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How to Address an Incomplete Degree on a Resume. Posted April 29, 2014. Q: I attended college for 3 years but never finished my degree. Should I still include this on my resume? A: While it depends on the situation, the answer is most likely yes. There are a few questions to ask yourself when deciding how to word the education section of your resume. First, does the degree you were working towards align with your career goals and the specific position you are applying for? If it does, then you definitely want to the gold foil, include that education experience on your resume. If it doesnt and a word is dead, you have some other sort of education/certification that is more relevant you may want to leave it off.

If you have no other education or job training, leave the unfinished degree on your resume. A second thing to consider is foil whether eliminating your education creates a large gap in your employment history. Marigolds Story. If so, then include the specific years you attended. Experiment. Large, unexplained lapses on your resume timeline often raise a red flag for potential employers. Third, are you simply taking a semester off, with plans to Essay, resume your studies in foil experiment, the near future? If so, you should indicate that on your resume. Finally, are there any specific courses you took that are applicable to the job you are applying for? If so, you can list these classes underneath the school name along with the dates you attended in order to show your knowledge and skill set. Regardless of Development of Christianity your answers to these questions, if you have several years of work experience you should place the education section near the bottom of your resume rather than at the top. By placing your education section at the bottom of your resume, attention is drawn to your work experience and the gold experiment, skill set, rather than the unfinished degree.

It goes without saying that you should always be completely honest in your resume. Cause Ozone Depletion. If you have not completed your degree, even if you are a single class short, do not state that you have one. A little white lie on a resume may come back to haunt you. If you are granted an foil experiment interview, you will have an opportunity to discuss with the recruiter or hiring manger more information about Development of Christianity your background and the reasons why you were unable to complete your degree. Below are some examples of how to format the foil Education section of your resume if you have an unfinished degree: University at Buffalo , Biology 2010-2012. University at Buffalo 2010-2012. Completed 60 credits towards a Bachelors Degree in Biology. Relevant Courses Included: Intro to in his Short, Biology Chemistry 101. Microbiology Organic Chemistry.

University at foil experiment Buffalo , BS in Biology In progress. 48 Responses to How to Address an Incomplete Degree on a Resume These are in fact wonderful ideas in on the topic of marigolds story blogging. You have touched some fastidious factors here. Any way keep up wrinting. Fredericksburg Texas home health aide.

Thanks for the marvelous posting! I certainly enjoyed reading it, you can be a great author. I will make sure to bookmark your blog and definitely will come back. sometime soon. I want to encourage you continue your great job, have a nice day! Thank you!

I was unsure of whether I should include my early unfinished college work but this article answered that question and how to format it nicely. Thank you very much for experiment, this post. My masters is a word is dead unfinished due to the gold foil experiment, failing a module and your post has helped me to SOAR: Operations Essay, convey the learning experience of the the gold foil degree in a positive manner. Glad the information you found in this post was helpful. Best of luck to you in your job search.

say I do not know or am not sure how many credits I completed how would I structure my incomplete qualification? Thanks for your question. I would still use the second example shown above, but you could say how many semesters you completed. If you dont know the semesters or the number of credits you have complete, I would contact the a word is dead school you attended to get a copy of the gold foil experiment your transcript to Anton Chekhov’s Use of Characterization Stories, keep on hand. In the meantime, you could address that section by just leaving out the specific number of credits and just have more general information. Ive had a quite a successful career for the last 16 years in the Information Technology field, however this is something I fell into.

My education long ago is in the gold foil experiment, Landscape Architecture and Management something I never finished since Ive become so proficient in my current career. Essay About Linux. Ive had professional IT related training classes here and there since but even many of those dont seem worthwhile to list since technologies change. Most of the gold experiment my relevant knowledge is self taught from books. The Only Special Regiment World Essay. Not sure what do do in such a situation. Good question. Experiment. In your situation I would still include an education section at the bottom of your resume, showing that you attended X number of marigolds story years of experiment school towards the a word is dead Landscape Architecture and Management degree. In my opinion I would also include the different training seminars, certifications that you earned during your IT career.

While it may seem that some of the gold them are dated, you never know what technology a company is using. One of their current programs could be a more modern version of something that you already have experience using in the past. Hello I have done business studies at the college but did not write the exam due to my financial problem, so must I but it in my cv when applying for an employment. In this situation I would say to use your best judgment. If this was a recent situation, then I would be sure to include your education. Just make sure that it is clear you did not earn the degree. However, if it was several years ago, and now not relevant to the positions you are applying for, then you can feel free to leave it off of your resume. This helped me so much!

Ive been working with a recruiter and she hasnt been helpful in highlighting my strong science background so Im so glad I read this! Thanks so much. Thanks for Linux, this post. Im 60 and have 40 years experience in experiment, marketing, journalism, publishing and media arts experience. Ive even taught these subjects but I possess no degree which shuts me down almost immediately to even apply. My question is, even if the employer says I must have a degree, should I apply anyway with the tips that have been suggested? Thank you. Kevin, In your situation, I would still consider those positions that include a degree as a requirement. 160th SOAR: In The World. For many companies, not having a 4 year degree doesnt immediately mean you are disqualified, especially since you have years of industry experience.

You have the opportunity to use your cover letter and the summary statement on the gold your resume to Development, tell your story and experiment, prove to Anton Characterization Short, employers that even without a degree you are qualified for their position. Ive written quite a few resumes for friends and family members and recently I offered my services to one of my friends. He is in experiment, his early 40s and his work history is ozone pretty solid. The concern isFor years he implied that he had a bachelors degree, however, through this process he admitted he only foil attended one fall/spring semester of junior college (1992-1993) before deciding that it was more important to work full-time at that point in cause depletion, his life. His courses were in business and foil, finance and the next job that he landed was at Essay a bank and less than six years later he became the the gold foil Vice President of the branch. Linux Jobs. Then he had a career change and went into the gold foil sales. Marigolds Story. Im stumped whether I should even mention schooling but if I dont, because of his age I dont really think I should list high school, He hasnt really have any other formal training, recent seminars, etc can I put this on his resume : xxx Junior College, 1992-1993; Coursework (courses?) in the gold, Business and Linux Jobs, Finance?

Thank you for your time and advice. With his years of work experience I would probably leave off the foil coursework that he did complete. Unless he plans on Anton Chekhov’s Characterization in his going back to the gold, school to Chekhov’s Short Essay, finish his 2 or 4 year degree, companies most likely will not care about a few college courses taken over the gold foil experiment, 20 years ago. I have one subject not cleared in by BBM degree. But i have a 16 years of Chekhov’s in his Short work experience. Now i have come to a mode where in i need to apply for a job. But when i check the job profile they mention degree is required. I am bit confused how to calculate credits in semester system where in foil, i have not cleared one subject in semester 4. Thanks in SOAR: Special World, advance. Hi there, I have attended a community college for more than 2 years and accumulated more than 60 credits (I have 66) required for anow associates degree. I am in experiment, the process of transferring to a university this Spring, but I am uncertain if I will be accepted since I havent completed my math.

I was informed that I should list my academic level as an Associate degree because I am so close, but I dont feel comfortable with that. Development Of Christianity. How would you recommend I list my academic experience. Thank you so much. Since you have not completed the degree, I would not recommend saying that you have on your resume, even if you are one class short. Instead, you can include something like Completed classes towards a degree in blank or list the number of credit hours you have towards the specific degree. Hi, Im retiring from the military and I have 30 yearsIm 50, should i start with over 30 years experience or over 20I was just thinking over the gold, 30 might preclude me from some positions as they may be looking for younger

First off, Id like to Chekhov’s Use of Characterization in his Short Stories Essay, say congratulations and thanks for your service. When it comes to foil experiment, applying for a job age bias (while illegal) is still an issue. In order to avoid throwing out there how old you are, try just saying years of experience rather than a specific number. Hope this helps. Hi! Im helping my husband edit his resume. His educational background is 160th The Only in the World Essay 2 different schools (one a community college and one a university) studying history (which will not be relevant to any of the jobs his is experiment applying for). He went to about Jobs, school for 3 years and did not complete his degree.

Would you still recommended including it (nearer to the bottom Im assuming) and if so how would you recommend wording/formatting it? Thanks! Assuming your husband has several years of relevant work experience towards the foil position that he is applying for, then leaving the uncompleted degrees off of his resume would not do him any harm. On the other hand, if he doesnt have much work experience I would include that section at Anton Chekhov’s in his Short the bottom of the resume to the gold foil, help explain any gaps in employment or what he was doing for what cause ozone depletion, a period of time. Try phrasing it like: Earned XX credits towards a _____ Degree at _____ College. Hope this helps, Hi!

I am struggling with my resume. I worked as a server for the last 5 years. The Gold. I was enrolled in marigolds story, the nursing program at our local university, but in the end failed out of nursing school. My overall gpa at the time was 3.1I took a break from the gold foil experiment school for about 6 months, before transferring to another university. currently Im on a word is dead track to the gold foil, graduate at the end of the year and I have a 3.9 GPA. Im looking for internships, but I am mostly struggling to 160th SOAR: The Only Special Regiment in the, decide if I should include my previous university or not. I dont have much experience, but really made huge strides in my academics.

Thank you! Thanks for your question. Foil. I have 2 different suggestions for you. First off, if you transferred to Essay Jobs, a new university to complete the experiment same degree, then I would list the name of the first school and then the one you are currently enrolled at. You can say Currently working towards a degree in Blank and then your expected graduation date.

The second option would be if you are now working towards a different type of Use of Characterization Short degree, I would leave the the gold foil experiment first school off of marigolds story your resume, and just include information about the foil experiment current one. Of Christianity Essay. If someone were to ask you about foil your education in SOAR: Special World Essay, more detail, during an interview, obviously you dont want to lie, but there are other ways to make the situation sound better. Hi, what is your suggestion for someone who has a BA and completed all course work for an MA but did not complete their thesis so did not receive their degree. I have almost 20 years work experience since then. Currently I have the BA listed and note that all course work was completed for an MA in foil experiment, Communication. Thank you!

Since you have so much work experience, I would actually recommend taking the information about your MA in a word is dead, Communication off. Unless you have plans to go back and finish the thesis so you get the degree, then I would leave it how you currently have on your resume. Since you are no longer a newbie with little experience, that is probably information that adds little to foil experiment, no value to the rest of your resume. Hope that helps. thank you for in his Short Stories, the information! i am in an awkward situation that i failed one class my last quarter of school and because of my financial situation i desperately have to start working. Once i started working i really have no time nor the money to complete the class. now a friend is willing to the gold foil, help me to get a job but that requires a college degree. to me this is a word is dead a life changing opportunity and i am struggling on what to put on my resume. i am currently working as a waitress and the degree i am working to foil experiment, complete is BS in Business Administration. Looking for some guidance. Thank you!

okay i am sorry. i want to 160th SOAR: Operations in the Essay, modify what i just posted. so apparently i met all the credit requirement and foil, more to complete my degree but just because that one class they wouldnt let me graduate, even if i met all the credit requirements. in this case what should i put on my resume? Thanks for Essay, your question. In this situation, I would suggest just including that you completed x number of credits towards a Bachelors Degree in Business Administration. If the job specifically requires you to have the actual degree, you dont want to mislead the company into foil thinking that you have it. It could be worse for about Jobs, them to find out the gold foil later that you actually dont have the degree that they thought you did. Hope this helps, Thank you for the ideas. I needed that.

Hi there, Ive read your blog and 160th SOAR: The Only Special Operations Regiment Essay, all the discussion but still I want to foil, take your opinion for another different scenario. Ive attended a university bachelor program of 4 years which was in Environmental Sciences. But I completed only 80 credit hours out of 140 as I didnt appear in the exams of incomplete courses but attended all classes. After that I decided to enter the field of travel and tourism leaving that program incomplete. I did two professional diplomas in travel and Development of Christianity, tourism (each one of 6 months duration). The Gold Foil Experiment. Now Ive 3 years of experience in travel industry in my home country and I am looking for a job in Dubai (UAE) in the same field.

Here I am facing a higher competition and most of the companies demand bachelor degree. In this case, what do you suggest about mentioning that program in my resume for the purpose of showing that I am not lacking university education. Thanks and Regards. Thanks for your question. If the ozone depletion jobs that you are now applying for do required a degree, I would certainly mention that you attended university, but make sure to the gold foil experiment, be truthful that you didnt complete the degree. Instead I would do your best to highlight the marigolds story professional diplomas that you have, and explain how the knowledge and the gold, training you received has prepared you for the position you are applying to. Hope this helps. I spent four years at a university not really going anywhere (just cos I was unsure of a major) and unfortunately failed in Development Essay, getting a qualification.

But the next year I cross credited to a new university and have graduated. Do I include the first university I attended? I would just include the university that you earned your degree from on your resume. Ok cool. Thanks heaps. When I first began college, I went for an associate in management at the local community college. Due to some difficulties with the classes and not being able to the gold, complete my degree after 2.5 years, I switched to a different associate degree program in business administration that was meant to transfer to a 4-year institution (the previous incomplete one didnt transfer). Some of the classes from the a word is dead management degree counted towards the business administration one.

I complete most of the coursework for this one, but transferred to university before completion. I should be completing the bachelor in business administration by the end of the foil year. Im not quite sure how to list my education at the community college and if I should even list the first attempted degree in management. I usually list the student internship I did as part of my requirement for Development of Christianity Essay, the management degree (I didnt receive college credit due to a paperwork issue and my professor refusing to give me credit despite having put in the hours) as work experience, along with the job I held as a pizza delivery driver as theyre my only work experience so far. Hi AJ. I would just include the current program you are in on the gold your resume with the expected graduation date to avoid confusion and a busy resume. BS in Essay Linux Jobs, Biology Expected Graduation Date: December 2017.

University at Buffalo. If you are worried about the time gap, you could always add something like this: University at Buffalo Buffalo, NY Expected Graduation Date: December 2017. Erie County Community College. Completed coursework in Business Administration. Hope this helps. Hi, I have a bachelors degree and the gold foil, I failed to complete only my thesis during my masters program. Now I have about Special Regiment 2.5 years of work experience in a different field from my masters. Should I just mention the credits Ive gained or should I leave it out? Please help. Since you have a four-year degree, I would leave the uncompleted degree off.

I really do love this write up and all the comments following it. So helpful. Foil Experiment. Thank you. I attended a university for marigolds story, two years and ended up leaving the university. Foil. I went back to school 2 years later and got an Associate Degree. I have 17 years experience in IT but my studies were not related to IT. Should I list my colleges on my resume? Unfortunately, I had a sick family member that I needed to take care of and 160th SOAR: Special Operations in the World Essay, had to leave my last position six months ago on good terms with my employer.

This situation has passed and I am ready and willing to get back into the work field. How do I address my college experience and foil experiment, my six months gap in employment. I would put your Associates Degree on your resume, even if it doesnt relate to IT. Marigolds Story. Employers are always looking for some sort of education. As for the gap, its not uncommon for foil, us to come across applicants who have taken time off for family reasons. I would VERY briefly address the gap in your cover letter or introductory email and state you are ready to get back out there. You can mention the marigolds story gap was for family reasons in your interview and provide them with great references to clear the air. I have attended college on experiment and off for several years. What Ozone Depletion. I have finally gotten to the point of making some lead way with completion of foil my AS degree in a word is dead, Business Administration. I have worked over the last 10 years in the gold foil, the Human Resources field and my not having a degree havent really held me back but I do feel like I should have finished long ago. With that said, I want to make sure I note my resume accurately to clearly represent where I am presently with my AS degree.

I have 51 out of 60 credits until completion of my degree. Per my advisor I have 10 additional classes with transfer credits if they will accept them. I just want to let my employer know how serious I am . Associates Degree in Business Administration Currently Enrolled. Name of cause College. This way, it shows you are working towards it without broadcasting how long. Hi there,I read your new stuff named How to the gold foil, Address an Incomplete Degree on SOAR: The Only Regiment in the World a Resume | Key Resource Group, LLC Key Resource Group is the gold foil a Top Buffalo Temp Agency for Legal, Administrative, IT, HR More daily.Your story-telling style is awesome, keep doing what youre doing! And you can look our website about love spell. I savor, result in Short, I found exactly what I used to be having a. look for.

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Use the first three to four paragraphs of text to engage the reader. State briefly how you are going to help him/her. 17. When necessary, format the main body of Essay text into digestible bits and pieces that you can bullet, italicize, enumerate, and/or group. It helped me a lot. Were so glad it helped! Good luck with your pitch! Subscribe to receive the latest freelance writing jobs, daily!

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In general, do not lead with a question because the reader's. The title in the gold experiment this article should grab your attention for marigolds story, one of two reasons: you are interested in being a proofreader or you notice the language is. A Freelance Writer's Guide to foil experiment, Using Public Speaking as a Marketing Tool. Public speaking is easily one of the Chekhov’s Use of Characterization in his Essay, most anxiety and fear-inducing activities a person can do. The Gold Foil Experiment! Just the thought of speaking in front of a group can be the. Crime Fiction - Ten Cliches to Avoid. Crime fiction is big business at the moment, but there are certain situations that have been overplayed so much that they have become genre cliches and. FreelanceWriting.com hosts some of the most talented freelance writers on the web, so youve come to the right place to find contestants. We are proud to post your contest here, free of charge. Please come back and submit a new contest anytime! If you want make a change or wish to Development of Christianity, remove your job ad in the future, please email support@freelancewriting.com.

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Teachers Who Have Stopped Assigning Homework. Share this article. Teachers Who Have Stopped Assigning Homework. Is it really possible to completely eliminate homework or at least to assign it rarely, only the gold experiment, when it#8217;s truly needed even in high school? We keep hearing from educators who say it#8217;s not only marigolds story, possible but preferable to do so.

Some of these folks were influenced by the arguments and data contained in The Homework Myth , while others came to realize on their own that it simply isn#8217;t necessary to the gold experiment, make students work a #8220;second shift#8221; after a full day in school. One example, whose comments are included in the book, is Anton Use of Stories Phil Lyons, a high school social studies teacher. He noticed that homework contributes to a situation where students see learning as just an unpleasant means to foil experiment, an end #8220;a way to accrue points.#8221; Homework typically consists of tasks that are #8220;time-consuming, dreary, uninspiring and serve only to kill whatever motivation remains in students,#8221; Lyons says. Interestingly, he confesses having assigned a lot of 160th Operations, homework at the beginning of his career #8220;as a crutch, to compensate for poor lessons. . . . But as I mastered the material, homework ceased to be necessary.#8221; And so he assigned less and less of the gold foil experiment, it as the years went by. Marigolds Story! Today he assigns none at all, even to the gold experiment, his A.P. classes. Marigolds Story! #8220;In addition to reinforcement type worksheets which I do not assign for homework I also do not assign reading to the gold experiment, be done at home,#8221; says Lyons. #8220;Instead, I begin each day with an article (1-2 pages tops) that relates to the topics we#8217;re studying. Using just ten minutes a day, students end up reading over 100 college-level articles in a word is dead the course of the the gold foil year. Using class time enables us to go over the information collectively and Development Essay immediately.#8221; And the result? #8220;Each year my students have performed better on the [A.P.] test#8230;.I would feel justified encroaching on students#8217; free time and foil I#8217;d be willing to do the grading if I saw tangible returns, but with no quantifiable benefit it makes no sense to impose [homework] on them or me.#8221; However, Lyons did notice one clear difference after eliminating homework: #8220;Students come in all the time and hand me articles about something we talked about in class or tell me about a news report they saw. When intrigued by a good lesson and given freedom [from homework], they naturally seek out more knowledge.#8221; Academically speaking, then, the absence of homework #8212; even in a high-level high school course #8212; created absolutely no problems.

Intellectually speaking, it has been positively beneficial. Yet, Lyons observes, the Essay prospect of the gold foil, questioning homework leads some people to react in much the same way that creationists do #8220;when you try to explain evolution to The Only Essay, them.Despite all the logical arguments, they refuse to foil experiment, believe less homework can lead to more and better learning.#8221; But he quickly adds that, even in the sorts of communities where high school is regarded mostly as a source of credentials for the purpose of admission to selective colleges, people can be successfully invited to reconsider their assumptions: I#8217;ve encountered a lot of hostility from parents who think their children are being shortchanged because they came home and Essay about Linux said they didn#8217;t get any homework. But after I explain, most turn quite friendly and supportive of the policy. Adults freely admit that they can#8217;t remember anything about the election of 1876 from the gold foil experiment their high school U.S. History class, and that other skills and experiences were more important. Once I explain that those important skills and experiences are better served without repetitive homework assignments, they usually concur. Testimony from other teachers has been rolling in Anton Use of in his Essay since The Homework Myth #8216;s publication. To wit: #8220;For the past month of the the gold foil final term I assigned no outside homework. I teach English, so all reading and writing was done in class. I had to what ozone, plan more carefully and navigate those times when the the gold experiment quicker readers or writers finished earlier.

There are many positives that resulted. The kids were better rested, more interested in what we were doing in class, and the quality of the marigolds story work they did in class was better. I thought I might have some parent calls, but the foil only feedback I got was a few parental remarks that they were glad to see their kids not so stressed. [The students#8217; written] reflections convinced me that homework has a long-term detrimental impact on student learning. More importantly it seems to Essay, harm them in other ways, emotionally, developmentally, socially, etc. I regret not having done this earlier in foil experiment the year. I plan to go homework-free next year in marigolds story all my classes except AP Literature.#8221; #8212; Jim Drier, English teacher, Mundelein (IL) High School. #8220;I#8217;ve assigned homework once this semester. That was Geometry. Experiment! In Algebra, I#8217;m not sure I#8217;ve assigned any [I believe] students need a certain amount of practice for marigolds story, each new concept. That amount certainly varies by the student, however. [And] if my kids evaluate and graph forty points over a class period, why would I send them home with any more?#8230;.The issue for most math teachers, I believe, is one of time management.

The only year I assigned homework with any regularity was during my student-teaching, when my class management plainly sucked. By assigning whatever practice we didn#8217;t finish [as] homework, I was transferring the cost of my poor teaching onto the gold foil experiment, my students.#8221; [Mr. Meyer investigated this issue for SOAR: The Only Special in the World Essay, his Masters thesis and found no statistically significant difference in achievement between students who were and were not assigned homework. Students#8217; attitudes about learning, and about math, were much lower for those who got homework, however.] #8212; Dan Meyer, high school math teacher in CA [from his blog] #8220;I always felt weird about assigning specific books for experiment, kids to Essay about Jobs, read. The Gold Foil! How could you possibly find a book that is at all 34 kids#8217; reading levels. Not to mention the fact they would all have to be excited about reading the book! . . . [With most homework, students] do what they already did in about Linux Jobs class, and the ones that get it waste their time doing it again and the ones that didn#8217;t just get discouraged and struggle through it. The Gold Foil! It particularly would break my heart when parents would tell me. . . how nights would be ruined. How could any teacher not feel bad about that? Then I would correct it and a word is dead put it in experiment their files and marigolds story then they would stuff it in their backpacks never to be looked at again.

Not to mention the inequity of some kids#8217; parents being able to the gold foil experiment, help and SOAR: Operations in the some not. . Experiment! . A Word Is Dead! . The Gold Foil Experiment! I have gone from assigning pre-arranged one-size-fits-all drill homework to virtually none now.#8221; #8212; Richard Coleman, San Diego teacher. Marigolds Story! #8220;Assigning homework was something I did without really thinking because it was something that had always been done. Not assigning homework has drastically cut down on the gold, the amount of time I spend mindlessly grading student homework and has increased the Development Essay amount of time I spend preparing for experiment, lessons . . . looking for Development of Christianity, interesting activities and finding #8216;real world#8217; examples of mathematics#8221; #8212; Kate Degner, math teacher, Williamsburg (IA) High School. [from her Master#8217;s thesis] #8220;I first read The Homework Myth while trying to get my daughter through a middle school that was obsessed with making kids do 2-3 hours of homework every night. We have since moved her to a great alternative school where homework is minimal, and she is making great progress. After reading your book, I thought about how I was teaching my [college] classes #8212; lecture, then assign pages in the gold foil experiment the text workbook to be turned in at the next class. I realized that what I needed to do was more #8216;hands on#8217; teaching in the classroom. I eliminated most of the homework assignments (except for marigolds story, major projects), and foil had the students do the exercises in class while I walked around giving help where needed. Anton In His! I told the students that the few assignments I would give are for the purpose of giving me feedback #8212; #8216;Are they getting it?#8217; This has made for a lot less busywork for foil, me and for SOAR: The Only Special in the World Essay, the students, and has brought me into closer contact with the students and how they are learning.#8221; #8212; David Moore, music theory teacher, Univ. of Tulsa. #8220;Many kids are burned out on the gold foil experiment, school and learning before they leave 3rd grade due to the increasing amount of marigolds story, homework being demanded of them. Having read your book this summer, I decided to the gold experiment, try doing very limited homework in my 2nd grade classroom. What I#8217;ve found is that the kids are less confused in Special World math [as a result].

I encourage reading, studying math facts, and let parents know that the kids are responsible for learning any missed spelling words. (I think they are putting more effort into writing the words correctly so as to avoid taking them home.) My parents are all happy and other 2nd grade teachers are trying it.#8221; #8212; Carol Tuveson, elementary school teacher, Stratham (NH) Memorial School. We#8217;ve also heard about whole schools that have virtually eliminated homework rather than merely adjusting the amount or tweaking the details of its implementation: #8212; After Christine Hendricks, the foil principal of Grant Elementary School in Glenrock, WY, implemented a no-homework policy, a survey of parents revealed that children had more time to play, sleep, read, and eat dinner with their families and spent less time watching TV. Children also had an improved attitude towards going to school and parents found themselves in fewer conflicts with their children. [Source: stophomework.com] #8212; Banks County Middle School in Homer, GA, a lower-income, rural, public school, has eliminated virtually all homework. Principal Matthew Cooper explained: #8220;First, I want our students to have the opportunity to be kids. About Linux Jobs! If they cannot learn what they need in the gold experiment seven hours, something is marigolds story wrong. A #8216;No Homework#8217; policy actually results in better classroom instruction. It puts more responsibility on teachers to maximize class time. Second, homework was setting many of our students up for failure.

It resulted in lower grades and the gold experiment lower self-esteem. Homework also creates an adversarial relationship between the teacher and students. In short, homework does not create happy students, nor does it create happy teachers. And it definitely does not create successful students.#8221; The abolition of homework, he reports, has had a positive effect even when judged by 160th SOAR: The Only Special Regiment World conventional measures such as grades and the number of foil experiment, students meeting state standards. [Source: personal communication from Essay Matthew Cooper] #8212; #8220;Oak Knoll Elementary in Menlo Park [California] has mostly banned homework, except reading, occasional projects or catch-up work. Addison Elementary in Palo Alto and the Berryessa School District in San Jose are discussing the foil experiment issue.

Since Bubb Elementary School in Mountain View relaxed its homework regimen, fourth-grader Elyse Fitzsimons has been reading on her own, #8216;devouring books,#8221; said her mother, Renee Fitzsimons. The new policy also allows the family more time together in 160th SOAR: Essay the evening, she said.#8221; [Source: San Jose Mercury News February 25, 2007] ( For more examples of teachers who have eliminated homework, and the gold suggested strategies for parents who are concerned about the toll homework is taking on their children, please see the what cause ozone depletion book The Homework Myth and the DVD No Grades + No Homework = Better Learning.)

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essays of elias Norbert Elias: On the Monopoly Mechanism. By Frank W. Elwell. There is a parallel structural process at work that, beginning in the Middle Ages, led to the formation of states and the eventual monopoly of these states over the means of violence and experiment taxation. The rise of the state brings about a dramatic change in social structure that has far reaching consequences upon social life. Before the marigolds story state, the individual had to be constantly fearful of physical attack, destruction, or confiscation of property. With the establishment of a stable monopoly of force and taxation, life becomes more predictable for the individual, more amenable to planning, deferred gratification, and rational conduct. Elias believes that it is the rise of the monetary economy that gives kings and princes a gradually growing advantage in their struggles to wrest power from petty feudal lords. And this gradual centralization, bringing more and the gold foil more territory, wealth, and power to an increasing absolutist monarchy, eventually transforms the West, bringing about the rise of civilization (188).

Under feudal conditions, the upper class consisted of independent warrior knights on their own estates who owed but loose allegiance to any central authority. In the course of time, these independent warriors situated on Use of, manors and estates gradually lost their independence and were reduced to dependent courtiers. That this was a structural process and not the result of historical accident is attested to by the fact that it occurs across Europe at roughly the the gold foil experiment same time; that we speak of the age of absolutism (188). Nor is Anton Chekhov’s Characterization in his Short, it a coincidence, Elias says, that it roughly parallels the civilization process itself, which was closely linked to the formation of the hierarchical social order with the absolute ruler and, more broadly, his court at its head (188). For the formation of the absolutist court demanded a change in the gold foil, the behavior, drives, and marigolds story emotions of former warrior nobility; to foil experiment retain standing, successful nobility had to civilize their behavior to come into line with their dependence on the central ruler.

How did this increased constraint and dependence come about? How was an of Christianity, upper class of relatively independent warriors or knights supplanted by a more or less pacified upper class of courtiers? Why was the influence of the estates progressively reduced in the course of the Middle Ages and the early modern period, and why, sooner or later, was the dictatorial absolute rule of a single figure, and with it the compulsion of courtly etiquette, the the gold foil experiment pacification of large or smaller territories from a single centre, established for a greater or lesser period of of Christianity Essay, time in all the countries of Europe? The sociogenesis [social origin] of experiment, absolutism indeed occupies a key position in the overall process of civilization. Development. The civilizing of conduct and the corresponding transformation of the the gold structure of mental and emotional life cannot be understood without tracing the process of state-formation, and within it the advancing centralization of society which first found particularly visible expression in the absolutist form of rule (191). Like a true Weberian, Elias believes that there are a number of factors behind the rise of the state. First and Essay Linux Jobs foremost, he believes the rise of the money economy at the expense of barter is the most important factor.

This weakened the feudal lords who existed on fixed rents, and strengthened the foil middle class merchants and artisans who produced and traded wealth as well as the Development of Christianity central ruler whose tax system gave him a share in the growing economy (192). A second structural change that favors centralization concerns changes in military power. Under feudalism, you will recall, vassals (including the nobility) were obligated to give the central ruler military service in return for their estates. As the economy grew, central rulers had funds to raise, equip, and maintain armies, growing less and less dependent upon the services of their feudal warriors (192). At the same time, there were changes in military techniques that changed the character of warfare and further devalued the services of the nobility. The Gold Foil. These techniques included the development of mass infantry which again was advantageous to the central ruler (192-193). The nobility, Elias reports, lost their monopoly on weapons and soldiering, and this monopoly passed into Essay Linux, the hands of a single ruler (193). In addition to these structural developments that promoted the rise of the state, there is one other that Elias believes is important enough to describe in some detail. The Gold. This is the rise of the bourgeois classes. The wealth and power of these classes was also dependent upon the rise of the money economy.

There was constant tension between the traditional nobility and Development Essay these classes. While the tensions and conflicts varied between societies and over time, centralized rulers quickly learned to exploit these tensions and interest groups, supporting one for a time and the gold then the other, to neutralize and prevent either from gaining too much power and becoming a true rival to what the ruler and the absolute state (194). Finally, there were several developments in technology that also promoted centralization and the gold experiment the rise of the state. These technological changes included the slow development of firearms that gave massed infantry advantage over a few nobles fighting on horseback (192); advances in a word is dead, bureaucratic organization that enabled efficient rule (239); and advances in communication and the gold transportation which allowed centralized authority to effectively rule over ever larger areas (238-239). Another way of marigolds story, looking at these technological and structural factors that promoted the rise of the state is to look at them as factors that change the balance between the forces of centralization and decentralization. The rise of the monetary economy promotes centralization by the gold, replacing land ownership as the dominant form of wealth. As long as land is wealth, processes of centralization and decentralization (feudalization) alternate: military competition among small estates in a given region for dominance (more land, wealth, and power), eventual supremacy by one lord who then dominates many warriors, and then a wave of decentralization as that lord and his descendants allocate estates to their supporters and warriors to start the process anew (313). The rise of a monetary economy, and the creation of wealth from manufacture and trade, breaks this cycle. The development of firearms and mass armies, bureaucracy, transportation, and communication has a similar effect on the forces of centralization versus decentralization, allowing kingdoms and states to grow ever larger and of Christianity more powerful. This is the heart of Eliass theorythe engine of social change that has been operating throughout history but has been finally unleashed by this change in the balance of forces between centralization and decentralization: the monopoly mechanism.

The Monopoly Mechanism. In attempting to grasp the general monopoly mechanism, readers should keep in mind the discussion of state formation appearing above, or, alternatively, the formation of economic monopolies under capitalism. As previously stated, with the evolution of modernity, the nation state has achieved a monopoly on the tax monies and the use of force within a given areain fact the modern state can be defined as just such a monopoly over a given area (268). The formation of the the gold experiment state with its monopoly on force makes possible restricted economic competition within its area of control, which makes the operation of the monopoly mechanism among economic units inevitable (277; 303-304). Though the resulting competition is constrained and excludes the marigolds story use of force, the mechanism itself works the same. The mechanism of monopoly, according to Elias, operates whenever there are a number of social units of roughly equal social power competing for scarce resourcesusually, Elias adds, the means of production. In such a competitive situation, it is inevitable that there will eventually be winners and losers. The winners will then dominate more of these resources and continue to compete with other units that have won their struggles; the losers will be eliminated from the competition, eventually becoming dependent upon the ever-decreasing number of victors. Eventually as the struggle continues, there will be single winner or unit upon the gold experiment which all are dependent, a system of free competition will have been replaced by a monopoly which then allocates all opportunities and resources (269). Now, Elias continues, in the course of this movement, the monopoly mechanism transforms relatively independent social positions into highly dependent positionsfree knights and warriors into courtiers, or independent merchants into employees [or in the case of Wal-Mart, associates] (270). In this process, the personality and affect structure of these peopletheir emotions, drives, attitudes, and 160th Special Essay beliefsare also transformed. [1] The attitudes, emotions, beliefs, skills, and drives that make a knight successful in foil experiment, medieval society are far different from those of a courtier.

Rather than physical strength and combat skills, his success is now dependent upon 160th Special Operations Regiment World Essay resources and foil opportunities to be dispensed from the Essay about prince; he must now practice restraint, and subordinate his own desires and needs to his lords. The means of struggle have been refined or sublimated. The Gold Experiment. The restraint of the affects imposed on the individual by his dependence on the monopoly ruler has increased (274). The civilizing process has been advanced. And this is true for those who dominate as well as those who have become dependent (270). For the monopoly mechanism does not stop here. It is not the about Jobs case that the monopoly evolves to a point of the gold experiment, absolute rule by a single unit or individual and all change then ceases to operate. As the number of dependent individuals rises, their power vis--vis the monopolist increases.

This occurs both because of their sheer numbers and because the monopolist must employ people to help fully exploit their monopoly position. The more comprehensive the monopolized power potential, the larger the web of functionaries administering it and the greater the division of labour among them; in short, the more people on whose work or function the monopoly is in any way dependent, the Linux more strongly does this whole field controlled by the monopolist assert its own weight and its own inner regularities (270-271). Foil. As the monopoly continues to marigolds story develop over the centuries, there is a concurrent increase in the gold foil, the division of labor and the monopolist comes to coordinate the actions of many functionaries; he becomes almost as dependent on these other functionaries as they are on a word is dead, him. The Gold. Over time, resources are increasingly distributed on a more egalitarian basis to these functionariesfirst, say, to administrators, then to lower strata functionaries of the organization. The private monopoly becomes one that serves a far broader social stratum (271). And this movement, Elias claims, is nothing other than a function of social interdependence (273). A monopoly with a high division of labor, he believes, will inevitably move toward a state of equilibrium in which income and advantages from the what cause monopoly will have to be distributed on a more equitable basis than to just those at the topeven to the advantage of the whole figuration. Again, this is true of the state as well as economic monopolies; Elias does not detail any possible limits to the process.

Restricted conflict and competition over the distribution of resources within the monopoly occurs. Sometimes the process is reversed for a time, but the long-term process is the gold, toward an equitable distribution of resources for all (273-274). This can be seen, Elias says, with the state and its passage from the rule of absolute monarchs to democracy, as well as the evolution of single-owner economic concerns and their passage to corporate structures which allocate their resources now to numerous groups of stockholders, corporate officers, administrators, employed professionals, and marigolds story eventually to skilled and the gold unskilled workers. Within a monopoly, distribution changes from a private affair in which the vast majority of resources of the figuration go to marigolds story the monopolist, into a public monopoly in which resources are allocated to the figuration as a whole. This can only reach its full development, Elias adds, in societies with a high division of labor (276). Elias details some change in the institutions by which the civilizing process is accomplished. Foil Experiment. The civilizing process first occurs through the pressure of those of upper class rank on their contemporaries and then on 160th Special Regiment in the, their inferiors. The Gold Foil. In this stage, the rules of basic conduct were often written in The Only Special Operations Regiment in the World Essay, etiquette books or repeated in aphorisms and doggerel, becoming a more or less conscious part of court society.

The rules of conduct were transmitted from above to the classes below. With the rise of the middle classes, this courtly behavior lost some of its force, and foil some of the behavior patterns of the bourgeoisie (particularly those involving money and sex) were merged with courtly behavior codes to become the new standard (440). As the middle and industrial classes gained ascendancy, the civilization process was accomplished through gradual changes in Operations in the World, the socialization of youth that would instill a sense of personal shame and embarrassment regarding socially proscribed behavior (116-117). It is the gold foil experiment, not until this second stage, when the Operations in the World Essay family becomes the dominant institution responsible for the gold foil experiment civilizing the child, that such rules of conduct are internalized at an early age, often thought of Essay Linux, (if at all) as second nature. But it is not the case that the socialization process itself was changed, Elias states. The family was and remained the primary socialization agent for children, and the supervision of youth became no more rigorous as we approach modern times. Nor has the process itself been reconstituted along rational or more deliberative lines. It is still accomplished in the same haphazard manner, where the socially patterned habits and the gold foil experiment rules of the parents passed early on to the about Linux Jobs children, with only slight modification over the generations (159). But through the foil years, the civilized rules and behaviors instilled through the socialization of children incrementally changed to incorporate the what depletion new civilized standards of behavior, as well as the feelings of the gold foil experiment, shame, embarrassment, satisfaction, and pleasure associated with these standards (109). Elias seems to be is a word is dead, ignoring the role of the the gold school here. Arising in the Middle Ages, mass education has increasingly expanded its role in the socialization process, now including sex education, nutrition, driver education, and a host of attitudes and behaviors that used to be the exclusive province of the cause family.

As the family is a very conservative institution highly resistant to the gold experiment change, and the schools are very responsive to government regulation as well as other formal institutions that make up the structure of any society, one would expect the civilizing process to advance rapidly as schools took over more and more of the SOAR: The Only Special Operations Regiment socialization function. Elias remarks that because the civilizing process is foil, now accomplished through childhood socialization, a large gulf now exists between the behavior of adults and children. This gulf did not exist in medieval times. He points out that even though they were economically and socially dependent upon adults, childrens habits, dress, emotional life, and marigolds story behavior were far closer to adult standards (and adult standards closer to the childs). Further, adults did not attempt to protect children from the ways of the world to the same degree. In keeping with the state of the the gold civilizing process itself, sex, violence, and intimacy were more freely expressed and thus more open for children to see (147-148). Consequently, as the civilizing process changes social structures, it becomes internalized in individuals through consequent socialization, and Linux Jobs there is a growing gap between the behavior and affects (emotions) of adults and children through time, and there is an increasing segregation and a lengthening of childhood as well. Recognition of these changes is critical in understanding earlier personality structure as well as those in our own time (148).

Individuals have not developed in the gold foil, the same manner through history; the socialization process varies across societies and through time (153-154). Postman picks up on this theme from Elias and cites his work approvingly. Unlike Elias, however, Postman attributes the increasing gulf between adults and children since Medieval society to the spread of literacy, thus enabling adults to keep secrets from childrensexuality, violence, human deprivationuntil they are old enough to master complex literacy skills. Marigolds Story. He also believes that television and other forms of graphic media are increasingly closing this gap (and consequently changing what it is to be an adult as well). As we approach modernity, more and more of the civilizing process is given over to early childhood socialization. Consequently, children have to internalize the complex standards of behavior within a very short period of time. Their drives and urges must be channeled into the socially approved forms of expression; their behavior molded, shame and revulsion associated with their ability to uphold these standards (as well as the the gold experiment ability of those around them) and made part of the self. In this the parents are only the (often inadequate) instruments, the primary agents of Linux, conditioning; through them and the gold experiment thousands of other instruments it is always society as a whole, the entire figuration of human beings, that exerts its pressure on the new generation, forming them more or less perfectly (119). It is through this process that the distance between the behavior of adults and children is increased, to the point that only children were still allowedto behave as adults did in the Middle Ages (124). The primary mechanism for molding the child is fear. As the source of fears within a society change, so changes the code of conduct demanded of its members (441-442). The dominant fear in Western societies was of one person for another.

As the state gains a monopoly on physical violence, this fear diminishes and indirect or internalized fears increase proportionately (442). Not only does the type of fear change, Elias claims, but also the frequency, oscillation, and intensity of a word is dead, that fear. Here as everywhere, the structure of experiment, fears and anxieties is what, nothing other than the psychological counterpart of the constraints which people exert on foil experiment, one another through the what ozone depletion intertwining of their activities. Fears form one of the channelsand one of the experiment most importantthrough which the structure of society is transmitted to individual psychological functions. The driving force underlying the change in drive economy, in the structure of fears and anxieties, is a very specific change in the social constraints acting on the individual, a specific transformation of the whole web of relationships, above all the organization of force (442). Again, these fears are not inborn; they are determined by the social structure and the individuals role within that structure, by the web of relationships in which the individual is entwined. As the social structure changes, social constraints change as does the individual. These fears are instilled within the child during the socialization process. They are indispensable in guiding human behavior; they are indispensable in becoming human.

Once instilled in childhood they are internalized and function automatically (442-443). Children come into ozone, the world as malleable, and their personalities and behaviors are molded through fear to conform with prevailing social standards. And human-made fears and anxieties from within or without finally hold even the adult in their power. Experiment. Shame, fear of marigolds story, war and fear of God, guilt, fear of experiment, punishment or of loss of social prestige, mans fear of himself, of being overcome by his own affective impulses, all these are directly or indirectly induced in a person by other people. Their strength, their form and the role they play in the individuals personality depend on SOAR: World, the structure of his society and his or her fate within it (443). The civilizing process is ongoing, the direction set by state formation, economic concentration, and the consequent division of labor. With the formation of the state, a monopoly on violence and taxation is gained, thus setting the stage for economic competition free from raw aggression and confiscation. Economic competition, of course, leads to concentration and the gold experiment eventual monopoly, causing the masses to what become dependent upon huge organizations for their livelihoods, and the skills, attitudes, and behavior needed to become successful become refined and the gold experiment restrained.

Economic and Anton Chekhov’s Characterization in his Short political monopoly leads to the growth in the division of labor and a greater dependence of individuals upon one another. As more and the gold foil experiment more people must attune their conduct to that of others, the web of action must be organized more and more strictly and accurately, if each individual action is to fulfill its social function. Individuals are compelled to regulate their conduct in an increasingly differentiated, more even and more stable manner (367). A Word Is Dead. For this reason, social control becomes internalized, surrounded by shame and fear (367-368). The structural changes of experiment, political and economic concentration combine to cause a comprehensive change in the character of the men and women who inhabit the society, a change in drive structure and affect, a change in the whole personality. The competition among states and economic units within states continues to what cause depletion fuel the monopoly mechanism, with the division of labor a consequence of organizational growth. Elias is emphatic that one cannot reduce the process to economic or political motivation alone.

Rather, monopolies of political and economic power are intertwined, sometimes explicitly coordinated, sometimes not. Elias rejects the the gold Marxist interpretation that all can be reduced to marigolds story an economic infrastructure, but he does not believe it is purely political either. The Gold. It is the same monopoly mechanism that is transforming economic and of Christianity political organizations; it is the growth of the gold foil experiment, these monopolies that are transforming social structures and thus social life (437). Merchants and corporations are driven to expand their enterprise both for economic gain and fear that competing firms will grow larger and eventually put them out of business. In the same manner, Elias claims, competing states are driven to expand their power and marigolds story influence, despite the good will and yearnings for foil peace of many individuals (437). The competitive tension between states, given the a word is dead pressures which our social structure brings with it, can be resolved only after a long series of the gold experiment, violent or non-violent trials of strength have established monopolies of force, and central organizations for larger dominions, within which many smaller ones, states, can grow together in a more balanced unit. Here, indeed, the compelling forces of social interweaving have led the transformation of Western society in one and the same direction from the time of utmost feudal disintegration to the present (438).

And it shows no sign of stopping in the foreseeable future. But recall, the monopoly mechanism does not stop with the establishment of the monopoly. While the monopoly begins by Use of Characterization in his Stories, granting all benefits to a few based on hereditary connections, this allocation of foil, resources creates tensions and pressures for a more equitable redistribution of depletion, monopoly benefits. Monopolies also bring in their wake a more refined division of labor; functionaries and professionals are needed to the gold administer and coordinate the activities. As the division of labor increases, societies become much more sensitive to these inequalities, and the functionaries become more numerous and more powerful. Of Christianity. Tension and eventually conflict between the the gold foil experiment monopolist and 160th The Only Special Regiment in the World Essay the many continue to grow. Ultimately, these tensions can only be resolved by breaking the control of the monopolist in the name of the experiment many (439). And this, according to Elias, is true for both political (states) and Special economic monopolies. Monopoly formation will continue well into the gold experiment, the foreseeable future. States will continue to engage in what cause, wars in the struggle to foil establish monopolies of force over ever larger areas of the earth (445).

The process will necessarily continue until the struggle is for the establishment of a global monopoly of marigolds story, force, a single world government (445-446). The Gold Foil Experiment. And then the a word is dead process continues, as the struggle for state monopoly benefits shift from the arena of physical force to the more controlled and refined competition of the civilized. And the the gold experiment same holds true for the economic order as well. Anton In His. Economic monopolies will continue to enlarge and centralize; struggles for their benefits will escalate between functionaries within these organizations, as well as between the rest of society and the gold foil experiment the organization itself. In both economic and political spheres, the monopoly mechanism is inexorable, moving toward expansion and centralization, and then toward consolidation, democracy, and equality. What cannot be decided in advance, however, is how long the ensuing struggle will take (439).

[1] Mills also makes this point regarding the transition of professionals and independent merchants to employees quite forcefully ([1951] 1973, x-xiii). For a more extensive discussion of Eliass theories refer to Macro Social Theory by Frank W. Elwell. Also see Sociocultural Systems: Principles of Structure and Change to learn how his insights contribute to Essay about a more complete understanding of modern societies. Elias, N. (1968/2000). Postscript. In N. Elias, The Civilizing Process (pp. 449-483).

Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Elias, N. (1939/2000). The Civilizing Process. (E. Dunning, J. Goudsblom, S. Mennel, Eds., E. Jephcott, Trans.) Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Elias, N. (1998). The Norbert Elias Reader. (J. Goudsblom, S. Mennell, Eds., E. Jephcott, R. van Krieken, J. Goudsblom, S. Mennel, Trans.) Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Elias, N. (1970/1978). What is Sociology? New York: Columbia University. Elwell, F. W. The Gold Foil Experiment. 2009.

Macrosociology: The Study of Sociocultural Systems . Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press. Elwell, F. W. 2006. Macrosociology: Four Modern Theorists. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers. Elwell, F. W. 2013. Sociocultural Systems: Principles of Structure and Change.

Alberta: Athabasca University Press. To reference The Sociology of Norbert Elias you should use the Development of Christianity following format: