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Marking Their Own Homework: The Pragmatic and proposal Moral Legitimacy of hobbies for teen, Industry Self-Regulation. When is industry self-regulation (ISR) a legitimate form of governance? In principle, ISR can serve the interests of participating companies, regulators and other stakeholders. Pride Darcy Proposal. However, in practice, empirical evidence shows that ISR schemes often under-perform, leading to british criticism that such schemes are tantamount to proposal firms marking their own homework. Autobiography Vs Biography. In response, this paper explains how current management theory on ISR has failed to separate the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR based on and prejudice proposal self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on normative approval. The paper traces three families of management theory on Fear in The ISR and uses these to map the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. It identifies tensions between the pride and prejudice proposal, pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR schemes, which the current ISR literature does not address, and draws implications for the future theory and practice of ISR.
Industry self-regulation (ISR) is widely used in contemporary global governance to provide public goods such as a cleaner natural environment, stable financial systems or ethical supply chains (Braithwaite 2008 ; Delmas and Young 2009 ). Defined as the on Democracy Middle, voluntary association of firms to pride proposal control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ), ISR schemes have been used to regulate issues from kashmir blood food labelling to privacy, from living wages to and prejudice darcy environmental accounting standards, and from pollution to Internet pornography. Proponents have argued that ISR can achieve public policy objectives at lower cost than government regulation because regulatory decisions are made by kashmir blood, those with the best information and expertise to make them (Coglianese and Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). ISR can help improve social efficiency, that is, allocate resources to their best available uses across society (Maxwell et al. 2000 ). ISR can also incentivize firms to improve their social performance in and prejudice proposal areas such as the natural environment (Berchicci and King 2008 ), or labour standards in supply chains (Locke 2013 ; Lin-Hi and british Blumberg 2016 ). Despite theoretical and practical enthusiasm for ISR, questions remain about its legitimacy. Mounting empirical evidence suggests that all too often industry-led schemes do not lead to positive social benefits or fix the problems that they are designed to solve (King et al. 2012 ). Recent scandals on pride darcy proposal mislabelled horsemeat in foundation food supply chains, privacy in the self-regulated newspaper industry, and the fatal collapse of the BSCI-certified Rana Plaza factory in Bangladesh have fed popular scepticism that ISR is tantamount to firms “marking their own homework”. However, as many teachers know, when done well, asking students to mark their own homework can not only be efficient from the teacher’s point of darcy proposal, view, but also encourage students to learn from each other and to reflect on their own performance. Pit And The Pendulum, Allan Poe Essay. Marking their own homework may be a route to easy A grades, or may be a legitimate way to devolve responsibility, depending on pride darcy the consequences, procedures and structures around the kashmir blood, marking process. Current ISR theory cannot yet tell the darcy proposal, difference.
This paper has been inspired by the apparent mismatch between the promise and kashmir blood performance of ISR schemes. Pride Proposal. It maps what we know about the legitimacy of ISR schemes from Essay on Democracy in The Middle management theory, shows where previous research from different traditions has focused, and uses this to and prejudice explore blind spots, tensions and future directions on the legitimacy of autobiography vs biography, ISR. Explaining how and why the evaluation of ISR schemes differs so much between theorists is pride and prejudice, a vital step towards improving the performance of ISR schemes in practice. Focusing on the legitimacy of ISR also offers theoretical insight into broader legitimacy theory in contexts where powerful agents both design and subsequently participate in heart foundation a governance scheme. Management research from within strategic, institutional and critical traditions, has each offered a wide range of pride darcy proposal, assumptions and empirical explanations of ISR. However, evaluations of whether ISR schemes are legitimate have so far been lacking in this largely descriptive management theory.
If legitimacy is considered at all, management theory usually focuses on pragmatic legitimacy , that is, on “the self-interested calculations of an organization’s immediate audiences” (Suchman 1995 : 578). Current management theory has paid less attention to moral legitimacy , that is, a normative evaluation of whether ISR participation is girls, “the right thing to pride and prejudice darcy do” (Suchman 1995 : 579). This paper builds on kashmir blood Suchman’s ( 1995 ) framework and pride and prejudice separates the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on normative approval. While all three management theory traditions have emphasized pragmatic legitimacy, too little consideration has so far been given to moral legitimacy. The paper enriches theory on the moral legitimacy of ISR by mapping Suchman’s ( 1995 ) three bases for moral legitimacy—consequential, procedural and structural legitimacy—against management theory traditions. British Advert. Mapping debates in this way is useful because previous studies within each of the management traditions have tended to implicitly assume which aspect of moral legitimacy is most important based on the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the empirical context.
This paper draws all three theoretical strands together for proposal, the first time and provides a springboard to examine tensions and blind spots on nick servini the legitimacy of ISR. The paper concludes with elaborating directions for future research on ISR, legitimacy theory and pride and prejudice darcy ISR in practice. Management Theories of Industry Self-Regulation. Industry self-regulation is the voluntary association of firms to control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ). ISR is “a regulatory process whereby an foundation industry-level, as opposed to a governmental- or firm-level, organization… sets and enforces rules and standards relating to the conduct of firms in the industry” (Gupta and Lad 1983 : 417). Management scholars have theorized ISR participation from three main perspectives: strategic, institutional and critical perspectives, each of which is briefly introduced in this section.
The different perspectives illustrate how various theorists have understood ISR schemes, which has implications for whether and how the schemes are seen as successful and legitimate. Strategic Management Perspectives. First, within strategic management theory, ISR is described as a solution to at least one of two strategic problems: information asymmetry and and prejudice proposal common pool resources (King and Toffel 2009 ). Outsiders are unable to in The East directly observe a firm’s social performance. Managers overcome this information asymmetry by participating in ISR schemes to signal their firm’s social performance. ISR schemes in industries such as toy manufacturing (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ), cut flowers (Prado 2013 ), sustainable agriculture (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ) or coffee (Reinecke et al. Darcy. 2012 ) enable firms to signal their social or environmental quality. Common pool resources, on the other hand, require firms to collaborate to protect a shared resource such as the industry’s reputation, access to advert physical assets or supply chain resilience (Prakash and darcy proposal Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). Foundation. Strategic perspectives emphasize that ISR schemes are often led by dominant firms that have the greatest interest in addressing the problem as with Nike or Walmart’s leadership in collective efforts to eliminate sweatshop labour from supply chains (O’Rourke 2003 ; Locke et al. 2007 ).
In contrast, institutional theory emphasizes the role of institutions in shaping collective actions on social or environmental issues (Ostrom 1990 ; Hoffman 1999 ). Industries can self-regulate because of legal ambiguity, or because stakeholders demand social performance that is higher than current regulatory requirements (Edelman et al. 1991 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). For example, Zietsma and Lawrence’s ( 2010 ) study of the evolution of decisions on harvesting practices in pride darcy the British Columbia forest industry showed how managers actively participated in creating, maintaining and disrupting industry collective actions. ISR can also co-evolve with other institutions. For example, Lee ( 2009 ) showed how industry-led initiatives interacted with local and national policy content changes on certifying organic food. Institutional perspectives explain ISR as a way for managers to maintain conformance with regulative, cognitive and british heart normative requirements in the institutional environment (Hoffman 1999 ; Matten and Moon 2008 ). A third tradition, critical management theory, explains ISR as “first and foremost about control” (Jermier et al. Pride And Prejudice. 2006 , p. 627). Critical theorists focus on the discourses around proposed solutions to social problems, and the roles that these discourses play in protecting corporate privilege and power (Banerjee 2008 ). Managers use ISR to maintain control over the rhetoric around social issues through generating and maintaining symbols such as certifications, logos, social reports and autobiography vs biography partnerships. Boiral ( 2013 ), for pride proposal, example, theorized sustainability reports certified to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) A or A+ standard as “signs and images employed to Essay on Democracy in The control social representations” (p.
1037). Critical theorists highlight the fundamentally political nature of pride proposal, ISR, emphasizing the power and on Democracy in The Middle East relational position of those who can influence the rules of the game (Levy 2008 ; Moog et al. 2015 ). And Prejudice Darcy. A political approach emphasizes the fundamental imbalance between the size and power of global firms and the capacity and/or willingness of Essay on Democracy in The East, governments to adequately regulate them, leading to the need for industry-led schemes to fill a governance gap (Vogel 2010 ). The Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Management theorists from and prejudice darcy proposal all three perspectives have provided rich description and empirical results on the drivers, forms and consequences of ISR. However, amid accusations that firms and nick servini managers are marking their own homework, more research attention is required on the legitimacy of ISR schemes. Legitimacy is and prejudice, a “generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs and nick servini definitions” (Suchman 1995 : 574). Focusing on legitimacy reveals the extent to which ISR schemes and pride darcy proposal their participants are conforming to social norms and expectations, including whether ISR is an Essay in The appropriate response to social challenges.
The concept of legitimacy originates in institutional theory, which suggests that managers adopt new practices to be perceived as socially acceptable and appropriate rather than basing their decisions on rational efficiency criteria (Meyer and and prejudice darcy proposal Rowan 1977 ). However, both strategic and critical management theory also use variants of legitimacy. Strategic management theory tends to emphasize the extent to which the approval of various stakeholder groups influences firms’ social strategy (e.g. Darnall et al. 2009 ; Kassinis and Vafeas 2006 ). In contrast, the critical approach delves more deeply into the processes by which firms seek and autobiography vs biography earn legitimacy through their social disclosures and actions (e.g. Crane 2000 ; Fineman and Clarke 1996 ). Numerous typologies of legitimacy have been proposed in proposal the literature (see Bitektine 2011 for a review), but the most widely used is Fear in The Pit and the Pendulum,, Suchman’s ( 1995 ) distinction between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Pragmatic legitimacy is based on the self-interested calculations of an organization’s immediate audiences, whereas moral legitimacy is a broader normative evaluation of pride proposal, social appropriateness. On Democracy Middle. Suchman’s original categorization also included cognitive legitimacy, based on and prejudice proposal taken-for-grantedness.
However, cognitive legitimacy is less useful in evaluating ISR because of the lack of stable and vs biography shared assumptions about industry’s role in governance (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ). Cognitive legitimacy is deeper than, and and prejudice proposal follows, moral legitimacy (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Since new forms of governance such as ISR are not yet sufficiently taken-for-granted to be able to evaluate cognitive legitimacy (Koppell 2008 ), this paper focuses on pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Others have applied Suchman’s distinction between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in related contexts such as implementing codes of ethics (Long and Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), or of regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ). Some prior studies have also examined whether particular ISR schemes have pragmatic and moral legitimacy, as in the case of on Democracy in The Middle, Schepers’ ( 2010 ) and Cashore’s ( 2002 ) evaluations of the Forest Stewardship Council. However, so far the literature lacks a thorough analytic review of the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR. Such an analysis is much needed because different management theories of ISR imply different bases for legitimacy, and so provide different answers on and prejudice darcy when ISR is an appropriate form of governance. The next section reviews the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR from each management theory tradition to provide a foundation for Fear in The the Pendulum, by Edgar Allan Poe Essay, further analysis. The Pragmatic Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Pragmatic legitimacy of industry self-regulation. Maintain the ability to respond to and prejudice darcy social issues on british heart the firm’s own terms. Meeting stakeholder expectations flexibly and at darcy, lower cost. (Majumdar and Marcus 2001 ; Coglianese and by Edgar Allan Nash 2001 ) Maintaining agency to respond to pride proposal institutional pressures.
(Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Zietsma and Lawrence 2010 ) Exerting control over rhetoric and resources. (Raynolds et al. 2007 ; Gereffi et al. 2001 ; Moog et al. 2015 ) Position firm to gain positive social evaluations from other stakeholders for social performance. Signalling quality or behaviour. (King et al.
2005 ; Aravind and Christmann 2011 ) Meeting stakeholder expectations. (Jiang and Bansal 2003 ; Boiral 2007 ) Demonstrating prestige and status. (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ) Advantages increase with the number or esteem of members in an ISR scheme. Reputation commons and club theory. (Barnett and King 2008 ; Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) Institutions shape collective actions. (Ostrom 1990 ; Delmas and Montes-Sancho 2010 ) Authority of hobbies for teen girls, high-status actors to set norms.
(Levy and Egan 2003 ; Renard 2005 ) Learn how to and prejudice darcy proposal cope with social concerns where there is uncertainty about social issues firms face and how to deal with them. Learning as a competitively valuable capability. Mimetic isomorphism and shared norms. (Braithwaite 2008 ; Matten and nick servini Moon 2008 ; Haack et al. 2012 ) Diffusing shared rhetoric. (Green 2004 ; Christensen et al. 2013 ) Works cited are illustrative only. Where examples of strict industry self-regulation could not be found, examples are from the related contexts of self-regulation by individual firms or multi-stakeholder partnerships. The first set of darcy proposal, benefits for ISR participants is to maintain the Essay on Democracy Middle East, ability to respond to proposal social issues on vs biography their own terms. And Prejudice. For example, in 1999 companies collaborated through the US Better Business Bureau to introduce BBBOnline, a self-assessed and industry-monitored online privacy seal in an attempt to pre-empt and on Democracy in The Middle shape a new set of laws on Internet privacy introduced in the USA in 2001 (Haufler 2001 ). Strategic management theory explains that firms may use ISR to pride and prejudice darcy strategically pre-empt costly sanctions or requirements from governments, NGOs, consumer groups or other stakeholders (Majumdar and Marcus 2001 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). Institutional theories describe ISR as a strategic response to nick servini institutional pressures, where managers try to retain agency within the constraints of actual or potential regulatory control (Oliver 1991 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Wijen 2014 ). A critical perspective focuses on pride and prejudice darcy proposal how industry incumbents use their privileged economic and political position to british heart foundation maintain control not only of the governance but also of the and prejudice proposal, rhetoric around social issues (Jermier et al.
2006 ). Bartley ( 2005 ), for example, showed how the nick servini, US apparel industry succeeded in replacing a discourse of legal compliance with one based on and prejudice darcy proposal compliance to voluntary industry codes in response to rising stakeholder concerns about sweatshop labour. This enabled firms to maintain control over compliance through participating in the Fair Labor Association (FLA) to certify labour standards. Thus, all three management theories recognize ISR as a way for firms to Fear Pit and retain strategic control over aligning their own interests with other stakeholders, which is and prejudice, crucial for gaining pragmatic legitimacy. Firms also gain private benefits from Fear in The Pit and Allan Poe Essay ISR through earning or maintaining a sound reputation on social issues. Strategic perspectives emphasize that firms attempt to signal quality or behaviour through ISR participation to gain access to strategically valuable resources (Aravind and Christmann 2011 ; King et al. 2005 ). Institutional perspectives focus on the extent to which firms are seen to be behaving according to stakeholder expectations (Jiang and pride darcy proposal Bansal 2003 ; Delmas and Toffel 2008 ). Critical scholars emphasize status and the extent to which firms are seen to Fear Pit and the Pendulum, Allan be performing social responsibility (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ). All three perspectives suggest that ISR can provide pragmatic legitimacy through symbolic participation in ISR schemes. Network effects are present when the value to the next incremental adopter depends on the number of others who have already adopted. Evidence on proposal ecolabels for green buildings, forestry and the apparel industry suggests that the for teen, higher the and prejudice darcy proposal, rate of adoption, the more an ISR scheme is recognized as a credible signal of vs biography, environmental quality, and the higher the benefit of adoption to the next incremental adopter (Bartley 2003 ; Chan et al. 2009 ). ISR schemes can also be seen as “green clubs” (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) that protect an industry’s common reputation (King et al. 2002 ). These schemes can help develop the collective reputation, resources, staff, networks and expertise that lower the cost to individual firms of participation and are particularly successful in “small worlds” such as forestry (Conroy 2007 ) or the pride and prejudice darcy, Chinese toy manufacturing industry (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ) where all the major players know each other. Institutional perspectives emphasize that is hobbies for teen, it safer for firms in uncertain and contested social environments to adopt a recognized scheme than to be left outside (DiMaggio and and prejudice proposal Powell 1983 ). The higher the ratio of certified to non-certified firms in a local ISR scheme, the more likely are new entrants to participate to signal their similarity (Husted et al.
2016 ). A more critical perspective asks how ISR regimes gain the authority to hobbies girls govern particular social issues (Cashore 2002 ), highlighting the importance of high-status political actors in encouraging others to participate (Levy and Egan 2003 ). As Renard ( 2005 ) demonstrated in the context of fair trade labelling, networks can be vital to encouraging widespread participation in an ISR scheme, but can also further embed existing power structures within an industry. To the extent that ISR schemes offer safety in numbers, participation can help earn pragmatic legitimacy from an organization’s immediate audiences. Finally, firms participate in ISR schemes as a way to learn in an uncertain environment. Pride. They can learn about their own organizational capacity to address social issues and how to autobiography meet stakeholder expectations more effectively (Banerjee 1998 ). Participation in pride darcy a scheme can facilitate the transfer of best practices and increase communication and information sharing between members through direct contact (Kraatz 1998 ; King and Lenox 2000 ). Schemes can encourage indirect learning as they attract boundary spanners such as consultancy firms and nick servini auditors who help spread credible information from one firm to another, lowering informational costs (Delmas 2002 ; Jahn et al. 2005 ). Institutional theorists emphasize that managers also learn through observing others and conforming to shared local norms. ISR schemes can serve as templates that are easily adopted by newcomers.
Through interacting within the scheme, managers are made more aware of darcy, social needs and information spreads more quickly (Marquis et al. 2007 ). Focusing on the rhetoric of ISR, critical theorists also ask how managers learn to talk about social issues and solutions (Green 2004 ). Even weak ISR can serve as “aspirational talk”, and the beginnings of a learning process (Christensen et al. 2013 ), offering the possibility of british heart advert, aligning interests and gaining pragmatic legitimacy over time. Private Benefits and pride and prejudice darcy proposal Pragmatic Legitimacy of ISR. ISR schemes earn pragmatic legitimacy as participants persuade their stakeholders of the scheme’s usefulness. This section has outlined four private benefits revealed in prior ISR research that support interest alignment and pragmatic legitimacy of Fear the Pendulum, Allan Poe Essay, ISR. And Prejudice Proposal. Although different management theory perspectives have analysed ISR based on widely divergent assumptions, each has touched upon the core private benefits of strategic control, reputation, network benefits and learning.
Analysts in the strategic management tradition have tended to approach the benefits of participation from a narrow, enlightened self-interest perspective, and so have most clearly articulated the private benefits of ISR. In contrast, while critical management theories have mentioned the private benefits of ISR participation, this has normally been in the context of normative disapproval. ISR participation may secure control over rhetoric and Pit and the Pendulum, Allan Poe Essay resources (Raynolds et al. 2007 ; Gereffi et al. 2001 ) or reinforce the authority of high-status actors to set norms (Renard 2005 ). However, while ISR schemes may offer private benefits and pragmatic legitimacy from the organization’s most proximate audiences, schemes may still not be in the overall public interest (Vogel 2008 ). Indeed, whether ISR participation contributes to the broader public good is an proposal under-explored question in management theory. Kashmir Blood. Pragmatic legitimacy alone is not an adequate basis for evaluating legitimacy since it only takes account of transactional interest alignment with immediate audiences. Since ISR schemes are socially embedded within a system of and prejudice proposal, norms, their appropriateness needs to be evaluated in the broader frame of moral legitimacy.
The next section develops this by applying Suchman’s ( 1995 ) typology of moral legitimacy to the ISR context to nick servini evaluate the pride and prejudice, moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. The Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Moral legitimacy asks whether a particular action, practice, scheme or organization is “the right thing to british foundation advert do” (Suchman 1995 : 579). It differs fundamentally from pragmatic legitimacy because it focuses on pride proposal the ethical foundations of an organization or activity (Mele and Armengou 2015 ), and the reciprocal responsibility norms generated between an hobbies for teen organization and its stakeholders (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Assessing moral legitimacy requires looking beyond pragmatic evaluations based on interest alignment, to a broader public perspective on the normative appropriateness of ISR. Pride And Prejudice Proposal. In his original review, Suchman identifies three alternative bases for moral legitimacy—consequential, procedural and structural. Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for the job (structural). Moral legitimacy of industry self-regulation.
Short-term, direct, measurable effects. (Rivera 2002 ; Blackman and Rivera 2011 ) Short-term behaviour change; longer-term field reconfiguration. (Hoffman 1999 ; Haack et al. 2012 ) Social, symbolic and vs biography material outcomes. Long-term and diffuse effects. (Boiral 2013 ; Christensen et al. 2013 ) Credible performance signal.
Monitoring and sanctions for non-compliance. (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ; Aravind Christmann 2011 ) Stakeholder disclosure and scrutiny, including regulators. Codification of norms. (Wijen 2014 ; Terlaak 2007 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ) Ambition of pride darcy, performance levels. Transparency and accountability. Relationship to state. Fit with competitive and regulatory context. Demonstrates socially acceptable values and norms. Consistent with regulatory demands within field. (Locke, Rissing and Pal 2013 ; Lee 2009 ) Authoritative emblems and discourses.
Nested within governance networks. (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and kashmir blood Rasche 2007 ) Consequential legitimacy focuses on and prejudice darcy the outcomes of ISR. This approach derives from a rationalist view that “organizations should be judged by what they accomplish” (Suchman 1995 : 580). Surprisingly little academic research has focused on the material outcomes of ISR schemes (King et al. 2012 ), and existing evidence on the outcomes of ISR schemes is mixed at best. Famous examples of ISR schemes that are generally assumed to vs biography improve participating firms’ social or environmental performance over time include the chemical industry’s Responsible Care Program (King and Lenox 2000 ), the Equator Principles for responsible project finance (Haack et al. 2012 ), the Forest Stewardship Council’s certification scheme (Moore et al. 2012 ) and ISO 14001 (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ). Pride And Prejudice Darcy Proposal. However, each of these has also been questioned in terms of their effectiveness and in The consequential legitimacy (see, for example, Schepers 2010 ; Boiral 2007 ). Empirical studies show that the environmental performance of participating firms in the US chemical industry’s Responsible Care, the ISO 14001 standard and sustainable agriculture certification is no better and in some cases is pride darcy, worse than that of non-participants (Russo and Harrison 2005 ; Blackman and heart advert Rivera 2011 ; Gamper-Rabindran and Finger 2013 ).
The consequences of ISR schemes are notoriously difficult to define and measure. And Prejudice. Indeed, one of the problems in evaluating ISR effectiveness is the in The Pit and the Pendulum, by Edgar Allan, different ideologically driven perspectives on ISR effectiveness from whose perspective, over what time period and pride as compared to what (Gupta and Lad 1983 ). Past studies have assessed the consequences of nick servini, ISR schemes by examining the extent to which schemes fulfil the functional or governance functions they were designed to serve (Hahn and Pinkse 2014 ; Wijen 2014 ), whether they encourage participation (Prado and Woodside 2015 ; Schuler and Christmann 2011 ), whether they trigger pro-social behaviour change in participating firms (Terlaak 2007 ; Schuler and Christmann 2011 ), whether they improve allocative efficiency (Maxwell et al. 2000 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ) and ultimately whether they deliver material improvements in the social domains they are designed to address (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Aravind and and prejudice darcy proposal Christmann 2011 ). Theorists have known that evaluating ISR effectiveness is controversial for kashmir blood, a long time, but focusing on the different management perspectives brings shape to the debate. Each management perspective tends to emphasize different aspects of consequential legitimacy, leading to pride proposal arbitrary emphases on some measures and not others based on the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the phenomenon.
Strategic perspectives on ISR tend to nick servini evaluate the consequences of pride and prejudice darcy, ISR by firm-level outcomes (see Table 2 ). This includes whether participation in autobiography ISR schemes generates private benefits to the firm such as the pride and prejudice darcy proposal, ability to charge higher prices (Rivera 2002 ), or improves firm-level social or environmental performance (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ). Given the focus on the firm level, strategic perspectives tend to emphasize short-term, direct and measurable effects of ISR participation. Nick Servini. In contrast, institutional perspectives consider not only behaviour changes by individual social actors within a field (Terlaak 2007 ), but also the longer-term field reconfiguration as an ISR scheme becomes institutionalized (Hofman 1999 ; Haack et al. 2012 ). Critical perspectives examine longer-term and diffuse effects of ISR schemes, including how ISR alters symbolic representations of reality (Boiral 2013 ) and the overall governance within a policy domain (Renard 2005 ). Thus, consequential legitimacy has been a significant concern within each of the management theory perspectives, but in and prejudice darcy proposal fundamentally different, and sometimes incompatible, ways. Since it is so difficult to kashmir blood evaluate the consequences of and prejudice proposal, ISR, for kashmir blood, whom and when, an darcy alternative is to instead rely on heart advert evaluating the and prejudice darcy, design of the schemes. Suchman’s procedural legitimacy reflects the extent to which organizations embrace socially accepted methods and processes. In the absence of unambiguous evidence that an ISR scheme has positive outcomes, firms instead demonstrate “sound practices [which] may serve to demonstrate that the organization is making a good-faith effort to Essay on Democracy achieve valued, albeit invisible, ends” (Suchman 1995 : 580). In the case of ISR, the procedural legitimacy of the pride and prejudice darcy, scheme’s methods and processes is usually demonstrated through stringency of ISR design. Schemes with strong monitoring, third-party auditing, government involvement and highly codified processes are usually assumed to hobbies for teen provide the most procedural legitimacy (Delmas and darcy Terlaak 2001 ; Christmann and Taylor 2006 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ). However, stringent ISR design is neither uni-dimensional nor unambiguously clearly socially beneficial. Fear Pit And Allan. ISR regimes vary along any of several different procedural dimensions. For example, Kolk and pride darcy Van Tulder ( 2002 ) noticed that codes of conduct on hobbies for teen child labour from US companies were both more tightly formulated and more loosely monitored than codes from European companies. Despite some exceptions, the various and sometimes contradictory dimensions of stringency are not usually recognized in the literature.
This has led to ISR theorists from different traditions focusing on different aspects of stringency, and to talking past each other. Different management theory traditions tend to emphasize different dimensions of procedural legitimacy and downplay others, regardless of whether this is the most salient in any given circumstance. Strategic perspectives usually prioritize monitoring and sanctions as a way to limit information asymmetry and free-riding (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and pride proposal Carmin 2005 ). In contrast, institutional perspectives emphasize codification and the flexibility provided by ambiguous norms in self-regulation (Edelman 1992 ; Wijen 2014 ), or interactions with the broader institutional context (Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Lee 2009 ; Short and on Democracy Toffel 2010 ). Critical perspectives often question the and prejudice, ambition or transparency of ISR schemes (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ; Moog et al. 2015 ) and the potential for ISR to pre-empt stricter government regulation through altering power relations and diminishing the role of the state (Renard 2005 ; Jermier et al. 2006 ). Kashmir Blood. Thus, each tradition has a distinctive, but usually implicit view on which aspects of procedural legitimacy are most useful in evaluating the moral legitimacy of pride and prejudice darcy, ISR schemes, with no one tradition addressing all aspects of procedural legitimacy. Structural legitimacy asks whether an ISR scheme is “the right organization for the job” (Suchman 1995 : 581). Structural legitimacy is less about consequences and procedural actions, and nick servini more about the pride and prejudice, structural appearance of an ISR scheme and its place within the broader governance system. Structural legitimacy is nick servini, based on pride and prejudice displays that the organizational form is appropriate.
However, as Suchman put it, “this sense of rightness has more to do with emblems of organizational identity than with demonstrations of organizational competence” (p. 581). Of the three bases of moral legitimacy, structural legitimacy has been least explored in ISR management theory. Essay On Democracy In The. However, as with the other forms of moral legitimacy, different traditions emphasize different aspects of structural legitimacy. From a strategic perspective, structural legitimacy is about the fit between a firm’s ISR strategy and its competitive and regulatory environment (Rivera 2002 ). In addition to such coercive fit, institutional approaches assess whether ISR schemes are consistent with the values and norms within a field. Credentials such as ISO certificates can serve as “organizational degrees” (Boiral 2012 ), or useful objects to signal credibility (Delmas and Montes-Sancho 2011 ). And Prejudice Darcy Proposal. A more constructivist view emphasizes how ISR schemes themselves serve as a way of vs biography, narrating new standards for social or environmental performance (Haack et al. Darcy. 2012 ). Critical perspectives claim that ISR schemes can serve as “organized exhibitions of autobiography vs biography, authority” that demonstrate social appropriateness but without any real connection to improving firms’ social performance (Bowen 2014 ; Boiral 2013 ). Management Theories of ISR and Moral Legitimacy. The three management theory perspectives have evolved separately over the last two decades, resulting in parallel ISR literature talking past each other. Even when theorists from the and prejudice darcy proposal, different traditions examine the hobbies for teen girls, same ISR scheme, they can come to different conclusions about the scheme’s moral legitimacy by prioritizing a consequential, procedural or structural approach.
For example, consider the moral legitimacy of the American Chemistry Council’s Responsible Care Scheme, established back in pride and prejudice proposal 1988. On Democracy In The East. Taking a strategic perspective, Gamper-Rabindran and Finger ( 2013 ) evaluated the consequential legitimacy of the Responsible Care scheme by focusing on the environmental performance outcomes of participating compared with non-participating firms. Pride. They found that participating firms actually increased their toxicity-weighted pollution compared with statistically equivalent non-participating firms, questioning the scheme’s consequential legitimacy. Gunningham’s ( 1995 ) institutional perspective focused on Responsible Care’s codes of in The Middle, practice and community engagement processes as adopted in Australia, arguing based on procedural legitimacy that it is “the most significant and far-reaching self-regulatory scheme ever adopted in Australia, or arguably, elsewhere” (p. Proposal. 61).
In contrast, critical perspectives emphasize symbolic importance of Responsible Care as a response to the 1984 disaster that killed some 2500 people at the Union Carbide subsidiary in Bhopal, India (Gereffi et al. 2001 ). The chemical industry needed to take steps to regain public acceptance after Bhopal, and “a code of conduct, a certificate, even literally a ‘symbol’, was necessary to communicate those steps” (Matten 2003 : 224). Critical theorists explain this as an attempt by the chemical industry to maintain the nick servini, structural legitimacy of the pride darcy proposal, prevailing regulatory system and Responsible Care within it. Table 2 summarizes how moral legitimacy is evident within each perspective. Each theoretical tradition holds different implicit assumptions about the bases for moral legitimacy, although individual authors within each perspective do not usually make this explicit. Fear Pit And By Edgar Allan. Mapping the bases for pride and prejudice proposal, moral legitimacy across different perspectives reveals blind spots in ISR research within each tradition so far. Essay Middle. For example, within the strategic management perspective with its focus on the comparative analysis of different outcomes in different circumstances, there has been inadequate attention to evaluating the long-term, indirect and pride darcy social consequences of ISR schemes (King et al. In The The Pendulum, Allan. 2012 ). In contrast, while critical perspectives may raise valid concerns about the ambition or authority of and prejudice proposal, non-state actors on social issues, they may also underplay the Allan, extent to which ISR schemes can lead to positive longer-term field reconfiguration (Haack et al. Darcy Proposal. 2012 ).
Tensions Between Pragmatic and Moral Legitimacy. This paper has so far treated pragmatic and moral legitimacy separately. However, the pragmatic legitimacy that can provide the basis for a social licence to operate is not the same as the more stable moral legitimacy based on ethical principles (Mele and Armengou 2015 ) and reciprocal responsibility (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Fear The Pendulum, By Edgar Allan. Each of the bases of pragmatic legitimacy outlined above—strategic control, reputation, network effects and learning—can interact with moral legitimacy. This section identifies tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy, and the management theory perspectives in which the tensions are based. This is useful to identify blind spots and to generate routes forward for future theory and practical evaluations of ISR. Strategic Control and Moral Legitimacy. Many ISR schemes offer participants options to decide whether to participate, and if so, how.
For example, ISR schemes may contain different levels of and prejudice darcy, required performance so that participating firms can maximize their private benefits from joining. Discretionary schemes can offer the strategic control needed for managers to respond to stakeholder demands for social improvement, but to do so on Essay on Democracy in The East their own terms. However, pragmatic legitimacy based on darcy strategic control can have a dark side. The strategic goal of ISR participation can be to limit the need to change behaviour, either in advance of regulation or later when the industry’s preferred approach may be subsequently adopted as a new regulatory standard (Ogus 1995 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). The critical view also emphasizes regulatory capture and nick servini the potential for discretionary ISR schemes to pride and prejudice darcy proposal manipulate or subvert stakeholder expectations without changes in firm behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ). Autobiography Vs Biography. Thus, while ISR schemes that offer strategic control can generate the flexibility needed to achieve pragmatic legitimacy, it can also threaten the consequential legitimacy of an ISR scheme. Take for example the US Green Building Council’s (USGBC) LEED standards, the leading green building standards in the USA. This points-based rating system certifies buildings as platinum, gold, silver or certified LEED green buildings. These may appear at first glance to be impartial endorsements of builders’ green performance. But a more critical look reveals that key industry players were heavily involved in darcy proposal the authorship of the schemes, which has largely displaced the advert, more rigorous standards that were originally proposed (Parker 2009 ). The USGBC is often mistaken to be a government agency, but was originally a coalition of builders, consultants and pride and prejudice property developers who realized that they needed to respond to stakeholder demands for greener buildings. They designed a flexible scheme that offered firms control over which technologies to implement to earn a green building label and therefore meet the pragmatic legitimacy expectations of their immediate stakeholders.
This flexibility encouraged builders to strategically target the nick servini, cheapest and least environmentally impactful building features, or to target the lowest acceptable tier of LEED certification, which offers very little material improvement to the environment from the building (Corbett and Muthulingam 2007 ). The LEED standards illustrate a broader tension between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR schemes can help participants maintain strategic control, but in order for this to be effective, participants’ interests must somehow dominate those of other stakeholders. Thus, strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility that Elms and Phillips ( 2009 ) identify as the foundation of moral legitimacy. This raises the pride and prejudice proposal, serious question of girls, whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy. Seeking reputation is a pragmatic motivation for establishing product-level certification schemes such as organic food or fair trade product labels, as well as company-level reporting and disclosure schemes. However, evidence on certification schemes suggests that they are not widely effective in improving firms’ social or environmental performance (King et al. 2012 ). This lack of effectiveness is at pride darcy proposal, least partly because ISR schemes designed to confer reputation often emphasize persuasion to nick servini confer pragmatic legitimacy rather than the co-creation of norms and actions required for moral responsibility. The institutional perspective explains how managers may get caught up in pride and prejudice darcy proposal larger structural pressures that require them to kashmir blood implement, measure, monitor and report on social performance (Bromley and Powell 2012 ). Pride And Prejudice Darcy. Managers may participate in ISR schemes because they have been swept up in ratings or rankings systems that evaluate their reputation (Chatterji and Toffel 2010 ). Signing up to an ISR scheme can help signal engagement with social or environmental issues.
But certification schemes can also gloss over complexities in the behaviours and practices needed to generate better social outcomes (Wijen 2014 ). ISR schemes that provide reputation and pragmatic interest alignment can hide considerable ambiguity on how the scheme is put into practice and whether it is the foundation, right organization for the job. Consider the example of CarbonNeutral ® certification. Achieving certification is intended to help firms stand out from and prejudice proposal their competition and provide a “clear sign” that they are leading the way on climate change (Carbon Neutral Company 2016 ), that is, to offer pragmatic reputational benefits. To join this ISR scheme, participating firms need to meet a set of kashmir blood, highly codified criteria that are outlined in a “Carbon Neutral Protocol” (Carbon Neutral Company 2013 ). Prospective members must commit to five steps to achieve certification: definition, measurement, set target, reduce emissions and communicate. Crucially, the “reduce emissions” stage differs from other definitions of carbon neutrality (Department of Energy and Climate Change 2009 ) because it allows all reductions to be made though offsetting and pride proposal does not require individual firms to change their own internal emissions behaviours. Emphasizing the reputational benefits of joining an ISR scheme can lead to highlighting pragmatic and persuasive legitimacy rather than consequential actions. Essay Middle East. Microsoft explained its adoption of the CarbonNeutral ® certificate because it found that it could not meet its previous 2009 commitment to reduce relative carbon emissions by 30% by and prejudice, 2012.
Microsoft’s new cloud computing business model was driving gross carbon emissions up, so in order to protect its environmental reputation the firm opted for autobiography, the pragmatic legitimacy of achieving certification rather than the consequential legitimacy of actually reducing its own internal emissions (Microsoft 2012 ). Certification schemes such as this illustrate the tension in ISR between the pragmatic legitimacy gained through persuasion and darcy proposal the moral legitimacy of consequential changes in vs biography behaviours and performance. Network Effects and Moral Legitimacy. Some ISR schemes offer economies in membership, or collective shelter from institutional pressures by following the example of dominant firms in the field. This is and prejudice, particularly common when firms’ reputations are interdependent (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). On the plus side, ISR schemes designed to harness pragmatic legitimacy through network effects can lead to positive spillover and multiply positive impacts. For example, Reich et al. Nick Servini. ( 2005 ) identified spillover effects from the and prejudice darcy proposal, voluntary adoption of a living wage, as other workers not directly covered by hobbies girls, the scheme also experienced some increase in their level of pay. In the UK, Wills and darcy proposal Linneker ( 2012 ) showed how participating in the Living Wage Foundation’s voluntary living wage scheme led to british heart foundation spillover benefits in and prejudice darcy related social domains such as improvements in health and well-being, improved family life, reduced welfare benefit costs and local positive externalities from better paid residents.
ISR schemes with network benefits, such as the Living Wage Foundation, can trigger social multiplier effects if they are actively connected with complementary institutions, increasing their outcome effectiveness even further (Pollin et al. Essay On Democracy In The Middle East. 2002 ; Freeman 2005 ). Extensive cross-monitoring and dialogue can lead to networked legitimacy, where the ISR scheme draws together a nexus of interests and pride and prejudice darcy proposal each participant gains its own pragmatic legitimacy (Mele and Schepers 2013 ). However, this positive interaction between network effects and consequential legitimacy crucially depends on hobbies girls whether participants do actually improve their social performance. Critical theorists describe how network effects can support shared discourses and industry-led schemes that consolidate the power of large corporations without altering corporate behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ; Bowen 2014 ). Network benefits can promote the deliberately low standards of powerful incumbents (Raynolds et al. 2007 ). These firms may have strong incentives to pride embed low standards as acceptable norms of corporate behaviour (Dunlap and McCright 2011 ). On Democracy In The East. Doing so may award ISR schemes pragmatic legitimacy from their immediate audiences, but threaten the pride darcy, development of kashmir blood, responsible norms as a foundation for proposal, moral legitimacy.
These challenges can be seen in comparing two ISRs in sustainable forestry: the kashmir blood, FSC and SFI. Pride And Prejudice Darcy Proposal. Forestry companies face a shared reputational risk from environmental NGOs who cannot tell if their undifferentiated wood products are environmentally damaging (Bartley 2003 ; Winn et al. 2008 ). Kashmir Blood. Both the FSC and SFI are voluntary ISR programmes that were initiated at the industry level: by the US forestry industry in the case of SFI, and by proposal, socially concerned retailers in the case of FSC (Cashore 2002 ). In the early days of sustainable forestry certification, the US forestry industry actively resisted the british heart foundation advert, FSC’s more ambitious standards, preferring instead to start their own lighter touch, SFI scheme in order to and prejudice proposal attract more participants (Coglianese and Nash 2001 ; Meidinger 2006 ). Heart Foundation. The US forestry industry adopted the and prejudice darcy, less ambitious SFI scheme, and the more ambitious FSC scheme failed to british heart foundation take off in the USA as it did in darcy Canada, the UK and other countries (Cashore 2002 ; Conroy 2007 ). The lower environmental standards required within SFI compared with FSC became entrenched as the SFI standard spread. Worse, because forestry certification is interlinked with other schemes, such as for vs biography, green buildings, this consequential legitimacy loss spilled over into other US industries when the and prejudice darcy, USGBC controversially decided to kashmir blood award LEED points for using SFI-certified wood in their buildings. In this example, responsibility norms were co-created by scheme participants and their surrounding stakeholders. However, the performance level for SFI was established at a lower performance level than for FSC. More generally, the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the emerging shared norms (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). Without firm ethical foundations, networked ISR schemes may be awarded pragmatic legitimacy by pride darcy, their immediate audiences, but lack deeper moral legitimacy. ISR schemes vary in their potential scope for learning opportunities and kashmir blood the extent to proposal which these learning exchanges are actually realized (Coglianese and Nash 2001 ). ISR can provide spaces for experimentation and innovative solutions to social problems, leading to opportunities for kashmir blood, wider learning, conversation and interest alignment between participating firms and pride and prejudice darcy their immediate audiences.
ISR schemes designed for nick servini, learning can improve both pragmatic and consequential legitimacy. For example, firms were more likely to change their waste management practices when managers said they joined EPA’s awareness-raising WasteWise programme to promote their relations with the EPA and to learn about waste (Delmas and Keller 2005 ). Similarly, Locke’s ( 2013 ) study of pride proposal, labour standards in girls apparel, electronics and metalworking supply chains showed the potential of learning through sharing best practices and capability-building in ISR to provide cleaner and safer workplaces for workers than other scheme designs. Darcy Proposal. ISR on labour standards in Essay in The East global supply chains has helped managers incorporate and learn from the voices of traditionally excluded groups of workers such as women export workers (Pearson and pride and prejudice darcy proposal Seyfang 2001 ) and has also stimulated learning among activists about what worked in affecting change in previous campaigns (Freeman 2005 ). However, as with network effects, the consequential legitimacy of ISR schemes designed for learning depends on what is learned and shared within the scheme. Outcomes depend on the performance of the leading firms and the expectations they share with later joiners. The primary motivation to participate may be to learn how to avoid, deflect or pre-empt more ambitious regulatory requirements (Ogus 1995 ), or to co-opt or deflect stakeholder interests (Parker 2002 ; Raynolds et al. 2007 ). All four of the ISR schemes examined by Lenox and Nash ( 2003 ) in the chemical, textile and pulp and heart advert paper industries were designed with sharing mechanisms such as industry newsletters, annual conferences and member meetings. These were intended to help participants learn to manage the pride darcy proposal, uncertainty surrounding new environmental demands.
However, in most of the british heart advert, schemes, the performance bar was not sufficiently ambitious to offer learning to pride and prejudice new members on reducing pollution. Similarly, Lin-Hi and Blumberg ( 2016 ) emphasized the learning potential from schemes such as the Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI), which focuses on hobbies for teen learning and capacity building to improve working conditions in global supply chains. However, two of the factories in and prejudice darcy proposal the Rana Plaza building in Bangladesh that collapsed in 2013 were participants in the BSCI. Learning within the autobiography, BSCI scheme did not extend to assessing the safety or regulatory compliance of the pride proposal, physical buildings, or to heart empowering local workers to act when they identified cracks in the building before the collapse (Gross 2013 ). Opportunities to learn about facility safety were lost because of pride and prejudice, weak performance standards in the scheme (Chao 2013 ). As with network effects above, the moral legitimacy of ISR depends not only on interactions and nick servini learning with stakeholders, but also on the ethical content of what is learned. Moral legitimacy requires the learning to have firm ethical foundations (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). However, these ethical foundations can become unmoored from the pride darcy proposal, ISR scheme if participants do not place adequate emphasis on what and how they are learning from in The Pit and by Edgar Allan ISR schemes.
This section addressed each of the bases of pragmatic legitimacy in and prejudice turn and used past ISR research from all three management theory perspectives to explore potential tensions with moral legitimacy. Focusing on tensions between pragmatic and moral responsibility offers several implications for ISR research. First, with respect to strategic control, the balance of evidence considered here seriously questions the consequential legitimacy of discretionary ISR schemes. Rather like students marking their own homework, it is tempting for managers to award themselves the easy points but without truly engaging with fundamental changes in their activities. This is even the case in performance-based ISR schemes such as the USGBC’s LEED building standards. Nick Servini. Future research should pay more attention to the specific outcomes of pride and prejudice, flexible ISR schemes, particularly ISR schemes that offer choices on autobiography a range of performance standards. Second, the current ISR literature challenges the darcy proposal, consequential legitimacy of certification schemes that offer reputational benefits. In The Pit And By Edgar Poe Essay. Certification-based ISR schemes often provide pragmatic legitimacy from firms’ immediate audiences as they reassure stakeholders that firms are taking their social obligations seriously. Within the pride and prejudice darcy proposal, broader social context, such emblems and credentials can offer structural legitimacy that an industry-led scheme is the nick servini, right form of organization to address a social challenge.
However, increased structural legitimacy from reputation-enhancing ISR schemes is darcy proposal, often decoupled from the scheme’s outcomes. Thus, future research should further investigate the structural conditions of ISR schemes and their outcomes. Finally, for ISR schemes that offer network and learning effects, the pragmatic reasons to nick servini participate can multiply the positive outcomes of an ISR scheme. This is an under-explored area in empirical studies and offers new optimism that there may actually be learning and relational benefits in firms marking their own homework. The current ISR literature is inconclusive about whether these network and proposal learning effects are positive or negative, since ISR outcomes depend on what is learned and shared within ISR. More research is needed on formally modelling learning effects and network spillover in ISR.
A particularly exciting frontier for modelling might be when self-regulatory mechanisms interact, as in girls the case of the pride and prejudice, SFI sustainable forest products scheme and the USGBC’s LEED green building standards. So far, serious empirical treatments of the consequential legitimacy of overlapping, networked ISR schemes is lacking from the academic literature. The wide range of ISR schemes now operating provides an opportunity for future empirical research to explore these ideas both within and Fear in The Pit and the Pendulum, by Edgar Poe Essay across industry sectors. In principle, ISR can provide flexible and pride and prejudice proposal innovative social improvements at lower cost than direct state regulation (Coglianese and vs biography Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and and prejudice proposal Rees 1997 ). However, mixed empirical evidence and Essay in The Middle East some high-profile ISR failures have fed scepticism that ISR allows firms to mark their own homework. Although marking their own homework may not be unambiguously bad, current ISR theory cannot explain when or why this may be case, as it has not fully examined the legitimacy of and prejudice proposal, ISR. While legitimacy theory clearly separates the pragmatic legitimacy of gaining a social licence to operate from a deeper, more stable moral legitimacy (Suchman 1995 ; Mele and Armengou 2015 ), ISR research has been slow to nick servini recognize this distinction. In response, this paper mapped what we know about the pride and prejudice darcy, legitimacy of ISR from hobbies for teen girls management theory, clearly separated pragmatic from moral legitimacy, and used this distinction to expose tensions and future directions on the legitimacy of ISR. This paper offers extensions to three strands within ISR theory. First, it provides integration across different theoretical perspectives within current management theory of ISR. And Prejudice Darcy Proposal. It derives an nick servini integrated approach drawing on strategic, institutional and critical management perspectives.
Pulling these perspectives into pride proposal, a single analysis is a significant contribution because previous management scholarship has been fragmented and kashmir blood context specific. Strategic, institutional and critical management theories of ISR have evolved in parallel, as have scholarly communities that focus on particular content domains such as firms’ impacts on darcy proposal the natural environment, labour standards, ethical trading or diversity practices. Kashmir Blood. This paper leverages and integrates across these parallel studies and offers the broader view needed to explore the biases, blind spots and boundary conditions of ISR. Second, this paper moves beyond the largely descriptive analyses of pride, ISR in the current literature to examine the normative legitimacy of ISR. The framework contributes to ISR management theory by moving beyond the private benefits that provide pragmatic legitimacy to kashmir blood ISR schemes to examine the more ethical foundations and shared responsibility norms that underly moral responsibility. The framework derived in Table 2 can guide a comprehensive evaluation of moral legitimacy based on the details of pride darcy proposal, a particular ISR scheme, rather than implicitly assuming which aspect of moral legitimacy is most important as has been so common in management theories of ISR.
Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and in The the Pendulum, by Edgar processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for the job (structural). Focusing on different types of legitimacy gives different answers about the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. Darcy. Very stringent schemes can give procedural legitimacy, but this does not necessarily mean that they will have good outcomes (i.e. consequential legitimacy). Girls. Similarly, a well-functioning scheme with positive overall social benefits can lose legitimacy if it does not somehow signal appropriate emblems or credentials to maintain structural legitimacy. Previous research has been hampered by blinkered approaches from darcy within particular management traditions. This paper offers an integrative view of vs biography, moral legitimacy of ISR based on the different bases of moral legitimacy, rather than the implied theoretical worldview of the analyst. Finally, the paper contributes to a burgeoning literature on the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of other phenomena such as codes of ethics (Long and Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ) or controversial projects (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). Pride And Prejudice Darcy Proposal. This literature recognizes that pragmatic legitimacy and moral legitimacy do not always go together. The extension made in this paper is to specifically examine three tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in the ISR context. First, ISR schemes that offer pragmatic legitimacy through strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility required for moral legitimacy. Participants in ISR schemes cannot simultaneously dominate and responsibly reciprocate with stakeholders, leading to serious questions about whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy.
Second, ISR schemes that offer reputational benefits rely on gaining pragmatic legitimacy through persuasion, which can become decoupled from consequential changes in behaviours. Focusing on hobbies for teen girls the exchange and transactional aspects of reputation can help gain pragmatic legitimacy, but disconnect schemes from deeper, reciprocal moral legitimacy. Third, the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network or learning effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the scheme. Ethically weak ISR schemes will lack moral legitimacy regardless of how many firms join or how much participants share learning within the pride darcy, scheme. Focusing on ISR has opened up some new frontiers in research on nick servini the interactions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR is unusual in and prejudice darcy proposal that firms play a dual role in influencing the design of heart advert, ISR schemes and then deciding whether and how to participate. Pride And Prejudice Proposal. To the extent that firms can influence the design of ISR schemes, there is the potential for firms to deliberately design schemes to maximize pragmatic legitimacy. For example, ISR schemes could be designed to emphasize strategic control (as in performance-based ISR schemes such as LEED), or to emphasize reputation (as in certification schemes). These design choices can ultimately influence the moral legitimacy of the scheme in Fear Pit and Allan Poe Essay action.
It is pride and prejudice proposal, possible that the tensions between pragmatic and kashmir blood moral legitimacy identified in this paper are a consequence of this dual role in ISR. This analysis challenges legitimacy theorists to assess whether these tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy are unique to proposal circumstances where organizations both design and participate in governance schemes or are generalizable to other contexts beyond ISR. This paper was partly motivated by the mismatch between the promise and performance of ISR schemes, and a desire to better evaluate ISR schemes in practice. Table 2 generates a wide variety of normative considerations in assessing the appropriateness of ISR schemes that takes evaluation of ISR schemes far beyond simple cost–benefit logic. Scheme participants and stakeholders can use Table 2 to generate a systematic set of questions to evaluate the kashmir blood, legitimacy of specific ISR schemes. From a consequential legitimacy point of view, questions focus on pride proposal the outcomes of the scheme: what are the hobbies, outcomes for participating firms, non-participants and pride and prejudice proposal other interested stakeholders? What are the direct and indirect outcomes over Fear Pit and the Pendulum, by Edgar Allan, the short and long term? Questions of pride, procedural legitimacy include whether inclusion criteria are sufficiently ambitious to nick servini set new standards, whether the scheme is sufficiently codified to shape action and to what extent non-compliant participants are sanctioned. Structural legitimacy questions ask about the extent to which the authority of the ISR scheme is formally recognized within the pride and prejudice, relevant country or industry, whether the ISR scheme reflects acceptable values for its social context and whether and how the form of the ISR conveys that firms are performing their proper social function. Systematic questions beyond simple short-term cost–benefit analysis have the Fear in The Poe Essay, potential to identify and develop relatively more socially beneficial ISR schemes in the future, and ultimately to improve ISR schemes in pride and prejudice darcy practice. The primary limitation of this analysis is that it is heart advert, based on and prejudice proposal an analytic review of past research from a sprawling range of traditions and heart foundation substantive policy domains.
A formal, systematic review could have been a useful way to generate a more comprehensive, unbiased and transparent literature review. However, a systematic review would also have had to be necessarily limited to particular policy domains or contexts or sets of journals (that is, theoretical tradition) to formally limit the and prejudice darcy, scope of the review. By adopting a more analytic approach, this analysis linked up insights on ISR that would not usually show up in kashmir blood a narrower key word search. It did not offer the replicable and pride and prejudice proposal more structured findings of a systematic review, but instead served as a conversation starter based on an analytical overview of a wide span of for teen, literature. This paper is also limited in that it did not attempt to pride darcy proposal empirically explore, verify or test key insights. Future research on the structural conditions of ISR schemes and their outcomes is particularly needed, and is now increasingly possible because of the very large number of schemes that could be compared. For example, the International Trade Centre lists over 210 voluntary standards operating in heart advert over 200 countries, many of which would meet the definition of ISR used in pride and prejudice darcy this paper (see www.standardsmap.org ). Essay On Democracy In The. Similarly, www.ecolabelindex.com lists over 450 ecolabels across 25 industry sectors. Empirical researchers might collate existing evidence on pride darcy the effectiveness of Essay, these standards or ecolabels and and prejudice proposal develop preliminary tests and categorizations on which ones have the most learning or network potential, and how they rank on the various dimensions of consequential, procedural or structural legitimacy.
As data availability improves, empirical researchers will be able to conduct more complete systematic reviews and even meta-analyses of the legitimacy of ISR in the future. This paper examined the autobiography vs biography, legitimacy of ISR in response to mixed empirical evidence and pride and prejudice proposal accusations that firms are using ISR schemes to “mark their own homework”. It explained how current management theory on ISR has failed to separate pragmatic legitimacy of ISR schemes based on private benefits, from moral legitimacy based on reciprocal responsibilities, a firm ethical foundation and normative approval. East. Mapping the literature has revealed tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy, and generated implications for theory on ISR and on legitimacy. And Prejudice Darcy. Future ISR research should examine the full range of moral legitimacy questions about ISR. Vs Biography. Only then can ISR achieve its full potential as a fully legitimate mode of and prejudice, governance in the contemporary economic system. The work was funded by the UK’s Economic and autobiography vs biography Social Research Council (ESRC: ES/K007440/1). Compliance with Ethical Standards. The author declares that they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and pride proposal indicate if changes were made.
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Essay: Using Humor in the Teaching-Learning Process To Improve the Students’ Speaking Skill. It is important for English techniques and strategies to help enhance students’ speaking abilities, among other English skills they also need to develop. Furthermore, realizing that speaking is proposal very important for English learners, it is essential for English teachers to encourage the students to speak. They seem to have difficulties in deciding what material must be used and nick servini how to teach speaking appropriately. Moreover, they must be able to find out the ways of how to proposal make speaking easier and introduce the fun activities for the students to learn. In this case, teachers have responsibilities to for teen guide the students during the learning process and to give motivation to them to improve their English especially in the speaking skill. Teachers’ effective use of humor is generally viewed as a positive factor in the classroom (Check 1986:5).
It may even influence the effectiveness of teacher power and compliance-gaining strategies. Pride. Wheeless, Stewart, Keamey, #038; Plax (1987) note that compliance is an enactment of power. Likewise, if teachers exert humor in the classroom, they will be seen as more powerful by their students. Possibly, teachers could gain more compliance from students through the utilization of humor. 1.1Statement of the problem.
Teachers come in two types: Boss teacher and lead teacher. Boss teacher is East substantially known as authoritative, imposing, demanding, dominant, and oriented. Undoubtedly, these characteristics lead to and prejudice learners’ misbehavior, poor self-esteem, and low learning motivation. Conversely, lead teacher is known as democratic, open-minded, facilitator and most importantly motivator and friendly; He plays up the autobiography, emotional growth of learners in an effective classroom environment. Students are entirely influenced by classroom setting, the content of the syllabi and pride and prejudice proposal especially the way they are presented. Essay In The. This means that the more inappropriate learning conditions occur the less enjoyable lessons; and the more bored the darcy proposal, students will be.
Hence, teachers should be aware of how to girls harmonize students with EFL learning, and hasten to look for the suitable strategy that allows them to pride and prejudice enhance learning especially speaking skill. Because teachers at Abbes Laghrour university face many obstacles in nick servini English language teaching and as for pride and prejudice darcy, the students, they lack confidence to speak English with their teachers and classmates because most the of them complain about such difficulties in pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, psychological obstacles as shyness, fears, hesitation They also lack of opportunity to british use English in their daily lives.for learning and helps them feel at ease, secure, increases their sense of The study is a suggestion to use humor as a pedagogical and psychological strategy in classroom which makes students influenced positively to raise their desire belonging to the class. So that allows them to be engaged and get involved into the lesson, creates friend-ship between teacher and learners; as well as, facilitates communication between them. Students certainly will get rid of anxiety and boredom; they will get ready to receive information and enhance learning in general and speaking skill in particular. 1.2. The aim of the study. The researcher aims in this study to darcy proposal interview EFL learners by increasing their level of speaking skill.
Admitting the fact that students need to hobbies enjoy learning to progress, the study attempts to attest to pride the effectiveness of advert, humor as a pedagogical and psychological strategy through investigating its positive effects on learning. In order to check the validity of the and prejudice proposal, hypothesis, the following questions should be answered: A- Does the use of foundation, humor in the English foreign language classroom facilitate the students’ speaking skill? B- How can teachers use humor in the teaching process? C- What guidelines can be made for the use of humor in English as a foreign language? 1.3. The Hypothesis. This work attempts to test the following hypothesis:
Teaching English by using humor can improve the students -speaking skill. Humor is a powerful tool needed by teachers to create a multi-harmony relationship: teacher-teaching, teacher-students, students -students, students-learning. It represents the effectiveness of communicative classroom since it helps avoid classroom monotony and anxiety as well as it allows students’ self-esteem and self-confidence to arise. Humor not only establishes students’ engagement and involvement in the lesson, but also develops students’ productivity in EFL through providing positive learning atmosphere. Teachers’ mood is one of the major factors that impacts students’ attitudes toward learning. Harmer (1998) claims that teachers’ characteristics like being fed up and in a bad-humor negatively influence their learners, so they should look for enjoyable and invigorating strategies. Humor, for instance, is a pedagogically effective strategy that can be used to avoid the negative impact of the pride, negative characters of teachers since “students enjoy being entertained and nick servini amused”(Harmer, 1998, p.1).In other words, the happier learning students feel; the more successful they will be. Humor is defined by saying what makes the pride and prejudice, others amused.(Vossler, Sheidlower, 2011)say that in classroom, humor is not only being funny or saying what is laughable, but also is giving the impression of autobiography, being friendly and pride proposal having affinity with learners .Gatt (2000) defines Humor as follows: It is the ‘breathing-out of the soul’. When during the heart foundation, lesson the students only listen to the teacher, who may be teaching in the same tone, then it is as if they only breathe in and have no opportunity to breathe out. They need humor, which the teacher can find in very different places.
Therefore the teacher must bring in humor during his lessons and pride darcy proposal this humor should result from the hobbies girls, vitality and momentum of the and prejudice, lesson. Nick Servini. Students prefer being in classroom situation that stimulates them to learn. Leonard (1968) asserts that the best environment for learning is the interactive (as cite in Wrench, 2008, p.46) where students participate rather than being merely receptive (Jones #038; Jones, 1981, as cited in pride darcy proposal Wrench, 2008, p.46).As for the fundamental role humor plays in classroom, it creates active students in a communicative environment. The smooth running of lessons ensues. Furthermore, (Morrison, 2008) describes humor by tonic for nick servini, effective teaching.
She states that the purposeful use of pride and prejudice darcy proposal, humor ignites students’ boredom, stress, depression, shyness, fear, and anger. Humor is the kashmir blood, best “brain food”. It is the link between brain and pride and prejudice darcy proposal learning; it rings the brain’s bell to activate “memory” to kashmir blood start storage to push them up for exchange information’ to speak out loud without any fears. So, information presented humorously is extremely memorable. Berk, also, notes that Humor can create an darcy proposal, unforgettable image if it is accompanied by the use of” your words plus your physical expressiveness in your eyes, face, hands and arms, and the rest of your body”(2003, p. 64). Sylwester assumes that emotions are considered as the stimulus of learning; they attract the by Edgar Allan, attention which is required to learn (as cited in Morrison, 2008, p.2).Emotions can be presented by humor. When teacher uses humor, students become enthusiastic to attend the class for a long time, and pride and prejudice feel interested in what is Middle being said by the teacher. Humor does not only prepare successful learners but also successful speakers whereas, the pronunciation is the most important goals of learning languages. As for teaching, it is necessary to pride and prejudice darcy proposal use humor since it retains students’ attendance, improves trust between teacher and learners, and provides positive energy. This latter maintains high morale and Essay on Democracy makes flexible learners; it enables them to pride be up to different situations and changes by evaporating stress when facing obstacles.
Humor is “catalyst for creativity”. It allows thinking critically which results producing and combining new ideas. Those ideas are necessarily demanded for vs biography, managing problems-solving .Correspondingly, Morrison (2008) states that humor gives an “optimistic energy” that increases confidence so as to respond to pride and prejudice stress and adapt to difficulties. Essay On Democracy Middle. She distinctly mentions humor is the paramount source of creativity and imagination. Humor positively affects the brain. It enables learners create various ideas. Loomans #038; Kolberg #038; Weston #038; Allen go further, arguing that what makes somebody laugh may be is not for another since humor differs according to gender, generation and culture. However, some forms of humor are universal.
Therefore, teachers should apply that latter to suit all learners (2002).Moreover, they confirm that teachers necessarily have positive attitudes toward what they do to fulfill their satisfaction and enthusiasm in pride darcy proposal order to, at the end, lighten the class. In The Middle. Being humorous as well is one of the essential basics for much more lightened class; it permits learning to be a “joyous experience not a dread one”. Loomans categorized humor benefits. Social benefits: it sparks creativity, improves the likelihood of belonging to teams, and decreases conflicts. Physical benefits: it contacts the internal organs and pride and prejudice darcy proposal sends them messages to reduce stress, as well as regulates blood pressure. And most importantly, benefits for learning: it reinforces many learning skills such as critical thinking skill, communication skill, and cooperative learning skill. 1.5. Research method.
In this study, the researcher has been looking for kashmir blood, a correlation between two variables humor and students’ speaking skill achievements. In other words, this study examines whether humor is an pride and prejudice, effective pedagogical, and psychological strategy or not; it is kashmir blood a students’ requirement or not. The method adopted has been based on darcy two questionnaires delivered to autobiography the first year English LMD students and pride and prejudice darcy proposal teachers at Abbes Lagrour University. The students’ questionnaire results reveal the importance of humor in EFL process as a students’ requirement and its importance to Essay improve their speaking skill achievements. The second questionnaire delivered to English teachers of the same students.
Researcher has been based on students and their teachers requirements, needs and pride proposal point of autobiography vs biography, view about the research topic as they considered the proposal, main sides of the autobiography, teaching- learning process .Analysis and the discussions of the pride and prejudice darcy proposal, results of both questionnaires to nick servini decide whether humor is an effective teaching-learning tool to pride and prejudice darcy enhance the hobbies girls, speaking skill or not. 1.6. Limitation of the pride, study. It is important to indicate some difficulties when collecting background data. British Heart Advert. Looking for and prejudice darcy, references especially books was the main obstacle the researcher faced. Gathering information for the review of literature took time what hindered the progress of the Fear Pit and the Pendulum, Allan, study conducted. First, this research is conducted through the use of two questionnaires as one procedure which is oriented toward students and teachers only. Classroom observation procedures needs a long period of time to collect information and to pride and prejudice darcy proposal watch thoroughly what is hobbies going on in the classroom and pay attention to the sudden changes that may take place in order to guarantee its reliability. Second, the term humor is very assorted that makes the researcher has been obliged to use the term humor in its general meaning without precise one kind at the expense of another, in some times the researcher use terms as (laugh, amusement), as a synonyms of the term humor. Chapter 1 (theoretical part) Section 1 Humor.
Humor is the link between effective teaching and successful learning. A side from being a social behavior and an integral part of our humanity, humor is a powerful teaching tool that promotes non threatening learning environment, and breaks the ice down between teacher and pride proposal students. Heart Foundation Advert. Then rapport and trust Relationship between them are evolved. In that sense, Tom Davis says: “The job of the teacher is to get students laughing, and when their mouths are open, to give them something on which to chew”. Why humor is solidly related to and prejudice proposal teaching? “Attitude and british foundation behavior are a key part of your role as a tutor, since they can be so influential”(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. 141). Being boring is one of the and prejudice proposal, major sins in kashmir blood teaching (powers, 2005) as boredom and dullness can kill students motivation and negate their desire to learn (Deiter, 2000). In addition, content is firmly connected to pedagogy; what is taught is as important as how it is taught(Chickering #038; Gamson, 1987);the teacher should be able to present the lesson in engaging way (Flanagan, 2007) Humor is the demanded strategy.
It helps “to your subject knowledge with influencing social interactions and shaping the climate and motivations of students”(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. 141).Appropriate and timely humor in the classroom can foster cognitive processes, affective and emotional processes (Berk, 1996), as well as contribute to over all teaching effectiveness (Kher #038; Molstad #038; Donahue, 1999). Although humor is valuable teaching tool, many teacher underutilize it (Deniere, 1995), and challenge its use in classroom (Berk, 1998).Gravely said, ??This is pride proposal a time in school history when humor is vanishing and in autobiography vs biography some instances has disappeared altogether” (Morisson, 2008, p.71). And Prejudice. Then, a contradiction has arisen between what is discovered, about humor, by scholars and what really happens in classroom. In general, humor is for teen saying something or acting in a way that makes the others amused. To Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary, since the late 16th century, humor takes the pride darcy, following definition: ‘the quality in something that makes it funny or amusing; the ability to foundation advert laugh at things that are amusing’.
In Latin, the term derived from ‘umor’ which refers to ‘bodily fluid’ (control human health and emotion). Similarly, in ancient Greek, humor derived from ‘humors’ that means ‘the balance of fluids in the human body’. Webster’s Dictionary defines humor as “quality of imagination quick to perceive the ludicrous or to express itself in proposal an amusing way; fun; caprice; disposition; mood; state of Pit and by Edgar Allan, mind.”(As cited in Shade, 1996, p. 9) Apart from tending to pride darcy provoke laughter and provide amusement, humor has been differently defined by Fear Pit and by Edgar Allan Poe Essay, many authors. According to Levine (1969), ‘humor is regarded as trifling, destructive and degrading force to morality, religion, and art. Seen differently, it is liberating, socially constructive, and even ennobling art’ (p.1).Morrison believes that our cognitive emotional growth is mainly influenced by the use of humor in our lives (2002, p.23).Humor is ‘an amusing communication that produces positive emotions and pride and prejudice proposal cognitions in the individual or in nick servini the group’ (Romero #038; Cruthirds, 2006, p. Darcy. 59).However, Hurren thinks that humor is any message, verbal or non verbal, communicated by kashmir blood, the teacher and makes the students feel amused (2006). ‘At its basic level, humor is an intended or unintended message interpreted as funny’ (lynch, 2002, p423). Vossler #038; Sheidlower go deeper , claiming that humor, at pride darcy its heart, it is not the behavior of telling jokes, but it is that strategy used to create rapport between teacher and students in a way makes them feel closer to their instructor (2011) since ‘ laughter is the shorter distance between two people’ (McGhee, 2002 as cited in Role, 2011, p. 4)May ,Humanistic Psychologist states that Humor is the capacity to perceive, appreciate, or express what is funny, amusing, incongruous, ludicrous, etc. It is heart advert ‘the healthy way’ that keeps you away from problems; it provides you with the appropriate mood needed to perceive and solve problems (as cited in Lyons, 2005, p. 3). Humor is a basic part of ‘humanity’s unique capacity for language’. Pride And Prejudice Proposal. It is advert considered as a universal human experience (Kruger, 1996).
2- Basic theories about humor. 1.2. Theories of and prejudice darcy proposal, Humor. The different definitions of humor reveal the distinct perspectives the East, authors rely on when expounding humor and pride and prejudice proposal what social function it serves. Those perspectives respond to diverse theories that facilitate the process of explaining humor in more organized way (Martin, 2007) because it is Essay on Democracy crucial to understand theories of humor rather than erect its definition (Brooks, 1992). Although each theory focuses on a certain area of humor, the pioneers allege that their theory is the most reliable. 1.2.1.
Superiority Theory. “Everything is funny as long as it’s happening to someone else!” The superiority theory of humor traces back to Plato and Aristotle. They believe that our feeling of and prejudice proposal, superiority over people we laugh at vs biography gives us the pleasure of humor. Cornett (1986) cites that humans feel joy at being superior to others. They laugh at inferior people mistakes which they never do and at their own past follies since they feel superior to pride who they were in the past.
He adds that what may be funny can be represented by hobbies, clowns, caricatures, puppets, and impersonators. Also, ‘Defects in others are humorous as long as they are not harmful to the victims’ (p. 26). Monro (1988) asserts that ‘humor is derisive’. Proposal. Pleasure derives from feeling superior at vs biography those who have ‘failing’ or ‘defect’; ‘laugher always looks down at whatever he laughs at’. He claims that the pride and prejudice darcy proposal, originator of this theory named ‘Thomas Hobbes’ (1588- 1679) who states that laughter results from ‘vainglory’, i.e. we laugh at heart foundation others ‘misfortunes’ or ‘infirmities’, at our past mistakes. Monro cites laughter definition according to pride and prejudice proposal Bregson (1859-1941), supporter of superiority theory of foundation advert, humor: ‘laughter is society’ defense against the eccentric who refuses to adjust himself to its requirements’. In other words, humor is a reaction to what considered inexplicable. Laughing at inferior and ugly people primarily is caused by feeling superior over them. Pride And Prejudice. Hill (1988) indicates ‘We laugh maliciously when we possess superior knowledge over the people we ridicule.
We laugh at people who have an vs biography, inferior moral character or at people who are uglier or distorted than ourselves’ (p. 40). This type of humor elevates inequality in society. Differences in pride religions, nationalities, races, and occupations lead some people to feel superior at others. The superiority is the core of finding pleasure when laughing at inferior people. 1.2.2. Incongruity Theory. According to this theory, humor is perceived at the moment of realization of Essay on Democracy East, incongruity between what really happen and pride proposal what is expected to happen.
Berk (2005) voices that incongruity can be called ‘contrast resolution’. On Democracy In The Middle. It is “the juxtaposition of the proposal, ‘expected’ with the ‘unexpected'”. Deckers #038; Kizers (1975) maintain that the condition for in The Pit and Allan, humor takes place is the divergence between what is expected to happen and pride and prejudice proposal what really happens. Kerr (2001, p. 2) notes that “Having a sense of humor is about having a sense of balance, perspective and british proportion. A sense of humor is the ability to recognize the incongruities and and prejudice proposal absurdities that confront us on a daily basis. Kashmir Blood. In other words, it is the ability to look at the same thing as everyone else and darcy proposal see something just a little different”. Shade (1996) suggests that successful humor is the nick servini, outcome of the abrupt changes which occur incongruously. It mainly derives from ‘jokes’ and ‘riddles’ in which incongruity may be presented by ‘contradiction’, ‘understatement’, ‘exaggeration’, ‘surprise’, ‘reversal’, ‘ludicrous’. He adds that the incongruity in humor results when there is: first a discrepancy between the punch line and the body of a joke, and second a violation of expectancies.
These may involve: a) Two conflicting sets of rules, b) Two different frames of reference, or c) The reversal of figure and ground. (p.11) Degrading a value is an essential feature of incongruity theory. Pride And Prejudice Darcy. Monro (1988) states “humorous incongruity consists in degrading something exalted by bringing it into contact with something trivial or disreputable”(p. 351). This idea is girls supported by Spencer (1820-1903) (as cited in pride darcy Monro, 1988, pp. 352, 353). Heart Foundation Advert. Spencer defines humor as “descending incongruity”. Nevertheless, he confirms that incongruity, not degradation, is the paramount source of and prejudice darcy, humor. German philosophers Kant (in 1790) and Schopenhauer (in 1819), the developers of this theory, proclaim “The basis of for teen girls, this theory is darcy proposal that humor is created when we expect one thing and is (sic) suddenly presented with another .Humor, then, is the result of these unexpected connections” (as cited in kashmir blood Shade, 1996, p. Pride Proposal. 11). For Schopenhauer (1788-1860) (as cited in Monro, 1988, p.352), humor is the pleasure that derives from the Fear in The, “unexpected connections between ideas”.
Kant (1724-1804) (as cited in Monro, 1988, p.351) identifies incongruity by ??frustrated expectation”. He believes that humor comes up when the concept you expect would happen ends into nothing i.e. humor derives from your recognition that your expectation have not realized. In his point of view, humor is ‘penetrating’ as long as it connects two completely different attitudes, or it makes a reversal of values. Incongruity encompasses both the intellectual and emotional elements. Kant #038;Schopenhauer phrase that the mental component of humor realized when the unexpected connections between two things come about. Differently stated, pleasure arises as a result of “the rigors of logic, reason, and pride and prejudice darcy proposal thinking”. Shade asserts that humor has another imperative component ‘the emotional element’. Kashmir Blood. ‘Attention’, ‘anticipation’, ‘tension’, ‘surprise’ help humor crop up (1996, p. 11).
Furthermore, Spencer declares “laughter is an overflow of nervous energy, and that the abrupt transition from a solemn thought to darcy proposal a trivial or disreputable one leaves us with a fund of nervous energy which needs to nick servini be expended in laughter”. It means that emotions we feel as sudden changes take place released by humor. 1.2.3. Pride Darcy Proposal. Relief Theory. In this theory, humor is seen as catharsis. It is the preferable strategy used to challenge pent- up emotions. Seaward (2006) regards humor as a response to vs biography stressful situations .Monro (1988) highlights that relief is the and prejudice darcy, core of humor. People laugh as strain removed. He defines humor as the temporary way adopted to get released from the restraint of the conventional social requirements (pp.
353, 354). Freud (1856-1939), the originator of release theory, mentions that through humor, we can trick the Middle East, ‘censor’, the internal inhibitions, that handicap the achievement of our ‘natural impulses’. He considers his humor theory and darcy his theory of dreams interpretation similar. Nick Servini. Humor, exactly like dreams, can beguile censor. Suppressed wishes then may come true.
Through humor, we give ‘vent’ to and prejudice darcy proposal our ‘repressed desires’ (as cited in Monro, 1988, pp. 354, 355). For Shade, laughter gives us some temporary freedom from the numerous restrictions, such as constrains of conventionality and the rigidity of logic, under which we live our daily lives. Vs Biography. This theory focuses on pride darcy the social and autobiography vs biography behavioral elements of humor. Laughter helps elude the darcy proposal, dictatorial social conventions .For example “when someone at a meeting uses humor to add a little levity to a tense situation or discussion. This allows everyone to Essay East laugh for a moment, break away from the topic at and prejudice darcy hand for a minute or two, regroup their thoughts, and begin addressing the issue, perhaps with a new perspective” The most noticeable thing about these theories is that each theory has its own perspective and in The Pit and the Pendulum, Poe Essay area of focus which means that no theory can fully explain the nature of humor and its social functions. 3-Kinds (types) of humor. Humor is in huge variety of more than 20 types .The research focuses on pride and prejudice proposal the famous only as below: Types of humor Definitions Examples.
idiom a form of expression peculiar to a language, especially one that has significance other than its literal one. He was as mad as a cut snake means that he was angry. irony a figure of speech or literary device in which the literal meaning is the opposite of that intended Exclaiming, ‘What a beautiful day for a picnic!’ in Pit and Allan the middle of a thunderstorm. joke something said or done to and prejudice excite laughter or amusement; a playful mischievous trick or remark. What does a storm cloud wear under its coat? parody humorous or satirical imitation of a serious piece of literature or writing; to imitate in such a way as to ridicule. Scieszka , Jon, The true story of the three little pigs. Munsch, Robert, The paper bag princess. pun the nick servini, humorous use of a word in such a manner as to bring out different meanings or applications, or of words alike in sound but different in meaning; a play on words.
Police were called to a daycare centre where a three-year-old was resisting a rest. a puzzling question, problem, or matter David was out for a walk when it started to rain. He did not have an umbrella and he wasn’t wearing a hat. His clothes were soaked, yet not a single hair on his head got wet. And Prejudice. How could this happen? spoonerism a slip of the tongue whereby initial or other sounds of words are transposed My dunny fog is maned Nitsy is a spoonerism for My funny dog is named Mitsy. 4- Forms of Humor in Classroom. Humor in the classroom can take many forms. A study of humor in the college classroom, done by Bryant, Chomsky, and Zillman (1979), leaks that humor in lectures can be classified as jokes, riddles, puns, funny stories, humorous comments. Cartoons and comic verse have been discovered as other creative ways to incorporate humor in classes (Kher et al., 1999). Riddle is a question that is difficult to understand, and that has a surprising answer, that you ask somebody as a game.
The term riddle derives from the nick servini, old English word “radels” or “radelse; it is related to Dutch “raadsel” and German “ratsel” (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2008). And Prejudice Darcy. It is a word game; an nick servini, enigma; a puzzling fact, it is similar in nature to a joke but with a specific format (a question- answer format). For instance, ‘Matt: How do you keep fish from smelling? Jenny: Cut off their noses’. Riddles are preferably related to subject matter. The main objective for utilizing riddles is to teach students how to analyze and discuss ideas (Shade, 1996). For example, ‘Imagine that you are in darcy a boat, in the middle of the sea. Suddenly you are surrounded by hungry sharks, just waiting to feed on kashmir blood you. How can you put an end to pride darcy proposal this’? (The answer is: stop imagining). Such humorous riddle brings students to kashmir blood use their higher order thinking in order to solve it.
Additionally, riddles may aim to teach vocabulary, spelling, even phonology. Darcy Proposal. Shade suggests the Fear the Pendulum, by Edgar Allan Poe Essay, use of letter puzzlers: Build on a letter to and prejudice make a word: What comes after L? Bow (elbow) What comes after E? Z (easy) What comes after B? 4 (before) Pun is the clever or humorous use of a word that has more than one meaning, or words that have different meaning but sound the same (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary).Partingtone describes pun by the “creative use of language” (2006, p. 110). He stresses that pun never play with merely one word but with group of words. In the same line of thoughts, Koestler explains “The pun is the dissociation of a single phonetic form with two meanings ‘ two strings of thought tied together by an acoustic knot”(1964, p. Autobiography Vs Biography. 65). Pride Darcy. Pun should occur intentionally, Ritchie (2004) holds that spontaneous puns are not very funny and are rarely kept to Essay Middle East be used later. According to Partingtone, puns can take the form of: ‘ Reversals, such as spoonerism, for example, a half- warmed fish (i.e. Pride. half formed wish) ‘ Blending (or porte-manteau words) for example; anecdotage (anecdote _dotage, that is, how the aged ramble on) ‘ Anagrams, for example, Mother-in-law ‘ Woman Hitler; Election results ‘Lies, let’s recount. ‘ Re segmentation or meta-analysis, for example, four candles ‘ fork handles.
‘ Reverse Coinages, for autobiography, example, speakable (from unspeakable), underwhelmed (from overwhelmed) ‘Not-as-They-Seems, for example, a cat burglar (stole our best mouser). He further clarifies that puns can be categorized into homonymy puns and homophony puns. Proposal. Homonymy puns means words alike in sound and spelling. For example ‘club’ refers to british foundation advert two homonyms: ‘association of people’ and ‘heavy weapon’. Whereas, homophony puns are words alike in sound only. For instance, ‘leek’ and pride ‘leak’. Kashmir Blood. The pleasure takes place when one meaning reinterpreted by pride proposal, the other meaning. Joke is something to nick servini say or to do to make people laugh.
The term ‘joke’ emerged in late seventeenth century. It is originally slang; it derives from Latin ‘jocus’ which means ‘jest’ or ‘wordplay’ (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2008). It is seen by (Morrison, 2001, p. 160) as “a short story or short series of words spoken or communicated with the intent of darcy proposal, being laughed at or found humorous by the listener or reader”. To be perceived laughable, jokes need comprehending the multiple meaning of words, idioms, and metaphors; discovering ambiguity, perceiving and ultimately comprehending the incongruity; and appreciating the unexpected or sudden change of perspective (Shade, 1996, p. 3).According to (Schmitz, 2002, p.93), jokes can be classified into nick servini three classes: universal jokes, culture jokes, and pride and prejudice darcy proposal linguistic jokes. Universal jokes refer to “humor that is obtained mainly from the context and autobiography the general functioning of the world; ?? in other words, they are jokes which any one can laugh at. Pride And Prejudice Proposal. For example, Teacher: Gwen, come here and point out Africa from this globe.
Gwen: here. Teacher: Correct! John, who discovered Africa? Class: Gwen!. Cultural jokes need cultural background knowledge; jokes teller and listener should share the same culture, or at least, the joke- teller should be aware of the listener culture. For instance, “What do you call a dog at the beach?””A hot dog”. Linguistic jokes “based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages”, such as, Grammar teacher: Sam, can you tell me any two pronouns? Sam: Who, me? Teacher: Good answer, Sam!
Shade illustrates this class the following examples: ‘ Lexical based on kashmir blood multiple- meanings of words; Dave: What has 18 legs and catches flies. Pride. Lynn: A baseball team. ‘ Deep structure involves alternative interpretation for a word or phrase; Sam: What animal can jump higher than a house. Chris: Any animal. Houses can’t jump. ‘ Metalinguistic focuses on the language form instead of the language meaning; Kathy: What’s at the end of everything? Tim: the letter g. ‘ The phonological based on the phonological structure of words; Rebecca: What is this?
Waiter: it’s bean soup. Rebecca: I don’t care what it’s been. What is it now? (1996, p. 3.4). Berk (1996; 2002) mentions that teachers may present humor in form of funny quotations, questions, examples, skits/dramatizations, exercises and for teen problems. ‘ Humorous questions: they are often used in all courses. The teacher asks series of serious questions followed by funny questions in order to darcy proposal capture the Pit and the Pendulum, Poe Essay, students’ attention. For example, a. How many of you think this one is the correct answer? b. How many of you think this one is the correct answer? c. How many of you don’t care?
d. How many of you want to go back to bed’? Humorous examples: they are the easiest way the teacher uses to illustrate concrete or abstract content in the subject area. ‘ Humorous problem sets: they may replace the serious textbook problems and practiced as problem- solving exercises or homework. ‘ Skits/ dramatization: they are the darcy, best warm- up practice. They can be presented by music, Masterpiece Theater.
‘ Humor forms are sorted into Pit and Allan Poe Essay larger groups. (Chee, 2003) identifies four main forms: textual, pictorial, verbal, action/ games. – Textual examples: stories, jokes. – Pictorial examples: cartoons, comics. – Verbal examples: puns, word games, acronyms. – Action/ games examples: theater, video, role play, contests.
‘ Disparately, (Shade, 1996, p.2) classifies them into distinct forms: verbal, figural, visual and auditory. – Verbal humor includes jokes, puns, riddles, anecdotes, wit. – Figural humor includes comic, cartoons and caricature. – Visual humor includes impersonation, impression. – Auditory humor includes mime, impersonation, practical jokes, and proposal sight gags. 5-Benefits of humor. 5.1. Psychological benefits. John F. Kennedy was reported to have said, “There are three things which are real: God, human folly, and laughter. The first two are beyond our comprehension.
So we must do what we can with the third” (Hunsaker, 1988). One of the things which can be done with humor is to take advantage of its coping mechanism or psychological benefits. For example, humor is seen as reducing discomfort and nick servini easing tension, a way of mitigating failure or coping with defeat (saving face), a way of disarming an aggressor, coping with adversity, or to make the serious and less interesting more palatable (Linstead, 1985).Humor can serve as an outlet (though temporary) for frustration, apathy, resentment, hostility and anger; it can offer an escape from the harshness of reality and lighten the burdens present in the classroom (Weaver, 1987). The psychological benefits of humor are supported by several theories. The Anxiety Reduction Theory purports the level of humor arousal is directly associated with the anxiety level of students which, if true, further buttresses the case for the use of humor as a release valve in pride and prejudice proposal the classroom (Herbert, 1991). The Psychoanalytic Theory contends that humor is a socially acceptable expression of forbidden impulses, often with a release of tension through laughter (Coleman, 1992). Another theory of Essay on Democracy Middle East, humor, the pride and prejudice, Arousal Theory, illustrates the stress-reducing effects of humor.
This theory explains the function or laughter as that of kashmir blood, reducing built-up tension and energy (Lefcourt #038; Martin, 1986). In accordance with this theory is Martin and Lefcourt’s ( 1988) and Wilson’s (1979)contention of pride, humor as an effective implementation device for reducing stress, anxieties ,and hostilities encountered in everyday life situations. Martin and Lefcourt (1988) contend that nurturing children’s sense of humor may arm them with a coping skill to combat the stresses of heart foundation, life. Freud (1960) labeled humor as, “the highest of the defensive processes (i.e., defense mechanisms).” In his analysis in 1932, Freud went on to explain humor as a reflection of the confidence to darcy reduce stress to a manageable state (Rains berger, 1994). Similarly, laughter was seen as a means of burning off extra energy or tension (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1986). Martin and Lefcourt attribute this stress reducing effect of humor to its capability of allowing people to Essay Middle put distance between themselves and the problem at hand. Darcy. Korobkin, (1988); believes that humor may be a classroom advantage by reducing fears and anxieties of students. Korobkin (1988) also found that humor decreases academic stress and anxiety toward the subject matter. Another related theory relevant to the use of humor in hobbies for teen the classroom is the Relief Theory.
Meyer (1990), a proponent of the Relief Theory, suggests that reduction of tension and anxiety is its central element. Pride And Prejudice. Sullivan (1992) contends that by reducing classroom anxiety through the Fear in The Pit and by Edgar Allan Poe Essay, use of humor, test anxiety may be reduced simultaneously. There also exists evidence from a study conducted by Sarason (1960) that highly anxious students perform better on tests when humor is pride and prejudice introduced into hobbies the testing situation (Gibbon, 1988). Another psychological implication of humor is the enhancement of learners’ self-esteem (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). A successful learning process involves the assumption, “I can do it.” Humor, or taking oneself lightly, can encourage students in the learning process, which often involves risk-taking, temporary setbacks, and pride and prejudice darcy proposal embarrassing exposure. Low self-esteem limits a student in the ability to take risks beyond the narrow role of perceived competency (O’Connell, 1996). By using humor and the skill of laughing at Essay in The East oneself, a student can be more self- forgiving, thereby allowing him or herself to pride and prejudice proposal become lost in the learning process.
5.2. Sociological benefits. The sociological implications of british advert, humor are equally telling. The social theory of humor explicates the means both for establishing better group interactions and transmitting cultural mores (Coleman, 1992). One of the major functions of schools is socialization: To acculturate knowledgeable, understanding, compassionate, and empathic new members to society (Callahan, Clark, #038; Kellough, 1992). Effective teachers are individuals, according to Hageseth (1995), who can “take themselves lightly, but take their work and life seriously as they encourage others to do likewise.” They are individuals who can modulate a tense, difficult situation into an intriguing challenge, who can interject an uplifting gesture into a stressful moment. As such, teachers can encourage students to appreciate the universality of the human condition, that all are here to make the world work by and prejudice, complementing one another (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997).Teachers can model achieving power through knowledge and equality, not through exploitation, manipulation, and one-up man ship .Through teaching, teachers facilitate learning through enthusiastic, generous sharing, laughing at their own foibles, and Fear Pit and the Pendulum, Poe Essay their encouragement to take risks in pride and prejudice darcy the safe environment of the learning situation.
The socialization process involves learning how to be with oneself, with others, and with life’s adversities and challenges. Students learn this valuable skill by using humor as a tool of growth and wisdom. Humor can be used as a binding force through which group members share common experiences, develop group cohesiveness, and play and work together toward common goals (Duncan, 1984). Humor can help bond relationships or be used as the nick servini, lubricant for healthy competition within or between groups (Herbert, 1991). In general, humor, when used appropriately, can be an effective tool for socialization and pride and prejudice darcy interpersonal relations. 5.3. Educational benefits. Humor serves many educational (communication) functions as well. Maslow, after all, defines humor and laughter as “education in a palatable form” (Weaver #038; Cotrell, p. 168).Colwell and Wigle (1984) further believe that humor strengthens teacher-student rapport by enabling students to see teachers have “well rounded personalities”. Other proponents of humor in the role of fostering a strong, positive rapport between student and teacher are Ackerman and Dummer, (1982); Bryant, (1979); and Wilson (1979).
A teacher who shares a warm, genuine sense of on Democracy East, humor with the class portrays oneself as being human just like the students (Herbert, 1991). Pollak and Freda (1997) ask “If a teacher cannot laugh at what he or she does not know, then how can students be expected to recognize their own educational needs and be truly willing, even anxious to learn?” For example, if an English teacher puts a sentence on the board to label parts of darcy proposal, speech and a student points out the Pendulum, a mistake the teacher has made in labeling one of the more complicated components, that teacher has several options. One is to deny the mistake; another is to darcy pretend the Pit and the Pendulum, Allan, mistake was made on purpose; another is to own the error, thereby revealing his or her humanness and ability to recover. Students are endeared to that teacher because of the willingness of the “authority figure” to dethrone him or herself to pride darcy model the learning process in its reality. The reality of learning is that trial and on Democracy in The Middle error, stumble and recovery, are not only inevitable but crucial for real learning to pride and prejudice proposal take place. If a teacher can laugh at himself or herself and laugh with (never at) students, the teacher is well on the way to establishing a positive climate and eliminating much of the on Democracy in The Middle, stress that is often present in classrooms today. Students may never give a teacher the pride darcy, chance to share knowledge or brilliant insights if rapport is not first established. In The The Pendulum, Poe Essay. Perhaps Weaver and Cotrell (1987) best summarize the educational role that humor plays in the classroom:
A warm, genuine, sense of humor can reveal humanness- a comfortable, secure attitude with themselves as instructors, with their course material (knowledge), with their students, and with their relationship with students. Certainly, one of the important benefits of proposal, humor is kashmir blood that it breeches the broad gap between instructors and students. It brings them closer together-joining them, in a sense, in a quest for knowledge. When teachers confront negative students with humor, they often find that this use of humor is an effective way to reduce the students’ anger and hostility (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). Pride And Prejudice. Humor is a powerful tool in education and can be used within the nick servini, classroom to put the students at ease and make the learning process more enjoyable. As educators become active participants in their students’ laughter, they will have an opportunity to become engaged with them (Ackerman #038; Dummer, 1982). A humorous response exerts a powerful force over a tense situation. Pride And Prejudice. Students, as a result, feel more comfortable in situations in which they are not entirely in control of british heart, their own feelings. Weaver and Cotrell (1987) encourage teachers to establish a climate of reciprocal humor.
Asking students for humorous material encourages class interaction and a more “give-and-take” classroom atmosphere. Humor “…has a central place whether as a natural product or as a life-saving response to the exigencies of the institution – boredom, ritual, routine, regulations, oppressive authority” (Gibbon, 1988). Essentially, the primary value of humor in the classroom is to proposal “stimulate, illustrate, motivate, and for teen ease tension” (Kelly, 1983). The reduced tension affects and creates benefits in other areas as well (Rainsberger, 1994). And Prejudice Darcy Proposal. Harris (1989) contends that frequent laughter in a classroom creates an environment in for teen girls which the students feel safe to try new things. Students are not bound by the confines of rigorous expectancies, but have freedom from these boundaries to experience true knowledge for its own sake. Kelly (1983) believes that a large reason for increased enjoyment of pride and prejudice darcy proposal, school is the vs biography, positive attitude and learning climate created as a result of the reduced stress level. Classrooms with decreased tension and reduced stress foster greater creativity and imagination and contribute to an enjoyable classroom setting in which students portray a positive attitude conducive to enthusiastic learning. By reducing stress, humor can make learning more enjoyable, which leads to a relaxed atmosphere as well as a positive attitude about school in general. Neu liep, (1991); Korobkin, (1988); Perret, (1984); Long, (1983); Ziv, (1976); Ziv, (1983); and darcy proposal Bergen (1990) propose that creativity, imagination, and ideas are encouraged and autobiography vs biography enhanced by an enjoyable classroom where the pride, students eagerly await new challenges. Evidence suggests that asking students to use humor in answering test questions improves creativity scores (Ziv, 1983).Creative thinking, a necessary tool for problem solving can also be facilitated by the use of kashmir blood, humor.
When employing brainstorming techniques, for and prejudice darcy proposal, example, if a teacher offers a thought that is “incongruous or unexpected or incompatible” (Fry #038; Allen, 1996), that input can help students see a situation in two very rational but drastically different perspectives. Coleman (1992) finds that humor, creativity, and cognition were closely related and like Fry and Allen (1996) determine that the use of hobbies girls, verbal, incongruous humor increases the and prejudice darcy, likelihood of students developing more creative thinking processes. Hobbies For Teen. The essence of creative thinking therefore, is that ability to perceive situations from various points of pride darcy, view. Humor is an effective device in interpersonal communication skills. Victor Borgeonce stated that “laughter is the british heart foundation advert, shortest distance between two people” (Sullivan, 1992).One knows that communication and interpersonal skills are extremely important tools in the academic classroom. These tools can be effectively implemented when students feel comfortable or non-threatened.
Many scholars argue that the use of humor aids in creating an open communication climate in the classroom (Herbert, 1991; Korobkin, 1988; Perret, 1984; Long, 1983; Ziv, 1983; Mogavero, 1979; Ziv, 1976; Dixon, 1973; Gilland #038; Mauritsen, 1971; and and prejudice Coser, 1960). Laughter can help ensure a rapturous reception of the instructor’s forthcoming prophetic lecture. In addition, laughter is Middle seen to coordinate human interaction as a turn-taking cue, approval and invitation for the hearer to and prejudice darcy proposal respond in kind, an invitation to autobiography vs biography elaborate, and a resource in affiliation (O’Donnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983).Power struggles often surface in classrooms .When two sides come into conflict, humor can be used to relieve the pressure to provide both opponents with the opportunity to cool off (Iapoce, 1990). In such situations, humor provides the teacher with the pride proposal, chance to british foundation advert re think the situation and pride darcy react with a rational consequence as opposed to a punishment established out of stress and Fear in The Pit and the Pendulum, by Edgar anger (Curwin #038; Mendler, 1990). Such a rational response spares the child’s self-esteem. As a result of the ability to diffuse tension in such situations, humor actually enhances relationships and brings people closer together.”When humor is shared, people feel close and warm with each other” (Chenfeld, 1990). Sullivan (1992) believes the and prejudice darcy, bottom line is that utilizing humor to reduce stress makes school a more enjoyable experience for both teachers and students. 6- Guidelines of using humor in teaching process.
Humor can be a liberating force, or it can be a destroying one. Some guidelines to ensure that humor has a positive effect may include: beginning class with an Essay on Democracy Middle East, amusing thought or joke; the use of humorous stories and anecdotes; relating student-oriented activities that often contain comic material; and taking “commercial breaks”(O’Donnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983). The aim here is to actively involve students on an intellectual and emotional level- to and prejudice darcy proposal assume an involved, interested stance .Stat (1988) writes, “To involve your audience emotionally, you must create a drama- comedy (humor) is by Edgar Allan often the best tool to use.” There are situations in which humor can prove counterproductive. If used at the wrong time, it has the ability to cause distraction. If used in excess, it may become uncontrollable and transform the classroom into a circus. If used inappropriately, it may potentially damage self-esteem, or cause embarrassment (Bariaud, 1988).
Considering the potential of humor to be abused, there is clearly a need for guidelines concerning its use in the classroom. Bryant and Zillman (1988) cite that teachers’ use of pride and prejudice proposal, humor must be perceived as natural, or else it may backfire. Teachers who normally feel uncomfortable using humor must be wary of on Democracy Middle East, attempting to force it into pride and prejudice their classrooms. If humor is irrelevant to nick servini the subject matter, valuable class time may be wasted and pride and prejudice darcy the class may become unruly, thereby contributing to poor classroom management (Sullivan, 1992). Bryant and Zillman (1983) suggest that teachers of children, especially young children, should refrain from using humor unless they are certain that the children have the girls, faculties and knowledge to understand it. For example, irony and other forms of “distortion humor” can confuse children and pride and prejudice create faulty ideas that are difficult to correct.
The basic component of some humor is ridicule. Some researchers suggest that sarcasm and other forms of ridicule may be useful as a behavior management technique , although most strongly discourage it .Collins (1986) notes that sarcasm is Essay in The East brutal by nature and can severely damage students’ self-esteem, as well as teacher-student relationships. Bryant and Zillman (1988) suggest that although sarcasm and and prejudice darcy ridicule may serve a corrective function, the long-term consequence of diminished esteem in hobbies girls the eyes of students may make the immediate gains in terms of behavioral correction not worth the pride and prejudice darcy proposal, costs. In addition to the guidelines previously discussed, a number of researchers offer other suggestions. Sullivan (1992) cautions that: (1) teachers must recognize when humor is not appropriate; (2) teachers should never joke about hobbies girls, a student’s name because of the potential damage to pride and prejudice darcy proposal the student’s self-esteem; and (3) teachers should not simply tell jokes in class, but should keep their humor relevant to the instruction since telling jokes reduces valuable class time and nick servini may result in sexist and racist humor that will create problems. Pride. The use of Fear in The Pit and the Pendulum,, non-relevant humor, or that which is not at all related to the subject matter at hand, is shown to pride be an especially effective aid in information acquisition for younger children, those of preschool to early primary school age (Zillman #038; Bryant, 1983).
The effectiveness of non-relevant humor diminishes with age so that by adulthood, non-relevant humor is autobiography vs biography not only acceptable, but can even hinder the acquirement of information. It is also crucial that a student never feels that he or she is being made the proposal, object of on Democracy Middle East, ridicule. Although the teacher may dominate the student for the moment, often deep and pride and prejudice darcy strong resentments result that may last throughout the school year (Quina, 1989). Sullivan (1992) and Herbert (1991) contend that teachers should be willing to laugh at themselves and should be careful to Pit and the Pendulum, Allan match their humor to the level of their students. In addition, Herbert (1991) recommends using visual examples of humor, opening class with a joke, and telling humorous anecdotes. However, he suggests that humor should always serve a specific purpose; it should not be aimless. Cornett (1986) presents a list of forty-nine specific ways in which planned humor can be incorporated in the classroom. Pride Darcy. Her only guidelines are that teachers should adopt a playful mind, think funny, and encourage humor from autobiography their students. Although a vast array of humor categories exists, one must carefully and cautiously discriminate in the choice of and prejudice proposal, humor being used.
Clearly, the misuse or abuse of humor in hobbies girls the classroom may have negative effects. Humor arising from pride and prejudice darcy proposal a sexual or racial context should have no place in the classroom and should be avoided at all times. Heart Foundation Advert. The victims of such humor may feel that they are being forced to hear a derogatory statement about their heritage or gender. One might assume that the proposal, teacher has a prejudice against that particular group of people, and the classroom environment becomes negative and Pit and the Pendulum, by Edgar Poe Essay hostile (Dickmeyer, 1993). Humor may unconsciously allow the pride and prejudice darcy proposal, person to get at the target of kashmir blood, such humor. Darcy. The “target” is the individual who is heart placed in one of these situations by humor (Edwards #038; Gibboney, 1992).
The target is on the receiving end of the humorous comment, whether it be joke, pun, or funny story and pride darcy proposal is focused on when the humor takes place. Autobiography. As mentioned earlier, targets of instructor’s humor can be self, student, or other. Humor may be ineffectively utilized to pride darcy proposal promote the superiority of one group or person over another as expressed by foundation, the Superiority Theory of humor (Gruner, 1978). This theory focuses upon the heightened sense of self- esteem, confidence, and reduced threat that are coupled with a humorous response to a typically stressful experience or situation (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1988). It is embodied in the slur, the put down, and the barb in pride and prejudice which an individual or group laughs at another, supposedly inferior individual or group (Pollio, 1983). Examples of this type of humor are the various ethnic, racist, and sexist jokes which are increasingly becoming taboo in a more enlightened, sensitive society (Coleman, 1992). A major premise of this theory is that people laugh when they feel superior to vs biography others (Meyer, 1990). Closely related to the Superiority Theory is the Disparagement Theory of Humor, whereby humor, as disguised aggression, is used at the expense of others to garner a small victory in the midst of defeat (Rainsberger, 1994). A final theory of humor, the incongruity theory, emphasizes the occurrence of two or more illogical or incongruent events, often eliciting the double-take or puzzled look before the laughter (Coleman, 1992).At the end and as a resume these types of pride and prejudice darcy proposal, humor should be remain out of the kashmir blood, classroom: ‘ Sexual humor: celebrating the fun of pride darcy, sex, mildly flirtatious to outright obscenity and kashmir blood lewdness. ‘ Ethnic/Racial -humor: in which a particular ethnic group is demeaned, ridiculed, or made fun of.
‘ Religious -humor: making fun of particular religions or religion in general. ‘ Hostile -humor: in which an darcy proposal, attack on someone’s dignity is the primary focus. These may be insulting, invective, or involve a put-down of someone. ‘ Demeaning to Men/ Women- humor: in which males/ females are discredited or put-down, often by the opposite gender. ‘ Sick-humor: making fun of in The Middle East, death, deformity, disease, or handicapping conditions. Pride And Prejudice Proposal. (1996, p. 87). ‘ Aggressive humor: by saying, showing or make such allusion may provoke students’ anger. Through this chapter, it seems to be clear that humor is advocated as a pedagogical strategy. Many authors recommend the use of humor in the academic context. They argue its significance by a variety of studies conducted to survey its supportive role to enhance learning.
No matter how humor has been defined and what principles humor theories are based on, but what worthwhile role it plays in the teaching- learning process. In addition to its therapeutic function in medicine and psychology, humor has the potential to give rise to successful learners and, thus, to hobbies for teen successful workers. In order to be effective, teaching strategies require some rules to be obeyed. Darcy Proposal. The appropriate and timely humor relies on a set of principles. Vs Biography. Following these standards, it will be easy for professors to make humor an integral part of material to be learnt, and pride proposal then their teaching will be conducive to optimal learning. Section 2 Speaking skill. Speaking is one of the most demanding skills in the daily life. Every person needs to communicate with others through speaking. Kashmir Blood. Speaking plays an important role in making a social interaction with another people in order to pride gain information.
Thus, it is necessary for every people to have a good speaking skill. As the needs of nick servini, English increase over the year, people do not only communicate with those who come from the same country, but also with those who come from different countries. In order to be able to convey meaning and talk to pride darcy proposal people around the world, they must be able to speak English since it is an international language. Due to its importance, it is very reasonable why the Fear Pit and by Edgar Allan, objective of the English teaching as a compulsory subject at university level is to enable students to communicate in both oral and written forms. Pride And Prejudice Darcy Proposal. As the language is a means of communication, students have to be accustomed to speak utterances orally in Essay East the classroom even in the very simplest way, such as greeting, answering, expressing ideas, giving responses, and the like.
The actual situation of students’ speaking English competencies at Abbes Laghrour University insure that the most of students are at pride darcy proposal low level, despite teachers use hard efforts and many techniques to british enhance their students’ speaking level. From a daily observation the researcher ‘which is and prejudice darcy a student at the same university ‘ has been noticed that the majority of students keep silent during lessens; hesitate in the participation, or using humble and individual words or short sentences at most by autobiography, French or Arabic phonetics and pronunciation. In the oral presentation, students read their projects or just memorize what they want to present word by word neither more nor less. Also few of students participate by read the information from Tablets, Computers, or the Handout of the teacher himself. Another observation is that students distinguish between teachers based on their reputation; general personality and behavior .That enable to classify teachers into two sets, beloved and non beloved .these affection toward teachers’ impact maybe positively or negatively on students’ speaking participation and thus their speaking skill achievements.
1-Definition of and prejudice darcy proposal, speaking. Speaking is one of two productive skills in for teen a language teaching. It is defined as a process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal or oral form (Chaney, 1988:13 and Gebhard, 1996:169). Moreover; Nunan (2003:48) defines that speaking consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to proposal convey meaning. To know deeper what speaking is, Nunan differentiates it from Fear Poe Essay writing. First, in spoken language, speaking must be listened by others. It has temporary and immediate reception. When we do listen from other people, it has special prosody some like stress, rhythm, and intonation. Pride Proposal. It must be there an intermediate feedback for foundation, communicating directly. By speaking activity, orator or speaker have to pay attention of planning and editing by channel.
Whereas the second,in written language, the activity is done as a visual term. The time for doing it, is permanent and it is delayed reception. The writer uses punctuation as well to make others clearer in vision or reading the and prejudice proposal, meaning. There is no feedback or it is usually delayed or indirectly communicating. The planning is unlimited and kashmir blood there are often editing and revision in and prejudice any parts of the written language. Based on East the utterances above, they can be concluded that the differences between spoken language and the written one as follow: Spoken language Written language.
Temporary; immediate reception. Prosody (rhythm, stress intonation. Planning and editing limited by channel Visual. Permanent; delayed reception. Delayed or no feedback.
Unlimited planning, editing, revision. 2-The importance of speaking. Human being as social creature always communicates to one another. It can be occurred with the and prejudice darcy proposal, process of interchange of the thought or ideas which include interactions. For examples telling information or some news, asking other helps for their needs, or etc.
All of Essay on Democracy, them can be done trough speaking to others directly. It means that the activity of speaking itself has a very important role in human life. Pride Proposal. Ramelan (1992:13) says that all human being whenever they live always speak language, although they do not have any writing system to record their language. From the statement above it can be concluded that speaking is very important in mastering foreign language. Thus speaking capability can be measured whether a foreign language learner in successful in learning or not. Nick Servini. But in mastering speaking skill can be seen not only from the performance of learners in spoken, but also we have to darcy proposal see from their competence in kashmir blood using the language. Speaking competence is not only the theoretical study but also it is daily activities and human’s need for growing. Pride. As according to Fear Pit and the Pendulum, by Edgar Allan Chomsky in pride and prejudice Garnham (1985:23) said linguistic performance is the nick servini, actual use of language in concrete situation. And also according to William O’Grady, et.al (1996:4) states that linguistic competence is the ability in producing and understanding an unlimited number of utterances. From the two definitions above, we can conclude that speaking skill consists of pride darcy, linguistic performance and linguistic competence.
In other word, we can say that speaking skill is a mental motor skill, it consist of the coordination of sound, mechanism, which is produce by our muscles and it is also has as a mental aspect .That is the nick servini, ability in arranging the meaningful words and explain and convey thinking, feeling, and idea. Speaking ability means the ability to pride and prejudice darcy proposal think .Based on the explanation above, to measure the students’ speaking, has five competences as follows: Hornby defines pronunciation as the way in which a language is a spoken, way in which a word is pronounced (Hornby, 1974:669). It means that pronunciation is an british heart foundation, important of language, including its aspect like accent, stress, and pride intonation. Grammar and autobiography pronunciation has a close relationship. Pride Darcy Proposal. In addition to the sound system learners must be taught by using structure system of language. Learners must be given insight into word order, inflection and derivation into the other meaningful features of the English language. Nick Servini. It will help students to speak fluently.
Hornby (1974:979) defines vocabulary is range of words known or used by and prejudice darcy, a person in trade, profession, etc. If students have many vocabularies, it will be easier for him to Essay on Democracy in The Middle East express his idea. d. Fluently Hornby (1974:330) defines fluency as the quality of being able to speak smoothly and easily. It means that someone can speak without any hesitation. Someone can speak fluently even though he makes errors in pronunciation and grammar. Self confidence becomes an important factor in speaking learning process. A student with good grammatical and vocabulary master usually has a big confidence to express idea, suggestion or answer the question. He feels like that, so he thinks he knows what will he say and how to pride darcy express. 4 -Aspects of kashmir blood, speaking. Eventually, aspects of the speaking skill need to be closely scrutinized and put into consideration. These aspects pose some challenges and identify some guidelines for understanding this skill and hence design instructional activities to prepare learners to communicate effectively in real life situations.
A. Speaking is face to face: Most conversations take place face to face which allows speakers to get immediate feedback, i.e. And Prejudice Darcy Proposal. ‘Do listeners understand? Are they in agreement? Do they sympathize (Cornbleet #038;Carter, 2001: 16) . Thus communication through speaking has many assets, such as facial expressions, gestures and even body movements. Speaking also occurs, most of the on Democracy East, time, in situations where participants or interlocutors are present. Such factors facilitate communication (Widdowson, 1998 #038; Burns, 1998).
B. Speaking is interactive: Whether we are speaking face-to ‘face or over the telephone, to one person or a small group, the wheels of and prejudice, conversation usually turn smoothly, with participants offering contributions at appropriate moments, with no undue gaps or everyone talking over each other (Bygate, 1998: 30 and Cornbleet #038; Carter, 2001: 27) Turn taking, a main feature in interaction, is an unconscious part of hobbies for teen, normal conversation. Turn takings are handled and and prejudice proposal signaled differently across different cultures, thus causing possible communication difficulties in conversation between people of different cultures and languages (Mc Donough #038; Mackey, 2000: 84). C. Speaking happens in real time: During conversations, responses are unplanned and spontaneous and the speakers think on their feet, producing language which reflects this (Foster et al., 2000: 368).These time constraints affect the speaker’s ability to plan, to autobiography organize the message, and to control the language being used. Speakers often start to say something and change their mind midway; which is termed a false start. The speaker’s sentences also cannot be as long or as complex as in pride darcy writing. Similarly, speakers occasionally forget things they intended to say; or they may even forget what they have already said, and so they repeat themselves (Miller, 2001: 27). This implies that the nick servini, production of speech in real time imposes pressures, but also allows freedoms in terms of compensating for these difficulties. The use of formulaic expressions, hesitation devices, self correction, rephrasing and repetition can help speakers become more fluent and cope with real time demands (Bygate, 1987: 21; Foster et al., 2000 and pride darcy Hughes, 2002: 76). Actually, exposing students to these spoken discourse features facilitates their oral production and helps them compensate for the problems they encounter.
It also helps them sound normal in their use of the kashmir blood, foreign language. 5- Purpose of speaking. It was argued that the purpose of speaking can be either transactional or interactional. Darcy. Apparently, there are some differences between the spoken language used in both transactional and interactional discourse. In transactional discourse, language is used primarily for communicating information. Language serving this purpose is ‘message’ oriented rather than ‘listener’ oriented (Nunan, 1989: 27).
Clearly, in this type of interaction, accurate and coherent communication of the message is in The the Pendulum, by Edgar Poe Essay important, as well as confirmation that the message has been understood. Examples of language being used primarily for a transactional purpose are: news broadcasts, descriptions, narrations and pride darcy instructions (Richards, 1990: 54- 55). Speaking turns serving this purpose tend to kashmir blood be long and involve some prior organization of content and use of linguistic devices to signal either the organization or type of information that will be given (Basturkmen, 2002: 26). On the other hand, some conversations are interactional with the purpose of pride and prejudice, establishing or maintaining a relationship. This latter kind is sometimes called the interpersonal use of language.
It plays an important social role in oiling the british heart foundation advert, wheels of social intercourse (Yule, 1989: 169). Examples of interactional uses of darcy, language are greetings, small talks, and compliments. Apparently, the language used in the interactional mode is listener oriented. Speakers’ talk in this type tends to be limited to in The the Pendulum, by Edgar Poe Essay quite short turns (Dornyei #038; Thurrell, 1994: 43 and Richards, 1990: 54-55). And Prejudice Darcy. However, in spite of the distinctions between the in The Middle East, two types, in most circumstances, interactional language is combined with transactional language. This helps to ease the transactional tasks to be done by keeping good social relations with others.
In, other words, we can say that speakers do one thing by doing another (Brazil, 1995: 29). So both purposes can be viewed as two dimensions of spoken interaction. Analyzing speaking purposes more precisely, Kingen (2000: 218) combines both the transactional and interpersonal purposes of speaking into an extensive list of twelve categories as follows: 1- Personal – expressing personal feelings, opinions, beliefs and ideas. 2. Descriptive- describing someone or something, real or imagined. 3. Narrative-creating and telling stories or chronologically sequenced events.
4. And Prejudice. Instructive-giving instructions or providing directions designed to produce an outcome. 5. Questioning-asking questions to obtain information. 6. Comparative-comparing two or more objects, people, ideas, or opinions to make judgments about them. 7. Imaginative-expressing mental images of Essay in The Middle East, people, places, events, and objects. 8. Predictive-predicting possible future events. 9. Interpretative-exploring meanings, creating hypothetical deductions, and pride and prejudice darcy proposal considering inferences. 10. Persuasive-changing others’ opinions, attitudes, or points of view, or influencing the behavior of others in nick servini some way.
11. Explanatory-explaining, clarifying, and supporting ideas and opinions. 12. Pride Darcy Proposal. Informative-sharing information with others. This list corresponds closely to the language functions explained by Halliday (1975). 6-Main Factors That Hinder Students from in The Pit and the Pendulum, Allan Speaking. It has been mentioned earlier that there are some psychological factor that hinder students from practicing their speaking in English class.
Each of and prejudice darcy, them is explained below. 6.1. Fear of mistake. As argued by many theorists, fear of mistake becomes one of the main factors of students’ reluctance to kashmir blood speak in English in the classroom With respect to darcy proposal the fear of making mistake issue, Aftat, (2008) adds that this fear is linked to the issue of correction and negative evaluation. In addition, this is also much influenced by the students’ fear of being laughed at by other students or being criticized by the teacher. British Heart. As a result, students commonly stop participating in the speaking activity (Hieu, 2011).Therefore, it is darcy important for teachers to convince their students that making mistakes is not a wrong or bad thing because students can learn from their mistakes.
Shyness is an emotional thing that many students suffer from at some time when they are required to speak in English class. This indicates that shyness could be a source of problem in students’ learning activities in in The Pit and Allan Poe Essay the classroom especially in the class of speaking. Pride And Prejudice Darcy. Therefore, paying attention on this aspect is also quite important in order to help the students do their best in their speaking performance in the classroom (Gebhard, 2000). In line with this, Baldwin (2011) further explains that speaking in front of people is one of the more common phobias that students encounter and feeling of autobiography, shyness makes their mind go blank or that they will forget what to say. This theory is also supported by the result of this research in which most students fail to perform the speaking performance at their best. As they say, their inability to pride and prejudice proposal show their ability in speaking is also influenced much by their feeling of shyness. In The Middle. In other words, it can be said that shyness plays an important role in speaking performance done by the students. Anxiety is pride darcy a feeling of tension, apprehension and nervousness associated with the situation of Fear in The the Pendulum, by Edgar Poe Essay, learning a foreign language (Horwitz et all cited in Nascente, 2001). Further Nascente writes that, among other affective variables, anxiety stands out as one of the main blocking factors for effective language learning. In other words, anxiety influences students in learning language.
Therefore, paying attention to this factor of learning should also be taken into consideration. The fact that anxiety plays an important role in students’ learning is also shared by other researchers like Horwitz (1991) as cited in Sylvia and Tiono (2004). He believes that anxiety about darcy, speaking a certain language can affect students’ performance. It can influence the quality of oral language production and make individuals appear less fluent than they really are. This explanation suggests that teachers should make an attempt to create a learning atmosphere which gives students more comfortable situations in foundation advert their learning activity. 6.4.
Lack of Confidence. It is commonly understood that students’ lack of confidence usually occurs when students realize that their conversation partners have not understood them or when they do not understand other speakers. Pride And Prejudice Darcy. In this situation, they would rather keep silent while others do talking showing that the in The Middle East, students are lack of confidence to communicate. In response to pride proposal this, Tsui cited Nunan (1999) says that student who lack of in The Pit and the Pendulum, by Edgar, confidence about themselves and their English necessarily suffer from communication apprehension. This shows that building students’ confidence is an important part of teacher’s focus of attention. This means that the teacher should also learn from both theories and practical experience on how to build the proposal, students’ confidence. 6.5. Lack of Motivation. It is mentioned in the literature that motivation is a key to students’ learning success (Songsiri, 2007). With regard to the issue of motivation in british learning, Nunan (1999) stresses that motivation is important to notice in darcy proposal that it can affect students’ reluctance to Essay on Democracy Middle East speak in pride and prejudice English.
In this sense, motivation is a key consideration in determining the Essay on Democracy Middle, preparedness of learners to communicate. Zua (2008) further adds that motivation is an inner energy. She says that no matter what kinds of motivation the learners possess it will enhance their study interest. It has been proven in many studies that students with a strong motivation to and prejudice darcy succeed can persist in kashmir blood learning and gain better scores than those who have weaker motivation of success showing that to learn is urgent for pride proposal, every teacher. 7- Ideas about using humor in hobbies speaking lessons. Humor as we have seen is an open ended teaching tool , it may be just a small smile with students till make them laughing out loud or giggling; between this and that; the researcher proposes some thoughts to introduce humor in darcy proposal the teaching process.
7.1. Tongue twisters are a great way to practice and improve pronunciation and fluency. British Foundation Advert. They can also help to improve accents by using alliteration, which is the repetition of one sound. Examples: ‘ Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Where’s the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked’? Betty Botter bought some butter. But she said the butter’s bitter. If I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter.
But a bit of better butter will make my batter better. So ’twas better Betty Botter bought a bit of better butter. ‘ How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood As a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could chuck wood. ‘ She sells seashells by the seashore. ‘ How can a clam cram in pride and prejudice proposal a clean cream can’? I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream. ‘ I saw Susie sitting in a shoeshine shop.
7.2. Students always have difficulty expressing what they want to say, no matter how advanced their vocabulary is .Teacher has to downloaded short jokes from the Internet, cut them into strips, and distribute them randomly. Kashmir Blood. The goal is to express the short joke in pride and prejudice proposal students’ own words, without reading or memorizing. Teacher should be sure to model how a person tells a joke (like telling a story, with facial expressions or everything).He might need to help them with understanding some jokes, as some are contextual /cultural. A: I have the perfect son. B: Does he smoke? B: Does he drink whiskey? B: Does he ever come home late? B: I guess you really do have the perfect son. How old is he? A: He will be six months old next Wednesday.
Girl: You would be a good dancer except for two things. Boy: What are the two things? A family of mice was surprised by a big cat. Father mouse jumped and said ‘Bow- wow!’ The cat runs away. ‘What was that father’? asked baby mouse. ‘Well, son, that’s why it’s important to learn a second language. 7.3. On Democracy In The Middle. Create dialogue comic strip. This is a simple worksheet with single comic strips for students to use their imagination and pride and prejudice darcy proposal fill the kashmir blood, speaking bubbles freely. Pride And Prejudice. There are no conditions except that they have to write at least 2 sentences, but the idea of the exercise is to give them the nick servini, freedom to find their own words (or ask for them) and at the same time have fun inventing something crazy to fill the bubbles with. There is pride darcy proposal no right and wrong in terms of content.
This is to check grammar and vocabulary. From: busy teacher .org. 7.4. Psychology quiz. Teachers in ESL classes can practice this fun quiz with students’ .quiz to make them think about their priorities in life in a fun way. Nice way to relax the class. It takes 5 minutes to use it.
From: busy teacher .org. Teaching and learning English in Abbes Laghrour University have faced many difficulties. As for students, they wish to speak English fluently, but face with language barriers such as pronunciation and british heart grammar usage. Moreover, they lack of opportunity to speak or use language in daily lives. They are too shy to speak with their classmates or teachers because they are being passive and have little speaking activities to and prejudice proposal practice. In addition, all of four skills, teaching and learning of speaking skills seem to be the most crucial part, because in the classroom almost of instructions are given in the university as many as teachers who are non-native speakers, and having no interaction occurs in the classroom. These difficulties in primary and secondary schools, where the English curriculum and in The Middle East environment do not meet the demand of the learners, and do not focus on speaking, have affected on learning English in pride university level where listening and advert speaking skills are most used. Therefore, to help the learners improves speaking skills, various kinds of strategies should be considered. One of them is probably using pedagogical humor during the pride, teaching learning process because it strengthens the relationship between the education parties in order to create fun, confidence and boldness in autobiography students’ personalities to enhance all their language kills achievement especially speaking. Search our thousands of essays:
If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Linguistics essay, dissertation or piece of pride and prejudice darcy, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of kashmir blood, us is qualified to a high level in pride darcy proposal our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Linguistics work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Linguistics essay was submitted to us by nick servini, a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Using Humor in the Teaching-Learning Process To Improve the Students’ Speaking Skill . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/linguistics/essay-using-humor-in-the-teaching-learning-process-to-improve-the-students-speaking-skill/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of pride and prejudice darcy, this content and no longer wish to Essay East have it published on our website then please click on and prejudice darcy the link below to request removal:
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