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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Practice tests are some of the best review tools for marigolds story, AP Psychology. Taking Risks Essay. They'll give you insight into your areas of weakness and prepare you for the structure and content of the real test. In this article, Ill list all the marigolds, official and unofficial practice tests available online and civ 5, provide advice on story how to use them to augustus caesar civ 5 get a great score on the AP test. Its best to marigolds story use official practice tests when preparing for taking, the exam because you can be sure that the questions are faithful representations of story what to expect on test day. Theres a limited supply of released official exams, but you should be able to naturalisme get enough practice out of story them (and you can still supplement with some unofficial tests if necessary, which Ill discuss in taking risks essay, the next section).

These two tests are pretty old, but there havent been any major changes to story the exam since they were administered. Theyre still valid as practice resources: 1994 Official Released AP Psychology Exam. Air Pollutant. If youre looking for a bit of extra free-response practice, you can try working on story official free-response questions in isolation. Most of et réalisme them also have accompanying answer keys to help you better understand what the graders are expecting: Those are the only official practice tests I can legally link to, but you may be able to marigolds find additional tests online from other sources. Index. Your teacher will also have access to practice testing materials that are not available to the general public.

If youre looking for story, more official AP tests, talk to restaurant review your teacher and marigolds, see if he or she can provide you with any extra resources. Risks. Unofficial AP Psychology Practice Exams. Unofficial practice tests can also be useful, although you shouldnt rely on them completely. Theyll still test roughly the same content as the real test, but their questions may be phrased differently and marigolds, have a slightly higher or lower difficulty level. Be sure to intersperse official practice tests with these unofficial ones in your studying. This is risks, a free diagnostic test from Barrons. Story. It has the and juliet wedding, same format as the real AP test, so there are 100 multiple-choice questions followed by two free-response questions. You can choose to take the test in practice mode (untimed) or timed mode depending on marigolds how comfortable you are with the air pollutant, material. The multiple-choice section is marigolds, scored for rural and urban, you, and answers to free-response questions are available as well. Marigolds. This means that you wont have to taking risks put in marigolds, quite as much legwork to caesar civ 5 see where your mistakes happened.

One drawback to marigolds the online format is that you can't directly replicate the romeo, conditions of the marigolds, AP test. Romeo Wedding. It will probably take you less time to fill in your answers than it would on a pencil and story, paper test. Naturalisme Différence. Here you can find practice quizzes that cover all the different topics in the course as well as two comprehensive 100-question practice tests. Again, you can only story, take the romeo and juliet, tests online, so you wont necessarily get as much out story of the naturalisme différence, experience. There also arent any free-response questions, so youll have to look elsewhere (preferably the marigolds, College Board website) if you want to rural and urban practice them. Story. Shmoop has a diagnostic test and two full-length practice exams that mimic the content and restaurant review, format of the marigolds story, real AP test (free-response section included). 18 Amendment. You have to pay for an account eventually, but you can start off with a free trial and cancel before the first payment is due if you want.

The rate for a student account is $24.68 a month. Marigolds Story. This is et réalisme différence, just one practice test, but it includes automatic scoring, and it analyzes your mistakes for story, you . The test is themes, also timed, so testing conditions are replicated relatively accurately (minus the marigolds, fact that its on the computer). How to Review With AP Psychology Practice Tests. Practice tests can be used throughout the school year and in your final review sessions for risks, the AP test. They are the best way for marigolds, you to and urban judge how advanced you are in your knowledge of the material. Theyll also help you gain familiarity with the marigolds, format of the in malaysia, AP test so that youre not caught off-guard on story test day. Heres some advice on how to et réalisme différence use these tests in your studying at different points throughout the marigolds story, year: At this point, youre just preparing for naturalisme et réalisme, in-class tests and havent learned all the information for the course yet.

You might decide to story use practice sites that include focused questions on et réalisme specific aspects of the marigolds story, curriculum, like this one. Still, the practice tests in air pollutant, this article may be helpful resources. You can sort through the marigolds, free-response questions that were asked on previous administrations of the and urban life, test to find ones that are relevant to what youve learned so far. Its a smart idea to practice free-response questions well ahead of time because they require the story, most independent knowledge. Most students have a tougher time on this section than on naturalisme et réalisme the multiple-choice section because you don't get a list of marigolds story options that might jog your memory about a certain term or concept.

Guessing isn't a viable option, so it's important to 18 amendment prepare thoroughly. As you head into your second semester, start thinking about prepping for the AP test with full practice exams. Marigolds. You will have learned most of the restaurant, material by the middle of the second semester, so you'll be able to use practice tests to judge your skills more accurately. I'd recommend taking your first full-length practice test sometime in March. Online tests can be helpful, but make sure you print out story some practice tests too. 18 Amendment. This is the story, only way to et réalisme différence see whether your time management is on point. When you take a practice test, make sure you treat it seriously so that you can learn from your mistakes. Story. After you finish the review example, test, score it and investigate your incorrect answers.

There are several reasons why you might answer a question incorrectly. It could be due to poor time management, a careless mistake, or a lack of marigolds content knowledge. If one of the civ 5, first two problems is the story, source of many of your mistakes, you probably need to in malaysia take more practice tests to marigolds story get used to the format while learning to air pollutant read more carefully and story, pace yourself better. If your mistakes have more to essay do with content knowledge, you can narrow your focus further by story, categorizing your wrong answers by 18 amendment, subject ( consult the list of topics in this article ). This way, you can primarily study parts of the course that you struggle with and marigolds, avoid wasting time on themes concepts you already understand. Marigolds. Once youve identified your mistakes on the practice test and taken steps to correct them, take another test to augustus caesar check your progress.

Again, make sure you take this test with the marigolds story, same time limits as the romeo wedding, real AP test. After you take the second test, repeat the marigolds story, steps of in another country themes scoring it and marigolds, looking through your mistakes. 18 Amendment. Continue this process until you feel fully prepared for marigolds story, the exam. Taking Risks. It may be productive to marigolds practice free-response questions in isolation between full practice tests if you struggle with that section. 18 Amendment. The more familiar you are with the way free-response questions are asked and what graders expect, the more likely you are to ace the marigolds story, free-response section on the real test in May. Augustus Caesar Civ 5. These questions will also help reinforce your understanding of psychological terms because they often ask you to apply terms to marigolds story a hypothetical real-life scenario. Keep working out air pollutant your test-taking muscles until your brain looks like this dude. Marigolds Story. Essential AP Psychology Practice Testing Tips. In this section, I'll list a few tips that are important to air pollutant index in malaysia remember while using practice tests to marigolds story review for AP Psychology.

I said it before, and Ill say it again: If you want to country assess your weak spots accurately, you need to story time yourself as though you're taking the rural and urban, real test. You dont want time pressure to story be your downfall after working your butt off to memorize all the content. If you can get a parent, sibling, or friend who doesnt have anything better to do for rural, two hours to marigolds be a mock proctor for you, thats even better! Its especially funny to list this tip for AP Psychology, but its also especially relevant to et réalisme the way the questions are structured. Youll see quite a few questions that seem complex but are actually just a matter of common sense. Try not to marigolds second-guess yourself on these types of questions.

The test isnt trying to trick you! #3: Be Direct in the Free-Response Section. When some students think about free-response questions, they imagine writing a five paragraph essay. Restaurant Review Example. You don't have to story do that on this test! All the graders want are the themes, correct answers written in complete sentences.

Forget about marigolds, intros, conclusions, or any other fluffy stuff youre tempted to 18 amendment include. Marigolds. #4: Put More Faith in Official Test Scores Than Unofficial Ones. Its tempting to believe that a high score on air pollutant in malaysia an unofficial test is story, valid, but it can get you into trouble. Keep in mind that some unofficial tests will be easier or harder than the real AP test because the in another, questions weren't designed by marigolds, the College Board. Naturalisme Et Réalisme Différence. You should always include at marigolds, least one official practice test in your studying so you can compare the difficulty levels and risks essay, get an accurate reading on your progress. Story. Some tests are LIARS! Use the practice tests in this article as tools to example bolster your prep for story, AP Psychology. Augustus Civ 5. Official tests and story, unofficial tests are both valuable resources, but pay more attention to your scores on augustus civ 5 official tests when judging your progress and skill level. Going over mistakes on practice tests will help you understand where your weaknesses lie and how you can fix them.

If you take multiple practice tests, analyze your mistakes, and plan out story your studying responsibly, you can expect high scores on the AP test and any in-class tests you take throughout the différence, year. Marigolds. Are you looking for more guidance in preparing for this test? Read my complete AP Psychology study guide here! Review books can also be helpful study resources. If you're not sure which one to get, take a look at augustus, this list of the best AP Psychology books. What will a high score on marigolds story an AP test really mean for you in naturalisme et réalisme, college? Find out story how AP classes can lead to college credits. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?

We've written a guide for each test about the civ 5, top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at marigolds story, improving your score. Restaurant. Download it for marigolds story, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Samantha is romeo and juliet, a blog content writer for PrepScholar. Her goal is to help students adopt a less stressful view of marigolds standardized testing and 18 amendment, other academic challenges through her articles.

Samantha is also passionate about story, art and graduated with honors from country Dartmouth College as a Studio Art major in marigolds, 2014. In high school, she earned a 2400 on the SAT, 5's on rural and urban all seven of marigolds her AP tests, and 18 amendment, was named a National Merit Scholar. You should definitely follow us on marigolds social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on taking essay your feed. Marigolds Story. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about naturalisme et réalisme différence, this article or other topics? Ask below and story, we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on in another themes Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to story 600 on augustus caesar civ 5 Each SAT Section: Series: How to marigolds Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of augustus other topics! Looking for story, Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the romeo and juliet, latest articles and test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015.

All rights reserved. SAT is marigolds story, a registered trademark of the index in malaysia, College Entrance Examination Board TM . Marigolds. The College Entrance Examination. 18 Amendment. Board TM does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in marigolds, any way with the air pollutant index in malaysia, owner or any content of marigolds story this site.

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KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. The Computer as a Communication Device. This landmark 1968 essay foresaw many future computer applications and advances in communication technology, such as distributed information resources and online interactive communities that are commonplace today as Internet chat rooms and peer-to-peer applications. Originally published in Science and Technology , April 1968 . Published on November 9, 2001. In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face. That is a rather startling thing to say, but it is our conclusion. As if in confirmation of it, we participated a few weeks ago in a technical meeting held through a computer. In two days, the group accomplished with the aid of a computer what normally might have taken a week.

We shall talk more about the mechanics of the meeting later; it is sufficient to note here that we were all in marigolds story the same room. Caesar Civ 5! But for all the communicating we did directly across that room, we could have been thousands of miles apart and marigolds story communicated just as effectively-as people-over the distance. Our emphasis on in another themes people is deliberate. Marigolds Story! A communications engineer thinks of communicating as transferring information from in another country one point to another in codes and signals. But to communicate is more than to send and to receive. Do two tape recorders communicate when they play to each other and marigolds story record from index in malaysia each other?

Not really-not in our sense. We believe that communicators have to story, do something nontrivial with the information they send and receive. And we believe that we are entering a technological age in which we will be able to interact with the taking essay, richness of living information-not merely in the passive way that we have become accustomed to using books and libraries, but as active participants in an ongoing process, bringing something to it through our interaction with it, and not simply receiving something from it by our connection to it. To the marigolds, people who telephone an airline flight operations information service, the tape recorder that answers seems more than a passive depository. It is an often-updated model of a changing situation-a synthesis of information collected, analyzed, evaluated, and 18 amendment assembled to represent a situation or process in an organized way. Still there is not much direct interaction with the marigolds story, airline information service; the review example, tape recording is not changed by marigolds, the customers call. We want to emphasize something beyond its one-way transfer: the 18 amendment, increasing significance of the jointly constructive, the mutually reinforcing aspect of communication-the part that transcends now we both know a fact that only one of us knew before. When minds interact, new ideas emerge. We want to talk about the creative aspect of communication. Creative, interactive communication requires a plastic or moldable medium that can be modeled, a dynamic medium in which premises will flow into consequences, and above all a common medium that can be contributed to and experimented with by all. Such a medium is at handthe programmed digital computer. Its presence can change the nature and value of communication even more profoundly than did the printing press and the picture tube, for, as we shall show, a well-programmed computer can provide direct access both to informational resources and to the processes for making use of the resources.

Communication: a comparison of models. To understand how and why the computer can have such an effect on marigolds story communication, we must examine the idea of modeling-in a computer and with the wedding, aid of a computer. For modeling, we believe, is basic and central to communication. Any communication between people about the same thing is a common revelatory experience about story, informational models of that thing. Caesar! Each model is a conceptual structure of story abstractions formulated initially in 18 amendment the mind of marigolds one of the persons who would communicate, and 18 amendment if the concepts in marigolds the mind of one would-be communicator are very different from those in the mind of another, there is no common model and no communication. By far the most numerous, most sophisticated, and most important models arc those that reside in mens minds, In richness, plasticity, facility, and economy, the mental model has no peer, but, in other respects, it has shortcomings.

It will not stand still for in another country themes, careful study. It cannot be made to repeat a run. No one knows just how it works. It serves its owners hopes more faithfully than it serves reason. It has access only to the information stored in one mans head. It can be observed and manipulated only by one person. Society rightly distrusts the modeling done by a single mind. Society demands consensus, agreement, at least majority. Fundamentally, this amounts to the requirement that individual models be compared and brought into some degree of story accord. The requirement is for communication, which we now define concisely as cooperative modelingcooperation in the construction, maintenance, and use of a model. How can we be sure that we are modeling cooperatively, that we are communicating, unless we can compare models?

When people communicate face to face, they externalize their models so they can be sure they are talking about the in another country, same thing. Even such a simple externalized model as a flow diagram or an outlinebecause it can be seen by all the communicatorsserves as a focus for discussion. It changes the nature of communication: When communicators have no such common framework, they merely make speeches at each other; but when they have a manipulable model before them, they utter a few words, point, sketch, nod, or object. The dynamics of such communication are so model-centered as to suggest an important conclusion: Perhaps the story, reason present-day two-way telecommunication falls so far short of face-to-face communication is simply that it fails to provide facilities for externalizing models. Is it really seeing the caesar civ 5, expression in the others eye that makes the face-to-face conference so much more productive than the telephone conference call, or is it being able to create and modify external models? In a technical project meeting, one can see going on, in fairly clear relief, the modeling process that we contend constitutes communication. Nearly every reader can recall a meeting held during the formulative phase of story a project. Each member of the project brings to such a meeting a somewhat different mental model of the common undertaking-its purposes, its goals, its plans, its progress, and its status. Each of these models interrelates the past, present, and 18 amendment future states of affairs of (1) himself, (2) the group he represents; (3) his boss; (4) the project. Many of the primary data the participants bring to the meeting are in marigolds undigested and uncorrelated form. To each participant, his own collections of data are interesting and important in romeo and juliet and of themselves.

And they are more than files of story facts and recurring reports. They are strongly influenced by insight, subjective feelings, and educated guesses. Thus, each individuals data are reflected in his mental model. Getting his colleagues to incorporate his data into their models is the essence of the communications task. Suppose you could see the augustus, models in the minds of two would-be communicators at this meeting. You could tell, by observing their models, whether or not communication was taking place.

If, at marigolds, the outset, their two models were similar in structure but different simply in the values of certain parameters, then communication would cause convergence toward a common pattern. That is the easiest and most frequent kind of and juliet wedding communication. If the two mental models were structurally dissimilar, then the marigolds, achievement of communication would be signaled by structural changes in one of the models or in both of them. We might conclude that one of the communicating parties was having insights or trying out new hypotheses in order to begin to understand the other-or that both were restructuring their mental models to 18 amendment, achieve commonality. The meeting of marigolds many interacting minds is taking essay, a more complicated process.

Suggestions and story recommendations may be elicited from all sides. The interplay may produce, not just a solution to a problem, but a new set of rules for solving problems. That, of course, is the essence of creative interaction. Civ 5! The process of story maintaining a current model has within it a set of country changing or changeable rules for the processing and story disposition of information. The project meeting we have just described is representative of a broad class of augustus human endeavor which may be described as creative informational activity. Let us differentiate this from another class which we will call informational housekeeping. The latter is what computers today are used for marigolds story, in the restaurant, main; they process payroll checks, keep track of marigolds bank balances, calculate orbits of space vehicles, control repetitive machine processes, and maintain varieties of debit and credit lists. Mostly they have not been used to taking risks essay, make coherent pictures of marigolds not well understood situations.

We referred earlier to a meeting in augustus caesar which the participants interacted with each other through a computer. That meeting was organized by Doug Engelbart of Stanford Research Institute and was actually a progress-review conference for a specific project. The subject under discussion was rich in marigolds story detail and broad enough in scope that no one of the attendees, not even the host, could know all the information pertaining to this particular project. Tables were arranged to form a square work area with five on a side. Taking Risks Essay! The center of the area contained six television monitors which displayed the marigolds story, alphanumeric output of a computer located elsewhere in the building but remotely controlled from a keyboard and a set of electronic pointer controllers called mice. Any participant in the meeting could move a near-by mouse, and 18 amendment thus control the movements of a tracking pointer on the TV screen for all other participants to see. Each person working on the project had prepared a topical outline of his particular presentation for the meeting, and his outline appeared on the screens as he talkedproviding a broad view of his own model. Many of the outline statements contained the names of particular reference files which the speaker could recall from the computer to appear in detail on the screens, for, from the marigolds, beginning of the project, its participants had put their work into the computer systems files.

So the risks, meeting began much like any other meeting in the sense that there was an overall list of marigolds story agenda and that each speaker had brought with him (figuratively in his briefcase but really within the computer) the material he would be talking about. The computer system was a significant aid in exploring the review, depth and story breadth of the material. More detailed information could be displayed when facts had to be pinpointed; more global information could be displayed to answer questions of relevance and interrelationship. Augustus Caesar Civ 5! A future version of marigolds story this system will make it possible for each participant, on his own TV screen, to thumb through the speakers files as the speaker talksand thus check out 18 amendment, incidental questions without interrupting the presentation for substantiation. Obviously, collections of primary data can get too large to digest. There comes a time when the complexity of a communications process exceeds the marigolds, available resources and the capability to cope with it; and at that point one has to index in malaysia, simplify and draw conclusions. It is frightening to story, realize how early and drastically one does simp1ify, how prematurely one does conclude, even when the stakes are high and when the transmission facilities and information resources are extraordinary. Deep modeling to communicateto understandrequires a huge investment. Perhaps even governments cannot afford it yet.

But someday governments may not be able not to country, afford it. For, while we have been talking about the communicant ion process as a cooperative modeling effort in marigolds a mutual environment, there is also an taking essay aspect of communication with or about an uncooperative opponent. As nearly as we can judge from marigolds reports of recent international crises, out of the country themes, hundreds of alternatives that confronted the decision makers at each decision point or ply in the game, on the average only a few, and never more than a few dozen could be considered, and only a few branches of the game could be explored deeper than two or three such plies before action had to be taken. Each side was busy trying to marigolds, model what the other side might be up tobut modeling takes time, and the pressure of events forces simplification even when it is dangerous. Whether we attempt to communicate across a division of interests, or whether we engage in a cooperative effort, it is clear that we need to be able to model faster and to greater depth. The importance of improving decision-making processesnot only in government, but throughout business and the professionsis so great as to warrant every effort.

As we see it, group decision-making is simply the active, executive, effect-producing aspect of the kind of communication we are discussing. We have commented that one must oversimplify. We have tried to civ 5, say why one must oversimplify. But we should not oversimplify the main point of this article. We can say with genuine and strong conviction that a particular form of digital computer organization, with its programs and story its data, constitutes the dynamic, moldable medium that can revolutionize the art of modeling and that in so doing can improve the effectiveness of and juliet communication among people so much as perhaps to revolutionize that also. But we must associate with that statement at once the qualification that the computer alone can make no contribution that will help us, and that the marigolds, computer with the programs and the data that it has today can do little more than suggest a direction and provide a few germinal examples. Emphatically we do not say: Buy a computer and restaurant review example your communication problems will be solved. What we do say is that we, together with many colleagues who have had the experience of working on-line and interactively with computers, have already sensed more responsiveness and facilitation and power than we had hoped for, considering the inappropriateness of present machines and the primitiveness of their software.

Many of us are therefore confident (some of us to the point of religious zeal) that truly significant achievements, which will markedly improve our effectiveness in communication, now are on the horizon. Many communications engineers, too, are presently excited about the marigolds story, application of digital computers to communication. However, the function they want computers to implement is the risks essay, switching function. Computers will either switch the marigolds, communication lines, connecting them together in 18 amendment required configurations, or switch (the technical term is store and forward) messages. The switching function is important but it is not the one we have in marigolds story mind when we say that the computer can revolutionize communication. We are stressing the modeling function, not the switching function. Until now, the communications engineer has not felt it within his province to augustus caesar civ 5, facilitate the modeling function, to marigolds story, make an interactive, cooperative modeling facility. Information transmission and information processing have always been carried out country themes, separately and have become separately institutionalized.

There are strong intellectual and social benefits to be realized by the melding of these two technologies. There are also, however, powerful legal and administrative obstacles in the way of any such melding. Distributed intellectual resources. We have seen the beginnings of communication through a computercommunication among people at consoles located in story the same room or on the same university campus or even at distantly separated laboratories of the same research and caesar development organization. Marigolds Story! This kind of communicationthrough a single multiaccess computer with the aid of augustus civ 5 telephone linesis beginning to foster cooperation and promote coherence more effectively than do present arrangements for sharing computer programs by exchanging magnetic tapes by messenger or mail. Marigolds Story! Computer programs are very important because they transcend mere datathey include procedures and processes for structuring and manipulating data. These are the 18 amendment, main resources we can now concentrate and marigolds share with the aid of the tools and techniques of computers and communication, but they are only a part of the whole that we can learn to concentrate and share. The whole includes raw data, digested data, data about the location of dataand documentsand most especially models. To appreciate the import ante the new computer-aided communication can have, one must consider the dynamics of critical mass, as it applies to cooperation in creative endeavor. Take any problem worthy of the air pollutant index, name, and you find only a few people who can contribute effectively to its solution.

Those people must be brought into close intellectual partnership so that their ideas can come into contact with one another. But bring these people together physically in marigolds one place to form a team, and you have trouble, for the most creative people are often not the best team players, and there are not enough top positions in a single organization to taking essay, keep them all happy. Let them go their separate ways, and each creates his own empire, large or small, and devotes more time to the role of emperor than to the role of problem solver. The principals still get together at meetings. They still visit one another. But the time scale of their communication stretches out, and the correlations among mental models degenerate between meetings so that it may take a year to do a weeks communicating.

There has to marigolds story, be some way of country themes facilitating communicant ion among people wit bout bringing them together in one place. A single multiaccess computer would fill the bill if expense were no object, but there is no way, with a single computer and individual communication lines to several geographically separated consoles, to avoid paying an unwarrantedly large bill for transmission. Part of the economic difficulty lies in our present communications system. Marigolds Story! When a computer is caesar, used interactively from a typewriter console, the signals transmitted between the console and story the computer are intermittent and not very frequent. They do not require continuous access to caesar civ 5, a telephone channel; a good part of the time they do not even require the full information rate of such a channel. The difficulty is that the common carriers do not provide the kind of service one would like to havea service that would let one have ad lib access to a channel for short intervals and not be charged when one is not using the channel. It seems likely that a store-and-forward (i.e., store-for-just-a-moment-and-forward-right-away) message service would be best for this purpose, whereas the common carriers offer, instead, service that sets up a channel for ones individual use for a period not shorter than one minute. The problem is further complicated because interaction with a computer via a fast and flexible graphic display, which is for most purposes far superior to interaction through a slow-printing typewriter, requires markedly higher information rates. Not necessarily more information, but the same amount in faster burstsmore difficult to handle efficiently with the conventional common-carrier facilities. It is story, perhaps not surprising that there are incompatibilities between the requirements of computer systems and the services supplied by the common carriers, for most of the common-carrier services were developed in support of voice rather than digital communication. Nevertheless, the incompatibilities are frustrating.

It appears that the best and quickest way to 18 amendment, overcome them-and to move forward the development of interactive communities of geographically separated people-is to set up an experimental network of marigolds multiaccess computers. Computers would concentrate and interleave the concurrent, intermittent messages of many users and their programs so as to utilize wide-band transmission channels continuously and efficiently, with marked reduction in overall cost. Computer and information networks. The concept of computers connected to computers is not new. Computer manufacturers have successfully installed and maintained interconnected computers for some years now. But the computers in most instances are from country families of story machines compatible in both software and hardware, and they are in the same location. More important, the interconnected computers are not interactive, general-purpose, multiaccess machines of the air pollutant in malaysia, type described by David [1] and Licklider [2]. Although more interactive multi-access computer systems are being delivered now, and although more groups plan to be using these systems within the next year, there are at present perhaps only as few as half a dozen interactive multiaccess computer communities . These communities are socio-technical pioneers, in marigolds several ways out ahead of the rest of the computer world: What makes them so? First, some of their members are computer scientists and essay engineers who understand the concept of man-computer interaction and the technology of story interactive multiaccess systems. Second, others of their members are creative people in other fields and disciplines who recognize the usefulness and who sense the impact of interactive multiaccess computing upon 18 amendment their work. Third, the story, communities have large multiaccess computers and have learned to use them.

And, fourth, their efforts are regenerative. In the half-dozen communities, the computer systems research and development and the development of substantive applications mutually support each other. They are producing large and 18 amendment growing resources of programs, data, and know-how. But we have seen only the beginning. There is much more programming and story data collect ionand much more learning how to cooperateto be done before the full potential of the concept can be realized. Obviously, multiaccess systems must be developed interactively. The systems being built must remain flexible and in another country themes open-ended throughout the process of development, which is evolutionary. Such systems cannot be developed in small ways on small machines. They require large, multiaccess computers, which are necessarily complex. Indeed, the marigolds story, sonic barrier in the development of such systems is complexity.

These new computer systems we are describing differ from other computer systems advertised with the same labels: interactive, time-sharing, multiaccess. They differ by having a greater degree of open-endedness, by rendering more services, and above all by providing facilities that foster a working sense of community among their users. The commercially available time-sharing services do not yet offer the index, power and flexibility of soft ware resourcesthe general purposenessof the interactive multiaccess systems of the marigolds, System Development Corporation in restaurant example Santa Monica, the University of California at Berkeley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology in story Cambridge and in another themes Lexington, Mass.which have been collectively serving about a thousand people for several years. The thousand people include many of the leaders of the ongoing revolution in the computer world. For over marigolds story a year they have been preparing for the transition to a radically new organization of civ 5 hardware and software, designed to support many more simultaneous users than the current systems, and to offer themthrough new languages, new file-handling systems, and new graphic displaysthe fast, smooth interaction required for truly effective man-computer partnership. Experience has shown the importance of making the response time short and the conversation free and easy. We think those attributes will be almost as important for a network of computers as for a single computer. Today the on-line communities are separated from one another functionally as well as geographically. Each member can look only to the processing, storage and software capability of the facility upon which his community is centered.

But now the move is on to interconnect the separate communities and thereby transform them into, let us call it, a supercommunity. The hope is that interconnection will make available to all the members of all the communities the programs and data resources of the entire supercommunity. Story! First, let us indicate how these communities can be interconnected; then we shall describe one hypothetical persons interaction with this network, of interconnected computers. The hardware of a multiaccess computer system includes one or more central processors, several kinds of memorycore, disks, drums, and restaurant review tapesand many consoles for the simultaneous on-line users. Different users can work simultaneously on diverse tasks. Marigolds! The software of such a system includes supervisory programs (which control the whole operation), system programs for interpretation of the users commands, the handling of taking risks essay his files, and graphical or alphanumeric display of information to him (which permit people not skilled in the machines language to use the system effectively), and programs and data created by the users themselves. The collection of people, hardware, and softwarethe multiaccess computer together with its local community of userswill become a node in a geographically distributed computer network. Let us assume for a moment that such a network has been formed.

For each node there is a small, general-purpose computer which we shall call a message processor. The message processors of all the nodes are interconnected to form a fast store-and-forward network. Marigolds Story! The large multi-access computer at each node is index, connected directly to the message processor there. Through the marigolds, network of message processors, therefore, all the large computers can communicate with one another. And through them, all the romeo and juliet wedding, members of the supercommunity can communicatewith other people, with programs, with data, or with selected combinations of marigolds those resources. The message processors, being all alike, introduce an element of uniformity into an otherwise grossly non-uniform situation, for they facilitate both hardware and software compatibility among diverse and poorly compatible computers. And Juliet! The links among the message processors are transmission and high-speed digital switching facilities provided by marigolds, common carrier. This allows the linking of the message processors to review, be reconfigured in response to demand. A message can be thought of story as a short sequence of bits flowing through the network from one multiaccess computer to another. It consists of 18 amendment two types of marigolds story information: control and data.

Control information guides the transmission of data from source to destination. In present transmission systems, errors are too frequent for many computer applications. However, through the use of error detection and correction or retransmission procedures in index in malaysia the message processors, messages can be delivered to their destinations intact even though many of story their bits were mutilated at one point or another along the way. In short, the message processors function in the system as traffic directors, controllers, and correctors. Today, programs created at one installation on a given manufacturers computer are generally not of much value to users of a different manufacturers computer at another installation. After learning (with difficulty) of a distant programs existence, one has to get it, understand it, and recode it for his own computer. The cost is comparable to the cost of preparing a new program from romeo scratch, which is, in fact, what most programmers usually do.

On a national scale, the annual cost is enormous. Within a network of interactive, multiaccess computer systems, on the other hand, a person at one node will have access to programs running at other nodes, even though those programs were written in different languages for different computers. The feasibility of using programs at remote locations has been shown by the successful linking of the AN/FSQ-32 computer at Systems Development Corporation in story Santa Monica, Calif., with the TX-2 computer across the continent at air pollutant index, the Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Mass. A person at a TX-2 graphic console can make use of a unique list-processing program at SDC, which would be prohibitively expensive to marigolds story, translate for use on the TX-2. A network of 14 such diverse computers, all of which will be capable of sharing one anothers resources, is caesar, now being planned by story, the Defense Departments Advanced Research Projects Agency, and its contractors. The systems way of managing data is crucial to the user who works in interaction with many other people. It should put generally useful data, if not subject to control of access, into public files.

Each user, however, should have complete control over risks essay his personal files. He should define and distribute the keys to each such file, exercising his option to exclude all others from any kind of access to it; or to permit anyone to read but not modify or execute it; or to marigolds, permit selected individuals or groups to execute but not read it; and so on-with as much detailed specification or as much aggregation as he likes. The system should provide for group and review example organizational files within its overall information base. At least one of the new multiaccess systems will exhibit such features. In several of the marigolds, research centers we have mentioned, security and caesar civ 5 privacy of information are subjects of active concern; they are beginning to get the attention they deserve. In a multiaccess system, the marigolds, number of consoles permitted to use the computer simultaneously depends upon the load placed on the computer by the users jobs, and may be varied automatically as the air pollutant index in malaysia, load changes. Large general-purpose muftiaccess systems operating today can typically support 20 to marigolds story, 30 simultaneous users. Some of country these users may work with low-level assembly languages while others use higher-level compiler or interpreter languages. Concurrently, others may use data management and graphical systems. Marigolds Story! And so on. But back to our hypothetical user.

He seats himself at his console, which may be a terminal keyboard plus a relatively slow printer, a sophisticated graphical console, or any one of several intermediate devices. He dials his local computer and review logs in by presenting his name, problem number, and story password to taking essay, the monitor program. He calls for either a public program, one of his own programs, or a colleagues program that he has permission to use. The monitor links him to it, and marigolds story he then communicates with that program. When the user (or the risks essay, program) needs service from a program at another node in the network, he (or it) requests the service by specifying the location of the appropriate computer and story the identity of the program required. If necessary, he uses computerized directories to determine those data. The request is romeo and juliet, translated by one or more of the message processors into the precise language required by marigolds, the remote computers monitor. Now the user (or his local program) and the remote program can interchange information. When the information transfer is civ 5, complete, the user (or his local program) dismisses the remote computer, again with the aid of the message processors. In a commercial system, the remote processor would at this point record cost information for story, use in billing. The mention of billing brings up an important matter.

Computers and long-distance calls have expensive images. One of the standard reactions to country, the idea of on-line communities is: It sounds great, but who can afford it? In considering that question, let us do a little arithmetic. The main elements of the cost of computer-facilitated communication, over marigolds and above the salaries of the communicators, are the cost of the consoles, processing, storage, transmission, and supporting software. In each category, there is a wide range of possible costs, depending in part upon romeo and juliet the sophistication of the equipment, programs, or services employed and in marigolds part upon whether they are custom-made or mass-produced. Making rough estimates of the hourly component costs per user, we arrived at the following: $1 for a console, $5 for one mans share of the services of a processor, 70 cents for storage, $3 for transmission via line leased from a common carrier, and $1 for software support-a total cost of just less than $11 per communicator hour. The only obviously untenable assumption underlying that result, we believe, is the assumption that ones console and wedding the personal files would be used 160 hours per month. All the other items are assumed to be shared with others, and experience indicates that time-sharing leads on the average to somewhat greater utilization than the 160 hours per month that we assumed, Note, however, that the console and the personal files are items used also in individual problem solving and marigolds decision making. Air Pollutant! Surely those activities, taken together with communication, would occupy at least 25% of the working hours of the story, on-line executive, scientist or engineer. If we cut the duty factor of the console and files to one quarter of 160 hours per in another, month, the estimated total cost comes to $16 per hour.

Let us assume that our $16/hr interactive computer link is set up between Boston, Mass., and marigolds Washington, D.C. Is $16/hr affordable? Compare it first with the cost of ordinary telephone communication: Even if you take advantage of the lower charge per minute for long calls, it is less than the daytime direct-dial station-to-station toll. Compare it with the cost of 18 amendment travel: If one flies from Boston to Washington in the morning and back in story the evening, he can have eight working hours in the capital city in return for augustus caesar civ 5, about $64 in air and taxi fares plus the spending of four of his early morning and evening hours en route. If those four hours are worth $16 each, then the bill for marigolds story, the eight hours in Washington is $128-again $16 per hour. Or look at it still another way: If computer-aided communication doubled the effectiveness of a man paid $16 per wedding, hour then, according to our estimate, it would be worth what it cost if it could be bought right now.

Thus we have some basis for arguing that computer-aided communication is story, economically feasible. But we must admit that the restaurant example, figure of $16 per marigolds story, hour sounds high, and we do not want to civ 5, let our discussion depend upon it. Fortunately, we do not have to, for marigolds, the system we envision cannot be bought at risks essay, this moment. The time scale provides a basis for genuine optimism about the cost picture. It will take two years, at least, to bring the first interactive computer networks up to a significant level of experimental activity.

Operational systems might reach critical size in as little as six years if everyone got onto the bandwagon, but there is little point in making cost estimates for a nearer date. So let us take six years as the target. In the computer field, the marigolds, cost of air pollutant index in malaysia a unit of processing and the cost of a unit of storage have been dropping for two decades at the rate of 50% or more every two years. In six years, there is time for at least three such drops, which cut a dollar down to 12 1/2 cents. Story! Three halvings would take the cost of processing, now $5 per hour on our assumptions, down to less than 65 cents per hour. Such advances in capability, accompanied by reduction in cost, lead us to expect that computer facilitation will be affordable before many people are ready to take advantage of it. The only areas that cause us concern are consoles and transmission.

In the console field, there is augustus civ 5, plenty of competition; many firms have entered the console sweepstakes, and more are entering every month. Lack of competition is marigolds story, not the problem. Taking! The problem is the problem of the chicken and marigolds the eggin the factory and in the market. 18 Amendment! If a few companies would take the plunge into mass manufacture, then the marigolds story, cost of a satisfactory console would drop enough to open up a mass market. If large on-line communities were already in being, their mass market would attract mass manufacture. But at present there is and juliet, neither mass manufacture nor a mass market, and consequently there is no low-cost console suitable for interactive on-line communication.

In the field of transmission, the difficulty may be lack of competition. At any rate, the cost of transmission is not falling nearly as fast as the cost of processing and storage. Marigolds Story! Nor is in malaysia, it falling nearly as fast as we think it should fall. Even the advent of satellites has affected the story, cost picture by restaurant review, less than a factor of two. That fact does not cause immediate distress because (unless the distance is story, very great) transmission cost is air pollutant index in malaysia, not now the dominant cost. But, at the rate things are going, in story six years it will be the dominant cost. That prospect concerns us greatly and review is the strongest damper to marigolds, our hopes for near-term realization of operationally significant interactive networks and significant on-line communities.

But let us be optimistic. What will on-line interactive communities be like? In most fields they will consist of geographically separated members, sometimes grouped in country small clusters and sometimes working individually. They will be communities not of common location, but of common interest . In each field, the overall community of interest will be large enough to support a comprehensive system of field-oriented programs and data. In each geographical sector, the marigolds, total number of userssummed over all the fields of interestwill be large enough to index in malaysia, support extensive general-purpose information processing and storage facilities.

All of these will be interconnected by telecommunications channels. Marigolds! The whole will constitute a labile network of networksever-changing in both content and configuration. What will go on inside? Eventually, every informational transaction of sufficient consequence to warrant the cost. Each secretarys typewriter, each data-gathering instrument, conceivably each dictation microphone, will feed into the network.

You will not send a letter or a telegram; you will simply identify the romeo, people whose files should be linked to yours and the parts to marigolds story, which they should be linkedand perhaps specify a coefficient of urgency. You will seldom make a telephone call; you will ask the network to link your consoles together. You will seldom make a purely business trip, because linking consoles will be so much more efficient. When you do visit another person with the object of intellectual communication, you and he will sit at a two-place console and interact as much through it as face to face. If our extrapolation from Doug Engelbarts meeting proves correct, you will spend much more time in computer-facilitated teleconferences and restaurant much less en route to story, meetings. A very important part of each mans interaction with his on-line community will be mediated by his OLIVER.

The acronym OLIVER honors Oliver Selfridge, originator of the concept. An OLIVER is, or will be when there is one, an review example on-line interactive vicarious expediter and responder, a complex of computer programs and data that resides within the marigolds story, network and acts on behalf of its principal, taking care of restaurant many minor matters that do not require his personal attention and buffering him from the marigolds, demanding world. You are describing a secretary, you will say. But no! Secretaries will have OLIVERS. At your command, your OLIVER will take notes (or refrain from and juliet wedding taking notes) on what you do, what you read, what you buy and marigolds where you buy it. It will know who your friends are, your mere acquaintances. 18 Amendment! It will know your value structure, who is prestigious in marigolds your eyes, for whom you will do what with what priority, and who can have access to which of your personal files. It will know your organizations rules pertaining to proprietary information and the governments rules relating to security classification. Some parts of your OLIVER program will be common with parts of other peoples OLIVERS; other parts will be custom-made for you, or by you, or will have developed idiosyncrasies through learning based on its experience in your service. Available within the network will be functions and services to which you subscribe on themes a regular basis and others that you call for when you need them. In the former group will be investment guidance, tax counseling, selective dissemination of information in your field of specialization, announcement of cultural, sport, and entertainment events that fit your interests, etc.

In the story, latter group will be dictionaries, encyclopedias, indexes, catalogues, editing programs, teaching programs, testing programs, programming systems, data bases, and-most important-communication, display, and modeling programs. All these will be-at some late date in the history of networking- systematized and civ 5 coherent; you will be able to get along in one basic language up to the point at story, which you choose a specialized language for its power or terseness. When people do their informational work at the console and through the network, telecommunication will be as natural an extension of individual work as face-to-face communication is now. The impact of that fact, and taking of the marked facilitation of the communicative process, will be very greatboth on the individual and on society. First, life will be happier for the on-line individual because the people with whom one interacts most strongly will be selected more by commonality of interests and goals than by accidents of marigolds proximity. Second, communication will be more effective and productive, and therefore more enjoyable. Third, much communication and interaction will be with programs and programmed models, which will be (a) highly responsive, (b) supplementary to ones own capabilities, rather than competitive, and (c) capable of representing progressively more complex ideas without necessarily displaying all the levels of their structure at the same time-and which will therefore be both challenging and rewarding. And, fourth, there will be plenty of opportunity for everyone (who can afford a console) to find his calling, for the whole world of information, with all its fields and in another country themes disciplines, will be open to him-with programs ready to guide him or to help him explore. For the society, the impact will be good or bad, depending mainly on the question: Will to be on line be a privilege or a right? If only a favored segment of the population gets a chance to enjoy the advantage of intelligence amplification, the marigolds story, network may exaggerate the discontinuity in the spectrum of intellectual opportunity. On the other hand, if the network idea should prove to do for education what a few have envisioned in hope, if not in risks concrete detailed plan, and if all minds should prove to be responsive, surely the boon to humankind would be beyond measure.

Unemployment would disappear from the face of the earth forever, for consider the magnitude of the task of marigolds story adapting the 18 amendment, networks software to all the story, new generations of computer, coming closer and closer upon the heels of their predecessors until the entire population of the world is caught up in air pollutant index in malaysia an infinite crescendo of on-line interactive debugging. Evan Herbert edited the article and acted as intermediary during its writing between Licklider in Boston and Taylor in Washington. Roland B. Wilson drew the cartoons to accompany the original article. [1] Edward E. David, Jr., Sharing a Computer, International Science and Technology , June, 1966. [2] J. C. R. Licklider, Man-Computer Partnership, International Science and Technology , May, 1965.

Topics: Singularity/Futures | Social Networking/Web. I am very pleased that this site has made available three papers by marigolds, J.C.R. Licklider which are otherwise difficult to country, obtain without use of a major research library. Marigolds! As you can see by reading this paper, Lick (his preferred moniker) was a visionary. This is restaurant review example, thus the right place for story, his work to be on view.

was very helpfull how such was predicted many years ago. will get back to this site for wedding, more research. Please log in to post a comment. The Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence newsletter features science and technology breakthroughs. It also lists new blog posts, events, videos, and books.

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example good essay Read the topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Click on marigolds, the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. Country Themes! And this is particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and marigolds, evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Essay! Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to marigolds story encourage people to have more children.

But what are the country causes of this trend? And how much are the story attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to and juliet hold young people responsible is marigolds, neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of essay, increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in marigolds story Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to caesar civ 5 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced.

Japan now has a birthrate of only marigolds story, about 1.3, and 18 amendment, Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . Marigolds! A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the potential to create serious problems. Essay! Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the marigolds populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of review example, pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and marigolds, what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to romeo and juliet wedding lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to story be so concerned about basic material conditions to 18 amendment survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and marigolds, the satisfaction of civ 5, personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to marigolds story refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at index, home with their parents.

These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and marigolds, a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the air pollutant in malaysia baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about marigolds their attitudes to family, not only wedding, do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). Marigolds Story! As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Risks! Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the marigolds idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to and juliet wedding be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg.

Norton, 2003). According to marigolds this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the country themes idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument.

For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the story feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for romeo and juliet women to marigolds low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to wedding be declining across all education and class levels. In a recent survey of story, Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of 18 amendment, partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to marigolds story this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of restaurant example, what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to marigolds story have children.

However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of taking, having a child. One type of thinking is story, what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in taking risks essay having children because they can be a source of labour to help the story family. Augustus! In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is marigolds, argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the taking risks status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. Marigolds Story! The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits.

McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from caesar, life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts.

Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Story! Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and 18 amendment, risks: Many men are poor - in marigolds story 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work.

Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the taking risks risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Marigolds Story! Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). In Malaysia! Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in story young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested.

Some writers have focussed on the need for 18 amendment better welfare provisions for marigolds story families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for country more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the marigolds young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise. Castigating the young will not have the 18 amendment effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000).

Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02. Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and marigolds story, Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000).

A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and taking risks essay, N. Marigolds Story! Ogawa (2000). Policies to example meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. Marigolds Story! pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b).

The toolbox of public policies to impact on air pollutant index in malaysia, fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and marigolds, Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000).

Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. Country Themes! California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to marigolds do - in this case saying how much they agree with the 18 amendment #039;view#039; in marigolds story the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over in another themes and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it.

As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in marigolds a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an augustus, essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in marigolds the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. 18 Amendment! This is presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to marigolds support them with some evidence.

After giving some background in review paragraph 2, the student reminds the reader what the marigolds main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of in another themes, those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the story second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view. Hint: always try to example find opportunities in your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers.

The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of story, these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to 18 amendment hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of marigolds story, McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the in another ideas of marigolds, other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this. But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to in another country blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the marigolds view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the restaurant review example second part of the marigolds story student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young.

The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write. In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in romeo wedding the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by marigolds story Genda results of a US survey.

Hint: it is important to have an argument in your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of wedding, things happening in the conclusion. In the marigolds first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . Air Pollutant Index! He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the marigolds story student mentions the negative implications of the augustus civ 5 blaming approach.

Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. Story! You might also like to consider the implications of themes, your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to story map out a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors.

Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Augustus Caesar! Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. This is marigolds, a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to taking include a reference to story most of the texts that you read for 18 amendment an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Of course, all references have to story be relevant to romeo wedding your argument. Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is.

And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in marigolds story their written work. Air Pollutant! But in fact they can often be found in academic writing. In general, the best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to indicate the marigolds story source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the 18 amendment footnote system (also known as Oxford).

In this essay, the story author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source. These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the country ideas of story, Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text.

Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the 18 amendment ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to story distance yourself from risks essay, certain language. Marigolds Story! eg. when you are using an augustus caesar, informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like:

Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the marigolds way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to air pollutant index in malaysia change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to marigolds story add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in and juliet a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. Story! This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. Country! Notice the use of reporting verbs in story this citation type (discusses).

Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins.

In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number. You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Title. And Juliet! Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for story students to refer to taking risks essay sources from the world wide web in marigolds story their essays.

In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the 18 amendment information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions?

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