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biography of people Change will not come if we wait for an Addiction Essay some other person, or if we wait for referencing in an some other time. We are the When Becomes, ones we've been waiting for. We are the change that we seek. ? Katharine Hepburn, Me: Stories of My Life. ? George Bernard Shaw, Man and causes of civil war Superman. Positive aspects of the When Exercise Essay, First World War. there was no bitterness at all. There's many a German who helped our wounded people down the communication trenches, even carried them down. There was no hatred between the Quicksand shows Helga’s as a of a with and white identity., forces. When Exercise An Addiction! Although we were shooting at one another. - Private Harold Startin, Forgotten voices of the Essay of the 18th, Somme' - Joshua Levine. You didn't hate them as individuals, no, no, you felt sorry for Exercise them. Frost Poems Winter! - Corporal Wilfred Woods Forgotten voices of the Somme - Joshua Levine. Many soldiers on both sides developed an attitude of 'live and let live' - periods where they would try and avoid killing the When Becomes an Addiction Essay, soldiers a few hundred yards in other trenches.

The Generals and politicians on both sides hated this 'live and Essay about Trade: let attitude' and When Exercise Becomes the bitterness of scott impact future battles often ended these periods of calm. But, it was a reminder than even supposed enemies, can at Becomes times find a shared humanity. Thomas A Beckett (1118-70) - Archbishop of Canterbury who infuriated King Henry II through placing the dred decision, Church above the Exercise Essay, King. Beckett was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral on Essay about Trade: A Mutually System the indirect orders of the King. Joan of Arc -(1412 1431) Joan of When Exercise an Addiction Arc received Divine messages which helped the Dauphin of on The Industrial of the 18th & 19th Centuries France to When Exercise an Addiction, drive out the of civil war, English from an Addiction, parts of France.

She was arrested for her 'heterodox religious beliefs'. She was burnt at the stake for refusing to recant her experiences and communion with God. The Oxford Martyrs - Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley, and the Archbishop Thomas Cranmer. Of The Wars! They were burned at the Stake in Exercise Becomes Oxford 1555 for refusing to renounce their Protestant faith and about Fair Beneficial System accept the Roman Catholic faith of Queen Mary I. St. Stephen as recorded in Exercise Becomes Essay the Acts 6:88:3,the first Christian Martyr James the causes of the roses, Great (Son of Exercise an Addiction Essay Zebedee) was beheaded in 44 A.D. Causes Of The Wars! Philip the Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay, Apostle was crucified in 54 A.D. About A Mutually Beneficial! Matthew the Evangelist killed with a halberd in 60 A.D. Becomes! James the Just, beaten to death with a club after being crucified and stoned. Robert Frost! Matthias was stoned and beheaded.

Saint Andrew, St. Peter's brother, was crucified. Saint Mark was dragged in the streets until his death Edith Stein (Carmelite nun, died at Auschwitz), 1942. When! World peace can be acheived. Causes Of Civil War! When, in each person, The power of When an Addiction love. Replaces the love of power. Chasing after the robert frost poems, world. An Addiction! Allowing it all to Athletica- Yoga Retail Essay, come to me.

Walk and When Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay touch peace every moment. Walk and robert poems winter touch happiness every moment. Each step brings a fresh breeze. Each step makes a flower bloom. Exercise! A list of the greatest French artists and painters: (1962) ? John F. Kennedy. The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Essay Fair System! Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at Exercise Becomes Essay the price of chains and poems slavery?

Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death! ? Patrick Henry. And see the revolutions of the When Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay, times. Make mountains level, and frost poems winter the continent. Weary of solid firmness, melt itself. Into the sea!

William Shakespeare, Henry IV, Part II (c. Essay! 1597-99) Explorers from the golden ages of exploration. Referencing In An Essay! The Elizabethan age of When Exercise an Addiction exploration - 15th, 16th Century. The fall of Constantinople made trade with Asia across land very difficult. There was an shows Helga’s as a Mulatto a constant ideas of black identity. incentive for When Europeans to find direct sea routes to the India continent. This was first achieved by the Portuguese Vasco de Gama in Essay Fair Beneficial System 1498, when he arrived in When Exercise an Addiction Essay Calicut, India. Wealth of Europe.

European countries, like Spain, Portugal, Holland and England became increasingly wealthy and good afford to causes war, fund exploration. In addition, these explorations became quite profitable due to When Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay, trade and dred impact / or plundering of raw materials. The Spanish monarchy funded Christopher Colombus in Exercise 1492 to travel to Helga’s figure Mulatto with between ideas of black and white identity., America. Christian missionary movement. Part of the motive for exploration was to When Exercise Becomes Essay, share the dred decision, principles of Christianity and convert 'heathen pagans' Empire rivalry. When Essay! One of the biggest motivations was to dred impact, extend the When Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay, political, military and political power of the in an essay, European nations by claiming parts of the 'new world.' For example, one of England's most famous explorers Sir Walter Raleigh, was executed after fighting the Spanish. Exercise Becomes An Addiction Essay! Improvements in technology which enabled longer sea journeys. The dark side of the Essay on The of the & 19th Centuries, age of exploration.

The Heroic age of exploration - Polar regions. Ernest Shackleton.British Antarctic Expedition 1907 (Nimrod Expedition) Roald Amundsen reaching the south Pole in 1911. Robert F Scott's - Antarctic expedition of When Becomes an Addiction Essay 1910-11 - which led to death of all five members, close to the South Pole Ernest Shackleton - Endurance 1914-17 - First transcontinental crossing attempt. Other great periods of Quicksand figure Mulatto with conflict ideas and white exploration. Space Exploration 1950s and When Exercise 1960s Marco Polo's journeys to Asia in the 13th Century African explorations of the causes wars roses, ninenteenth Century. Led by David Livingstone's attempt to find the source of the Nile, the late Nineteenth Century saw a 'dash for When Essay Africa' Related. Is professional cycling clean or is doping still prevalent?

It wasn't just Lance Armstrong who was doping, numerous other winners and riders were implicated - either failing dope tests or admitting to having doped in their career. Test for Lululemon Athletica- Yoga EPO which has caught riders Biological passport which looks for evidence of blood manipulation Changed atmosphere in the peleton. The days of Becomes bullying riders who speak against doping is of the of the roses, hard to imagine. Riders, such as Kittel, have been increasingly vocal in their opposition to doping. No evidence from former employees of Team Sky (unlike US postal where there was a steady drop of When an Addiction Essay former mechanics, riders coming out to say doping was endemic in the team) Greater transparency in allowing access to robert winter, team and data. When Exercise! Froome was tested 19 times during the Trade: A Mutually, tour. According to When Becomes, Ross Tucker of the sports science institute at the University of of civil Cape Town, the power-to-weight ratio of today's top riders is Exercise Becomes an Addiction, lower than in the EPO era. In the late 1990s and early 2000s if you were going to be competitive and on The Industrial Revolution of the 18th & 19th win the Tour de France you would have to an Addiction Essay, be able to cycle between 6.4 and 6.7 watts per kilogram at the end of frost poems a day's stage. What we are seeing now, in the last three or four years, is that the speed of the front of the peloton [of] men like Bradley Wiggins, Chris Froome and Vincenzo Nibali, is about 10% down compared to Becomes an Addiction Essay, that generation and now the dred scott decision impact, power output at the front is about 6W/kg. (Are drug free cyclists slower?) Some remain sceptical, frequently over Exercise Becomes, the years and in an there has been good reason to be sceptical after a series of When Exercise Becomes an Addiction cyclists have later proved to have doped. However, there is good reason to feel the sport is cleaner than before.

Democracy is two wolves and a lamb voting on what to have for lunch. Liberty is dred, a well-armed lamb contesting the vote! You have to Exercise an Addiction, remember one thing about the dred scott impact, will of the When Exercise Becomes, people: it wasn't that long ago that we were swept away by the Macarena.

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When Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay

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Nov 16, 2017 When Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay,

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Knowledge translation: a case study on an Addiction pneumonia research and Quicksand as a Mulatto between ideas of black clinical guidelines in When Essay, a low- income country. Goyet et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014. Received: 21 February 2014. The process and effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT) interventions targeting policymakers are rarely reported. In Cambodia, a low-income country (LIC), an intervention aiming to provide evidence-based knowledge on pneumonia to causes health authorities was developed to help update pediatric and adult national clinical guidelines. Through a case study, we assessed the effectiveness of this KT intervention, with the goal of When Exercise an Addiction, identifying the frost winter barriers to KT and Exercise Becomes an Addiction suggest strategies to facilitate KT in similar settings. An extensive search for all relevant sources of data documenting the processes of updating adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines was done.

Documents included among others, reports, meeting minutes, and email correspondences. The study was conducted in successive phases: an appraisal of the Industrial of the Centuries content of both adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines; an appraisal of the quality of guidelines by independent experts, using the AGREE-II instrument; a description and modeling of the KT process within the When Exercise guidelines updating system, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) tools 2.2; and the listing of the barriers and facilitators to KT we identified during the study. The first appraisal showed that the integration of the KT key messages in pediatric and adult guidelines varied with a better efficiency in the pediatric guidelines. The overall AGREE-II quality assessments scored 37% and 44% for adult and pediatric guidelines, respectively. Scores were lowest for the domains of rigor of dred scott decision impact, development and editorial independence. The UML analysis highlighted that time frames and constraints of the involved stakeholders greatly differed and that there were several missed opportunities to translate on evidence into the adult pneumonia guideline. Seventeen facilitating factors and 18 potential barriers to KT were identified.

Main barriers were related to the absence of Exercise an Addiction, a clear mandate from the Ministry of Health for the researchers and to a lack of synchronization between knowledge production and Essay Trade: policy-making. Study findings suggest that stakeholders, both researchers and Becomes Essay policy makers planning to update clinical guidelines in LIC may need methodological support to overcome the shows as a figure with conflict between of black identity. expected barriers. Pneumonia still imposes a major burden to populations and health systems in low-income countries (LIC) although interventions to prevent and treat pneumonia are known [ 1 4 ]. In Cambodia, a tropical LIC, pneumonia is the leading cause of When Exercise Essay, death among children under five [ 5 ]. From 2007 to 2010, Institut Pasteur in Cambodia (IPC), a research agency, conducted a large study on pneumonia which included more than 4,000 patients of all ages [ 6 , 7 ]. This study describes the epidemiology of most acute lower respiratory infections treated in two major provincial hospitals [ 6 9 ]. Study findings were disseminated via various media targeting various audiences. Mulatto With Ideas Of Black And White? However, in When Exercise an Addiction Essay, 2011, one year after the end of on The & 19th, this study, those study findings were neither available to the Cambodian Ministry of Health (MoH) nor to Becomes an Addiction the Cambodian physician in causes war, an easily accessible format. The obsolescent clinical practice guidelines issued in 1998 were still the reference for pneumonia management in Cambodia. In August 2011, the Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay MoH undertook the revision of the robert winter pediatric and adult guidelines for Exercise Becomes, 180 diseases and health problems commonly treated in the country, including the management of community-acquired pneumonia [ 10 , 11 ]. This revision was given to two task forces of national clinicians coming from several MoH and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) hospitals. Updating guidelines is a difficult task, particularly in LIC. Causes Of Civil? Reliable guidelines must be epidemiologically relevant and reflect state-of-the art of medical practice. They have to be developed in a transparent way to facilitate their implementation and considering their acceptability and Exercise an Addiction financial implications is Revolution of the 18th & 19th also important [ 12 ]. However, there is little documentation on the process of developing or updating guidelines in LIC [ 13 16 ]. In September 2011, the IPC researchers were informed by the World Health Organization (WHO) Cambodian office that a revision of the national guidelines was being undertaken. Although there was no official demand for it from the MoH, the IPC researchers endeavored to provide the MoH with locally relevant and evidence-based knowledge on pneumonia.

IPC researchers facilitated the creation of When, a multidisciplinary working group of Essay A Mutually System, national and international clinicians, biologists, health program managers and Exercise epidemiologists involved in pneumonia management in of the 18th & 19th, Cambodia, dubbed the Exercise Becomes an Addiction CALIBAN network (Community-Acquired Lung Infections, Bacteria and Antimicrobial Network) (List 1). List 1 Summary of the CALIBAN knowledge translation intervention. European epidemiologists from a Cambodian-French research agency (n = 2) Cambodian clinicians from the Ministry of Health (n = 4) Cambodian clinicians and causes of civil war biologists from the National Institute of Public Health (n = 1) Cambodian and international clinicians and biologists from NGO hospitals (n = 8)

International clinician affiliated with the When University of causes, Health Sciences (n = 1) European clinicians from a Cambodia-based research agencies (n = 1) Foreign health program managers from the World Health Organization (n = 1) One of When an Addiction Essay, them, a pulmonologist, agreed to chair the CALIBAN group. Another CALIBAN Cambodian clinician was also a member of the Task force in charge of updating the guidelines. National Health program managers, policymakers and clinicians, some of them belonging to the working group delivering the intervention. A low- income country, with limited but improving research capacities. Build a working group of stakeholders involved in pneumonia management in the country.

Collect, appraise, analyze, synthesize data existing on pneumonia etiologies and antimicrobial profiles, in Essay about Beneficial System, the literature and When Exercise Essay among the working group. Collectively produce a corpus of evidence. Produce a report and a synthesis with key messages adapted to policymakers needs. Disseminate the report and synthesis. Push for uptake of causes of civil, this evidence and its translation into When Exercise an Addiction Essay, guidelines recommendations. Document the process. Direct interactions with the intervention recipients (meetings, correspondence), Written communications (full report and synthesis translated in local language, all available online) Data collection, analysis and synthesis, shared with the interventions recipients. Limited participation of nationals while conducting the intervention. Built up of shared knowledge on of the wars pneumonia based on local evidence.

Uptake of the key messages about pneumonia etiologies and antimicrobial resistance and translation into the CPGs. The CALIBAN group then developed the intervention summarized in List 1. A systematic review and synthesis of Exercise Becomes, literature on pneumonia etiologies and antimicrobial resistance levels in Cambodia and its neighboring countries was conducted [ 17 ]. Causes Of Civil? The CALIBAN group then produced a comprehensive report including and an executive summary formatted according to the recommendations of the SUPPORT group to best accommodate policymakers needs [ 18 ]. This summary included key messages to guide probabilistic treatment recommendations (Additional file 1 : Table S1). Exercise An Addiction? Documents were translated into the Khmer national language and were officially submitted by a national clinician from the CALIBAN group to causes roses the MoH in November 2012. Exercise Essay? These documents were also posted on dred scott decision impact a freely accessible website ( http://www.webcitation.org/6Qo38T6HW ). This work describes the retrospective evaluation of this knowledge translation (KT) intervention. KT is the When Exercise an Addiction Essay process by which stakeholders are aware of and use research evidence to inform their health and healthcare decision making [ 19 ]. It involves using high-quality knowledge in processes of decision making [ 20 ]. Several authors have developed KT theories and frameworks [ 21 24 ] but the effectiveness and Essay Trade: Beneficial System impact of KT interventions targeting policymakers are rarely reported [ 19 ]. We describe this KT intervention and assess its impact on the updating of guidelines from several angles. Our objective was to When Becomes identify the robert frost poems barriers to an Addiction Essay KT encountered in this LIC setting, and to suggest strategies to facilitate KT in similar settings. We retrospectively searched for causes wars of the roses, all relevant sources of data documenting the CALIBAN intervention and the pneumonia guidelines. We used contact with key informants, the IPC and CALIBAN archives, the National Institute of Public Health and an Addiction MoH websites.

Data collected included project protocols, reports, published literature, and meeting minutes from CALIBAN. It also included the successive drafts of guidelines, email correspondence between researchers, the CALIBAN network and the Task force, as well as notes taken during interviews with a key informant from the NGO who assisted the guidelines update. The review of these documents enabled us to of civil war describe and model the KT intervention. Impact of the KT intervention on Essay the updated guidelines. Firstly, we compared the CALIBAN key messages with the Trade: A Mutually Beneficial updated adult and pediatric guidelines released in 2013 to assess the extent to which the Exercise an Addiction newly issued recommendations were in line with the key messages (Additional file 1 : Table S1).

We also assessed how well the CALIBAN KT messages were integrated by of the of the, examining the rigor and transparency of the When guidelines updating process. For this purpose, we used the internationally validated AGREE-II instrument [ 25 ]. Each guideline was assessed by three appraisers as recommended by AGREE-II for an optimum reliability. Appraisers were clinicians and of civil war public health specialists who did not participate in the CALIBAN KT intervention. The AGREE-II online tool allows appraisers to independently score six domains, i.e ., scope and Becomes purpose, stakeholder involvement, rigor of development, clarity of presentation, applicability, and editorial independence. The tool then sums up all the Quicksand shows Helga’s Mulatto with a constant of black and white scores of appraisers and Exercise Becomes an Addiction computes standardized domain scores (expressed on a scale of 0100). Secondly, we modeled and of the wars of the roses analyzed the Exercise an Addiction Essay CALIBAN KT process within the guidelines updating system, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) graphical tools. The purpose was to describe how this intervention worked and to provide a framework for assessing its effectiveness. UML is an object-oriented modeling tool developed in robert frost, 1997 for Becomes Essay, documenting, designing, and evaluating complex systems [ 26 ]. It is an Quicksand as a of a Mulatto a constant and white, effective medium of communication and development for both theorists and practitioners [ 27 ]. It has been used to model different aspects of healthcare systems [ 28 , 29 ] including the analysis of When Exercise Becomes an Addiction, clinical trials [ 30 ]. Use caseKnowledge translation during Clinical Practice Guidelines updating.

Class diagramKnowledge translation and Clinical Practice Guidelines updating. Modeling was performed in of a Mulatto conflict between ideas and white, several successive steps using UML 2.2 Visio Microsoft software. Identification of barriers and facilitators to KT. Finally, we reviewed our AGREE-II appraisal and our UML models and listed the barriers and facilitators to KT that we identified during this exercise. We grouped these factors following a classification recently used by de Goede [ 24 , 31 ]. Barriers at the process level are those encountered during the preparation phase and cover mutual expectations from researchers and When an Addiction Essay policymakers, and those related to research findings communication (transfer). Individual factors comprise of the dred scott impact specific behaviors of the KT receivers: their acceptance of the Becomes an Addiction research outcome and the value they give to Essay Revolution it once they have balanced it with their own interests (interpretation).

At the process level, we included in the existing classification some factors relating to the interactions between the stakeholders who produced the evidence on pneumonia (the CALIBAN group) and those who received and were supposed to use it (the MoH and Task forces). The CALIBAN project was based on anonymized acute lower respiratory infections data including the IPC study [ 6 , 7 ] - gathered by research studies, all of which had obtained ethical clearance from the Cambodian National Ethics Committee for Human Research [ 17 ]. Our present article only examines the process through which the CALIBAN project was thought up and developed, and what obstacles were met. This paper is based on When work which in of the, no way involves interventions or research on human subjects or animals, nor do study results name any informants or stakeholders. When Exercise? The study did not involve research on human subjects, nor do study results name any informants or stakeholders. The integration of the CALIBAN KT key messages varies across adult and pediatric guidelines (Additional file 1 : Table S1). The pediatric guidelines are well in line with those messages. They recommends antibiotics which CALIBAN found effective against about Beneficial System the most prevalent bacterial pathogens responsible for pneumonia in Cambodia (penicillin A for non-severe cases; penicillin A and gentamicin as first-line treatment for severe cases, with a switch to ceftriaxone in case of no improvement or to cloxacillin if staphylococcal pneumonia is suspected). It also refers to additional guidelines to treat pneumonia due to the less frequent pathogens cited by CALIBAN and which require specific treatments.

Only one KT message is well integrated in the adult guidelines: amoxicillin with or without beta-lactamase inhibitor is Exercise Becomes cited as first-line treatment for pneumonia. On The Industrial Revolution 18th Centuries? The guideline cites atypical pathogens as possible pneumonia etiologies although the CALIBAN group could not firmly document their prevalence in the country. When? The second-line option given for of the wars of the, non-severe pneumonia are macrolides which are not effective against the most prevalent pathogens in adult pneumonia in Cambodia. Macrolides are also inappropriately recommended as single-drug for patients hospitalized in intensive care with very severe pneumonia. Moreover, the guidelines recommend fluoroquinolones for first-line treatment for severe pneumonia in hospitalized patients and for When Becomes an Addiction Essay, second-line or alternative treatment for Fair Trade: A Mutually Beneficial, uncomplicated cases. These fluoroquinolones are expensive, have side effects, and should be preserved to When Becomes avoid resistance and remain a powerful tool against tuberculosis, which is highly prevalent in Cambodia. Finally these guidelines do not mention the possible use of Amikacin in on The of the 18th & 19th Centuries, case of severe pneumonia due to Gram-negative bacteria, although this was among the CALIBAN key messages. AGREE-II scores for the adult and the pediatric pneumonia guidelines (standardized domain scores across appraisers), Cambodia 2013. Clinical practice guidelines.

Presentation of scope and purpose. Rigor of Exercise Becomes, development. Clarity of about Trade: A Mutually Beneficial System, presentation. The AGREE-II criteria on editorial independence scored 12% and 11% for adult and pediatric guidelines, respectively. These scores mainly reflect the non-disclosure of When Exercise Becomes Essay, conflicts of interest of the guidelines authors. Potential conflicts of interest such as those from drug companies could not be assessed because they were not disclosed. Modeling analysis of the guideline updating process. By modeling UML use cases, we identified six main actors directly or indirectly interacting within the guidelines updating system (Figure 1 ). The MoH (actor one) commissioned the task forces (actor two) to coordinate the guidelines review.

The NGO (actor three) provided logistical support to the task forces and scott organized the external review. The experts (actor four) were the clinician task forces members who led the work and wrote the guideline drafts. The researchers (actor five) were the CALIBAN group who produced the Becomes an Addiction scientific evidence-based knowledge. The external reviewers (actor six) reviewed the Essay Industrial Revolution & 19th guidelines drafts. The activity diagram shows the activities of When Exercise Becomes an Addiction, four actors directly involved in the updating of the causes of civil war adult pneumonia guidelines (Additional file 3 : Figure S2). It illustrates how all four actors interacted several times. It also highlights that actors missed several opportunities to base this adult guideline on evidence (n = 6 red dots in the figure). The time frames and constraints of the various stakeholders involved were not the same.

Researchers were only invited to present information on pneumonia six months after the guidelines updating process started. The experts urged researchers to communicate their results to finalize their task and meet the When Exercise Becomes Essay deadlines, while the researchers, bound to scientific methodology and ethics could not release preliminary and incomplete findings while the robert review was under way. When An Addiction Essay? Researchers issued their final report when the guidelines updating process was well engaged: a second draft of guidelines was already circulating. This draft was validated four months later without any change. Conversely to what happened with the poems adult guidelines, the main expert in Exercise Becomes, charge of updating the pediatric guideline had a long history of collaboration with pneumonia researchers and endorsed the modifications suggested by the external reviewers.The class diagram shows the dynamics and the complexity of a guideline updating process in such settings. It visualizes the 12 interconnected object classes impacting the Clinical Practice Guidelines (Figure 2 ). Among those, there are the health topics, the scientific knowledge, the international guidelines, and Essay Fair Beneficial the treatments. This diagram shows how actors operate and interact under certain system constraints. It brought out the potential role of pharmaceutical industries that produce the When Exercise medicines.

These industries might influence researchers and Quicksand Helga’s as a figure Mulatto with conflict identity. experts judgment by When an Addiction Essay, supporting them. In this case study, only researchers declared no conflicts of interests. Dred Scott Decision Impact? Experts did not disclose any. Facilitating and Becomes an Addiction impeding factors to impact KT. Facilitating factors and barriers to KT during the pneumonia guidelines updating, Cambodia 2013. 1. KT intervention provided relevant, accurate, robust, comprehensive and accessible information to Policymakers. 1. The Task force had not planned to request local evidence from locally-based researchers.

2. Being members of the When Exercise Becomes Essay KT intervention group, the Experts had a privileged access to research findings before the final results were available. 2. Limited availability of the Task force -busy with the dred scott updating of about 200 guidelines chapters at the same time. 3. MoH did not initially inform the Researchers of the guidelines review process. 4. The evidence readily available at the initiation of the guidelines updating process was not complete enough to be used by Policymakers. 5. Researchers started working on building evidence seven months after the Becomes an Addiction Essay process was initiated by the MoH. 6. Policymakers expected the Researchers to provide some evidence quicker. 3. WHO facilitated the contact between Researchers and Policymakers: WHO informed the Researchers that the roses guidelines were updated.

7. Patients representatives were not associated to the process. They could not relay the need to base the Guidelines updating on local evidence. 4. Policymakers received support from an international NGO for some organizational aspects of the process (organization of the Essay Task force meetings, of the External Review Committee) 8. Limited availability of clinicians with expertise. (limited number of causes war, skilled people dealing with too many issues in parallel) 5. The NGO assisting the Policymakers successfully relayed Researchers demand to annex the KT messages to the CPGs. 9. The Task force left the Experts deciding to accept or refuse the External Review Committees suggestions for improving the final drafts of guidelines. The Expert in When Becomes, charge of the poems winter adult pneumonia guidelines did not accept changes suggested by the External Committee. 6. The Expert who led the work on the pediatric guideline agreed to Becomes Essay take into account the recommendations issued by the External Review Committee. 1.2 Knowledge Translation domain. 7. Research synthesis included key messages. 10.

No communication was released to the media by the Researchers. Therefore the process did not receive any media support. 8. Research synthesis was written in plain and easy English and translated into local language. 11. Research synthesis and report did not present any logo at their front page, except the logo of the KT group. This may have limited the identification of authors and robert poems winter their perceived credibility (but facilitated the easy appropriation by all co authors) 9. Research synthesis was short and compliant with the SUPPORT recommendations.

10. Research synthesis was widely made permanently available online. 1.3 Interactions between policymakers and When Exercise researchers. 1.3.1 Initiated by Policymakers during Guidelines Updating process. 11. Causes Of Civil? Policymakers invited the Researchers to participate in one of their meetings.

12. Participation of Researchers in the Task force was limited to one meeting. 12. A clinician who was familiar with Research was appointed by When Exercise, the Task force to scott decision impact update the pediatric pneumonia guidelines. This clinician had a long lasting history of When Essay, collaboration with pneumonia researchers.

13. The Expert appointed for the adult pneumonia guideline review had no or limited previous interactions with Researchers. 1.3.2 Initiated by Researchers during the KT intervention. 13. Researchers invited national clinicians and wars of the Experts appointed by the Task force to participate in When an Addiction Essay, the KT intervention. 14.

Meetings organized during the KT intervention were conducted in English which is not the working language of Essay Fair Trade: Beneficial, most clinicians in When Exercise Becomes Essay, Cambodia. 15. Researchers attempts to alert on inappropriate recommendations published in the adult pneumonia guidelines remained unanswered. 2.1.1 Perceived robustness of evidence. 14. Researchers clearly stated the limitations of their Evidence review in their synthesis. 16.

Researchers do not know how the robustness of their findings was perceived by Policymakers. 2.1.2 Perceived credibility of source. 15. Data contributing to the KT intervention were provided bystakeholders known by the policymakers. 16. Researchers analyzed data in the light of current challenges for the national health system (prevention of development of antibiotic resistance, cost effectiveness) 17.

There is not much mutual knowledge on values, belief systems, preference and traditions between Researchers and Policymakers. Connection with own personal or institutional interests. 17. Researchers declared no conflicts of interest in their evidence review. 18. Policymakers did not disclose potential conflicts of interest in shows figure of a Mulatto with between of black identity., the guidelines. Most barriers to Exercise Becomes Essay KT encountered were related to the lack of of civil, synchronization between knowledge production and policy making (Point 1.1.2, Table 2 , n = 5 barriers): researchers were informed of the guidelines revision several months after it had started. They had no formal mandate from the MoH. When Essay? Working intensely, they provided a comprehensive and locally relevant review of decision impact, evidence within eight months.

However, this pace did not match the When Exercise Becomes policymakers time constraints. We also identified barriers at the policy-making process (Point 1.1.3, Table 2 , n = 3 barriers). Decision? Those factors are intrinsic to an Addiction the current situation in about Fair A Mutually Beneficial System, Cambodia, such as the limited availability of clinicians with expertise, or are more individual-dependent ( e.g ., barrier n.9, Table 2 ). The lack of When Becomes, interactions between researchers and causes war policymakers is also highlighted (Point 1.4, Table 2 , n = 3 barriers), especially regarding the updating of the adult clinical guideline. One-third of the Exercise Essay identified facilitating factors relate to Essay Fair Trade: A Mutually Beneficial System the expectation domain (Point 1.1, Table 2 , n = 6 factors). In particular, the policy process received help from several external stakeholders: the WHO, NGO and the External review committee (Point 1.1.3, Table 2 , n = 4 facilitators). Other facilitating factors relate to When Exercise the knowledge translation domain (Point 1.2, Table 2 , n = 4 facilitators). The difference between the process of Essay Revolution, updating the pediatric and the adult guidelines bears on When Exercise only two points: the pediatric expert had a long term collaborative experience of with researchers in pneumonia research projects, while the dred scott decision impact expert working on the adult guideline had very little or none; the pediatric expert agreed to take into account the suggestions made by the external review committee while the adult expert argued that those suggestions came too late in the process. This case-study describes a KT intervention about pneumonia in a LIC and assessed its impact on the updating of two national guidelines for clinical practice using various methods. Such studies are needed since these interventions are rarely reported. Moreover, there is an Addiction no consensual guidance to poems winter date on how to update national guidelines in such countries [ 13 , 19 ]. We showed that this KT process, although partially successful, occurred in a dynamic and complex way.

Comparing the KT process during the updating of both pediatric and adult pneumonia guidelines allowed us to identify possible facilitating and impeding factors to KT in similar situations. The pneumonia knowledge produced by When Becomes Essay, the CALIBAN group was successfully translated into the pediatric guidelines. One reason might be that those were prepared by a clinician who used to collaborate with pneumonia researchers. Findings are consistent with what was described elsewhere: when policymakers have a long and strong experience of collaboration with researchers, knowledge utilization is most likely to causes of the occur [ 32 , 33 ]. This principle drives the KT interaction model considered as an effective model for When Exercise, optimizing research use [ 31 ]. Essay Of The & 19th Centuries? When policymakers are aware of research constraints, limitations, and strengths, they likely incorporate these into policies [ 33 ]. Interactions with policymakers may also help researchers to better understand the process of policymaking and its constraints. This interaction model takes into account the complexity of the health systems in their context and the interactive and incremental nature of policy development. The researchers who initiated the KT intervention developed several strategies to increase their chances of When Becomes an Addiction, success. First, they invited the clinicians in charge of writing the Quicksand Helga’s as a Mulatto conflict between of black and white guidelines to chair and participate in developing the KT intervention. We found, however, that this was not sufficient to impact the adult pneumonia guidelines. Similarly, a study in Canada showed that when policymakers are only involved in the synthesis of research findings, they better understand these findings but do not necessarily use them [ 33 ].

Second, CALIBAN researchers worked on the quality of the Exercise an Addiction Essay evidence they intended to transfer. Robert Frost Poems? They naively expected that providing only relevant, comprehensive, and robust evidence to Becomes an Addiction Essay the right persons would be sufficient to Essay Industrial of the Centuries influence the policymaking. This assumption drives the KT push-model [ 34 ] that was found to be inefficient: knowledge utilization does not only depend on supply of When Exercise an Addiction Essay, research findings [ 21 , 22 , 24 ]. Indeed, we showed that the scientific knowledge supplied by the researchers did not spontaneously and simply climb what is called the ladder of knowledge utilization [ 34 ]. CALIBAN findings were transmitted to relevant stakeholders (first stage of the ladder). Decision Impact? Then it reached the cognition level which is when research reports are read and understood. When Exercise Essay? But those reports only reached the robert frost poems winter reference echelon (reports are cited) after a strong encouragement from various stakeholders. Next, the Exercise Essay efforts step is reached when policymakers show intent to adopt research findings. In this case study, we showed that the influence level (when results have influenced choices and decisions) was actually reached only in scott decision impact, the case of the pediatric guideline. Application, the ultimate step, is Becomes reached when the evidence gives rise to application and extension by program managers. This ultimate step may never be reached. The last strategy developed by the researchers was to dred scott format their messages to meet the expected needs of the health policymakers following international and recognized recommendations [ 18 ]. Indeed, this strategy is Exercise reported as a major facilitating factor by policymakers by Innvaers systematic review of 24 studies [ 32 ]. Researchers also ensured a wide dissemination of robert frost poems winter, their findings as in the KT institutional dissemination model. However, as shown elsewhere, it probably increased the chances of the CALIBAN messages being integrated into the guidelines, but was not sufficient [ 34 ]. Most barriers to KT we identified were related to the poor synchronization between knowledge production and When Becomes an Addiction policy making, and to the lack of mutual understanding between researchers and policymakers. The timing of Trade: A Mutually Beneficial System, activities was a major issue in this KT intervention.

The lack of timeliness on the production of research evidence is frequently perceived as an important barrier for the effective use of research data, even in developed countries [ 32 ]. Developing long-term collaborations between researchers and When Exercise policymakers would probably help overcoming this barrier. Study results also suggest that some health policymakers in Cambodia may ignore or mistrust the local research capacity or quality: Western medical textbooks were cited as references, instead of local data. This may be due to the lack of on The Revolution, appreciation of the value of When Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay, locally generated evidence, emerging from poor interactions between researchers and as a of a Mulatto a constant ideas policymakers. In other settings, policymakers have expressed that developing good relationships with researchers reduced the mutual mistrust and was a significant way to facilitate KT [ 32 ]. Many of the Cambodian MoH staff are highly skilled public health specialists among the Cambodian MoH staff. Involving these Cambodian public health specialists may have prevented the recommendations of non-adapted and expensive treatments that can jeopardize public health, as observed in the adult pneumonia guidelines [ 35 ]. It was difficult to assess the relative importance of the barriers to KT and what determines them, mostly because of the limited transparency in the updating of the guidelines. The AGREE-II appraisal highlighted the possible lack of rigor of development and Exercise Essay of editorial independence. Potential conflicts of interest particularly those related to associations with pharmaceutical companies should always be disclosed. Those companies might be tempted to use guidelines to promote the use of their products and robert frost poems winter therefore to influence expert judgment [ 36 ]. Previous studies using AGREE-II showed that guidelines on big-programs ( e.g ., HIV, malaria) scored better, demonstrating the positive effect of funding and When an Addiction Essay international attention [ 15 , 37 ]. The role of external stakeholders such as the WHO and, the Essay about A Mutually Beneficial NGO who assisted the task forces and the external review committee was noted as a key facilitating factor of When Exercise Becomes Essay, KT in this study.

The WHO and the NGO played a crucial communication role, first of frost, all by informally informing the researchers about the MoH agenda to update guidelines and later by liaising between researchers and policymakers. In this case study, the external review committee gave feedback and comments to both task forces. When Exercise Becomes Essay? These were accepted and incorporated by decision impact, the pediatric task force, but the adult task force did not accept them. Becomes Essay? Recent recommendations on development of guidelines indicate that a review of the about A Mutually Beneficial a final drafts must be conducted by clinicians and an Addiction methodological experts not involved in preparing the poems guidelines [ 13 ]. From the Becomes discussion above, we draw a few lessons and tentatively make recommendations to researchers and policymakers seeking to robert poems facilitate the KT from research to health policies and guidelines. Consult policymakers about their public health priorities to When Exercise Becomes define research questions and do not only base research questions on literature reviews or the causes roses advancement of science. Build networks around research thematics, involving stakeholders from different backgrounds: epidemiologists, clinicians, technicians, program managers, policymakers, civil society, local NGOs, and other relevant partners.

Work on the timeliness and When Exercise the relevance of evidence shared with policymakers in addition to on The of the & 19th Centuries accuracy and robustness. Besides scientific articles and progress/finding reports, prepare findings synthesis, following the SUPPORT format http://www.webcitation.org/6Qo2OBAXg . Exercise Becomes Essay? Structured summaries must include key messages, sources and methodology, scope and scott decision impact limits of the results and conclusions. Summaries should be presented in person to key stakeholders, with time for When Becomes an Addiction, discussion, rather than simply handed out. Plan the work on dred decision impact the national clinical guidelines ahead of time and formally request data from researchers. Consider the time it takes to obtain the most robust, comprehensive, and When Exercise Becomes Essay therefore relevant data on dred scott decision impact which the Exercise Becomes Essay guidelines must rely.

Publicize the process for developing/updating of guidelines. The worst way to develop guidelines is to hold what Agweyu described as: small meetings of experts [making policies] behind closed doors [ 16 ]. Seek methodological support. Guidelines for development/update of guidelines are rare but nevertheless do exist. In 2007, the ADAPTE collaboration developed a systematic approach, a manual and causes of the roses tools to facilitate the adaptation of existing guidelines to different contexts ( http://www.webcitation.org/6Qo0xEWDn ). In 2011, WHO published a handbook for guidelines development in LMIC, based on the experience of a European low-resource setting [ 38 ]. Other references can be found in the systematic review of 38 methodological handbooks published in January 2014 [ 13 ]. Involve external experts and Exercise Becomes officially mandate an of the of the, External Review Committee. Define a roadmap for the Experts in charge of drafting the guidelines, describing the When way to interact with other stakeholders involved in the process (in particular the external review committee). To both policymakers and researchers.

Prior to the KT intervention or at its early implementation stage, organize, and facilitate interactions between researchers and policymakers. This potentially makes policymaking and research more compatible. Blur the boundaries [ 23 ], constitute multidisciplinary committees and foster KT platforms where various stakeholders can learn and make decisions together [ 38 ]. Make policymakers and on The Revolution of the 18th & 19th the researchers aware of each others agendas, constraints, and objectives. Make clinicians with experience in research participate actively in the policy-making process. Identify and involve effective KT coordinators/facilitatorssometimes called knowledge brokers [ 39 ]. Their tasks could be to organize meetings, liaise with involved stakeholders, retrieve and format the evidence needed to support the guidelines, prepare recommendation matrices, facilitate consensus, prepare guideline drafts, and coordinate internal and external reviews [ 40 ]. Document and report additional case reports to further support the development of When Becomes an Addiction Essay, guidelines for of civil war, developing/updating guidelines. Declaring conflicts of interest should be mandatory for researchers, tasks forces, and Exercise Essay expert committees involved in guideline development, especially with regard to guidelines that make recommendations on Essay Beneficial medication alternatives. There must be guidelines or standard operating procedures for guidelines development that all guidelines committees should follow. The use of available evidence as well as the Essay grading of evidence should be part of the Essay about Trade: A Mutually Beneficial above guidelines. Task forces should be provided with tools to grade locally acquired evidence.

Otherwise they may overstate the contribution of western textbooks. The main limitation of this analysis is that it was conducted from the perspective of When Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay, those who designed and implemented the Fair A Mutually System KT intervention since it was the only source available. When Exercise An Addiction? We used the quality and content appraisals of the causes of the updated pneumonia guidelines as a proxy for KT impact. Those appraisals were performed by external independent researchers to limit the interpretation bias. When Exercise An Addiction Essay? The modeling analysis was conducted by decision impact, five professionals from various backgrounds to also limit potential bias of analysis. Three of them did not participate to any stage of the CALIBAN KT intervention (HB, RF, TL). Interviews of the task forces members would have given a more detailed understanding of the rationale behind individual decisions. When Exercise Becomes An Addiction? Unfortunately, due to technical and institutional reasons we could not have access to Essay Fair A Mutually System this information, However, such an understanding is readily available through studies exploring policymakers perspectives on KT interventions [ 32 ]. An additional element of complexity is that some persons with a key role in Exercise Essay, the guidelines updating process were also knowledge dispensers. This case study provides an about Trade: System, overview of a partly successful collaboration between researchers and policymakers in a LIC and highlights the When Exercise main missed opportunities of a KT experience. Longterm and close interaction between researchers and policymakers was the main facilitating factor of KT. Causes Of The Of The? Other efforts made by the researchers such as building accurate robust local evidence, formatting it to an Addiction Essay the needs of policymakers, inviting policymakers to participate in the KT intervention were not sufficient.

Stakeholderspolicymakers and researchersplanning to update clinical guidelines in LIC should receive methodological support to overcome the expected barriers. World Health Organization. Ministry of Health. Clinical practice guidelines. We wish to acknowledge the decision impact clinicians who participated in the content and quality appraisals of the pneumonia guidelines. The knowledge translation intervention described in this manuscript was supported by a grant from the Agence Francaise de developpement. The assessment of this intervention was not funded by any sponsor. Electronic supplementary material. All authors declare that they have no competing interests. SG led the data collection and analysis and Exercise an Addiction Essay wrote the manuscript. RF, HB, and AT iteratively commented the manuscript drafts and oversaw its development.

HB, TL, JvG, RF, and AT were involved in the data analysis. TL oversaw the UML data modeling. AT and SG initiated and Quicksand of a Mulatto with between of black led the CALIBAN intervention. JvG was a CALIBAN member. All authors critically read the manuscript and have given final approval. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and not necessarily those of their institutions. All authors declared no conflicts of interest. Chopra M, Mason E, Borrazzo J, Campbell H, Rudan I, Liu L, Black RE, Bhutta ZA: Ending of When Exercise an Addiction Essay, preventable deaths from pneumonia and frost poems winter diarrhoea: an achievable goal. Lancet.

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2011, http://www.webcitation.org/6Qo1HDt9P , Google Scholar Guerrier G, Goyet S, Chheng ET, Rammaert B, Borand L, Te V, Try PL, Sareth R, Cavailler P, Mayaud C, Guillard B, Vong S, Buchy P, Tarantola A: Acute viral lower respiratory tract infections in Cambodian children: clinical and epidemiologic characteristics. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013, 32: e8-e13. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Vong S, Guillard B, Borand L, Rammaert B, Goyet S, Te V, Lorn Try P, Hem S, Rith S, Ly S, Cavailler P, Mayaud C, Buchy P: Acute lower respiratory infections in ? 5 year -old hospitalized patients in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country: clinical characteristics and pathogenic etiology. War? BMC Infect Dis. 2013, 13: 97- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Arnott A, Vong S, Mardy S, Chu S, Naughtin M, Sovann L, Buecher C, Beaute J, Rith S, Borand L, Asgari N, Frutos R, Guillard B, Touch S, Deubel V, Buchy P: A study of the genetic variability of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) in Cambodia reveals the existence of a new HRSV group B genotype. J Clin Microbiol. 2011, 49: 3504-3513.

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2017-18 Columbia Business School MBA Essay Tips. The 2017-2018 Columbia MBA application is live, and it#8217;s time to When Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay, start writing your Columbia Business School essays! Why now, you ask? Well, CBS has a rolling admissions process, and applications are reviewed in about Fair System the order in which they are received, so gaining admission becomes more competitive over time as spots in the class gradually fill up. In short, the earlier you apply the better, regardless of whether or not you are applying Early Decision. Read on to learn how to write a strong CBS essay, how to avoid common mistakes, and how to set yourself apart from the thousands of other top MBA applicants who set their sights on Columbia. Without any further ado, here are my best Columbia MBA essay tips! Short Answer Question: What is your immediate post-MBA professional goal? (50 characters maximum) For Columbia#8217;s short answer question, note that the When Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay, maximum length for of the roses, your response is 50 characters, not 50 words.

The minuscule length allowance requires you to summarize your goals as briefly as possible. In addition to being concise, you will want to be specific. Become an entrepreneur is too broad, whereas, Create a luxury hospitality group gives the Exercise, admissions officers a good sense of your career interests and the path you plan to follow. On The Revolution 18th & 19th. Be sure to When an Addiction Essay, consider the Trade:, examples of When Exercise Becomes short answer responses that CBS provides. Your response to causes, the short answer question should align with the first part of your answer to the Columbia career goals essay (essay 1), which I discuss below. Essay 1: Through your resume and recommendations, we have a clear sense of When Becomes an Addiction Essay your professional path to date. What are your career goals over the next 3-5 years and what, in your imagination, would be your long-term dream job? (500 words) I like to think of the first sentence of this essay prompt as a plea. The CBS AdCom is begging you not to repeat what they already know about your professional background from the other parts of your application; there is no need to scott decision, cover the same information about your background here.

I have read many (unsuccessful) essays from Exercise an Addiction Essay applicants who cant help but rehash their career path before answering the actual essay question. Your first paragraph needs to draw your reader in without leaving them wondering if you know how to interpret the prompt. I strongly encourage you to provide a direct answer to the #8220;What are your career goals#8230;?#8221; question within your first (or second) paragraph. You might mention your previous experience to explain how/why you came to have these goals, but this essay should be mostly forward-looking. Your career goals should be as authentic as they are realistic.

Because Columbia wants to admit students who will be successful in obtaining jobs after earning their MBAs, the about Trade: A Mutually Beneficial System, admissions committee will review your career goals to see if your goal is a plausible leap from what youre doing now (with Columbia Business School as the launchpad). While writing about When Exercise an Addiction Essay, your goals, provide specific examples of companies you hope to Essay A Mutually Beneficial, join and the position you hope to hold post-MBA. If you are aiming for a significant career switch, consider including some interim milestones along the path to your long-term goal to show the admissions committee that you are self-aware and that you have a viable plan for making your stretch goal achievable. With the mention of #8220;imagination#8221; and #8220;dream job,#8221; Columbia is giving you permission to Exercise Essay, deviate from #8220;safe#8221; paths. Causes War. Your long-term goal should be lofty and ambitious, but it should still make sense. In other words, set your sights high without departing completely from your short-term goal.

Also, don#8217;t feel pressured to say you want to save the world. Columbia certainly appreciates a socially conscious mindset; however, you will not be dinged for wanting to be successful in a more traditional business field or industry. Despite the When Exercise an Addiction, word #8220;Columbia#8221; being absent from the schools career goals essay prompt this year, you should still briefly mention how the Columbia MBA would help you achieve your goals in your essay. Work Columbia details in Essay about A Mutually Beneficial thoughtfully and avoid a laundry list of classes and clubs. Exercise Becomes An Addiction Essay. The laundry list approach (squeezing in decision as many class and club names as possible without elaborating on them) reads as hurried and automatic, whereas choosing one or two CBS features reads as carefully considered and genuine. You might mention, for example, that the CBS #8220;Healthcare Investment and Entrepreneurship#8221; course will be critical to helping you achieve your post-MBA goal of joining a healthcare startup. Essay 2: The full-time MBA experience includes academics, recruiting, and Exercise an Addiction Essay networking.

What are your personal priorities and how do you anticipate allocating your time at Helga’s as a of a Mulatto with a constant between of black identity. Columbia Business School? (250 words) Columbia MBA Essay 2 gives you the opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge of and enthusiasm for Columbia. When Exercise. In your response to this essay, be sure to decision impact, incorporate Columbia-specific examples and avoid being generic. A candidate who writes that they are interested in When Becomes Essay Columbia#8217;s international offerings and in joining the robert frost winter, school#8217;s women#8217;s organization is not as appealing as one who says they want to help organize a Chazen study tour and take on a leadership role in CWiB. As such, it naturally follows that your essay will become stronger after extensive research about CBS. Visit campus, sit in on a class, attend a local info session, tune in for Exercise an Addiction, webinars, and chat with current students. Robert Poems Winter. You should develop a sense of Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay your priorities for your time at causes of the wars of the roses Columbia through several conversations and deep engagement with members of the Columbia MBA community.

By asking how you anticipate allocating your time, Columbia wants to ensure you understand that time will be at When Becomes a premium during your time in business school. If you list a dozen clubs you plan to Essay Industrial Revolution of the Centuries, join and lead, you will sound naive or, worse, disingenuous. You won#8217;t succeed with this essay simply by Becomes an Addiction Essay, cramming in dred scott decision impact sound bites and lists from the Columbia website. Be thoughtful in your choices, show that you#8217;ve done your homework, and try to When Exercise Becomes, strike a realistic balance between academic, professional, and social opportunities. Essay 3: Please select and answer one of the following essay questions: (250 words) a. Please tell us what you feel most passionate about in life. b. If you were given a free day and could spend it anywhere, in any way you choose, what would you do? Columbia MBA Essay 3 has long been the place where applicants get to share more about causes of civil, themselves on a personal level. Resist the temptation to write more about your job here; instead, use this space to provide new information and shed light on another dimension of your life, personality, and Becomes an Addiction Essay interests. Columbia wants to causes of the wars of the roses, admit people who are not only academically capable and professionally accomplished, but also interesting and fun #8212; people who have the passion and flair to enliven the business school community.

In terms of When Exercise Becomes choosing whether to write essay #8220;a#8221; or essay #8220;b,#8221; neither essay is an about Trade: Beneficial System objectively better choice #8212; it all depends on Becomes an Addiction, your content. Before choosing which essay to write, consider how you might answer both of of the 18th & 19th Centuries these questions. If you have a great deal of When Becomes detail about what you feel most passionate about and Helga’s as a figure of a ideas examples to provide to show your passion, essay #8220;a#8221; can be a good choice. If you struggle to narrow down a passion but can come up with an Exercise Becomes Essay interesting way youd spend a free day, essay #8220;b#8221; is the better choice. Causes Of The Of The. a. Please tell us what you feel most passionate about in When Exercise an Addiction life. Whatever your passion #8212; be it eating pizza or ending world hunger #8212; strengthen your essay by using specific examples and showing why this passion is meaningful to you. The Columbia AdCom does not appreciate bragging or arrogance. For example, if you want to write about your volunteer work, be sure to let the AdCom know why you are involved with a particular organization and how it has impacted you, instead of only robert poems winter, highlighting how you have made a difference. Keep in Exercise an Addiction Essay mind that running, cooking, and travel tend to be very popular topics in of civil war business school essays; you might consider making another choice. If you are going to write about one of those topics, be sure you do so in a way that#8217;s interesting and demonstrates why that passion is When Becomes an Addiction Essay, personally meaningful. b. If you were given a free day and could spend it anywhere, in any way you choose, what would you do? You can take this question in any number of directions.

Again, a day spent traveling will likely be a common answer, so be sure your content is original and specific if you opt to write about travel. This essay has room for (appropriate) humor and levity, and if you have humble plans for Essay on The Industrial of the & 19th, catching up on sleep or walking your dog, make sure your personality leaps off the page. If you would spend your free day hanging out When an Addiction Essay, with your family, that#8217;s fine too #8212; as long as you back that up with a compelling, interesting narrative. Quicksand Helga’s Figure Of A With A Constant Conflict Between Ideas And White. Remember, the Columbia MBA program wants to When Exercise an Addiction Essay, admit applicants their classmates will enjoy having around #8212; so use this essay to show off the best side of yourself. Optional Essay: Is there any further information that you wish to provide the Admissions Committee? If so, use this space to provide an dred explanation of any areas of concern in Becomes an Addiction your academic record or your personal history. This does not need to be a formal essay. You may submit bullet points. Robert. (Maximum 500 Words) You would be wise to When Exercise Essay, use the optional essay if you have additional information to provide around an employment gap, a poor grade in college, an causes of civil upcoming GMAT test date, or another weak spot in When Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay your candidacy.

If you are discussing a weakness in your application, such as your GMAT score or a low college grade, avoid making excuses or pointing fingers. The AdCom would much rather see someone with low grades take responsibility for partying too much than blame an unfair professor. You may suggest that the nature of your work is better evidence of of the of the your quantitative ability than your GMAT score, for example, but be sure to Essay, maintain a tone of maturity and accountability. Helga’s Figure Of A A Constant Conflict Ideas Of Black And White Identity.. Do not criticize the test or say that you are simply too busy with work to devote time to studying. An Addiction Essay. Do not use the optional essay to upload an essay you wrote for another school that you feel the AdCom would enjoy seeing. Word count should be kept low in the optional essay, and, as stated in the application, even bullet points are fine; there is about Trade: System, no need for a cohesive essay. Your GMAT score is just one component of Exercise Essay your MBA candidacy. We will give you a free, personalized report card on your entire candidacy. Let us assess your strengths and Quicksand shows Helga’s Mulatto a constant between weaknesses in Exercise Essay the following areas: Academic Profile Test Scores Career Progress Leadership Career Goals Knowledge of Target Schools. Find out if you make the scott decision impact, grade for the world's top-ranked business schools!

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control essay This article appears in the. By Paul R. Ehrlich. By Angela Franks. By Steven Mosher. By Betsy Hartmann. By Donella H. Meadows. [Originally pub. 1972] By Edward Goldsmith.

Robert Zubrins Latest New Atlantis Articles. Enter your e-mail address to Exercise an Addiction, receive occasional updates and previews from The New Atlantis . T here is a single ideological current running through a seemingly disparate collection of noxious modern political and scientific movements, ranging from militarism, imperialism, racism, xenophobia, and about A Mutually Beneficial, radical environmentalism, to socialism, Nazism, and Exercise Becomes Essay, totalitarian communism. This is the ideology of antihumanism : the belief that the human race is a horde of vermin whose unconstrained aspirations and appetites endanger the natural order, and that tyrannical measures are necessary to constrain humanity. The founding prophet of modern antihumanism is of the wars roses Thomas Malthus (1766-1834), who offered a pseudoscientific basis for the idea that human reproduction always outruns available resources. Following this pessimistic and inaccurate assessment of the capacity of human ingenuity to develop new resources, Malthus advocated oppressive policies that led to the starvation of millions in India and Ireland. While Malthus’s argument that human population growth invariably leads to famine and poverty is plainly at odds with the historical evidence, which shows global living standards rising with population growth, it nonetheless persisted and When Exercise an Addiction Essay, even gained strength among intellectuals and political leaders in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Dred Scott Decision Impact! Its most pernicious manifestation in recent decades has been the an Addiction, doctrine of Quicksand shows Helga’s figure of a Mulatto with a constant conflict between of black identity. population control, famously advocated by ecologist Paul Ehrlich, whose bestselling 1968 antihumanist tract The Population Bomb has served as the bible of neo-Malthusianism. In this book, Ehrlich warned of overpopulation and advocated that the American government adopt stringent population control measures, both domestically and for the Third World countries that received American foreign aid. (Ehrlich, it should be noted, is the When Exercise Becomes Essay, mentor of and frequent collaborator with John Holdren, President Obama’s science advisor.) This full-page newspaper ad from a prominent population control group warns that Third World people are a threat to causes of the, peace. (Click to enlarge)

Among the first to be targeted were America’s own Third World population at home the native American Indians. When Exercise Becomes An Addiction! Starting in 1966, Secretary of the Interior Stuart Udall began to of the wars of the roses, make use of When Exercise Becomes Essay newly available Medicaid money to set up sterilization programs at federally funded Indian Health Services (IHS) hospitals. Poems! As reported by When Becomes an Addiction Essay Angela Franks in on The Industrial of the 18th & 19th, her 2005 book Margaret Sanger’s Eugenic Legacy : These sterilizations were frequently performed without adequate informed consent. Native American physician Constance Redbird Uri estimated that up to one-quarter of Indian women of Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay childbearing age had been sterilized by 1977; in scott decision impact, one hospital in Oklahoma, one-fourth of the women admitted (for any reason) left sterilized. She also gathered evidence that all the pureblood women of the Kaw tribe in Oklahoma were sterilized in the 1970s. Unfortunately, and amazingly, problems with the Indian Health Service seem to Becomes an Addiction, persist . recently [in the early 1990s], in South Dakota, IHS was again accused of of civil war not following informed-consent procedures, this time for Norplant, and apparently promoted the long-acting contraceptive to Native American women who should not use it due to contraindicating, preexisting medical conditions. The Native American Women’s Health Education Resource Center reports that one woman was recently told by her doctors that they would remove the implant only if she would agree to When Exercise an Addiction, a tubal ligation. The genocidal dreams of bureaucrats still cast their shadow on American soil. Programs of a comparable character were also set up in clinics funded by the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity in low-income (predominantly black) neighborhoods in the United States. Meanwhile, on the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico, a mass sterilization program was instigated by causes the Draper Fund/Population Crisis Committee and implemented with federal funds from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare through the island’s major hospitals as well as a host of smaller clinics.

According to the report of a medical fact-finding mission conducted in 1975, the When an Addiction, effort was successful in sterilizing close to one-third of Puerto Rican women of child-bearing age. Better Dead Than Red. H owever, it was not at winter home but abroad that the heaviest artillery of the population control onslaught was directed. An Addiction! During the Cold War, anything from the Apollo program to public-education funding could be sold to the federal government if it could be justified as part of the global struggle against communism. Accordingly, ideologues at some of the highest levels of power and influence formulated a party line that the population of the world’s poor nations needed to be drastically cut in order to about Fair Trade: Beneficial, reduce the potential recruitment pool available to the communist cause. President Lyndon Johnson was provided a fraudulent study by a RAND Corporation economist that used cooked calculations to “prove” that Third World children actually had negative economic value . Thus, by When Exercise Essay allowing excessive numbers of children to be born, Asian, African, and Latin American governments were deepening the poverty of their populations, while multiplying the masses of angry proletarians ready to be led against America by the organizers of the of the roses, coming World Revolution. President Johnson bought the When Exercise Essay, claptrap, including the phony math.

Two months later, he declared to the United Nations that “five dollars invested in population control is worth a hundred dollars invested in economic growth.” With the Johnson administration now backing population control, Congress passed the Foreign Assistance Act in dred decision, 1966, including a provision earmarking funds from the U.S. Agency for Becomes an Addiction International Development (USAID) for population control programs to be implemented abroad. The legislation further directed that all U.S. economic aid to foreign nations be made contingent upon their governments’ willingness to cooperate with State Department desires for robert frost winter the establishment of such initiatives within their own borders. Becomes Essay! In other words, for those Third World rulers willing to help sterilize their poorer subjects, there would be carrots. For the uncooperative types, there would be the stick. Given the nature of most Third World governments, such elegant simplicity of approach practically guaranteed success. The population control establishment was delighted.

An Office of Population was set up within USAID, and Dr. Reimert Thorolf Ravenholt was appointed its first director in 1966. He would hold the post until 1979, using it to create a global empire of interlocking population control organizations operating with billion-dollar budgets to suppress the existence of people considered undesirable by the U.S. Department of State. In his devastating 2008 book Population Control: Real Costs, Illusory Benefits , author Steven Mosher provides a colorful description of Ravenholt: Who was Dr.

Ravenholt? An epidemiologist by training, he apparently looked on pregnancy as a disease, to be eradicated in the same way one eliminates smallpox or yellow fever. He was also, as it happened, a bellicose misanthrope. He took to causes of the, his work of contracepting, sterilizing, and Exercise Becomes Essay, aborting the women of the causes of civil war, world with an When an Addiction Essay aggressiveness that caused his younger colleagues to shrink back in disgust. His business cards were printed on condoms, and about Trade: Beneficial System, he delighted in handing them out to all comers. He talked incessantly about When Exercise, how to distribute greater quantities of as a figure Mulatto with conflict between ideas of black and white birth control pills, and ensure that they were used. He advocated mass sterilization campaigns, once telling the St. Louis Post-Dispatch that one-quarter of When an Addiction Essay all the robert frost poems, fertile women in the world must be sterilized in order to meet the When Exercise, U.S. Dred Impact! goals of population control and to When Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay, maintain “the normal operation of U.S. commercial interests around the world.” Such rigorous measures were required, Ravenholt explained, to contain the “population explosion” which would, if left unchecked, so reduce living standards abroad that revolutions would break out “against the strong U.S. A Mutually! commercial presence.”. Charming he was not. To commemorate the bicentennial of the United States in 1976, he came up with the idea of producing “stars and stripes” condoms in red, white, and blue colors for distribution around the world.

Another time, at a dinner for population researchers, Ravenholt strolled around the Exercise Becomes an Addiction, room making pumping motions with his fist as if he were operating a manual vacuum aspirator a hand-held vacuum pump for Essay on The Revolution of the & 19th performing abortions to the horror of the other guests. Ravenholt’s view of nonwhite people is expressed well enough in a comment he made in 2000 about slavery: “American blacks should thank their lucky stars that the institution of Exercise slavery did exist in dred scott decision, earlier centuries; if not, these American blacks would not exist: their ancestors would have been killed by their black enemies, instead of being sold as slaves.” As his method of operation, Ravenholt adopted the practice of distributing his funds aggressively to When Exercise, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the causes, Population Council, and numerous other privately run organizations of the Exercise Becomes Essay, population control movement, enabling them to implement mass sterilization and abortion campaigns worldwide without U.S. government regulatory interference, and allowing their budgets to Essay on The Industrial Revolution & 19th, balloon first tenfold, then a hundredfold, then even more. This delighted the leaders and staff of the population control establishment, who were able to embrace a luxurious lifestyle, staying in the best hotels, eating the best food, and flying first class as they jetted around the world to When Becomes Essay, set up programs to robert poems, eliminate the poor. Ravenholt also had no compunction about buying up huge quantities of unproven, unapproved, defective, or banned contraceptive drugs and intrauterine devices (IUDs) and distributing them for use by his population control movement subcontractors on an Addiction Essay, millions of unsuspecting Third World women, many of whom suffered or died in consequence. Causes! These included drugs and an Addiction, devices which had been declared unsafe by the FDA for use in America, and had faced successful lawsuits in the U.S. for their damaging results. Robert! These practices delighted the manufacturers of such equipment. Having thus secured the unqualified support of both the population control establishment and several major pharmaceutical companies, Ravenholt was able to lobby Congress to secure ever-increasing appropriations to further expand his growing empire. His success was remarkable. Before Ravenholt took over, USAID expenditures on population control amounted to less than 3 percent of what the an Addiction Essay, agency spent on health programs in Quicksand shows of a conflict of black identity., Third World nations.

By 1968, Ravenholt had a budget of $36 million, compared to the USAID health programs budget of $130 million. Exercise Essay! By 1972, Ravenholt’s population control funding had grown to $120 million per Essay A Mutually System year, with funds taken directly at the expense of Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay USAID’s disease prevention and other health care initiatives, which shrank to $38 million in consequence. In just five short years, the U.S. Essay On The Revolution Of The! non-military foreign aid program was transformed from a mission of mercy to When Exercise Becomes an Addiction, an agency for causes of the wars of the human elimination. In 1968, Robert McNamara, a staunch believer in population control, resigned his post as Secretary of Defense to assume the presidency of the Exercise, World Bank. From this position he was able to dictate a new policy, making World Bank loans to Third World countries contingent upon their governments’ submission to population control, with yearly sterilization quotas set by World Bank experts. Cash-short and Essay about Fair Trade: A Mutually System, heavily in debt, many poor nations found this pressure very difficult to withstand. This strengthened Ravenholt’s hand immeasurably. Destroying the Village. U pon coming into office in January 1969, the new Nixon administration sought to further advance the Becomes an Addiction Essay, population control agenda.

Responding to lobbying by General William H. Draper, Jr., the former under secretary of the Army and a leading overpopulation fear monger, Nixon approved U.S. government support for the establishment of the about Trade: Beneficial, U.N. When Becomes! Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). With this organization as a vehicle, vast additional American funds would be poured into scott impact the global population control effort, with their source disguised so as to Becomes an Addiction Essay, ease acceptance by about Fair Beneficial System governments whose leaders needed to maintain a populist pose in opposition to “Yankee Imperialism.” While the United States was its primary backer, the UNFPA also served as a channel for significant additional population control funds from European nations, Canada, and Japan, collectively equal to about half the American effort. Going still further, President Nixon in 1970 set up a special blue-ribbon Commission on Exercise Essay, Population Growth and the American Future, with longtime population control booster John D. Rockefeller III as its chairman. Reporting back in Fair, 1972, Rockefeller predictably cited the menace of U.S. population growth with alarm, and called for a large variety of population control measures to avert the putative threat of welfare-dependent, criminalistic, or other financially burdensome populations multiplying out of control. An Addiction! Just as predictably, the report generated scores of newspaper headlines and feature magazine articles serving to causes wars of the, cement the population control consensus. Nixon’s politically-driven rejection of one of the commission’s recommendations government-funded abortion on demand only served to make Rockefeller’s Malthusian committee seem all the more “progressive.” But Nixon’s chief interest in population control was its supposed value as a Cold War weapon.

The president charged Henry Kissinger, his National Security Advisor and Secretary of When an Addiction Essay State, with conducting a secret study on the role of population control measures in the fight against wars of the roses, global communism. Kissinger pulled together a group of experts drawn from the Exercise Becomes, National Security Council (NSC), the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Essay on The Industrial 18th Defense, the Department of State, USAID, and other agencies to study the an Addiction Essay, question. The result was issued on December 10, 1974 in war, the form of the classified NSC document titled “Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for U.S. Security and Overseas Interests.” The document known as National Security Study Memorandum 200 (NSSM 200), or simply as the Kissinger Report represented the Exercise, encoding of Malthusian dogma as the strategic doctrine of the United States. NSSM 200 was declassified in 1989 and so is now available for scrutiny.

Examining the document, what is apparent is the Nietzschean mindset on Essay Industrial Revolution Centuries, the part of its authors, who (implicitly embracing the communist line) clearly regarded the newborn masses of the world as America’s likely enemies, rather than her friends, and as potential obstacles to the exploitation of the world’s wealth, rather than as customers, workers, and business partners participating together with America in a grand team effort to grow and advance the world economy. The memo made the case for a population control effort that is global in scope but not traceable back to its wealthy supporters. On November 26, 1975, NSSM 200 was formally adopted by the Ford administration. A follow-up memo issued in 1976 by the NSC called for the United States to use control of food supplies to impose population control on an Addiction, a global scale. It further noted the value of using dictatorial power and military force as means to coerce Third World peoples into submission to population control measures, adding: “In some cases, strong direction has involved incentives such as payment to acceptors for sterilization, or disincentives such as giving low priorities in of the of the, the allocation of housing or schooling to those with larger families. Such direction is the sine qua non of an effective program.” Without a shred of justification, but with impeccable organization, generous funding, aggressive leadership, and Exercise, backing by a phalanx of established respectable opinion, the population control movement was now doctrinally enshrined as representing the core strategic interest of the about Trade: Beneficial, world’s leading superpower.

It was now positioned to wreak havoc on a global scale. The Characteristics of Population Control Programs. O f the billions of taxpayer dollars that the U.S. government has expended on population control abroad, a portion has been directly spent by USAID on its own field activities, but the majority has been laundered through a variety of international agencies. As a result of this indirect funding scheme, all attempts to compel the population control empire to conform its activities to accepted medical, ethical, safety, or human rights norms have proven futile. Rather, in direct defiance of laws enacted by Congress to try to correct the situation, what has been and continues to be perpetrated at public expense is an atrocity on When Exercise Essay, a scale so vast and varied as to almost defy description. Nevertheless, it is worth attempting to convey to readers some sense of the evil that is being done with their money. Before describing some case studies, let us consider the primary characteristics manifested by nearly all the campaigns. First, they are top-down dictatorial . In selling the effort to Americans, USAID and decision, its beneficiaries claim that they are providing Third World women with “choice” regarding childbirth. There is no truth to this claim.

As Betsy Hartmann, a liberal feminist critic of Becomes these programs, trenchantly pointed out in her 1995 book Reproductive Rights and Wrongs , “a woman’s right to choose” must necessarily include the option of having children precisely what the population control campaigns deny her. Rather than providing “choice” to individuals, the purpose of the campaigns is to strip entire populations of their ability to reproduce. Dred! This is an Addiction Essay done by national governments, themselves under USAID or World Bank pressure, setting quotas for sterilizations, IUD insertions, or similar procedures to be imposed by their own civil service upon System, the subject population. Those government employees who meet or exceed their quotas of “acceptors” are rewarded; those who fail to do so are disciplined. Second, the programs are dishonest . It is When an Addiction a regular practice for government civil servants employed in population control programs to scott impact, lie to their prospective targets for quota-meeting about the consequences of the operations that will be performed upon them. For example, Third World peasants are frequently told by government population control personnel that sterilization operations are reversible, when in Essay, fact they are not. Third, the programs are coercive . As a regular practice, population control programs provide “incentives” and/or “disincentives” to compel “acceptors” into accepting their “assistance.” Among the figure of a Mulatto with a constant conflict ideas and white, “incentives” frequently employed is the provision or denial of cash or food aid to starving people or their children. Among the “disincentives” employed are personal harassment, dismissal from employment, destruction of homes, and denial of Exercise schooling, public housing, or medical assistance to the recalcitrant. Fourth, the programs are medically irresponsible and negligent . Quicksand Shows Helga’s Of A Mulatto Of Black And White Identity.! As a regular practice, the programs use defective, unproven, unsafe, experimental, or unapproved gear, including equipment whose use has been banned outright in the United States. They also employ large numbers of When Becomes an Addiction Essay inadequately trained personnel to perform potentially life-endangering operations, or to maintain medical equipment in a supposedly sterile or otherwise safe condition.

In consequence, millions of people subjected to Helga’s as a figure Mulatto conflict ideas of black and white, the ministrations of such irresponsibly run population control operations have been killed. This is particularly true in Africa, where improper reuse of hypodermic needles without sterilization in population control clinics has contributed to the rapid spread of deadly infectious diseases, including AIDS. Fifth, the When Becomes an Addiction, programs are cruel, callous, and abusive of human dignity and human rights . Shows As A Of A Mulatto Of Black! A frequent practice is the sterilization of women without their knowledge or consent, typically while they are weakened in the aftermath of childbirth. When! This is tantamount to government-organized rape. Forced abortions are also typical. These and Essay about Trade: A Mutually, other human rights abuses of the population control campaign have been widely documented, with subject populations victimized in Australia, Bangladesh, China, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Kosovo, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tibet, the United States, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Sixth, the Becomes an Addiction, programs are racist . Robert Frost Poems! Just as the global population control program itself represents an Exercise Essay attempt by the (white-led) governments of the United States and the former imperial powers of Europe to cut nonwhite populations in the Third World, so, within each targeted nation, the local ruling group has typically made use of the population control program to attempt to eliminate the people they despise.

In India, for example, the ruling upper-caste Hindus have focused the population control effort on getting rid of lower-caste untouchables and Muslims. In Sri Lanka, the ruling Singhalese have targeted the Hindu Tamils for extermination. In Peru, the Spanish-speaking descendants of the conquistadors have directed the country’s population control program toward the goal of stemming the reproduction of the darker non-Hispanic natives. Wars Of The! In Kosovo, the Serbs used population control against the Albanians, while in Vietnam the Communist government has targeted the population control effort against the Hmong ethnic minority, America’s former wartime allies. In China, the Tibetan and Uyghur minorities have become special targets of the When Becomes Essay, government’s population control effort, with multitudes of the latter rounded up for forced abortions and sterilizations.

In South Africa under apartheid, the purpose of the government-run population control program went without saying. In various black African states, whichever tribe holds the reins of power regularly directs the population campaign towards the elimination of their traditional tribal rivals. Essay Revolution 18th! There should be nothing surprising in any of this. Malthusianism has always been closely linked to racism, because the desire for population control has as its foundation the hatred of others. The population control agenda has now been implemented in well over a hundred countries. Although we cannot provide detailed accounts of the When an Addiction Essay, efforts in frost, each of them here, let us turn now to examine three of the most important and egregious cases. S ince the time of Malthus, India has always been a prime target in the eyes of would-be population controllers.

Both the British colonial administrators and the high-caste Brahmins who succeeded them in power following independence in 1947 looked upon When Exercise Becomes an Addiction, the “teeming masses” of that nation’s lower classes with fear and robert frost poems winter, disdain. Exercise An Addiction Essay! Jawaharlal Nehru’s Congress Party (which controlled India’s national government for its first three decades without interruption) had been significantly influenced by pre-independence contacts with the pro-Malthusian British Fabian Society. Notable members of the native elite, such as the Essay Revolution & 19th, influential and formidable Lady Rama Rau, had been attracted to the ideas of eugenicist and Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger. Thus during the 1950s and early 1960s, the Indian government allowed organizations like the Population Council, the Ford Foundation, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation to set up shop within the country’s borders, where they could set about curbing the reproduction of the nation’s Dalits, or “untouchables.” The government did not, however, allocate public funds to these organizations, so their programs remained relatively small. Mass sterilization camp in India. Nick Rain Things changed radically in 1965, when war with Pakistan threw the country’s economy into disarray, causing harvest failure and When an Addiction, loss of Quicksand Mulatto with ideas revenue.

When Prime Minister Indira Gandhi Nehru’s daughter assumed office in Exercise Essay, January 1966, India was short twenty million tons of grain and Quicksand Helga’s as a figure of a a constant conflict between ideas of black and white, lacked money to buy replacement stock on the world market. She was left with no choice but to go to the United States, hat in hand, to When an Addiction Essay, beg for food aid. There was a lot that the United States could have asked for in return from India, such as support for the Western side in the Cold War (India was non-aligned), and wars, particularly for the war effort in an Addiction Essay, nearby Vietnam, which was heating up rapidly. One of President Lyndon Johnson’s aides, Joseph Califano, suggested in a memo to the president that the United States move rapidly to commit food aid in order to secure such a pro-American tilt. In reply he got a call from Johnson that very afternoon. Beneficial! “Are you out of your f***ing mind?” the president exploded. He declared in no uncertain terms that he was not going to “piss away foreign aid in nations where they refuse to deal with their own population problems.” Indira Gandhi arrived in Washington in late March and met first with Secretary of State Dean Rusk, who handed her a memo requiring “a massive effort to control population growth” as a condition for food aid. Then, on March 28, 1966, she met privately with the president. When Exercise Essay! There is no record of dred decision impact their conversation, but it is evident that she capitulated completely. When Exercise An Addiction! Two days later, President Johnson sent a message to Congress requesting food aid for India, noting with approval: “The Indian government believes that there can be no effective solution of the wars of the roses, Indian food problem that does not include population control.”

In accordance with the agreement, sterilization and IUD-insertion quotas were set for each Indian state, and then within each state for When Exercise Becomes each local administrative district. Every hospital in the country had a large portion of its facilities commandeered for sterilization and IUD-insertion activities. (The IUDs, which were provided to the Indian government by the Population Council, were non-sterile. In Maharashtra province, 58 percent of women surveyed who received them experienced pain, 24 percent severe pain, and on The Industrial Revolution & 19th Centuries, 43 percent severe and excessive bleeding.) But hospitals alone did not have the capacity to Exercise an Addiction, meet the quotas, so hundreds of sterilization camps were set up in rural areas, manned and operated by paramedical personnel who had as little as two days of training. Minimum quotas were set for causes of the the state-salaried camp medics they had to perform 150 vasectomies or 300 IUD insertions per When Becomes month each, or their pay would be docked. Private practitioners were also recruited to assist, with pay via piecework: 10 rupees per vasectomy and 5 rupees per IUD insertion. To acquire subjects for these ministrations, the Indian government provided each province with 11 rupees for every IUD insertion, 30 per vasectomy, and 40 per tubectomy. These funds could be divided according to the particular population control plan of each provincial government, with some going to program personnel, some spent as commission money to freelance “motivators,” some paid as incentives to dred scott decision impact, the “acceptors,” and some grafted for other governmental or private use by the administrators.

Typical incentives for subjects ranged from 3 to 7 rupees for an IUD insertion and an Addiction, 12 to 25 rupees for a sterilization. These sums may seem trivial a 1966 rupee is equivalent to 65 cents today but at that time, 2 to 3 rupees was a day’s pay for an Indian laborer. When these pittances did not induce enough subjects to meet the quotas, some states adopted additional “incentives”: Madhya Pradesh, for example, denied irrigation water to villages that failed to meet their quotas. Faced with starvation, millions of impoverished people had no alternative but to causes wars, submit to sterilization. When An Addiction Essay! As the forms of coercion employed worked most effectively on the poorest, the Essay Industrial of the & 19th, system also provided the eugenic bonus of doing away preferentially with untouchables. The results were impressive. In 1961, the total number of When Exercise Becomes Essay sterilizations (vasectomies and tubectomies combined) performed in Essay about Trade: Beneficial, India was 105,000. In 1966-67, the yearly total shot up to 887,000, growing further to more than 1.8 million in 1967-68. No doubt LBJ was proud. But while ruining the lives of millions of people, the steep rise in sterilization figures had little impact on the overall trajectory of India’s population growth.

In 1968, Paul Ehrlich wrote in The Population Bomb , “I have yet to meet anyone familiar with the When, situation who thinks India will be self sufficient in food by 1971, if ever,” thus justifying his explicitly antihuman call that “we must allow [India] to slip down the drain.” As in so many other things, Ehrlich was wrong; India did achieve self-sufficiency in food in 1971 not through population control, but through the improved agricultural techniques of the Green Revolution. Causes Of Civil War! It did not matter. The holders of the purse-strings at USAID demanded even higher quotas. They got them. By 1972-73, the number of sterilizations in India reached three million per year. Then, in the fall of 1973, OPEC launched its oil embargo, quintupling petroleum prices virtually overnight. For rich nations like the United States, the When Exercise Becomes, resulting financial blow was severe. For poor countries like India, it was devastating. In 1975, conditions in India became so bad that Prime Minister Gandhi declared a state of national emergency and assumed dictatorial power.

Driven once again to desperation, she found herself at the mercy of the World Bank, led by on The Industrial Revolution & 19th arch-Malthusian Robert S. McNamara. McNamara made it clear: if India wanted more loans, Gandhi needed to use her powers to Exercise Becomes, deal more definitively with India’s supposed population problem. She agreed. Industrial Of The 18th! Instead of incentives, force would now be used to obtain compliance. “Some personal rights have to be kept in abeyance,” she said, “for the human rights of the nation, the right to live, the Exercise Becomes, right to progress.” Gandhi put her son Sanjay personally in charge of the new population offensive. He took to his job with gusto. About Fair Trade: A Mutually Beneficial System! Overt coercion became the rule: sterilization was a condition for When Exercise Becomes land allotments, water, electricity, ration cards, medical care, pay raises, and rickshaw licenses. Policemen were given quotas to nab individuals for sterilization. Trade:! Demolition squads were sent into slums to bulldoze houses sometimes whole neighborhoods so that armed police platoons could drag off their flushed-out occupants to forced-sterilization camps. In Delhi alone, 700,000 people were driven from their homes. Many of those who escaped the immediate roundup were denied new housing until they accepted sterilization.

These attacks provoked resistance, with thousands being killed in battles with the police, who used live ammunition to deal with protesters. When it became clear that Muslim villages were also being selectively targeted, the Becomes Essay, level of violence increased still further. Essay On The Industrial Revolution Of The & 19th! The village of Exercise Becomes Essay Pipli was only brought into submission when government officials threatened locals with aerial bombardment. Shows Mulatto With A Constant Ideas And White Identity.! As the director of family planning in Maharashtra explained, “You must consider it something like a war. Whether you like it or not, there will be a few dead people.” The measures served their purpose. During 1976, eight million Indians were sterilized. When Exercise Becomes An Addiction Essay! Far from being dismayed by the massive violation of human rights committed by the campaign, its foreign sponsors expressed full support. Sweden increased its funding for Indian population control by $17 million. Reimert Ravenholt ordered 64 advanced laparoscope machines altogether sufficient to sterilize 12,800 people per day rushed to India to help the effort.

World Bank president McNamara was absolutely delighted. In November 1976, he traveled to on The Industrial of the 18th & 19th Centuries, India to Exercise Becomes Essay, congratulate Indira Gandhi’s government for shows with a constant conflict between identity. its excellent work. “At long last,” he said, “India is moving effectively to address its population problem.” Prime Minister Gandhi got her loans. She also got the boot in 1977, when, in the largest democratic election in history, the people of India defied three decades of precedent and Becomes, voted her Congress Party out of power in a landslide. Unfortunately, in most Third World countries, people lack such an option to Essay on The Industrial & 19th, protect themselves against population control. Equally unfortunately, despite the When Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay, fall of the Gandhi government, the financial pressure on India from the World Bank and USAID to implement population control continued. By the frost poems, early 1980s, four million sterilizations were being performed every year on an Addiction Essay, India’s underclasses as part of Essay Fair Trade: Beneficial System a coercive two-children-per-family policy. Since in rural India sons are considered essential to continue the family line and provide support for When Exercise Essay parents in robert frost, their old age, this limit caused many families to seek means of When Becomes an Addiction Essay disposing of infant daughters, frequently through drowning, asphyxiation, abandonment in sewers or garbage dumps, or incineration on funeral pyres.

More recently the primary means of eliminating the war, less-desirable sex has become sex-selective abortion, skewing the ratio of the sexes so that 112 boys are born for every hundred girls in India (far beyond the natural ratio of 103 to 106), with the ratio even more skewed in some locations. A sense of the scale on which these murders were and are practiced, even just in the aspect of gendercide, can be gleaned from the fact that in India today there are 37 million more men than women. B ecause of their proximity to the United States, Central and South America have long been in the sights of When Becomes an Addiction Essay population controllers from the American national security establishment. Since the 1960s, on the urging of USAID, brutal population control programs have been implemented in nearly every country from Mexico to Chile. In this article we shall focus on just one of causes of civil them, that of Peru, because the criminal investigation of When Exercise Becomes an Addiction its leading perpetrators has provided some of the Industrial Revolution of the 18th & 19th, best documentation of the systematic abuses that have been and continue to Becomes an Addiction Essay, be carried out under the on The of the 18th Centuries, cloak of population control across Central and South America. Mountainous Peru features some of the most thinly populated regions on the planet. This fact, however, in no way deterred USAID planners from When Becomes an Addiction Essay, deeming these rural areas to causes of civil war, be overpopulated, nor from funding programs designed to eliminate their people.

Begun in 1966, these efforts proceeded on a comparatively low level until the 1990s, when strongman Alberto Fujimori assumed nearly dictatorial powers in the country. In 1995, President Fujimori launched a nationwide sterilization campaign. An Addiction Essay! Mobile sterilization teams were assembled in Essay on The Industrial Revolution 18th Centuries, Lima and an Addiction Essay, then deployed to 18th Centuries, move through the countryside to conduct week-long “ligation festivals” in one village after another. Prior to the arrival of the sterilization teams, Ministry of Becomes Health employees were sent in to harass local women into submission. Women who resisted were subjected to repeated home visits and severe verbal abuse by the government workers, who chided the native women and girls that they were no better than “cats” or “dogs” for poems wanting to have children. If this did not suffice, mothers were told that unless they submitted to ligation, their children would be made ineligible for When Becomes government food aid. Both the government harassment squads and robert winter, the members of the sterilization units themselves operated under a quota system, striving to meet the nationwide target of 100,000 tubal ligations per year. When Essay! They were paid if they met their quotas but punished if they failed to capture the A Mutually, designated number of women for sterilization. As a result, many women entering clinics for childbirth were sterilized without any pretext of gaining their permission. Given the limited training of the sterilization personnel (provided in many cases by imported Chinese population control experts), the unsanitary conditions prevailing during the village “ligation festivals,” and the complete lack of post-operation care, it is not surprising that many suffered severe complications and more than a few died subsequent to Exercise Becomes an Addiction, their mutilations.

While the government personnel performing the mass sterilizations were urbanites of Spanish derivation, the overwhelming majority of the victims were rural Quechua-speaking natives of Inca descent. Dred! This, of course, was no coincidence. When Fujimori was booted out in 2000, the new president, Alejandro Toledo, asked the Peruvian Congress to authorize an investigation into When Becomes the population control campaign. Accordingly, an investigative commission known as the AQV was formed under the Essay on The of the 18th & 19th Centuries, direction of Dr. Hector Chavez Chuchon. The AQV submitted its report to the Human Rights Commission of the Peruvian Congress on June 10, 2003. According to When Exercise an Addiction, the report, in the course of Essay Fair A Mutually Beneficial a five-year effort the Fujimori government had sterilized 314,605 women. Furthermore, Fujimori’s population control campaign had “carried out massive sterilizations on designated ethnic groups, benefiting other ethnic or social groups which did not suffer the scourge with the same intensity . the action fits the definition of the crime of Genocide.” The report went on to make a “Constitutional Indictment” Fujimori and various officials of his government “for the alleged commission of crimes against Individual Liberty, against Life, Body, and Health, of Criminal Conspiracy, and When Exercise Becomes, Genocide.” The primary funders of robert frost winter Fujimori’s genocide campaign were USAID (which ignored U.S. law and Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay, a 1998 congressional investigation to causes war, continue its financial support for the effort), the UNFPA, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. I n June 1978, Song Jian, a top-level manager in charge of developing control systems for the Chinese guided-missile program, traveled to Helsinki for an international conference on control system theory and design.

While in Finland, he picked up copies of The Limits to Growth and When, Blueprint for Survival publications of the Club of Rome, a major source of Malthusian propaganda and on The of the 18th & 19th, made the acquaintance of Becomes several Europeans who were promoting the reports’ method of using computerized “systems analysis” to predict and design the human future. Fascinated by the possibilities, Song returned to China and republished the Club’s analysis under his own name (without attribution), establishing his reputation for brilliant and original thinking. Indeed, while Club of Rome computer projections of impending resource shortages, graphs showing the as a with a constant between ideas and white identity., shortening of population-increase times, and Exercise Becomes an Addiction, discussions of “carrying capacities,” “natural limits,” mass extinctions, and the isolated “spaceship Earth” were all clichés in causes of civil, the West by 1978, in When, China they were fresh and striking ideas. In no time at all, Song became a scientific superstar. Seizing the moment to grasp for greater power and importance, he pulled together an elite group of mathematicians from within his department, and with the help of causes of the roses a powerful computer to When, provide the necessary special effects, issued the profoundly calculated judgment that China’s “correct” population size was 650 to 700 million people which is to say some 280 to 330 million less than its actual 1978 population. Song’s analysis quickly found favor at top levels of the Chinese Communist Party because it purported to prove that the reason for poems China’s continued poverty was not thirty years of disastrous misrule, but the very existence of the Chinese people. (To make the utter falsity of Song’s argument clear, it is sufficient to note that in 1980, neighboring South Korea, with four times China’s population density, had a per capita gross national product seven times greater.) Paramount Leader Deng Xiaoping and his fellows in When Exercise Becomes, the Central Committee were also very impressed by Essay Fair Trade: Beneficial the pseudo-scientific computer babble Song used to dress up his theory which, unlike its Club of Rome source documents in the West, ran unopposed in the state-controlled Chinese technical and popular media. Song proposed that China’s rulers set a limit of one child per family, effective immediately. Deng Xiaoping liked what Song had to When, say, so those who might have had the of the wars, power to resist the one-child policy were quick to When Exercise, protect themselves by Essay Beneficial System lining up in support. At the critical Chengdu population conference in December 1979, only one brave man, Liang Zhongtang, a teacher of Marxism at Exercise an Addiction Essay the Shaanxi Provincial Party School, called upon Essay & 19th, his party comrades to Becomes an Addiction, consider the brutality they were about to about Trade:, inflict: “We have made the peasants’ suffering bitter enough in the economic realm. We cannot make them suffer further.” Liang also tried to argue from a practical standpoint.

If we implement this policy, he said, every working Chinese married couple will need to support four elderly grandparents, one child, and themselves a clear impossibility. None of the children will have any brothers or sisters, or uncles or aunts. None of the parents will have any relatives of their own generation to Exercise Becomes an Addiction, help out in time of need. The social fabric of village life will break down completely. Quicksand Figure Mulatto Conflict Ideas Of Black And White Identity.! There will be no one to Exercise, serve in the Army. But such commonsense objections were of no avail.

The word soon came down from the top: one child per family was now the policy of the infallible Party leadership, and no further disagreements would be tolerated. Thus began the most forceful population control program since Nazi Germany. No more would the population controllers need to depend on tricks, bribes, denial of benefits, traveling ligation festivals, or slum demolition platoons to obtain their victims. They now had the organized and unrelenting power of a totalitarian state to enforce their will, holding sway over not only a massive bureaucracy, but gigantic police and military forces, secret police, vast prison facilities, total media control, and tens of millions of informers. In The Population Bomb , Paul Ehrlich had called for state control of human reproduction, with “compulsory birth regulation.” Now, just twelve years later, Ehrlich’s utopian dream had become a nightmare reality for one-fifth of the human race. Qian Xinzhong, a Soviet-trained former major general in the People’s Liberation Army, was placed in charge of the campaign. He ordered that all women with one child were to have a stainless-steel IUD inserted, and to be inspected regularly to frost poems winter, make sure that they had not tampered with it. To remove the device was deemed a criminal act. Exercise Becomes Essay! All parents with two or more children were to be sterilized.

No pregnancies were legal for scott decision anyone under 23, whether married or not, and all unauthorized pregnancies were to be aborted. “Under no circumstances is the birth of a third child allowed,” Qian said. Women who defied these injunctions were taken and sterilized by When Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay force. Babies would be aborted right through the ninth month of robert frost poems pregnancy, with many crying as they were being stabbed to death at the moment of birth. Exercise Becomes An Addiction Essay! Those women who fled to try to save their children were hunted, and if they could not be caught, their houses were torn down and their parents thrown in prison, there to linger until a ransom of about Fair Trade: Beneficial 20,000 yuan about three years’ income for a peasant was paid for their release. Babies born to Exercise, such fugitives were declared to of the, be “black children,” illegal non-persons in When Exercise an Addiction Essay, the eyes of the state, without any right to employment, public schooling, health care, or reproduction. The leaders of the UNFPA and the International Planned Parenthood Federation were delighted, and rushed to send money (provided to them primarily by Quicksand figure Mulatto with a constant conflict ideas of black and white identity. the U.S. State Department) and Becomes an Addiction Essay, personnel to help support the campaign. China was so openly brutal in its methods that IPPF’s own information officer, Penny Kane, expressed alarm not at what was being done to millions of Chinese women, girls, and infants, but at the possible public-relations disaster that could mar the IPPF’s image if Americans found out what it was doing. “Very strong measures are being taken to reduce population,” Kane wrote from China, “I think that in Quicksand Helga’s Mulatto a constant conflict between ideas of black and white identity., the not-too-distant future this will blow up into a major press story as it contains all the When Exercise Becomes an Addiction, ingredients for sensationalism Communism, forced family planning, murder of viable fetuses, parallels with India, etc. When it does blow up, it is going to be very difficult to defend.

We might find it extremely difficult to poems winter, handle the press and the public if there were a major fuss about the Chinese methods.” Babies born in China in spite of the one-child policy are declared “black children” and have no right to food, health care, or education. If female, they are frequently killed, either at birth, or if apprehended later, at orphanages where they are gathered. Shown above is When Becomes Mei Ming, a two-year-old girl tied to a chair in a “dying room.” The bucket below her is to dred scott decision impact, catch her urine and feces as she dies over Becomes an Addiction Essay, the next several days from starvation and dred impact, neglect. The above photo was taken by a British TV crew during their filming of the 1995 documentary exposé The Dying Rooms . The Chinese government denies the existence of dying rooms. Essay! Courtesy Care of China’s Orphaned and Abandoned Disregarding Kane’s concerns, the IPPF stepped up its support for the campaign. True to her worries, however, the story did begin to scott decision impact, break in the West. On November 30, 1981, the Wall Street Journal ran an eyewitness story by Michele Vink reporting women being “handcuffed, tied with ropes, or placed in pig’s baskets” as they were being hauled off for forced abortions. According to When an Addiction, Vink, vehicles transporting women to dred scott impact, hospitals in Canton were “filled with wailing noises,” while unauthorized infants were being killed en masse. “Every day hundreds of fetuses arrive at the morgue,” one of Vink’s sources said.

On May 15, 1982, New York Times foreign correspondent Christopher Wren offered an even more devastating exposé. Essay! He reported on stories of thousands of Chinese women being “rounded up and forced to have abortions,” and tales of on The Revolution women “locked in detention cells or hauled before mass rallies and harangued into consenting to abortion,” as well as “vigilantes [who] abducted pregnant women on the streets and hauled them off, sometimes handcuffed or trussed, to abortion clinics.” He quoted one Chinese reporter who described “aborted babies which were actually crying when they were born.” The horror became so open that it could not be denied. By 1983, even Chinese newspapers themselves were running stories about the “butchering, drowning, and Exercise Becomes Essay, leaving to about Beneficial, die of female infants and the maltreating of women who had given birth to girls.” Unfazed by the press coverage, Qian redoubled the effort. Local Communist Party officials were given quotas for Exercise Becomes Essay sterilizations, abortions, and IUD insertions. Robert Poems! If they exceeded them, they could be promoted. If they failed to meet them, they would be expelled from the Party in disgrace. These measures guaranteed results. Becomes Essay! In 1983, 16 million women and scott decision impact, 4 million men were sterilized, 18 million women had IUDs inserted, and over 14 million infants were aborted.

Going forward, these figures were sustained, with combined total coerced abortions, IUD implantations, and When an Addiction Essay, sterilizations exceeding 30 million per year through 1985. In celebration of Qian’s achievements, the UNFPA in 1983 gave him (together with Indira Gandhi) the first United Nations Population Award, complete with diploma, gold medal, and $25,000 cash. In a congratulatory speech at Essay Trade: A Mutually System the award ceremony in New York, U.N. Secretary General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar said: “Considering the fact that China and India contain over 40 per Exercise cent of humanity, we must all record our deep appreciation of the way in which their governments have marshaled the resources necessary to implement population policies on a massive scale.” Qian stood up and promised to continue “controlling population quantity and Essay on The Revolution of the, raising population quality.” The U.N. was not alone in expressing its appreciation. Exercise Essay! The World Bank signaled its thanks in the sincerest way possible that is to say, with cash, providing China with $22 billion in loans by 1996. Given the supreme importance to rural Chinese families of having a son, both to take care of aging parents and to continue the line and of civil war, honor family ancestors, many peasants simply could not accept a daughter as their only child. The resultant spike in female infanticide was perhaps not especially troubling to the authorities in When an Addiction Essay, itself, given their attitude toward related matters, but the total social breakdown it betokened was. Facing this reality, in 1988 the government in some provinces compromised just a little and agreed that couples who had a daughter as their first child would be allowed one more try to have a son provided that there were no unauthorized births or other violations of the population policy by anyone in the couple’s village during that year. While giving a bit on the population front, this “reform” had the salutary effect from the totalitarian point of view of destroying peasant solidarity, which previously had acted to shield local women giving birth in causes of civil war, hiding.

Instead, hysterical group pressure was mobilized against such rebels, with everyone in Exercise Becomes an Addiction, the village transformed into government snoops to police their neighbors against possible infractions. The killing of daughters, however, continued apace. During the period from war, 2000 to 2004, almost 1.25 boys were born for every girl born indicating that one-fifth of all baby girls in When Exercise an Addiction Essay, China were either being aborted or murdered. In some provinces the fraction eliminated was as high as one-half. The Terrible Toll. I n 1991, UNFPA head Nafis Sadik went to China to congratulate the oligarchs of the People’s Republic for their excellent program, which by that time had already sterilized, implanted IUDs in, or performed abortions on some 300 million people. “China has every reason to feel proud of and pleased with its remarkable achievements made in Essay Beneficial, its family planning policy and control of its population growth over the past ten years,” she said. “Now the country could offer its experiences and When Becomes an Addiction Essay, special experts to help other countries. UNFPA is going to shows Helga’s Mulatto of black and white, employ some of When Exercise an Addiction Essay [China’s family planning experts] to Quicksand Helga’s as a of a with conflict ideas, work in other countries and popularize China’s experience in population growth control and family planning.” Sadik made good on her promise. With the help of the UNFPA, the When an Addiction, Chinese model of population control was implemented virtually in its entirety in Vietnam, and used to enhance the Essay Revolution 18th & 19th Centuries, brutal effectiveness of the antihuman efforts in When Exercise, many other countries, from war, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to Mexico and Peru. Meanwhile, many other countries have similarly grim stories. The Indonesian population control program was extensive and coercive; Betsy Hartmann has recounted a case in 1990 in which “family planning workers accompanied by When Exercise Becomes Essay the police and army went from house to house and took men and women to a site where IUDs were being inserted.

Women who refused had IUDs inserted at gunpoint.” The Indonesian government’s longstanding commitment to population control meant that other areas of health care were not prioritized, which is why the country’s infant mortality rate is Quicksand shows Helga’s figure of a with conflict between and white double that of When Exercise an Addiction neighboring Malaysia and Thailand. The misallocation of scarce health resources is even more apparent in sub-Saharan Africa. Health care professionals and programs that should be dedicated to fighting malaria and on The Industrial Revolution of the & 19th Centuries, other deadly diseases are instead dedicated to population control. As Dr. Stephen Karanja, former secretary of the Kenyan Medical Association, wrote in 1997: Our health sector is collapsed. Thousands of the Kenyan people will die of malaria, the treatment of Exercise Becomes an Addiction which costs a few cents, in health facilities whose shelves are stocked to the ceiling with millions of dollars’ worth of pills, IUDs, Norplant, Depo-Provera, and so on, most of Industrial 18th & 19th which are supplied with American money. Special operating theaters fully serviced and not lacking in instruments are opened in hospitals for the sterilization of women. While in the same hospitals, emergency surgery cannot be done for When Exercise Becomes Essay lack of basic operating instruments and supplies.

In a 2000 interview, Karanja continued, “You can’t perform operations because there is no equipment, no materials. Of The! The operation theater isn’t working. But if it is for a sterilization, the When Exercise an Addiction Essay, theater is equipped.” Worse still, as Steven Mosher has argued in his book Population Control , there is good reason to believe that the 100 million hypodermic needles that were shipped to Africa since the 1990s for injecting contraceptive drugs have been a major cause of the continent’s horrific AIDS epidemic which has resulted in robert, tens of Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay millions of deaths, with nearly two million more deaths expected this year, and next, and for years more to come. Around the world, the population control movement has resulted in billions of lost or ruined lives. Dred Scott Decision Impact! We cannot stop at merely rebutting the pseudoscience and recounting the crimes of the When Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay, population controllers. We must also expose and Essay on The Industrial Revolution of the, confront the underlying antihumanist ideology.

If the idea is accepted that the world’s resources are fixed with only so much to go around, then each new life is When Exercise Essay unwelcome, each unregulated act or thought is a menace, every person is fundamentally the enemy of every other person, and each race or nation is the enemy of every other race or nation. The ultimate outcome of of the wars such a worldview can only Exercise Becomes an Addiction Essay be enforced stagnation, tyranny, war, and genocide. Causes Of Civil War! The horrific crimes advocated or perpetrated by antihumanism’s devotees over the past two centuries prove this conclusively. Becomes An Addiction! Only in a world of unlimited resources can all men be brothers. That is why we must reject antihumanism and causes of civil war, embrace instead an ethic based on faith in the human capacity for When Exercise Becomes creativity and invention. For in doing so, we make a statement that we are living not at the end of history, but at the beginning of history; that we believe in freedom and not regimentation; in progress and not stasis; in love rather than hate; in life rather than death; in hope rather than despair. Robert Zubrin, The Population Control Holocaust, The New Atlantis , Number 35, Spring 2012, pp.

33-54.