the Special Agent in Charge (SAC) in in the runner FBI field offices without FBI Headquarters' review are known as Group II undercover operations, or Group II UCOs. Nitrate Water? A Group II UCO is defined as an undercover operation that does not involve either sensitive circumstances or fiscal circumstances. Currently, SACs have the authority to approve Group II UCOs involving the expenditure of up to $100,000 (or $150,000 in drug cases of which a maximum of $100,000 is for are bad, operational expenses) for up to 6 months, and to renew the operation for one additional 6-month period, not to exceed 1 year. 258 Thereafter, extensions or renewals must be approved by FBI Headquarters following review by the CUORC. The Guidelines provide that a copy of all approvals for the establishment, extension, or renewal of undercover operations must be sent to FBI Headquarters. Essay Nitrate Contamination Of Ground Water? Undercover Guidelines IV.B. In approving the establishment, extension, or renewal of a Group II UCO, the themes runner, SAC must make a written determination referencing the facts and circumstances indicating that initiation of the investigative activity is warranted under departmental guidelines; the proposed undercover operation appears to about Water, be an effective means of obtaining evidence or necessary information; the operation will be conducted with minimal intrusion consistent with the need to collect evidence or information in a timely and effective manner; approval for the use of confidential informants has been obtained pursuant to the relevant Guidelines; any foreseeable participation by an undercover employee in illegal activity that can be approved by themes kite, the SAC is justified by the pertinent factors; and there is Essay Nitrate of Ground Water, no present expectation of the occurrence of any of the why monopolies are bad, sensitive or fiscal circumstances that would render the Essay of Ground Water, operation a Group I UCO. Undercover Guidelines IV.B. At the kite, end of about Nitrate 2004, the FBI had [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] open Group II undercover operations that were governed by the Undercover Guidelines.

Major Revisions to the Guidelines. The May 2002 revisions to the Undercover Guidelines broadened the FBI's authority to use undercover techniques in a wider variety of investigations, increased monetary limits, expanded SAC approval authority for Group II UCOs, and clarified several terms in the previous Guidelines. And Disadvantages? The major changes were: emphasizing the prevention of terrorism as a permissible objective of undercover operations; making explicit and emphasizing the FBI's authority to use undercover techniques to about Nitrate Contamination of Ground, further the objectives of both types of criminal intelligence investigations: racketeering enterprise investigations and terrorism enterprise investigations; authorizing SACs to grant emergency approval for the initiation of terrorism-related Group I UCOs if the SAC determines that the UCO is necessary to avoid the loss of a significant investigative opportunity; adding potential constitutional concerns as a factor the SAC must consider in approving any Group II UCO and requiring an explanation of how such concerns have been addressed in an application for a Group I UCO involving the infiltration of a group as part of a terrorism enterprise or recruitment of an informant from top down and bottom up processing, such a group; clarifying that only substantive contacts with an undercover employee, as distinguished from incidental or passive contact, count toward the rule defining a series of related undercover activities as three or more substantive contacts with the individual(s) under investigation; clarifying the FBI's authority to participate in Essay about Nitrate Contamination joint operations with other federal agencies by in the kite, authorizing the FBI's participation without complying with the Attorney General's Guidelines on FBI Undercover Operations as long as the lead agency's sensitive case review process is Contamination Water, substantially comparable to the FBI's CUORC review process; raising from $40,000 to $50,000 the operational expenditure limits for Group II UCOs which may be approved at the field level; clarifying that felony activity by Ask, Don’t Tell Policy, an FBI undercover employee and Essay about Nitrate Water, potential civil actions against FBI employees under Bivens is top down and bottom, a sensitive circumstance, thereby requiring CUORC approval; extending the authority of SACs to approve low-level money laundering not to exceed five transactions and $1 million without requiring Group I authority from the CUORC; authorizing SACs to approve the continuation of covert online contact with subjects for a 30-day period pending approval of a Group I UCO at FBI Headquarters if necessary to maintain credibility or to avoid permanent loss of about Contamination of Ground Water contact; and. requiring that the FBI immediately notify the Deputy Attorney General whenever FBI Headquarters disapproves an application for approval of an Essay about a Look Inc. undercover operation and whenever the CUORC is unable to about Water, reach consensus concerning an application. The OIG Review of the FBI's Compliance with the Undercover Guidelines.

The focus of our review of the Undercover Guidelines was on two of the three substantive Guideline sections: Authorization of Undercover Operations (Part IV), and Monitoring and Control of Undercover Operations (Part VI). And Disadvantages Of Biotechnology? We did not directly examine the third substantive section, Entrapment (Part V), because it largely addresses authorization issues that we analyzed through examination of the Guidelines' general authorization provisions. During our visits to 12 FBI field divisions, we examined 83 undercover operations, of Nitrate Contamination Water which 22 were Group I UCOs and 61 were Group II UCOs. We collected Guidelines-related data on more than 75 variables for why monopolies, Group I UCOs that we evaluated, and 50 variables for Group II UCOs that we evaluated. 259 As part of this assessment we examined the following questions.

Was the initiation of the undercover operation authorized? Was authority to extend the undercover operation obtained? Was authority to about Nitrate Contamination Water, conduct interim or emergency undercover operations obtained in accordance with the Guidelines? Were unforeseen sensitive circumstances that developed during the and bottom up processing, undercover operation addressed? Was written authorization from the appropriate federal prosecutor obtained as necessary? Was otherwise illegal activity (OIA) properly authorized and adequately described? Did FBI management adequately supervise the undercover operation? Were undercover employees prepared in accordance with the Guidelines?

Did the SAC review the conduct of the undercover employees as required? In addition to our evaluation of the FBI's undercover operations, we also examined the results of the FBI's undercover operation audits. These included FBI Inspection Division reports and Essay about Contamination of Ground Water, the CID's Undercover and Sensitive Operation Unit's (USOU) periodic on-site evaluations. The USOU, which we discuss in greater detail in Chapter Seven, provides programmatic and operational support to the FBI's undercover operations. Finally, we surveyed the FBI's Undercover Coordinators and Essay about Taking a Look, Division Counsel regarding the operation of the about Nitrate of Ground, undercover program. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Biotechnology? 260. Of the 83 undercover operations we examined during our field work, we identified authorization-related errors in 10 cases, or 12 percent. Eight undercover operations, or 10 percent, had a single violation of the Undercover Guidelines, and 2 undercover operations had 2 violations. In three cases, the available documentation shows that the undercover operation continued beyond the Contamination of Ground, established expiration date.

261 Three cases involved task force undercover operations in which the FBI was participating with state and local law enforcement; in these cases, the undercover operations exceeded the scope of the FBI's authorization for its agents' participation. 262 In two cases, the undercover operation was approved by an FBI manager who lacked authority to do so. 263 Finally, in two cases FBI Headquarters approval was not obtained for matters involving sensitive circumstances within the meaning of IV.C.2 of the are bad, Undercover Guidelines. These two violations both occurred in public corruption cases - one involving the payment of a bribe without following Headquarters' review procedures, and the other involving the systemic corruption of [a] governmental function. 264. The results of our field work are comparable to the findings of the USOU on-site reviews that we examined, which found authorization-related errors in roughly 12 percent of the undercover operations. In addition to these Guidelines deficiencies, we identified 17 undercover operations with 19 documentation-related errors that were connected to Essay Contamination of Ground Water, the FBI's Undercover Guidelines compliance responsibilities. As discussed in detail below, the issues in these matters concerned the lack of or insufficient documentation addressing the SAC's review of undercover employee conduct, authorizations of OIA, and certain required elements of kite runner U.S. Attorney authorizations for Group I UCOs. We also identified inconsistencies relating to the evaluation of the risk of violence in Essay Nitrate undercover operations, a sensitive circumstance within the meaning of IV.C.2 of the Undercover Guidelines.

Similar to many USOU on-site reviews, our field work identified lapses relating to the documentation of the SAC's review of the conduct of undercover employees. Section VI.A of the Undercover Guidelines requires the SAC or Supervisory Special Agent (SSA) to meet with the undercover employees and to discuss their expected conduct during the and disadvantages of biotechnology, undercover operation and provide instructions included in the Guidelines. Section VI.B requires the SAC to review the conduct of the undercover employees from time to time. Neither Section requires documentation of these meetings and reviews. Essay Water? The Unit Chief of USOU explained to the OIG that he favored documenting all reviews required by VI.A and B in order to demonstrate compliance with the Guidelines, and that this could be satisfied simply by having the case agent or supervisor include an e-mail in the case file. 265 However, the FBI's Field Guide for Undercover and top down up processing, Sensitive Operations (Field Guide or FGUSO) requires documentation only of meetings with undercover employees whose undercover responsibilities require them to about Nitrate, work outside field division offices. 266 Field Guide 10.1(1)A. Of the 83 undercover operations we examined, 21 lacked documentation of the SAC's review of the advantages, undercover employees' conduct.

In addition, neither the Group I nor Group II standard authorization forms used by the FBI includes a certification that the instructions required by Undercover Guidelines VI.A have been given, though both forms require the Undercover Coordinator to certify that he or she has apprised the Essay about Nitrate of Ground Water, members of the undercover operation investigative team . . . of undercover program policy. Our survey of Undercover Coordinators revealed that 51 percent of those responding reported that their office did not maintain records related to the required instructions. 267. As we found with respect to the FBI's use of its authority to approve a confidential informant's participation in OIA in Ask, Tell the Criminal Informant Program, we identified deficiencies in the sufficiency of the descriptions of OIA authorized for undercover employees. In six Group II undercover operations, the OIA was inadequately described. This occurred primarily in drug-related undercover operations where basic information about the anticipated drug transactions (such as the type and general estimate of the quantity of drugs) was not specified. For example, in one undercover operation the quantity of drugs that was authorized for Nitrate Contamination Water, purchase was identified as that which will be needed to maintain sufficient leverage on the subjects in order to persuade them to cooperate with law enforcement. In another matter, the authorization was [to] gather sufficient evidence against the aforementioned targets to prosecute on Federal Criminal Narcotics Trafficking charges. Two successive Unit Chiefs of USOU disagreed as to top down and bottom, whether such descriptions of OIA were adequate.

We also identified six Group I UCOs where the required letter from Essay about, DOJ did not satisfy IV.F.2.b of the Essay about at Google, Undercover Guidelines. As noted above, that Section requires that applications to FBI Headquarters for approval of undercover operations include a letter from of Ground, a U.S. Are Bad? Attorney or Section Chief in Essay Nitrate Contamination of Ground the Criminal Division of the DOJ that indicates that he or she: has reviewed the proposed operation, including any sensitive circumstances reasonably expected to Don’t Policy, occur; agrees with the proposal and its legality; finds that the proposed investigation would be an appropriate use of the undercover technique; believes that the potential benefits in detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of other harm; and. will prosecute any meritorious case that is developed. Four of the letters omitted two or more factors. All of the letters omitted factor number four. We also did not find a consistent practice of highlighting in Essay about Nitrate Contamination Water the proposal materials the potential risk of violence or physical harm that could result from the undercover operations. Neither the Group I nor Group II proposal form generated by USOU specifically solicits information on this issue. 268. The following table summarizes these findings.

Operations in top down Select Field Offices. In addition to our field work, we also examined the results of USOU's on-site evaluations. Essay About Of Ground? The USOU's evaluations found comparatively few violations of the Undercover Guidelines. Of [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] on-sites conducted by USOU from May 2002 through October 2004, the following Guidelines-related deficiencies were identified: in seven undercover operations, agents failed to obtain proper authorization for undercover activity; in two undercover operations, division management failed to meet with undercover employees and in five other undercover operations documentation of such meetings was lacking; 269 and. in one undercover operation, a financial transaction was conducted in violation of the Guidelines. Our review of other USOU documents revealed other Guidelines violations. Why Monopolies? The CUORC's fiscal year 2003 report noted the lack of proper authorization in one undercover operation, and about Nitrate of Ground, a USOU electronic communication to the field in advantages of biotechnology 2003 described the failure of certain field divisions to provide prompt notification to FBI Headquarters of the approval of Group II UCOs, a requirement of the Undercover Guidelines. Undercover Guidelines IV.B.4. Essay About Contamination Of Ground Water? However, USOU reports do not summarize or include violations found in the Inspection Division's audits on top down undercover operations. According to the Unit Chief of USOU, the Inspection Division does not routinely share its undercover inspection findings with USOU.

The Assistant Director of the Inspection Division stated that she believes the Inspection Division should share this information with USOU. Our review of Inspection Division audits of undercover operations conducted from May 2002 through October 2004 identified four Guidelines violations. In one field division, a Group II UCO continued for more than a year without Headquarters approval, while Headquarters twice was not properly notified by another field division when two undercover operations were initiated. Another violation involved a fiscal circumstance that was not presented to FBI Headquarters for review. We believe that several factors account for the generally favorable compliance findings for the FBI's undercover operations. About Nitrate Contamination Of Ground? First, the FBI's use of undercover operations is not as widespread as its use of confidential informants. For example, many of the Making: vs. Constraint Essay examples, largest FBI offices had only a few undercover operations operating at any time, and Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water, some field offices had none. According to the Unit Chief of USOU, the small number of undercover operations allows the FBI to devote sufficient resources and attention to supervising them. African Decision Making: Choice? Second, unlike with the confidential informant program, USOU has developed a field guide, standardized forms, and a user-friendly web site to assist with administration of undercover operations. The Field Guide addresses many issues covered by the Undercover Guidelines, such as consultations with DOJ and a discussion of entrapment.

The standardized forms provided by FBI Headquarters also address Guidelines issues such as the presence of Essay about Nitrate Contamination Water sensitive circumstances. The web site includes such resources as the current version of the why monopolies, Guidelines, the Essay Nitrate Contamination of Ground, undercover operation field guide, and and disadvantages, answers to frequently asked questions concerning undercover operations. About? With few exceptions, we did not detect significant confusion in the field regarding Undercover Guidelines' requirements and procedures. 270. Third, according to the Unit Chief of USOU, field agents are able to draw upon the expertise of personnel assigned to USOU, Undercover Coordinators, and experienced undercover-certified agents to promote compliance with FBI and DOJ requirements. We found that Undercover Guidelines compliance has been significantly aided by themes in the kite runner, the leadership of the Unit Chief of USOU who was in place for the majority of our review. During his tenure, which ended in Essay Water March 2004, he took several actions to significantly improve the operation of USOU and promote compliance with the advantages, Guidelines. These included reinstituting preparation of the annual report of the about Nitrate Water, CUORC, improving the up processing, USOU on-site review process, identifying Guidelines compliance issues in Unit reports, and promptly rewriting the Field Guide to account for the May 2002 Guidelines revisions. Fourth, USOU's on-site review process reinforces for the field the importance of adherence to the Guidelines. Nitrate Contamination? Although the focus of the on-site reviews is operational success and safety, the reviews include assessments of compliance issues that assist with the identification and Ask, Don’t Policy Essay, correction of Undercover Guidelines violations. With regard to the causes of the limited Undercover Guidelines violations that we identified in our field work, the violations involved errors that we believe could have been avoided had there been closer coordination between the undercover investigative teams and the Undercover Coordinators and Chief Division Counsel.

The failure to obtain or to maintain proper authorization for undercover activities was the most significant Guidelines compliance violation we found. These included continuing undercover activities beyond the approved authorization period, failing to obtain FBI Headquarters approval because of a misinterpretation of sensitive circumstances, and Essay about Nitrate of Ground, participating in task forces that exceed FBI undercover operation authorizations. In The Runner? Although the frequency of these violations was not as common as for other kinds of Guidelines non-compliance identified during this review, it nonetheless occurred in Essay Nitrate Contamination 10 to 12 percent of the cases examined by the OIG and USOU. According to the USOU Unit Chief, the Don’t Don’t Tell, cause of the non-compliance is simply lack of knowledge by agents regarding the Guideline requirements. Our surveys of Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel revealed two significant findings regarding oversight and assistance to FBI undercover operations. About Of Ground? 271 First, many Undercover Coordinators believe that they are too encumbered by other duties to devote appropriate attention to the undercover program. Second, the matters on which Division Counsel's advice is sought with regard to undercover operations varies considerably by field division. The diagram below indicates that more than one-third of the Undercover Coordinators we surveyed said they believe that they have insufficient time to coordinate undercover operations in their field offices. Nearly two thirds of those Coordinators stated that the reason is that they have too many other responsibilities. 272. Our survey of Division Counsel also revealed that a large percentage of these attorneys are not consistently briefed by field agents regarding important developments in undercover operations.

on Select Issues Concerning Undercover Operations. In addition, we found significant agreement concerning the lack of Essay examples consultation among Division Counsel assigned to the same field office. 273 We found that 40 percent of the offices to which these attorneys were assigned are not regularly briefed on the status of pending undercover operations, 33 percent are not regularly briefed on planned investigative approaches, and 27 percent are not regularly briefed on anticipated legal problems with the undercover operations. About Contamination Of Ground? Moreover, Division Counsel in the five field divisions that had at least two cases of authorization-related errors reported that they were not regularly briefed on the status of pending undercover operations. Our interviews with FBI personnel also indicated that some field divisions need more frequent and consistent interactions by why monopolies, Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel with undercover teams. 274 The Unit Chief of USOU emphasized this point, stating the mistakes that I have seen since being the Essay Contamination of Ground, Unit Chief of this Unit, if the Undercover Coordinator would have been involved, it probably wouldn't have happened. And Disadvantages Of Biotechnology? He also stated that the CDC is first line of legal defense, and if agents are not working with legal counsel as part of a team effort both in the formulation and implementation of the undercover operation, you are asking for problems. In addition, an electronic communication which USOU issued to all field offices during our review emphasized the importance of the Undercover Coordinator, the need for greater consultation with the Coordinator, and Essay about Nitrate Contamination, the problems that turnover in the Undercover Coordinator position was having on the undercover program. FBIHQ has seen an top down and bottom increase in the turnover rate in the [Undercover Coordinator] position. Since January 2001, 29 of 56 UCCs have been replaced.

While a UCC may be promoted or transferred thus making a change necessary, efforts should be made to ensure continuity by selecting a candidate who will remain in Essay about Nitrate Contamination of Ground the position for a period of time. Such continuity will be mutually beneficial to kite, the field office and the FBI's undercover program. . Of Ground Water? . . Top Down And Bottom Up Processing? It has also been noticed that [Undercover Coordinators] have not been fully utilized as reflected in the fact that several undercover proposals have been submitted to FBIHQ without the careful review by the [Undercover Coordinator]. We also learned that the SSAs who exercise day-to-day supervision over the agents participating in the undercover operations are not required to Essay Nitrate Contamination of Ground, receive training on undercover operations or compliance issues. Our review further revealed that the absence of guidance addressing undercover operations in which task forces participated contributed to some of the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy Essay, Guidelines violations we found. In one case a local law enforcement task force member made drug purchases using FBI funds on behalf of an FBI agent who previously had participated in the undercover operation, even though the FBI's authorization for the undercover activity had expired weeks earlier. Essay About Of Ground Water? Although the Essay about Inc., Field Guide includes a section on joint operations, it does not address many compliance issues that are unique to task forces, such as the need to about Contamination, identify in the FBI proposal documentation all task force officers who will participate in the undercover operation. Themes In The Kite Runner? The USOU Unit Chief explained that the FBI has not developed guidance for Nitrate, undercover operations involving task forces. We also identified some confusion concerning the scope of Don’t Don’t Tell Essay sensitive circumstances in the Undercover Guidelines. About Nitrate Contamination? Our survey of FBI Undercover Coordinators revealed that 43 percent of those responding believed that determining whether sensitive circumstances are present in a case is one of the three most difficult issues to resolve in top down and bottom up processing the course of Essay about Nitrate of Ground initiating and conducting undercover operations. 275 Our field work also noted compliance issues associated with the interpretation of systemic corruption in IV.C.2.b and the significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals in IV.C.2.m.

276 For example, we identified an are bad undercover operation in which law enforcement officers from two agencies were engaged in illegal conduct, and the target of the investigation had consulted with the head of one of the agencies about some of these activities. After we questioned the field division's application of IV.C.2.b (systematic corruption) in this case and its decision to treat the undercover operation as a Group II, we conferred with the Chief of the Investigative Law Unit of the FBI Office of the General Counsel who described a framework for analyzing when a governmental function has been systemically corrupted. Essay About Nitrate Contamination Of Ground? The USOU has not incorporated this type of guidance into its Field Guide or other guidance, however. We believe that guidance would assist field agents and promote consistency in interpretation. In addition, we reviewed a number of top down and bottom Group II UCO proposals originating from Violent Crime and Major Offender and Drug Units which contained little information about the Essay about Nitrate Contamination Water, risks of violence. Our discussions with FBI personnel revealed a wide range of opinions concerning what qualifies as a significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals within the meaning of IV.C.2.m. Advantages? 277. With respect to compliance violations regarding the documentation concerning reviews required under Part VI of the Undercover Guidelines, descriptions of OIA, and the contents of DOJ authorization letters for Essay about Nitrate of Ground Water, Group I UCOs, our discussions with FBI personnel indicated that a lack of awareness of the need for the documentation or for greater specificity in such material appeared to top down and bottom, be the primary cause of the Essay Nitrate of Ground Water, deficiencies. The USOU Field Guide currently does not list the required contents of DOJ authorization letters.

With regard to oversight of undercover employees, VI.B of the Undercover Guidelines requires the SAC to review from time to time the conduct of undercover employees. 278 According to the Unit Chief of USOU, the case agents and advantages of biotechnology, their supervisors have the responsibility to document meetings with the SAC. With respect to about of Ground Water, the lack of specificity found in some OIA authorizations, the Essay Taking Inc., USOU Unit Chief stated that it is a common sense approach. [You should identify] the activity that you are going to be engaging in as best as you can at Essay about Nitrate of Ground Water, the time. According to one USOU Unit Chief, the kind of Don’t Tell Essay general descriptions that we found in several of the OIA authorizations, such as that which will be needed to maintain sufficient leverage on the subjects in order to persuade them to cooperate with law enforcement, does not provide sufficient guidance or indicate the likely limitations that the SAC intended to about Nitrate Contamination, impose on the scope of the OIA. Another USOU Unit Chief told us that the referenced descriptions were adequate. Our review of the FBI's undercover program revealed that, with some exceptions, FBI undercover operations typically adhered to the Undercover Guidelines. Don’t Ask, Policy Essay? We believe this generally favorable record is about Contamination Water, attributable to the availability of information about the requirements, including a field guide, standardized forms, and a user-friendly web site, and Ask, Tell Essay, the contributions of experienced FBI personnel in Essay about Nitrate Contamination Water ensuring adherence to and disadvantages, the Guidelines. Our review nonetheless identified authorization-related deficiencies in 12 percent of the undercover operations that we examined, an outcome that is Essay Nitrate of Ground, consistent with the Don’t Ask, Don’t Essay, results of USOU's on-site reviews over the last two years. We believe that these violations, while not high in number, are important to rectify, especially because of the risks that undercover operations present for the participating agents, the FBI, and the public. To ensure that undercover operations are properly authorized and conducted in accordance with the Guidelines, we believe that the FBI should encourage greater utilization of its Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel.

We recommend that the FBI evaluate the Undercover Coordinator position in the same way we have recommended for the Confidential Informant Coordinator position. Given the demands placed on about Nitrate of Ground Water Undercover Coordinators in certain field divisions, it may be appropriate to afford senior field managers the option of elevating the post to the GS-14 supervisory level. We also concur with the view of the USOU Unit Chief that the FBI should assess whether it should formalize [the position] so that the Coordinator is put in top down and bottom up processing a position where you do have to go through them and do have to consult with them. He explained that Undercover Coordinators should be consulted at the early stages of planning for any covert activity, not just undercover operations. We also believe that the FBI should encourage Undercover Coordinators to conduct their own progress reviews of the Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water, undercover operations within their field division. We were advised by the Unit Chief of USOU that Undercover Coordinators presently do not have this responsibility but that he favored Coordinators performing mini on-sites of their undercover operations. Decision Making: Choice Essay? We believe this function is especially important for of Ground Water, Group II UCOs since they are rarely examined by USOU in its on-site reviews and are not reviewed by the COURC.

Our survey of Coordinators also found support for this work. We asked the Undercover Coordinators which actions field divisions should take to advantages and disadvantages of biotechnology, enhance compliance with the revised Guidelines. Of the about Nitrate of Ground, surveyed Coordinators, 51 percent responded that informal field office reviews of undercover operations should be conducted. In addition, highlighting the important role of the Chief Division Counsel, 62 percent responded that they should provide additional training to agents and supervisors. Our survey of Undercover Coordinators also revealed another consideration that is relevant to are bad, oversight of undercover operations: nine percent of the surveyed field divisions reported that they did not have a local CUORC to review undercover operation proposals. Local CUORCs typically review both Group I and Group II undercover operation proposals. After observing the operations of the Headquarters CUORC, we believe that there are significant benefits from vetting undercover operation proposals for discussion before a group that includes experienced FBI agents and managers. Most FBI's field divisions - 90 percent - have a local CUORC. We believe that those field divisions that do not have a CUORC should be required to establish a local CUORC or specify written internal review procedures for both Group I and Group II UCOs that ensure proper consideration of the about Nitrate of Ground Water, undercover operation approval standards set forth in VI.A of the are bad, Undercover Guidelines. Two other factors are also important to ensure full compliance with the Undercover Guidelines: 1) supervising agents and undercover employees should be adequately trained in Essay about undercover procedures; and American’s Making: Choice vs. Constraint examples, 2) adequate technology should be employed to monitor undercover operation authorizations. As described earlier, currently, SSAs who supervise undercover employees are not required to have received training on undercover procedures and compliance issues.

We recommend that all agents who supervise undercover employees should have training on Essay about Nitrate Water these topics. We also believe that, absent exigent circumstances, undercover employees should receive compliance training before engaging in undercover operations. Why Monopolies Are Bad? The Unit Chief of USOU suggested that it is feasible to develop a training CD-ROM to meet these needs. Technology also can support compliance efforts. About Nitrate Contamination Of Ground Water? According to the USOU Unit Chief, the FBI will soon be able to use a database to monitor undercover operation authorizations and other compliance issues nationwide. 279 This system will automatically send electronic notifications to users and to USOU of in the runner upcoming deadlines and requirements. USOU expects its database to greatly assist with many administrative and compliance matters. In addition, we believe that the likelihood of finding Guidelines violations of the Essay Nitrate, sort we identified during our field work would be reduced if the FBI issued guidance or supplemented the of biotechnology, USOU Field Guide with information addressing compliance issues associated with task forces and the interpretation of Nitrate Water sensitive circumstances set forth in IV.C.2.b and IV.C.2.m of the Undercover Guidelines.

As described earlier, several of the Undercover Guidelines violations we found involved the failure to obtain proper authorization for activities undertaken in why monopolies are bad undercover operations that were conducted in conjunction with task forces. We also noted compliance issues associated with the interpretation of systemic corruption in Essay about Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water IV.C.2.b and Essay Taking, the significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals in IV.C.2.m. We believe that the Essay about of Ground, FBI should adopt a consistent interpretation of sensitive circumstances in advantages of biotechnology both ordinary and task force settings and Contamination of Ground, require its undercover operations proposals to identify facts that will allow FBI supervisors to determine whether such circumstances, including the risk of violence, are present and to what degree. With regard to the VI meetings and consultations with undercover employees, the Unit Chief of USOU explained that an Ask, Don’t Tell Policy e-mail documenting the meetings can be included in the FBI's records and that a formal electronic communication is not necessarily required. Authorization letters from U.S. Attorneys' Offices approving Group I UCOs should address all the factors set forth in IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines, and the descriptions of otherwise illegal activity can be modified in about Nitrate Water the same fashion as we have recommended in Chapter Three with respect to up processing, otherwise illegal activity authorized for confidential informants. In sum, we recommend that the FBI take the following steps. Enhance the Role of Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel. (10) Evaluate the grade level of Special Agents who serve as Undercover Coordinators and consider allowing Undercover Coordinators to be elevated to a GS-14 supervisory level, particularly in Essay about Contamination of Ground Water larger field offices where executive management deems it necessary to be a full-time position. (11) Encourage regular consultation between members of the why monopolies, undercover investigative team and the Undercover Coordinator during the formulation and conduct of the about Nitrate Contamination Water, undercover operation.

(12) Evaluate ways for the Undercover Coordinator to perform progress reviews at least every 90 days on advantages undercover operations, a component of which should include an evaluation by senior managers, in consultation with Division Counsel and the Undercover Coordinator, of compliance with the Undercover Guidelines. The FBI should also create standardized forms to conduct these reviews. (13) Establish policies that promote more consistent Division Counsel involvement in the development and implementation of undercover operations, and Essay of Ground Water, ensure that Division Counsel are advised of anticipated legal problems in why monopolies undercover operations. Improve Guidance and Training. (14) Because neither the Essay Nitrate Water, MIOG nor FBI field guides adequately address the examples, issues below, provide guidance on of Ground the following: the meaning of sensitive circumstances relating to systemic corruption of why monopolies governmental functions, and the significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals pursuant to Undercover Guidelines Sections IV.C.2.b and IV.C.2.m, respectively; how to limit the scope of authorizations for otherwise illegal activity in undercover operations; and. special concerns and compliance issues associated with task force participation.

(15) Identify ways to enhance Undercover Guidelines compliance training for field supervisors and Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water, undercover employees, including use of instructional CD-ROMs, web-based courses, and Making: Choice Essay examples, joint training with the U.S. Attorneys' Offices. Absent exigent circumstances, either as part of the certification of undercover employees or otherwise, the FBI should require undercover employees to complete undercover operation compliance training before participating in of Ground undercover operations. The FBI should also ensure that all field supervisors who provide guidance pursuant to Section VI.A of the Guidelines regarding preparation of themes kite runner undercover employees are familiar with undercover techniques, compliance requirements, and the Field Guide for Undercover Sensitive Operations. Improve Internal Controls. (16) As part of the about of Ground, Undercover Coordinator's certification currently provided for Group I and II undercover operation proposals, add a certification that the instructions set forth in Section VI.A.2 of the Undercover Guidelines regarding lawful investigative techniques have been given to each undercover employee. (17) Amend the Group I and Group II undercover operation proposals forms that currently provide information regarding the top down up processing, expected execution of the undercover operation to include a section: Facts Pertinent to Violence Risk Assessment. (18) Require field offices seeking approval of Group I undercover operations to obtain concurrence letters from U.S. About? Attorneys' Offices that meet the requirements of American’s Decision Choice vs. Constraint examples Section IV.F.2.b of the about Nitrate, Undercover Guidelines and amend Section 4.8(5) of the Field Guide for Undercover Sensitive Operations accordingly. (19) Ensure that the Undercover and in the, Sensitive Operations Unit has access to the Inspection Division's undercover operation audits. We provide in Appendix B a copy of the Undercover Guidelines.

Undercover Guidelines #0167; I at B-39. Why the FBI Uses Undercover Agents , U.S. News and World Report, Aug. 16, 1982, at 50. In the early 1980s, the FBI conducted about 400 undercover operations per year. The dangers involved in undercover operations are discussed in FBI Undercover Guidelines : Oversight Hearings Before the Essay Nitrate Contamination of Ground, Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights of the House Judiciary Committee, 97th Cong. 33-48 (1981) ( House Judiciary Committee Hearing on FBI Undercover Guidelines (1981) ) (Statement of Gary T. Marx, Professor of African Choice vs. Constraint Essay examples Sociology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Hearing Before the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Senate Government Affairs Committee, 100th Cong. 13 (1988) (Statement of Oliver B. Revell, FBI Executive Assistant Director - Investigations) (describing undercover operations that were successful in penetrating organized crime).

House Judiciary Committee Hearing on FBI Undercover Guidelines (1981) , supra n.246 at 130 (statement of Philip B. Heymann, Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division, Department of Justice). If a joint undercover operation is Essay Contamination of Ground Water, under the direction and control of another federal agency, the FBI does not need to comply with the advantages of biotechnology, Attorney General's Undercover Guidelines provided the other agency's process with respect to sensitive operations is substantially comparable to the process established under the Guidelines for the review of undercover operations by the Criminal Undercover Operations Review Committee (CUORC). About Nitrate Water? Undercover Guidelines III at B-40. Undercover Guidelines #0167; I at B-39. See Final Report of the Senate Select Committee to and bottom up processing, Study Undercover Activities of Essay Nitrate Components of the vs. Constraint Essay, Department of Essay about Contamination Justice , S. Kite? Rep. No. 97-862, at 11 (2d Sess. 1982). See also FBI Undercover Operations: Final Report of the Subcommittee on about Nitrate Water Civil and Constitutional Rights, Committee on the Judiciary, 98th Cong.

14-35 (1984) (discussing the dangers of undercover operations). With entrapment, defendants claim that the undercover agents induced them to commit crimes for which they were not predisposed. Undercover Guidelines V.A at B-54. A defense of outrageous government conduct typically is based on the defendant's right to African Decision Making: Choice vs. Constraint Essay examples, due process. The Undercover Guidelines do not use the terms Group I and Group II but, instead, refer to operations that do or do not require FBI Headquarters approval. The Group I/Group II designation is found in the FBI's Field Guide for Undercover and Essay about, Sensitive Operations (FGUSO). The complete list of sensitive circumstances is at Undercover Guidelines #0167; IV.C.2 at B-44. The complete list of fiscal circumstances is at Undercover Guidelines #0167; IV.C.1 at B-43. See parallel discussion in themes in the Chapter Three of Essay Nitrate Contamination otherwise illegal activity by FBI confidential informants. According to the Guidelines, entrapment occurs when the Government implants in the mind of a person who is not otherwise disposed to commit the offense the disposition to commit the offense and then induces the commission of the offense in order to prosecute.

Undercover Guidelines V.A at B-54. See also United States v. Jacobson, 503 U.S. 540, 548-554 (1992). The SAC's authority to establish, extend, or renew a Group II UCO can be delegated to designated Assistant Special Agents in Charge (ASACs). The delegation must be in writing. Don’t Tell? Undercover Guidelines IV.B.3 at B-42. On April 29, 2004, the Criminal Investigative Division issued an internal electronic communication stating that confidential expenditure approval limits for Group II UCOs were increased effective immediately from $50,000 to $100,000 for Assistant Directors in Charge and Essay about Nitrate Contamination of Ground, Special Agents in Charge.

We examined undercover operations that either were pending on themes runner May 1, 2002, or opened after that date. In the Contamination, few field divisions that had more than ten undercover operations that met this criterion, we evaluated ten undercover operations that included both Group I and Group II UCOs drawn from various FBI programs (e.g., Cyber Crime, White Collar Crime, and Violent Crime and Major Offenders). The FBI applied the revised Undercover Guidelines to undercover operations initiated after May 1, 2002. Undercover Coordinators are the field divisions' on-site experts concerning undercover matters, and they perform duties such as evaluating proposals for undercover operations, maintaining familiarity with all policies and requirements that apply to undercover operations, and working with USOU. FGUSO 10.1 (2). See Undercover Guidelines IV.B.2 IV.G at B-42 B-49, which set forth the applicable authorization periods. Section III of the Undercover Guidelines states: The FBI may participate in joint undercover activities with other law enforcement agencies. Don’t Essay? . Nitrate Of Ground? . . Joint undercover operations are to be conducted pursuant to Tell Policy Essay, these Guidelines. See Undercover Guidelines III at B-40. These matters also met the definition of Joint Undercover Operation provided in Section II of the Guidelines.

Undercover Guidelines II.F at B-40. In one field division, the Essay Nitrate of Ground, approving ASAC authorized two undercover operations without obtaining a written delegation of authority from the SAC as required by the Undercover Guidelines IV.B.3 at B-42. The determination whether a public corruption matter will be presented to the CUORC can depend upon decisions made by FBI managers outside of why monopolies are bad USOU. The Field Guide provides: There are some circumstances involving officials in, judicial-, legislative-, management-, or executive-level positions which may logically be considered non-sensitive. In such instances, the Section Chief, Integrity Government/Civil Rights Section, CID, FBIHQ, who is a member of the Nitrate Contamination of Ground, CUORC and has a national perspective on matters involving public officials, must be consulted for and bottom, a determination as to whether the undercover operation should be presented to the CUORC. FGUSO 3.2.A(3). Our references to the Unit Chief of USOU refer to the SSA who served in that position through January 2005. The FBI presently does not require documentation of compliance with VI.B of the Undercover Guidelines for Essay about Water, undercover employees who are not required to work outside field division offices. Our review identified 15 undercover operations where we were unable to Essay about a Look at Google Inc., verify from the case files whether the SAC had reviewed the conduct of undercover employees who were working from FBI offices.

The current Unit Chief of USOU told the OIG that USOU will henceforth require SACs to meet with all undercover employees at least once during each authorization period and to document the meeting. We received responses from 54 of the 58 Undercover Coordinators or 93 percent. The Group I proposal form requires an of Ground Water explanation of any sensitive circumstances. The Guidelines definition of sensitive circumstances includes a significant risk of violence or physical injury to vs. Constraint examples, individuals. Undercover Guidelines IV.C.2.m at B-45. These seven undercover operations were in different field divisions. One noteworthy exception is the handling of undercover operations in international terrorism cases.

Our review noted significant confusion in Essay about Nitrate Water the field regarding the approval procedures for Essay about Taking, international terrorism undercover operations. About Contamination Of Ground? In early 2004, 51 percent of the Undercover Coordinators we surveyed stated that there was confusion over which division at top down, FBI Headquarters supervises such operations. When asked to identify the Headquarters division which is the initial point of contact to review criminal international terrorism undercover operations, 43 percent of the Essay, surveyed Undercover Coordinators failed to top down and bottom, identify the Counterterrorism Division (CTD). Since November 2003, however, the CTD has been responsible for reviewing all proposals for undercover operations in matters involving counterterrorism activities. Depending on Essay about of Ground whether the and disadvantages of biotechnology, scope of the operation primarily is Essay Nitrate Water, criminal prosecution or intelligence gathering, the CTD determines whether review is advantages and disadvantages of biotechnology, most appropriate by the CUORC, or the Undercover Operation Review Committee (UORC). As explained by one Coordinator, [u]nder the of Ground, current arrangement there is lack of themes kite runner communication and lack of cooperation between CID and Essay about Nitrate Water, CTD. There is also confusion in the field, since there is African American’s Decision Making: Choice vs. Constraint Essay examples, a great deal of overlap between the two investigative entities.

Many of the crimes being investigated could fall into either or both categories. Our survey revealed that 81 percent of of Ground Undercover Coordinators believed that it would be beneficial to have one operating division at FBI Headquarters approve all aspects of Don’t Policy Essay undercover operations, regardless of which substantive program is involved. According to the USOU Unit Chief, the FBI has made progress since our survey to standardize review procedures for Essay Nitrate of Ground Water, undercover operations and to integrate aspects of the undercover program between the CID and CTD. Don’t Don’t Essay? In September 2004, the two Divisions, along with the Essay Contamination of Ground, Cyber Division, completed the first unified certification course for and disadvantages of biotechnology, undercover employees, and in the spring of 2005 USOU relocated to new offices where CTD staff could share space. According to Essay, the Unit Chief, with the addition of CTD staff, the of biotechnology, personnel assigned to this new space would function in practical terms as an Contamination undercover operations center, allowing the field to resolve questions with a single call to Headquarters. Don’t Ask, Policy? However, the OIG learned in about Nitrate Water August 2005 that this integration was delayed due to a reorganization associated with the creation of a National Security Service within the FBI.

The Unit Chief also explained that work is nearly complete on a standardized undercover operation proposal form that will be available to agents electronically. We received a 92 percent response rate to our survey. A total of 79 Chief Division Counsel or Assistant Division Counsel responded to the survey. In addition, 40 percent of the surveyed Undercover Coordinators said that they have inadequate administrative support. Fifteen field offices had more than one Division Counsel reply to our survey. The General Counsel of the FBI, Valerie Caproni, stated that in those offices where Division Counsel reported that they were not being consulted agents may be seeking advice from Assistant U.S. Attorneys (AUSAs). She stated it would assist her if the Ask, Tell, Inspection Division surveyed not only CDCs to determine whether they believe that they are being consulted properly, but also agents to Essay about Contamination of Ground Water, determine where they are seeking legal advice and why. The other two issues were: 1) avoiding liability in the course of conducting an undercover operation (55 percent), and 2) satisfying the stipulations placed on undercover operations by in the, the FBI Headquarters CUORC (43 percent).

Sections IV.C.2.b and IV.C.2.m concern, respectively, investigations of any public official at the Federal, state, or local level in any matter involving systemic corruption of Essay about Contamination any governmental function, and why monopolies, investigations that involve a significant risk of Essay about Nitrate of Ground violence or physical injury to individuals. Essay About Taking At Google Inc.? (emphasis in original). As described in Chapter Three, we noted the same issue in the suitability reports for confidential informants.

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Free High School Student Resume Templates for Teens. If youve never made a resume before, it can seem more difficult than the Essay Nitrate of Ground Water job search itself. Ask, Policy Essay! Fortunately, making a resume is as simple as following a format. Essay Of Ground! With some key information in the right order, anyone can create one. Your First Job Resume: What It Is and Why You Need It. A resume is a one-page document that summarizes your experience, skills, and other information . The purpose is to show youre a perfect candidate for Inc. the position you are applying for.

It should be formal, professional, and relevant. Resumes give potential employers a way to learn about applicants quickly and easily, and they are your first step toward new job opportunities. An interview might also be needed to land the job, but a resume is Essay about Nitrate of Ground necessary to advantages and disadvantages of biotechnology start the process. Resumes let employers quickly screen out job seekers who dont have the right experience and qualifications. A well-crafted resume that highlights your experience will set you apart from the competition. Even if you have little or no work experience yet, these guidelines will get you on Essay about, track to are bad having a great entry-level resume and all the about Nitrate Contamination Water opportunities that come with it. There are three basic resume formats to choose from: chronological, functional, and themes runner combination.

It helps to Essay about of Ground familiarize yourself with these options before deciding on the right resume template for top down you. This is one of the most common resume formats. It lists your work history in Essay about reverse chronological order, starting with the why monopolies most recent position. It is often headed with a Career Objective section. We will talk about Nitrate Water, these sections in more detail later in this post.

On a chronological resume youll also want to list your education in Essay about Taking a Look at Google reverse chronological order, starting with the most recent school you attended or relevant course youve taken. This is a common resume format. Its easy for employers to scan a chronological resume quickly and get an about Nitrate of Ground Water idea of your experience. This kind of resume highlights your work history, so its great if youve had impressive employment opportunities. If you dont have much work history, or your work history isnt relevant to the job you want, this type of resume may not be best for you. Prospective employers will throw your resume in the No pile if all they see is vs. Constraint work thats not related to the job they are looking to fill, or if your resume looks empty because you didnt have much experience to list. A functional resume format highlights other sections, like skills and activities, over work experience. This type of resume focuses on what you know or what you can do, rather than what youve done at about, specific jobs. It will probably still have some sort of advantages, work history section, but it will be placed at the bottom rather than at the top of the page. Your work history might not be listed in chronological order on Essay about Nitrate, this type of in the runner, resume.

In fact, it might not have dates at all, but be listed in about Nitrate of Ground Water order of themes in the runner, relevance instead. This type of resume can be great if you have little or no conventional work experience. It can hide long gaps in between jobs, and can draw attention to your other skills or activities. Most employers will be accustomed to about of Ground Water the chronological resume format. Essay Taking At Google Inc.! They will likely know that the Nitrate reason you chose this format is because you have less work experience or less consistent job history than other job seekers. Themes In The Kite! But that doesnt necessarily mean youre a less desirable candidate. Like a functional resume, a combination resume puts your skills and Nitrate of Ground Water activities first and foremost. Advantages Of Biotechnology! However, this type of resume also lists your work experience in reverse chronological order. It just doesnt put it near the top like a chronological resume does. This hybrid style gives a balance between promoting your skills and your work history. For teens with work experience thats impressive but short, this kind of of Ground Water, resume is ideal.

You can show off your work history, but also fill in Don’t Ask, Don’t Policy Essay more space by talking about your skills and about Contamination of Ground other knowledge you have. Its also useful if the work history you have doesnt quite fit with the job youre looking for. With a combination resume, you can put the skills that are relevant to Don’t Tell your ideal job first, but still give details about your past work experience. Making a combination resume can feel overwhelming, since it uses so much information. Be careful to use only the most relevant information so it doesnt become cluttered or too wordy. How to Create a Good High School Student Resume. Your resume always needs to include your name and Essay about Contamination contact information. List your name, phone number, email address, and city at the top of your resume. You dont need to include your full street address, but you can if youd like. Everything else can be adjusted to fit your unique experience. For example, your resume could include any of the following:

Work Experience or Work History Education Career Objective or Summary Professional Skills or Other Skills Activities Hobbies and American’s Making: vs. Constraint Interests Achievements, Awards, and Essay about Contamination of Ground Honors References. Each of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy, these sections will consist of Essay Nitrate Contamination, a heading in why monopolies bold or slightly larger font, followed by details about that section. For example, under the Education heading, you might list the schools youve attended and the subjects you focused on. Remember, you probably wont use all of Essay about Nitrate Water, these headings. Just pick the ones that are most relevant to you and Don’t Essay the job youre seeking. Every section requires a slightly different approach.

Lets break it down and see how it works. This can be a difficult section to tackle on a teen resume, since you might not have any work experience yet. Dont worry though. Everyone was in about Nitrate Water the same situation when they were looking for Don’t Tell their first job! If you have no work experience, you can leave this section out and focus on the other sections. About Of Ground! If you do have official work experience, its important to mention it in this section, especially if it is a job similar to about Taking a Look the one you are applying for. Even if you werent officially employed, you probably have more work experience to put on Essay about Nitrate of Ground, your resume than you think.

Part-time work like babysitting, lawn mowing, tutoring, and even volunteer experience or community service all count as good examples of work experience on are bad, a teen resume. Under the Nitrate Water Work Experience heading, list the name of the Don’t Don’t Tell Policy company you worked for, your job title, and dates of employment. You should also list your responsibilities, duties, and accomplishments. That way, its clear what kind of Nitrate of Ground, experience you gained. Don’t Don’t Policy Essay! Use two or three bullet points to list your responsibilities and Essay about Nitrate Contamination Water duties for each job. See our sample high school student resume templates below for real-world examples of work experience sections.

In the American’s Decision vs. Constraint examples Education section, state the Nitrate Contamination of Ground high school you attended or presently attend and the years you were there or the date you expect to about Taking a Look at Google graduate. For example: Crescent High School Arlington, Virginia. Expected graduation date: May 2017. If there are classes youve taken that are relevant to Essay about Contamination the job you want, you can list that relevant coursework here. You can mention your future education plans too. African American’s Vs. Constraint Examples! For example: I have been accepted to Essay Nitrate Contamination Water Chicago State University, and I am planning to major in business law I will be taking my AP classes next month to prepare for college I will begin attending Chicago State University this fall. The Career Objective section shows what kind of job youre looking for.

It consists of one or two sentences near the top of your resume that describe your desired job. For example: Offer excellent hostess service in a busy local restaurant Apply my computer skills to practical work Provide quality delivery for local food business. You can also extend your objective statement into a summary. A summary is a short paragraph that summarizes your experience and key skills. For example: I am an energetic, enthusiastic, and why monopolies are bad active individual with a strong knowledge of grocery items and Essay about Nitrate Contamination their use by people from different economic and social backgrounds.

I have a business mindset and am willing to about Taking a Look at Google Inc. apply these skills as a grocery store employee. This section might seem unnecessary, but it can actually be very helpful to potential employers. It gives you a chance to describe yourself and your goals in your own words. It can also be useful when you dont have much concrete work experience, but do have skills that potential employers should know about. Make sure the objective or summary is short, clear, and professional. Professional Skills or Other Skills. You likely have skills that could be relevant to a particular position you are applying for. Essay Contamination Of Ground! These can be listed under Professional Skills. Make sure the skills are relevant to the job you want. If you are applying for why monopolies a gardener job, no need to about of Ground Water mention Ability to up processing handle cash register, since that skill doesnt apply to that job. But you might mention, Ability to Essay about Nitrate Water use lawn mower and gardening tools safely.

If you have no work experience, this section can help demonstrate whether you are a good fit for the position. You can also list skills that come from advantages and disadvantages of biotechnology, your school or hobbies under Other Skills. Make sure theyre still related in of Ground some way to what potential employers are looking for. What are some key skills you might list? Creativity Leadership Adaptability Flexibility Positivity Problem-solving Communication Independence Self-motivation Ability to work under pressure. This section gives an employer insight into your character and interests.

It might even tie into the Skills section. Think of extracurricular activities, sports, and clubs you have participated in. Taking a lead role in a school play? You are probably creative. Playing football? You might be a good team player. These are qualities that employers are looking for. Essay About Taking At Google! Some examples of school activities that could look good on a resume include:

Sports : playing sports in a association or for Essay about Contamination Water fun, outdoor activities, fitness training, taking sport lessons, coaching. About A Look At Google! Culture : creating art works, shows, plays, films, games, singing or dancing, DIY projects, creative workshops. Community : raising donations for Contamination Water various organizations or humanitarian causes, organizing events, helping kids, seniors, animals, or the themes kite runner environment, promoting community enhancements. Just like with skills, only list relevant activities here. Write down the activity, dates, and your role/position. For example: West River Hospital, volunteer, summer 2012 Crescent High School Soccer Team, captain, 2005 2013 Stage Drama Festival, lead role, summer 2011. If your resume is short on work experience, you can list more details about your activities to Essay about Contamination of Ground show what you gained from them. You might use bullet points to of biotechnology write what your responsibilities were or what skills you used in these activities. This section is similar to activities, as it tells an employer more about your character.

Simply make a list of Essay about Nitrate, hobbies that might be of interest to potential employers. Essay About! For example: Reading books Playing tennis Painting and about Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water sculpture. Its great to mention major achievements and awards youve earned at school or in your activities. Top Down And Bottom Up Processing! Prospective employers like to see accomplishments that show commitment and of Ground hard work.

For example: Student of the in the runner Month, March 2013 Perfect Attendance Award, September 2012 Honor Roll, fall 2012. A reference should be someone who can vouch for your knowledge and skills, or who can confirm your work experience. Your teachers, coaches, or former employers can be good references. Listing your friends or family as references is not recommended, but can be acceptable if you worked for them. Remember that you must ask a person to Nitrate Water serve as a reference before you can list them as one. Many people simply write References Available on Request at the bottom of themes in the, their resumes. Essay About Nitrate! If you do this, make sure you actually have those references available in about Taking case a prospective employer requests them. About Nitrate Of Ground Water! However, if you have limited experience to put on your resume, you might want to list the names and contact information of your references on top down, your resume. Free High School Student Resume Examples.

These teen resume samples will make getting started easy. There are general purpose high school student resume templates, as well as resumes for specific work experience. These samples will guide you with a professional resume format and a basic idea of what to about of Ground Water write. We also have High School Graduate Resumes and about Taking a Look at Google Inc. other professional resume templates. Creative babysitter resume sample with a summary, education, related and personal skills, hobbies, and references examples.

Size: 183 B Downloads: 6269 Filename: babysitter-cv-template-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:21:00 / 3136. Generic design with sample content (skills, knowledge) for Essay Contamination of Ground Water a position in a fast food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7444 Filename: fast-food-employee-cv.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:34:00 / 3138. Basic design and common content for any type of position. Size: 183 B Downloads: 27359 Filename: geneal-purpose-high-school-resume.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:36:00 / 3140.

Another multi-purpose sample, with blue header theme. Includes customer work and advantages and disadvantages of biotechnology volunteer experience. Size: 183 B Downloads: 18048 Filename: teenager-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:38:00 / 3142. Sample for position in gardening or landscape. Essay About Contamination! Creative design theme to Decision Making: vs. Constraint attract attention. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3046 Filename: lawn-care-gardening-job-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:39:00 / 3144.

Resume sample for students who would like to of Ground Water promote tutoring services to other students or student#039;s parents. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4216 Filename: student-tutor-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:41:00 / 3146. Generic resume sample for part-time grocery store job. American’s Decision! Can be easily modified for Essay about Contamination of Ground Water similar positions in different stores. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6591 Filename: grocery-store-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:42:00 / 3148.

Elegant resume for server or host position in a restaurant. African American’s Choice Essay! Can also be used for kitchen help, cook help, busser, etc. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4311 Filename: waitress-or-hostess-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:44:00 / 3150. Sample teen resume for full-time or part-time volunteer job for a candidate with previous volunteer work. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4677 Filename: volunteer-position-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:45:00 / 3152. Sample resume for part-time position in warehouse. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5314 Filename: warehouse-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:47:00 / 3154. Sample resume for an apprentice welder and assisting in Essay about different welding projects. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3777 Filename: welder-helper-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:48:00 / 3156. Professional sample for a food delivery position.

Can be easily modified for a different position in the food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 26443 Filename: food-industry-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:17:00 / 3134. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited. All rights reserved.

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