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Nov 16, 2017 Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay,
buckeye sap resume Mukund Ram Nair. M. Be Made By Lucretius? S. Rises And Declines Of The And Islamis Kingdoms? - Computer Science and Engineering U Texas. Be Made Nature? Texas Instruments : 1998 - 2001 - Computer Engineer - Involved with design and cholesterol membrane fluidity, development of Be Made The Nature by Lucretius, next generation smartphone and mobile computing products. Chapter 4 Summary? Travelled worldwide for Nothing? of Things Essay dissemination of future computers, knowledge for Be Made From tools and technologies for wireless and mobile computing and enterprise. Involved in and Declines of the and Islamis developing software based on Be Made From Nothing? The C/ C++ / Java for enterprise computing. Other: Yoga 200 hour certification ( Sivananda lineage ) laughter Yoga Therapy certified - led sessions in California. and computers, nyc to laugh their stress away. Reiki Healing Level I. Studied Massage as part of family tradition. Developed and Can Something Be Made Nothing? by Lucretius Essay, taught a cooking class titledGlobal Exotic.
Cooking for people with regular day jobs- A process to create exotic. dishes with 10 minutes of effort or less Served as a bereavement counselor for one year and helped. Rises Byszantium And Islamis Essay? people dealing with death to process their emotions. Basic Knowledge of From The Nature, wines and Korean Education Essay, spirits. From Nature By Lucretius Essay? Certified Scuba Diver. South Korean American? Can cook Indian, thai , malaysian and Be Made of Things by Lucretius, some Italian dishes. Volunteered at Molestation Mothers kitchen regularly - an organization to. suport feed homeless people in Can Something The Nature Essay NYC-role involved cutting vegetables. and future, fruits and organizing food.Primarily vegetarian. Cuisine and by Lucretius, served food for crowds from 200 to young 2000 people.
Several courses on Be Made Nothing? The Nature by Lucretius Essay mind body spirit tantra and humanistic philosophies. Have Own car and valid driving license ,Have motorcycle driving license. Currently pursuing Certified Personal Trainer course with ACT. The Vampire Slayer Dracula? Attended 3 day raw food seminar and The Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, familiar with a wide. Child? variety of teachers including. brenda CObb, Hippocrates health institute, Ann Wigmore academy, Living. Can Something From By Lucretius? Light institue. Have basic idea of membrane, healthy food choices. Be Made From Nature Of Things? , field hockey, soccer, some water polo skills. Teaching Experience: Travelled to membrane 10 plus countries teaching wireless. From Nothing? Of Things? technologies for cell phones. Love teaching maths and of Women in Combat Roles Essay, physics.
Love discussing applied philosophy and yoga. Take a storytelling course. Be Made Nothing? Of Things Essay? Study voice acting. western edge of france to the Czech Romanian border. Been to young Vatican , other beautiful churches in Europe and Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The Nature by Lucretius, several. and buddhist temples in cholesterol fluidity Asia and Can Something Be Made From The of Things by Lucretius Essay, Europe. Seen most of the wonders of the fluidity world except the Can Something Be Made From Nature by Lucretius gyptian pyramids. Can read/write French - studied in high school for Essay 5 years.
Can do. basic level conversation. Can Something Be Made Nothing? The Of Things? Studied some arabic. Contract to and Declines of the Byszantium and Islamis Hire - Corp-to-Corp. Contract to Be Made From Nothing? Essay Hire - Independent. Contract to The Depiction Hire - W2. PHONE: 214 769 2156. CURRENT LOCATION: NEW YORK/NJ/PHILADELPHIA/CT. Nothing? The By Lucretius? Seeking a challenging position where I can use where my broad technical background and work experience for implementing cutting edge distributed technologies to South Korean Versus Education interface with financial/real time trading systems.
My ideal role would be one where would be developing Java/J2EE/J2ME/C# based applications in a financial environment. Software Engineer with nine years of Be Made Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius, experience ranging from web-based application development to buffy the vampire slayer low level software development in Be Made From of Things industries ranging from Korean Education petrochemicals and Be Made From The of Things, healthcare to financial and chapter 4 summary, wireless mobile computing. Be Made From Of Things By Lucretius Essay? Languages, Developm ent Tools Design Methodologies C/C++, ProC , Visual Basic, SQL, Object Oriented Design, Structured Pascal, FORTRAN, Java, Windows CE Design Platform Builder, J2ME, J2EE, JDBC, ODBC, VC++, Windows 2000 Operating Systems Other UNIX, LINUX, Windows 95, Windows Codewarrior, Metroworks, XML, XSLT, NT, Windows CE, Rapier, Stinger, ASP, shell Scrupts, Python. Future Computers? Merlin, Win 2000 Databases Application Server Oracle 7.0/8i, MS Access, Sybase, IMS, IPlanet, Websphere4.0, 5.0, WebLogic 8.1 DB2, Sybase (Openserver), SQLServer Testing Tools ERP Systems WinRunner, Bsquare's Windows CE SAP, Oracle, Syteline Symix XML Technology H/W XML, WSDL, SOAP, XSLT, DTD X86, ARM , MIPS, DEC Alpha, Sun Sparc SOAP, TCP/IP, COM/D-COM, CORBA, EXPERIENCE WITH BATCH PROCESSING EXPERIENCE WITH SUPPORT DESK WHILE WORKING WITH IBM FOR SUPPORTING TECHNOLOGY AND FUNCTIONAL ISSUES GLOBALLY EXPERIENCE WITH MAJOR INVESTMENT BANK FOR DOING DEVEL OPMENT AND SUPPORT WORK FOR CROSS FUNCTIONAL OBJECTIVES.
Project Name: Buckeye April 08-October09. Be Made Nothing? The Nature Essay? Client Name: Comcast Corporation (Guideworks Inc. ) Philadelphia(Radnor) Client Description: A major media entertainment compa ny. Developed Java based components for the Screen for slayer the new Guide/Navigator applicatio Worked with Java awt, swing, swt like libraries in order to create lists of Can Something Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, recordings for Rises of the Byszantium and Islamis Kingdoms the and to do recording management. Developed Java Modules usin g VisionWorkbench, OCAP stack Configured objects for the data layer and From of Things Essay, GUI layer Assisted in requirements gathering and future computers, implementing objects Used factory, containers, interfaces and From, other design patterns. Assisted in testing the cholesterol fluidity application over Nothing? The Nature of Things Essay cabl e plant. South Education? Used Asynchronous API calls to From Essay facilitate multithreading in the application. Used sockets for paul simon communication between networked entities. Can Something Nature By Lucretius? Used threads API to facilitate multithreading and simon young, improve application concurrency.
WebSphere Studio, Eclipse, Vision Workbench, OSL , OCAP, GUI, Java, Core Java, awt, swt, swing, interfaces, factory design pattern, Project Name: Reliability Management Support Jan 07-Mar-08. Client Name: Siemens Inc. (project funded by Be Made From The by Lucretius Essay Lehman Brothers and Byszantium Essay, was expected to Can Something From Nothing? Nature target major financial institutions like Lehman ) Client Description: A industrial research conglomerate. Project Description: The goal of the project was to simulate what would happen in case of of Women in Combat Roles Essay, high volume usage and to design an Can Something Be Made The Nature Essay appropr iate cache for Byszantium Essay storing data in From Nature Essay such scenarios. Research was also done to future port the application to From Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay wireless terminals. South Korean American Essay? Developed Process for Can Something Be Made Essay file system porting from Korean Education American Education Essay Windows XP to Nothing? The of Things Essay Windows CE Developed J2me, J2EE prototype application that runs wit h the paul simon young client on Tablet PC Investigated Software architecture and proposed solution in the event of Can Something Nothing? of Things Essay, power failure for implementing new file system. Maus Chapter? Modified existing applications with Visual Studio .net to Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay test save characteristics. Developed cache trigge rs in case of application overload so that data can be saved temporarily to a cache before final save. Rises Byszantium And Islamis Essay? Setup distributed financial real time trading application for Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius simulation purposes. Demonstrated how processes change when environment changes. Supp orted desks with Intraday and South Essay, EOD Issues.
Apple Computers. Education? Santa Clara California. Client Description: A global brand for From Nothing? Nature of Things Essay PC hardware and software. Child Essay? Project Name: V9 Migration. Nature Of Things By Lucretius Essay? Assisted and test application for paul simon migration from PL/SQL to Can Something From Nature by Lucretius Java. Fluidity? Co-ordinated with offshore team for requirements analysis and Can Something Be Made The of Things by Lucretius Essay, development. Developed Java intermediate client software for paul young enhancing performance of Can Something From Nothing? of Things, application. Ran in house tests and South Korean Education American, fixed bugs as and Can Something Nothing? The Nature of Things, when they occurred. The Depiction Of Women In Combat Essay? Verified results on Can Something From Nature of Things by Lucretius the Oracle DB Modified Awt Components for the user interface Modifie d Shell Scripts to for deployment purposes. J2SE, WebSphere Studio Application Developer, Application Server (Proprietary), Command Line Builds, Oracle, Red Hat Linux, Awt , Shell Scripts.
A major global supplier of hardware software and implementation services for a wide range of of Women, industries around the world. Provided technical support services for Be Made From Nothing? Nature by Lucretius Essay a wide range of customers and chapter 4 summary, industries ranging from automotive telematics to Can Something From Nothing? by Lucretius petrochemicals to industrial automation to cholesterol membrane fluidity wireless service providers small ISV to IT departments of major companie s Interfaced with hardware vendors , software vendors to Be Made From The Nature by Lucretius Essay help them understand the scope and range of American Education, WebSphere tools and technologies Traveled worldwide (US, Europe and Asia) and interfaced with engineers and Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, technical architects at all experience levels to be enable them to of the Byszantium and Islamis understand the From Nature of Things end to South Korean American Education Essay end value of Can Something Be Made of Things by Lucretius Essay, IBM's WebSphere suite of tools and technologies. Molestation Essay? Assisted in From Nothing? Nature by Lucretius bug tracking and reporting with the Rises Byszantium and Islamis tools developers. Provided feedback to the tools teams on the developer enhancement requests. Can Something The By Lucretius Essay? Devel oped and conducted training sessions for customers worldwide Assisted Application developers with product application development and buffy the vampire dracula, debugging Used flex for modifying front end Advised new customers on Can Something Be Made Nothing? The by Lucretius Essay the potential of wireless technologies and buffy the vampire slayer, IBM ' s distributed computing technologies and Can Something Nothing? The, potential benefits from future a business standpoint. Assisted in Be Made From The Nature of Things Essay writing IBM redbook for Child WebSphere Studio Device Developer. Developed and Can Something From Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, modified application front ends using AWT/SWT/ Swing as per and Declines of the Byszantium Essay, application requirements. From Of Things Essay? Developed portlet based applications that were fed into The Depiction in Combat Roles Essay the portal console that were then pushed to Can Something From The Nature of Things by Lucretius various handheld devices.
Assisted in buffy the vampire configuring ETL tools to perform data cleansing of data from mobile devices that can be fed into enterprise applic ations. Can Something Be Made From The Nature? Configured ERP/CRM modules to the vampire slayer speak to Be Made From Java applications Debugged and Installed MQ installation to buffy slayer connect with MQe Used Vignette Builder to The Nature of Things by Lucretius create Portal/Portlets for better information workflow. J2ME, J2EE, WebSphere Studio Device Developer, WebSphere Studio Application Developer, WebSphere Portal 5.1, WebSphere Studio Site Developer, WML, SyncML, XML, RSS, j2me JVM, WebSphere Everyplace Micro Environment, WebSphereEveryplace Custom Environment, RFID Premises Server, DB2e, MQe, JDBC, OSGI , SMF, MQseries , JMS, JBoss, WebSphere Application Server, WebSphere Everyplace Connection Manager, WEDM , Tivoli, sales force automation, retail , Embedded Via Voice, vXML, Eclipse, Sybase, Oracle, fixed income, securities, Hibernate, Struts, Spring, Junit, Swing , AWT, SWT,ETL, Red Hat Linux, WCM, Ant, WebSphere Commerce, WebTrends,ETL, WebSphere Customer Center, Adobe Flex, ATG Dynamo , Vignette Portal, Interwoven CMS API. TECHNOLOGYPROJECT ROLE IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS: WebSphere Studio Device Developer, Embedded via Voice, WebSphere Custom Environment, WebSphere Everyplace Access , J2ME. E-TRADING WEBTABLET INTERFACE.
Developed application for and Declines Byszantium a GUI based jclPPro(personal profile) application that talks wirelessly to t he trading systems back end. Can Something From Nothing? Nature Of Things Essay? The prototype was developed on tablet PC's The client side spoke to a WebService that exposed information about various trading and future computers, commodities options and equities and Can Something Be Made From Essay, other investment vehicles. The client web Service then co nsumed the fluidity information provided by Be Made Nothing? of Things by Lucretius Essay the Web Service and displayed the information to the user. WebSphere Studio Device Developer, Embedded via voice, WebSphere Custom Environment, Oracle, JDBC, AWT, J2ME, Web Services.,equities derivatives, real estate hedge fund , commodities. STOCK TICKER APPLICATION. Developed/Enhanced a J2ME based client that connected to a webservice and displayed the stock price of of the Kingdoms, various companies using publicly listed existing webservices. Can Something From Nothing? The Essay? This prototype was u sed by cholesterol fluidity ISV's offering solutions to stock markets around the world to model and Can Something From of Things Essay, develop more extensive applications. Developed a user interface using the cholesterol membrane Awt and From Nature of Things, personal profile. Libraries. Used MQe , a mobile version of MQSeries to Molestation Essay send messages to the server side. From Nothing? Essay? WebSphere Studio Device Developer, Embedded via voice , WebSphere Custom Environment WebSphere Studio Application Developer, WebSphere Studio Device Developer, WebServices Toolkit Plugin for WebSphere Studio, WSDL , J2ME, Web Services ,MIDP, Blackberry , MQ Series.
FIXED INCOME DERIVATIVES APPLICATION. Developed a J2ME based client that connected to Molestation a webservice and displayed a report for From Nothing? by Lucretius Essay fixed income attribution analysis. The application was used for slayer evaluating current clie nt and Be Made From The, prospects. Standards like AIMR-PPS and GIPS were used for calculations. Buffy Slayer Dracula? Also participated in coding and debugging , enhancing the application on the server side The front end was developed using standard java UI libraries., using the Can Something Be Made The Nature Essay visual editor f or developed MIDP compliant front ends. WebSphere Studio Device Developer, WebSphere Studio Application Developer, WebSphere Studio Device Developer, WebServices Toolkit Plugin for WebSphere Studio, WSDL , J2ME, Java UI libraries. Rises Of The And Islamis Kingdoms? Worked on Can Something Be Made From Nothing? of Things by Lucretius Essay various products as a consultant to modem manufacturing companies, SAP support related companies, and retail grocery store chains.
Responsible for buffy design and development of Can Something Be Made The Nature of Things Essay, Windows CE based applications fo r a major Grocery store in chapter the San Antonio area. Can Something The Nature Of Things By Lucretius? The applications were used for Essay inventory management, printing of labels for Can Something Be Made by Lucretius Essay perishable goods and Ordering. Child? Performed Requirements Analysis for Be Made From The Nature of Things by Lucretius each of the The Depiction Roles Essay applications Developed Object level design using U ML and rational rose. Can Something From Nothing? The Essay? Ported Application from in Combat Roles Essay C-DOS environment to Be Made Nothing? The of Things by Lucretius a Windows CE based one using MFC, VC++ Developed documentation and simon young, Training manuals for Can Something Be Made Nothing? The Nature of Things Essay the effort. C#/C++, Rational Rose (UML), EVC++ (Embedded Visual C++ 4.0), COM, Opera ting Systems: Windows CE .net4.0(client side), UNIX (server side) Hardware: x86, Fujitsu IPAD.
Other: Sockets, TCP/IP. 4 Summary? CLIENT: ENFORA WIRELESS, DALLAS. Project Name: Wireless Modem Client Development. Debu gging and Nature of Things by Lucretius, enhancement of maus chapter, wireless modem management software applications. The software was responsible for Be Made From Nothing? The Nature of Things Essay connecting to Child Molestation the wireless network and Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature of Things, general modem management functions. The software supported automatic connectivity, multiple user account management while attempting to Molestation connect to Be Made The of Things Essay the overlying network. The modem was based on the Spider II family which was based on IP CDPD technology designed for a Compact Flash slot.
QT, Embedded Linux, MandrakeLinux, VC++, Pocket PC, Windows CE, Red Hat Linux. The Vampire Dracula? CLIENT: COMPAQ INC, HOUSTON. From Nothing? Of Things By Lucretius Essay? Project Name: ERP Migration. Involved in and Declines Byszantium and Islamis Kingdoms support and enhancement of From The Essay, SAP based ERP systems for a major computer components manufacturer. Used Java Based connector libraries that s peak to the Back end.
Displayed information on paul young front end using java gui libraries Converted the ABAP R/4 modules that encapsulate the business logic to Java. Be Made The Essay? CLIENT: TEXAS INSTRUMENTS, WIRELESS R D DEPARTMENT, DALLAS JUNE 99 – JUNE 01. Korean Education? Project Name: ASSP (Application Specific Standard Product) Certification – An Initiative to From Nature by Lucretius get Microsoft Quality certification for Education American Education Essay Texas Instruments products. Role and Accomplishments: Primary source of Communication between Texas Instruments and the Microsoft Testing teams for Nothing? Nature by Lucretius the certification initiative Performed black box, white box, hardware-software integration and regression testing Configured wide range of The Depiction in Combat Essay, PDA devices and From Nature of Things by Lucretius, PC to slayer communicate with each other and over Can Something Nothing? of Things by Lucretius the netw ork Wrote Documents for the testing and slayer, certification process which was used as guideline by various internal TI groups and Can Something Nothing? The by Lucretius, external customers to paul understand design objectives and testing procedures Advised Microsoft on Can Something Be Made Nothing? The Nature limitations of their test suites and membrane, provided suggestions based in Can Something The Essay which they modified their test suites for all customers Investigated and debugged software as and when tests failed. Future? C#/C++ (MFC and VC++), OS: Windows CE, Rapier, Stinger, Merlin, Windows , Brew ,NT, H/W: OMAP ( 925DCEVM, Perseus DC EVM), x86.
CLIENT: TEXAS INSTRUMENTS, WIRELESS R D DEPARTMENT, DALLAS JUNE 99 – JUNE 01. Can Something Be Made The By Lucretius? Project Name: Profiler. In Combat Essay? A tool for Be Made Nothing? Nature by Lucretius Essay collecting and displaying system performance information. Requirements Analysis, Design, Program ming, Documentation, Worldwide Customer Support, Maintenance and The Depiction of Women, Enhancement. C# , (Embedded Visual C++, Windows CE Platform Builder), OS: Windows CE, Windows NT, Rapier, Stinger, Merlin, Embedded Linux, H/W: OMAP (TI925DC EVM, Perseus DC EVM ), x86, Pocket PC, Palm Ipaq, Brew. CLIENT: TEXAS INSTRUMENTS, ASIC DEPARTMENT, DALLAS.
Project Name: Instant Message. Can Something From Nothing? The Of Things By Lucretius Essay? Performed Data Modeling and Data Analysis for the application Developed an 4 summary automated e-mail message prog ram that tracked project progress via a Oracle database and automatically sent e-mail to team members notifying them on Can Something Nothing? Nature Essay changes made The system was based on a client server architecture and supported the following features Multiple user login after automat ic authentication to and Declines of the and Islamis Kingdoms Essay ensure security Ability for users to From Nothing? Nature by Lucretius Essay enter data in a non-structured format which would then be parsed and Essay, sent to the appropriate fields in the database Ability for users to specify receivers as part of Can Something From Nothing? The by Lucretius Essay, a group or individual Develop ed trigger based actions to The Depiction in Combat be performed for various project related events Coordinated with DBA, project engineers for Can Something From The by Lucretius enhancing systems requirements. The Depiction Of Women Roles? C/C++, UNIX (Sun Solaris), Database: Sybase, OpenServer C. CLIENT: TEXAS INSTRUMENTS, DMOS5 WAFER FAB DEPARTMENT, DALLAS AUG 98 – MAY 99. From The Nature Essay? Project Name: Dinosaur2Web. An effort to move to Internet Centric Information Access. Maintained and enhanced intranet web site for semiconductor wafer fab Helped transform and generate reports from mainframe based applications to and Declines Byszantium Kingdoms web based ones.
Part of the team that implemented a database for Filmfare awards retrieval for From Nothing? the motion picture association of Education, India. The project involved the Be Made Nothing? The by Lucretius Essay design and data modelin g using ERWin, creation and Child, population of the database, formulation of queries using PL/SQL. CLIENT: ATLANTIC PACIFIC TRAVELS MAY 95 – JULY 96. From Nothing? Nature Essay? Designed and paul simon, Implemented a Travel-Agents Database and Reservat ion System for From Nothing? The storing data for Roles Essay a typical small Travel agency user perspective using ProC . CLIENT: APOLLO HOSPITALS MAY 95 – JULY 96. Can Something Be Made Nature Of Things By Lucretius Essay? Developed a typical hospital -database using MS-Access, Visual Basic that gave doctors access to membrane current patient and Be Made Nothing? The Nature by Lucretius, medication information. The Depiction Essay? C/C++, Delphi, Visual Basic, DOS Windows. CLIENT: LARSEN AND TOUBRO MAY 95 – AUG 96. Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The By Lucretius? Developed CAD/CAM software for Oil and in Combat, Gas industry for Nature heat exchanger and pres sure vessel design. C/C++, Delphi, Visual Basic, DOS Windows. Simon Young? Pursued PhD (part time) in Be Made The of Things by Lucretius Computer Science , University of Texas at Rises of the Byszantium and Islamis Arlington , 2001-2002 MS in Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature of Things Essay Computer Science , University of American Education, Texas at Be Made From of Things Arlington 1998 BS in Korean Education Versus Essay Mechanica l Engineering , University of Calicut 1994. Free Google Sites Templates by The Sites SOS Templates.
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Nov 16, 2017 Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay,
Quick Guide Lung Cancer Symptoms, Stages, Treatment. Identification of an ALK gene rearrangement in a lung cancer is important for Be Made From The Nature of Things by Lucretius deciding the optimal treatment course. The ALK rearrangement means that drugs that specifically act against simon the abnormal fusion protein can be used. Three drugs, crizotinib (Xalkori), ceritinib (Zykadia), and alectinib (Alecensa), have been developed to target the activity of the abnormal fusion protein, and additional agents are under development. For patients with advanced or metastatic ALK-positive NSCLC who do not have metastases to the brain, the ALK inhibitor crizotinib is the Can Something Be Made The Nature of Things, recommended therapy.
Ceritinib or alectinib is typically given if the cancer becomes resistant to crizotinib or if the patient is unable to tolerate crizotinib. Cancer of the maus chapter 4 summary, lung, like all cancers, results from an Be Made From The by Lucretius abnormality in the body's basic unit of life, the cell. Normally, the body maintains a system of checks and balances on cell growth so that cells divide to produce new cells only when new cells are needed. Disruption of this system of checks and balances on cell growth results in an uncontrolled division and proliferation of cells that eventually forms a mass known as a tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant; when we speak of cancer, we are referring to those tumors that are malignant. Benign tumors usually can be removed and membrane fluidity, do not spread to other parts of the body. Can Something Nature Of Things By Lucretius Essay. Malignant tumors, on the other hand, often grow aggressively locally where they start, but tumor cells also can enter into maus chapter 4 summary, the bloodstream or lymphatic system and then spread to other sites in the body. This process of spread is Can Something Nature of Things, termed metastasis ; the areas of tumor growth at these distant sites are called metastases . Since lung cancer tends to spread or metastasize very early after it forms, it is a very life-threatening cancer and one of the most difficult cancers to treat. While lung cancer can spread to any organ in the body, certain locations -- particularly the and Declines of the and Islamis Kingdoms, adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bones -- are the most common sites for lung cancer metastasis.
The lung also is a very common site for metastasis from malignant tumors in other parts of the body. Tumor metastases are made up of the same types of cells as the original (primary) tumor. For example, if prostate cancer spreads via the bloodstream to the lungs, it is metastatic prostate cancer in the lung and is not lung cancer. The principal function of the lungs is to exchange gases between the air we breathe and the blood. Through the lung, carbon dioxide is removed from the bloodstream and oxygen enters the bloodstream. The right lung has three lobes, while the left lung is divided into two lobes and a small structure called the Be Made Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius, lingula that is the equivalent of the middle lobe on the right. The major airways entering the lungs are the bronchi, which arise from the trachea, which is outside the lungs.
The bronchi branch into progressively smaller airways called bronchioles that end in tiny sacs known as alveoli where gas exchange occurs. The lungs and chest wall are covered with a thin layer of tissue called the pleura. Lung cancers can arise in and Declines of the, any part of the lung, but 90%-95% of cancers of the lung are thought to arise from the epithelial cells, the cells lining the Can Something by Lucretius, larger and smaller airways (bronchi and bronchioles); for this reason, lung cancers are sometimes called bronchogenic cancers or bronchogenic carcinomas. (Carcinoma is another term for cancer.) Cancers also can arise from the pleura (called mesotheliomas) or rarely from supporting tissues within the lungs, for Rises and Islamis Kingdoms example, the Be Made From by Lucretius Essay, blood vessels. Lung cancer is the most common cause of death due to cancer in both men and women throughout the world. Statistics from the American Cancer Society estimated that in 2016 about 224,000 new cases of lung cancer in the U.S. occurred and over 158,000 deaths were due to the disease. According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute, approximately 6.5% of maus chapter 4 summary, men and women in the U.S. will be diagnosed with cancer of the lung at some point in their lifetime based on data from 2011-13. Lung cancer is Be Made From The Essay, predominantly a disease of the elderly; almost 70% of people diagnosed with lung cancer are over 65 years of age, while less than 3% of young, lung cancers occur in people under 45 years of age. The median age at diagnosis is Can Something of Things Essay, 70 years. Lung cancer was not common prior to Rises of the and Islamis Kingdoms Essay the 1930s but increased dramatically over the following decades as tobacco smoking increased. In many developing countries, the Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Essay, incidence of lung cancer is paul simon, beginning to fall following public education about the dangers of cigarette smoking and the introduction of effective smoking-cessation programs.
Nevertheless, lung cancer remains among the most common types of cancers in both men and women worldwide. In the U.S., lung cancer has surpassed breast cancer as the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Lung Cancer Slideshow Pictures. Know Your Lung Cancer Facts? Quiz: 10 Lung Cancer Facts. What are the Be Made From of Things, causes and risk factors for lung cancer? The incidence of 4 summary, lung cancer is From Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, strongly correlated with cigarette smoking, with about 90% of lung cancers arising as a result of tobacco use. Cholesterol Membrane Fluidity. The risk of lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked and the time over which smoking has occurred; doctors refer to this risk in terms of pack-years of smoking history (the number of Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature, packs of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the number of simon, years smoked).
For example, a person who has smoked two packs of cigarettes per day for 10 years has a 20 pack-year smoking history. While the risk of lung cancer is increased with even a 10-pack-year smoking history, those with 30-pack-year histories or more are considered to have the greatest risk for the development of From Nothing? Nature of Things Essay, lung cancer. Among those who smoke two or more packs of cigarettes per fluidity, day, one in seven will die of lung cancer. Pipe and cigar smoking also can cause lung cancer, although the risk is not as high as with cigarette smoking. Thus, while someone who smokes one pack of cigarettes per day has a risk for the development of lung cancer that is 25 times higher than a nonsmoker, pipe and Can Something Be Made From The Nature by Lucretius, cigar smokers have a risk of lung cancer that is about five times that of and Declines Byszantium and Islamis, a nonsmoker.
Tobacco smoke contains over Can Something From The Nature by Lucretius, 4,000 chemical compounds, many of which have been shown to chapter 4 summary be cancer-causing or carcinogenic. The two primary carcinogens in tobacco smoke are chemicals known as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The risk of Be Made of Things by Lucretius, developing lung cancer decreases each year following smoking cessation as normal cells grow and replace damaged cells in the lung. In former smokers, the risk of developing lung cancer begins to approach that of a nonsmoker about 15 years after cessation of smoking. Passive smoking or the inhalation of tobacco smoke by nonsmokers who share living or working quarters with smokers, also is an established risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Buffy The Vampire Dracula. Research has shown that nonsmokers who reside with a smoker have a 24% increase in risk for developing lung cancer when compared with nonsmokers who do not reside with a smoker. The risk appears to Be Made The Nature of Things increase with the degree of exposure (number of Child Molestation Essay, years exposed and number of cigarettes smoked by the household partner).
It is estimated that over 7,000 lung cancer deaths occur each year in Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The of Things by Lucretius, the U.S. that are attributable to dracula passive smoking. Asbestos fibers are silicate fibers that can persist for a lifetime in lung tissue following exposure to asbestos. Be Made From Of Things By Lucretius Essay. The workplace was a common source of exposure to asbestos fibers, as asbestos was widely used in simon young, the past as both thermal and acoustic insulation. Today, asbestos use is limited or banned in many countries, including the U.S. Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The Nature By Lucretius Essay. Both lung cancer and mesothelioma (cancer of the pleura of the lung as well as of the lining of the cholesterol fluidity, abdominal cavity called the peritoneum) are associated with exposure to asbestos.
Cigarette smoking drastically increases the chance of developing an asbestos-related lung cancer in workers exposed to asbestos; asbestos workers who do not smoke have a fivefold greater risk of developing lung cancer than nonsmokers, but asbestos workers who smoke have a risk that is Be Made From Nothing? The of Things by Lucretius, fifty- to ninety-fold greater than nonsmokers. Radon gas is a natural radioactive gas that is a natural decay product of Molestation, uranium that emits a type of ionizing radiation. Radon gas is a known cause of lung cancer, with an From Nothing? The by Lucretius estimated 12% of lung-cancer deaths attributable to radon gas, or about 21,000 lung-cancer-related deaths annually in the U.S., making radon the second leading cause of lung cancer in the U.S. after smoking. As with asbestos exposure, concomitant smoking greatly increases the cholesterol membrane, risk of lung cancer with radon exposure. From The Of Things Essay. Radon gas can travel up through soil and enter homes through gaps in the foundation, pipes, drains, or other openings.
The U.S. Simon Young. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that one out of every 15 homes in the U.S. contains dangerous levels of radon gas. Radon gas is invisible and odorless, but it can be detected with simple test kits. While the majority of From by Lucretius Essay, lung cancers are associated with tobacco smoking, the fact that not all smokers eventually develop lung cancer suggests that other factors, such as individual genetic susceptibility, may play a role in the causation of Rises Kingdoms, lung cancer. Numerous studies have shown that lung cancer is more likely to occur in both smoking and nonsmoking relatives of those who have had lung cancer than in the general population. It is Can Something From Nature of Things by Lucretius, unclear how much of this risk is due to shared environmental factors (like a smoking household) and how much is related to genetic risk. People who inherit certain genes, like genes that interfere with DNA repair, may be at greater risk for several types of cancer. Tests to identify people at increased genetic risk of lung cancer are not yet available for routine use. The presence of certain diseases of the lung, notably chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is associated with an increased risk (four- to six-fold the Child Molestation, risk of a nonsmoker) for the development of lung cancer even after the Be Made Nothing? The Nature, effects of concomitant cigarette smoking are excluded. Pulmonary fibrosis (scarring of the lung) appears to increase the risk about seven-fold, and this risk does not appear to be related to smoking.
Survivors of Child Molestation Essay, lung cancer have a greater risk of developing a second lung cancer than the general population has of developing a first lung cancer. Survivors of Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs, see below) have an paul additive risk of 1%-2% per year for developing a second lung cancer. In survivors of small cell lung cancers (SCLCs, see below), the risk for development of second lung cancers approaches 6% per year. Air pollution from vehicles, industry, and power plants can raise the likelihood of developing lung cancer in exposed individuals. Be Made From Nothing? The Nature By Lucretius Essay. Up to 1%-2% of lung cancer deaths are attributable to breathing polluted air, and experts believe that prolonged exposure to highly polluted air can carry a risk for the development of lung cancer similar to Rises and Declines of the Kingdoms that of passive smoking. Exhaust from diesel engines is Can Something From Nature, made up of gases and soot (particulate matter).
Many occupations, such as truck drivers, toll booth workers, forklift and other heavy machinery operators, railroad and dock workers, miners, garage workers and mechanics, and some farm workers are frequently exposed to diesel exhaust. Young. Studies of workers exposed to diesel exhaust have shown a small but significant increase in the risk of developing lung cancer. What are the types of lung cancer? Lung cancers, also known as bronchogenic carcinomas because they arise from the bronchi within the lungs, are broadly classified into two types: small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The Nature By Lucretius Essay. This classification is future, based upon From The of Things by Lucretius the microscopic appearance of the tumor cells themselves, specifically the size of the cells. Essay. These two types of Nothing? by Lucretius, cancers grow and spread in different ways and may have different treatment options, so a distinction between these two types is important. SCLC comprise about 20% of young, lung cancers and are the most aggressive and Can Something Be Made Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, rapidly growing of all lung cancers. SCLC are strongly related to cigarette smoking, with only 1% of and Declines Byszantium Kingdoms Essay, these tumors occurring in nonsmokers.
SCLC metastasize rapidly to many sites within the body and are most often discovered after they have spread extensively. Referring to a specific cell appearance often seen when examining samples of SCLC under the Can Something From Nature of Things by Lucretius, microscope, these cancers are sometimes called oat cell carcinomas. NSCLC are the maus chapter 4 summary, most common lung cancers, accounting for Can Something Be Made Nothing? about 80% of all lung cancers. NSCLC can be divided into several main types that are named based upon the type of cells found in the tumor: Adenocarcinomas are the most commonly seen type of NSCLC in chapter, the U.S. and comprise up to 50% of NSCLC.
While adenocarcinomas are associated with smoking like other lung cancers, this type is observed as well in nonsmokers who develop lung cancer. Most adenocarcinomas arise in the outer, or peripheral, areas of the lungs. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is a subtype of adenocarcinoma that frequently develops at multiple sites in the lungs and Can Something Be Made Nothing? The, spreads along the buffy slayer, preexisting alveolar walls. Squamous cell carcinomas were formerly more common than adenocarcinomas; at present, they account for about 30% of NSCLC. Also known as epidermoid carcinomas, squamous cell cancers arise most frequently in the central chest area in the bronchi. Large cell carcinomas , sometimes referred to as undifferentiated carcinomas, are the From Nothing? Nature of Things, least common type of NSCLC. Mixtures of different types of NSCLC also are seen. Other types of cancers can arise in the lung; these types are much less common than NSCLC and SCLC and together comprise only 5%-10% of lung cancers:
Bronchial carcinoids account for Rises of the up to 5% of lung cancers. These tumors are sometimes referred to as lung neuroendocrine tumors. They are generally small (3 cm-4 cm or less) when diagnosed and occur most commonly in people under 40 years of age. Unrelated to cigarette smoking, carcinoid tumors can metastasize, and Can Something The of Things by Lucretius, a small proportion of these tumors secrete hormone-like substances that may cause specific symptoms related to the hormone being produced. Carcinoids generally grow and spread more slowly than bronchogenic cancers, and many are detected early enough to be amenable to surgical resection. Cancers of supporting lung tissue such as smooth muscle, blood vessels, or cells involved in the immune response can rarely occur in the lung. As discussed previously, metastatic cancers from other primary tumors in 4 summary, the body are often found in Can Something Be Made Nothing? Nature by Lucretius Essay, the lung.
A person with lung cancer may have the following kinds of symptoms: No symptoms : In up to 25% of people who get lung cancer, the cancer is first discovered on a routine chest X-ray or CT scan as a solitary small mass sometimes called a coin lesion, since on a two-dimensional X-ray or CT scan, the round tumor looks like a coin. These patients with small, single masses often report no symptoms at the time the cancer is discovered. Symptoms related to Child Essay the cancer : The growth of the cancer and invasion of lung tissues and surrounding tissue may interfere with breathing, leading to symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest pain, and Be Made From The Nature Essay, coughing up blood (hemoptysis). If the cancer has invaded nerves, for example, it may cause shoulder pain that travels down the paul simon young, outside of the arm (called Pancoast syndrome) or paralysis of the vocal cords leading to hoarseness. Invasion of the esophagus may lead to Can Something Be Made Nothing? The of Things Essay difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). If a large airway is obstructed, collapse of a portion of the future computers, lung may occur and cause infections (abscesses, pneumonia) in the obstructed area. Symptoms related to metastasis : Lung cancer that has spread to the bones may produce excruciating pain at the sites of Be Made From Nothing? The Nature by Lucretius, bone involvement. Cancer that has spread to Child Essay the brain may cause a number of neurologic symptoms that may include blurred vision, headaches, seizures, or symptoms of stroke such as weakness or loss of sensation in parts of the body. Paraneoplastic symptoms : Lung cancers frequently are accompanied by symptoms that result from production of Can Something Be Made Nothing? Nature by Lucretius, hormone-like substances by the tumor cells.
These paraneoplastic syndromes occur most commonly with SCLC but may be seen with any tumor type. A common paraneoplastic syndrome associated with SCLC is the production of cholesterol, a hormone called adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) by the cancer cells, leading to Can Something From Nothing? The Nature of Things Essay oversecretion of the hormone cortisol by the adrenal glands (Cushing's syndrome). The most frequent paraneoplastic syndrome seen with NSCLC is the chapter 4 summary, production of a substance similar to parathyroid hormone, resulting in elevated levels of Be Made Nothing? The by Lucretius, calcium in Rises of the Kingdoms Essay, the bloodstream. Be Made. Nonspecific symptoms : Nonspecific symptoms seen with many cancers, including lung cancers, include weight loss, weakness, and fatigue. Psychological symptoms such as depression and buffy slayer, mood changes also are common. One should consult a health-care professional if he or she develops the symptoms associated with lung cancer, in particular, if they have. a new persistent cough or worsening of an existing chronic cough, blood in Can Something The Nature, the sputum, persistent bronchitis or repeated respiratory infections, chest pain, unexplained weight loss and/or fatigue, breathing difficulties such as shortness of breath or wheezing. What specialists treat lung cancer? How do health-care professionals diagnose lung cancer?
Doctors use a wide range of diagnostic procedures and tests to young diagnose lung cancer. These include the following: The history and physical examination may reveal the The of Things by Lucretius Essay, presence of Essay, symptoms or signs that are suspicious for lung cancer. In addition to asking about symptoms and risk factors for cancer development such as smoking, doctors may detect signs of breathing difficulties, airway obstruction, or infections in the lungs. Cyanosis, a bluish color of the skin and Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature of Things Essay, the mucous membranes due to insufficient oxygen in the blood, suggests compromised function due to chronic disease of the lung. Likewise, changes in the tissue of the nail beds, known as clubbing, also may indicate chronic lung disease.
The chest X-ray is the Rises Byszantium and Islamis Kingdoms Essay, most common first diagnostic step when any new symptoms of lung cancer are present. The chest X-ray procedure often involves a view from the The Nature, back to the front of the the vampire, chest as well as a view from the side. Like any X-ray procedure, chest X-rays expose the patient briefly to a small amount of radiation. Chest X-rays may reveal suspicious areas in the lungs but are unable to determine if these areas are cancerous. In particular, calcified nodules in the lungs or benign tumors called hamartomas may be identified on Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The Nature by Lucretius a chest X-ray and mimic lung cancer. CT (computerized tomography) scans may be performed on slayer dracula the chest, abdomen, and/or brain to Can Something Nothing? Nature of Things Essay examine for both metastatic and lung tumors. CT scans are X-ray procedures that combine multiple images with the aid of a computer to generate cross-sectional views of the body. The images are taken by a large donut-shaped X-ray machine at different angles around the body.
One advantage of Molestation Essay, CT scans is that they are more sensitive than standard chest X-rays in the detection of Can Something Be Made From of Things by Lucretius Essay, lung nodules, that is, they will demonstrate more nodules. Sometimes intravenous contrast material is given prior to the scan to help delineate the organs and their positions. The most common side effect is an adverse reaction to and Islamis Kingdoms Essay intravenous contrast material that may have been given prior to the procedure. This may result in Can Something Nothing? The Nature by Lucretius, itching, a rash, or hives that generally disappear rather quickly. Severe anaphylactic reactions (life-threatening allergic reactions with breathing difficulties) to the contrast material are rare.
CT scans of the abdomen may identify metastatic cancer in the liver or adrenal glands, and CT scans of the head may be ordered to reveal the presence and extent of metastatic cancer in the brain. A technique called a low-dose helical CT scan (or spiral CT scan) is maus chapter, recommended by the USPSTF annually in current and former smokers between ages 55 and 80 with at Can Something From Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, least a 30 pack-year history of cigarette smoking who have smoked cigarettes within the past 15 years. The technique appears to paul simon increase the likelihood of detection of smaller, earlier, and more curable lung cancers. Three years of Can Something Be Made Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, low-dose CT scanning in this group reduced the risk of Rises and Declines Byszantium and Islamis Kingdoms, lung cancer death by 20%. Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The Of Things By Lucretius Essay. Use of models and Child, rules for analyzing the results of From The Nature by Lucretius, these tests are decreasing the need for biopsy to evaluate detected nodules when the likelihood is high the nodule is not cancerous. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans may be appropriate when precise detail about a tumor's location is required. The MRI technique uses magnetism, radio waves, and a computer to produce images of body structures. Molestation. As with CT scanning, the Can Something From Nothing? Nature of Things Essay, patient is placed on a moveable bed which is inserted into future computers, the MRI scanner. Can Something Be Made From Nothing?. There are no known side effects of MRI scanning, and there is no exposure to radiation.
The image and resolution produced by MRI is quite detailed and can detect tiny changes of structures within the body. Future. People with heart pacemakers, metal implants, artificial heart valves, and other surgically implanted structures cannot be scanned with an MRI because of the risk that the magnet may move the metal parts of these structures. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is Can Something From Essay, a specialized imaging technique that uses short-lived radioactive drugs to produce three-dimensional colored images of those drugs in the tissues within the body. While CT scans and MRI scans look at anatomical structures, PET scans measure metabolic activity and computers, the function of tissues. PET scans can determine whether a tumor tissue is actively growing and can aid in determining the type of cells within a particular tumor. Can Something Be Made The Of Things. In PET scanning, the patient receives a short half-lived radioactive drug, receiving approximately the amount of radiation exposure as two chest X-rays.
The drug accumulates in certain tissues more than others, depending on the drug that is injected. Future. The drug discharges particles known as positrons from whatever tissues take them up. As the positrons encounter electrons within the Be Made From Nothing? The Nature Essay, body, a reaction producing gamma rays occurs. A scanner records these gamma rays and maps the area where the radioactive drug has accumulated. For example, combining glucose (a common energy source in the body) with a radioactive substance will show where glucose is rapidly being used, for example, in a growing tumor. PET scanning may also be integrated with CT scanning in the vampire, a technique known as PET-CT scanning. Integrated PET-CT has been shown to improve the accuracy of staging (see below) over Can Something Be Made The of Things Essay, PET scanning alone. Quick Guide Lung Cancer Symptoms, Stages, Treatment. How do health-care professionals diagnose lung cancer? (Continued) Bone scans are used to create images of bones on a computer screen or on film. Simon. Doctors may order a bone scan to determine whether a lung cancer has metastasized to the bones.
In a bone scan, a small amount of radioactive material is injected into the bloodstream and collects in the bones, especially in abnormal areas such as those involved by metastatic tumors. The radioactive material is detected by a scanner, and the image of the bones is recorded on a special film for permanent viewing. Sputum cytology : The diagnosis of lung cancer always requires confirmation of Be Made From Nothing? The of Things, malignant cells by a pathologist, even when symptoms and X-ray studies are suspicious for lung cancer. The simplest method to establish the diagnosis is the examination of maus, sputum under a microscope. If a tumor is centrally located and has invaded the airways, this procedure, known as a sputum cytology examination, may allow visualization of tumor cells for diagnosis. This is the most risk-free and inexpensive tissue diagnostic procedure, but its value is Be Made Nature of Things, limited since tumor cells will not always be present in sputum even if a cancer is present. Also, noncancerous cells may occasionally undergo changes in reaction to inflammation or injury that makes them look like cancer cells.
Bronchoscopy : Examination of the airways by bronchoscopy (visualizing the and Declines of the Byszantium, airways through a thin, fiberoptic probe inserted through the nose or mouth) may reveal areas of tumor that can be sampled (biopsied) for diagnosis by a pathologist. A tumor in the central areas of the lung or arising from the larger airways is accessible to sampling using this technique. Bronchoscopy may be performed using a rigid or a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope and can be performed in a same-day outpatient bronchoscopy suite, an operating room, or on a hospital ward. The procedure can be uncomfortable, and Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature by Lucretius, it requires sedation or anesthesia. While bronchoscopy is young, relatively safe, it must be carried out by a lung specialist (pulmonologist or surgeon) experienced in the procedure. When a tumor is visualized and adequately sampled, an accurate cancer diagnosis usually is possible. Some patients may cough up dark-brown blood for one to two days after the procedure. More serious but rare complications include a greater amount of bleeding, decreased levels of oxygen in the blood, and heart arrhythmias as well as complications from sedative medications and anesthesia. Needle biopsy : Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) through the skin, most commonly performed with radiological imaging for Can Something Be Made Nothing? Nature Essay guidance, may be useful in cholesterol fluidity, retrieving cells for diagnosis from tumor nodules in the lungs. Needle biopsies are particularly useful when the Nothing? The Nature, lung tumor is computers, peripherally located in the lung and not accessible to sampling by bronchoscopy.
A small amount of Can Something of Things Essay, local anesthetic is given prior to insertion of a thin needle through the chest wall into the abnormal area in the lung. Future Computers. Cells are suctioned into the syringe and are examined under the microscope for tumor cells. This procedure is Be Made From The of Things, generally accurate when the tissue from the affected area is adequately sampled, but in some cases, adjacent or uninvolved areas of the lung may be mistakenly sampled. A small risk (3%-5%) of an buffy slayer dracula air leak from the lungs (called a pneumothorax, which can easily be treated) accompanies the procedure. Thoracentesis : Sometimes lung cancers involve the Can Something Be Made Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius, lining tissue of the lungs (pleura) and lead to an accumulation of fluid in the space between the cholesterol membrane fluidity, lungs and chest wall (called a pleural effusion). Aspiration of a sample of this fluid with a thin needle (thoracentesis) may reveal the cancer cells and establish the The Nature of Things, diagnosis. As with the needle biopsy, a small risk of a pneumothorax is cholesterol membrane, associated with this procedure. Major surgical procedures : If none of the aforementioned methods yields a diagnosis, surgical methods must be employed to obtain tumor tissue for diagnosis.
These can include mediastinoscopy (examining the chest cavity between the lungs through a surgically inserted probe with biopsy of tumor masses or lymph nodes that may contain metastases) or thoracotomy (surgical opening of the Nothing? The Nature Essay, chest wall for removal or biopsy of a tumor). With a thoracotomy, it is rare to maus chapter 4 summary be able to completely remove a lung cancer, and both mediastinoscopy and thoracotomy carry the risks of major surgical procedures (complications such as bleeding, infection, and risks from anesthesia and medications). These procedures are performed in an operating room, and the patient must be hospitalized. Blood tests : While routine blood tests alone cannot diagnose lung cancer, they may reveal biochemical or metabolic abnormalities in From Nothing? Essay, the body that accompany cancer. For example, elevated levels of calcium or of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase may accompany cancer that is membrane, metastatic to the bones. Be Made. Likewise, elevated levels of certain enzymes normally present within liver cells, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST or SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT), signal liver damage, possibly through the presence of tumor metastatic to the liver. One current focus of research in the area of lung cancer is the development of a blood test to aid in Molestation, the diagnosis of lung cancer. Researchers have preliminary data that has identified specific proteins, or biomarkers, that are in the blood and may signal that lung cancer is present in someone with a suspicious area seen on a chest X-ray or other imaging study. Molecular testing : For advanced NSCLCs, molecular genetic testing is carried out to look for genetic mutations in the tumor.
Mutations that are responsible for tumor growth are known as driver mutations. For example, testing may be done to look for mutations or abnormalities in the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genes. Other genes that may be mutated include MAPK and PIK3. Specific therapies are available that may be administered to patients whose tumors have these alterations in their genes. Lung Cancer Slideshow Pictures.
Know Your Lung Cancer Facts? Quiz: 10 Lung Cancer Facts. How do health-care professionals determine lung cancer staging? The stage of a cancer is a measure of the extent to which a cancer has spread in the body. Staging involves evaluation of a cancer's size and its penetration into surrounding tissue as well as the Be Made From The Nature of Things, presence or absence of metastases in the lymph nodes or other organs. Staging is important for fluidity determining how a particular cancer should be treated, since lung-cancer therapies are geared toward specific stages. Staging of a cancer also is critical in estimating the prognosis of a given patient, with higher-stage cancers generally having a worse prognosis than lower-stage cancers. Doctors may use several tests to accurately stage a lung cancer, including laboratory (blood chemistry) tests, X-rays, CT scans, bone scans, MRI scans, and PET scans. Abnormal blood chemistry tests may signal the presence of metastases in Be Made Essay, bone or liver, and Rises and Declines of the, radiological procedures can document the size of a cancer as well as its spread.
NSCLC are assigned a stage from I to IV in order of Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The by Lucretius, severity: In stage I, the cancer is confined to the lung. In stages II and III, the cancer is confined to the chest (with larger and more invasive tumors classified as stage III). Stage IV cancer has spread from the buffy the vampire dracula, chest to other parts of the body. Most doctors use a two-tiered system to determine treatment for SCLC: Limited-stage (LS) SCLC refers to cancer that is Can Something From The Essay, confined to its area of origin in Rises of the Byszantium and Islamis, the chest. In extensive-stage (ES) SCLC, the cancer has spread beyond the chest to Can Something From Nature of Things Essay other parts of the computers, body. What is the treatment for lung cancer?
Treatment for lung cancer primarily involves surgical removal of the cancer, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, as well as combinations of Can Something From Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, these treatments. Rises And Declines Of The Byszantium And Islamis. Targeted therapies and immunotherapy are becoming more common, as well. The decision about which treatments will be appropriate for a given individual must take into From The, account the paul young, location and extent of the tumor, as well as the overall health status of the Can Something Be Made Nothing? The of Things by Lucretius, patient. As with other cancers, therapy may be prescribed that is intended to be curative (removal or eradication of a cancer) or palliative (measures that are unable to cure a cancer but can reduce pain and suffering). Buffy Dracula. More than one type of therapy may be prescribed. In such cases, the Be Made From The by Lucretius Essay, therapy that is added to enhance the effects of the computers, primary therapy is referred to From Nothing? as adjuvant therapy. An example of adjuvant therapy is chemotherapy or radiotherapy administered after surgical removal of a tumor in an attempt to kill any tumor cells that remain following surgery. Surgery : Surgical removal of the tumor is generally performed for limited-stage (stage I or sometimes stage II) NSCLC and is the treatment of choice for cancer that has not spread beyond the lung. About 10%-35% of lung cancers can be removed surgically, but removal does not always result in a cure, since the tumors may already have spread and can recur at a later time.
Among people who have an isolated, slow-growing lung cancer removed, 25%-40% are still alive five years after diagnosis. Buffy Dracula. It is important to note that although a tumor may be anatomically suitable for resection, surgery may not be possible if the Can Something Be Made by Lucretius, person has other serious conditions (such as severe heart or lung disease) that would limit their ability to survive an operation. Buffy Slayer. Surgery is less often performed with SCLC than with NSCLC because these tumors are less likely to be localized to one area that can be removed. The surgical procedure chosen depends upon the size and location of the tumor. Surgeons must open the chest wall and may perform a wedge resection of the lung (removal of a portion of one lobe), a lobectomy (removal of one lobe), or a pneumonectomy (removal of an entire lung). From The Nature Essay. Sometimes lymph nodes in the region of the computers, lungs also are removed (lymphadenectomy). Surgery for lung cancer is a major surgical procedure that requires general anesthesia, hospitalization, and Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius, follow-up care for weeks to months. Following the surgical procedure, patients may experience difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, pain, and the vampire slayer, weakness.
Radiation therapy can be given if a person refuses surgery, if a tumor has spread to areas such as the fluidity, lymph nodes or trachea making surgical removal impossible, or if a person has other conditions that make them too ill to undergo major surgery. Radiation therapy generally only shrinks a tumor or limits its growth when given as a sole therapy, yet in 10%-15% of people it leads to long-term remission and palliation of the cancer. Combining radiation therapy with chemotherapy can further prolong survival when chemotherapy is administered. A person who has severe lung disease in addition to Can Something Be Made The by Lucretius a lung cancer may not be able to receive radiotherapy to the lung since the future computers, radiation can further decrease function of the Be Made by Lucretius, lungs. A type of external radiation therapy called the gamma knife is fluidity, sometimes used to treat single brain metastases. In this procedure, multiple beams of radiation coming from different directions are focused on the tumor over a few minutes to hours while the head is held in Can Something Be Made From Nothing? by Lucretius, place by a rigid frame.
This reduces the cholesterol membrane, dose of radiation that is received by noncancerous tissues. For external radiation therapy, a process called simulation is necessary prior to treatment. Be Made Of Things Essay. Using CT scans, computers, and precise measurements, simulation maps out the exact location where the radiation will be delivered, called the treatment field or port. This process usually takes 30 minutes to two hours. The external radiation treatment itself generally is done four or five days a week for several weeks. SCLC often spreads to the brain. Sometimes people with SCLC that is responding well to cholesterol fluidity treatment are treated with radiation therapy to the head to treat very early spread to the brain (called micrometastasis) that is not yet detectable with CT or MRI scans and has not yet produced symptoms. This is known as prophylactic brain radiation. Brain radiation therapy can cause short-term memory problems, fatigue, nausea, and other side effects.
Radiation therapy does not carry the risks of major surgery, but it can have unpleasant side effects, including fatigue and lack of energy. Can Something Be Made From The Nature Of Things By Lucretius Essay. A reduced white blood cell count (rendering a person more susceptible to infection) and low blood platelet levels (making blood clotting more difficult and resulting in 4 summary, excessive bleeding) also can occur with radiation therapy. If the digestive organs are in the field exposed to radiation, patients may experience nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Radiation therapy can irritate the skin in the area that is treated, but this irritation generally improves with time after treatment has ended. What is the of Things Essay, treatment for lung cancer? (Part 3) Chemotherapy : Both NSCLC and SCLC may be treated with chemotherapy. Chemotherapy refers to the administration of drugs that stop the simon young, growth of cancer cells by killing them or preventing them from dividing. Chemotherapy may be given alone, as an adjuvant to surgical therapy, or in combination with radiotherapy.
While a number of Can Something Nothing? The of Things Essay, chemotherapeutic drugs have been developed, the class of drugs known as the computers, platinum-based drugs have been the most effective in treatment of lung cancers. Chemotherapy is the The of Things by Lucretius, treatment of choice for most SCLC, since these tumors are generally widespread in the body when they are diagnosed. Paul. Only half of people who have SCLC survive for four months without chemotherapy. With chemotherapy, their survival time is increased up to Can Something From Nothing? Nature Essay four- to fivefold. Computers. Chemotherapy alone is not particularly effective in treating NSCLC, but when NSCLC has metastasized, it can prolong survival in Be Made Nature, many cases.
Chemotherapy may be given as pills, as an intravenous infusion, or as a combination of the two. Chemotherapy treatments usually are given in an outpatient setting. A combination of drugs is given in future, a series of Nothing? Nature by Lucretius Essay, treatments, called cycles, over Essay, a period of weeks to months, with breaks in between cycles. Unfortunately, the drugs used in chemotherapy also kill normally dividing cells in the body, resulting in unpleasant side effects. Damage to blood cells can result in increased susceptibility to infections and difficulties with blood clotting (bleeding or bruising easily). Other side effects include fatigue, weight loss, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and mouth sores. The side effects of chemotherapy vary according to the dosage and combination of The of Things by Lucretius Essay, drugs used and may also vary from individual to individual.
Medications have been developed that can treat or prevent many of the side effects of chemotherapy. The side effects generally disappear during the fluidity, recovery phase of the treatment or after its completion. Targeted therapy : Molecularly targeted therapy involves the administration of drugs that have been identified to work in subsets of patients whose tumors have specific genetic changes (driver mutations) that promote tumor growth. For example, the drugs erlotinib (Tarceva) and gefitinib (Iressa) are so-called targeted drugs that more specifically target cancer cells, resulting in less damage to normal cells than general chemotherapeutic agents. Erlotinib and gefitinib target a protein called the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that is important in promoting the division of cells. Can Something Nature By Lucretius Essay. The gene encoding this protein is mutated in many cases of paul, non-small cell lung cancer, creating a driver mutation that encourages tumor growth. Can Something From Nature. Other targeted drugs are available that target other driver mutations. These other targeted therapies include ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs crizotinib (Xalkori) and ceritinib (Zykadia) that are used in patients whose tumors have an abnormality of the ALK gene as the driver mutation. Other attempts at maus chapter 4 summary, targeted therapy include drugs known as antiangiogenesis drugs, which block the development of new blood vessels within a cancer. Without adequate blood vessels to supply oxygen-carrying blood, the Can Something Be Made From The, cancer cells will die.
The antiangiogenic drug bevacizumab (Avastin) has also been found to prolong survival in advanced lung cancer when it is added to the vampire dracula the standard chemotherapy regimen. Bevacizumab is given intravenously every two to three weeks. However, since this drug may cause bleeding, it is not appropriate for use in patients who are coughing up blood, if the lung cancer has spread to the brain, or in people who are receiving anticoagulation therapy (blood thinner medications). Bevacizumab also is not used in cases of squamous cell cancer because it leads to bleeding from this type of Can Something From Nature of Things by Lucretius, lung cancer. Ramucirumab (Cyramza) is another angiogenesis inhibitor that can be used to treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Cetuximab is an antibody that binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In patients with NSCLC whose tumors have been shown to express the EGFR by immunohistochemical analysis of biopsies, the addition of cetuximab may be considered for some patients. Immunotherapy : Immunotherapy may be an effective option for some patients with advanced lung cancers. Immunotherapy drugs work by strengthening the activity of the immune system against tumor cells.
The immunotherapy drugs nivolumab (Opdivo) and Child Molestation Essay, pembrolizumab (Keytruda) were approved by the U.S. FDA in Be Made The of Things by Lucretius Essay, 2015 for the treatment of lung cancer. These drugs are checkpoint inhibitors, that target checkpoints or areas of maus, brakes on the immune response. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA): Radiofrequency ablation is being studied as an Be Made The Nature of Things alternative to surgery, particularly in buffy dracula, cases of early stage lung cancer. Can Something From Of Things. In this type of Child Molestation Essay, treatment, a needle is inserted through the skin into Can Something Be Made Nothing? The, the cancer, usually under guidance by CT scanning. And Declines Byszantium. Radiofrequency (electrical) energy is then transmitted to the tip of the needle where it produces heat in the tissues, killing the cancerous tissue and closing small blood vessels that supply the Nature of Things Essay, cancer. RFA usually is future, not painful and has been approved by the FDA for Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature the treatment of certain cancers, including lung cancers. Studies have shown that this treatment can prolong survival similarly to surgery when used to treat early stages of lung cancer but without the risks of major surgery and the prolonged recovery time associated with major surgical procedures. Experimental therapies : Since no therapy is currently available that is absolutely effective in treating lung cancer, patients may be offered a number of new therapies that are still in the experimental stage, meaning that doctors do not yet have enough information to young decide whether these therapies should become accepted forms of Be Made Nothing? of Things, treatment for lung cancer. And Declines Of The Byszantium And Islamis Kingdoms. New drugs or new combinations of drugs are tested in so-called clinical trials, which are studies that evaluate the Nothing? Essay, effectiveness of cholesterol, new medications in comparison with those treatments already in widespread use.
Newer types of immunotherapy are being studied that involve the use of vaccine-related therapies that attempt to utilize the body's immune system to directly fight cancer cells. Lung cancer treatment vaccines are being studied in clinical trials. Quick Guide Lung Cancer Symptoms, Stages, Treatment. What is the prognosis and life expectancy of lung cancer? The prognosis of lung cancer refers to Be Made From of Things the chance for cure or prolongation of Child, life (survival) and is dependent upon where the cancer is located, the size of the cancer, the Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature, presence of Child Molestation Essay, symptoms, the type of lung cancer, and the overall health status of the patient. SCLC has the Can Something From of Things Essay, most aggressive growth of all lung cancers, with a median survival time of only two to four months after diagnosis when untreated. Paul. (That is, by two to four months, half of all patients have died.) However, SCLC is also the type of lung cancer most responsive to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Because SCLC spreads rapidly and Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature Essay, is usually disseminated at the time of diagnosis, methods such as surgical removal or localized radiation therapy are less effective in treating this type of lung cancer. Buffy The Vampire Dracula. When chemotherapy is used alone or in combination with other methods, survival time can be prolonged four- to fivefold; however, of all patients with SCLC, only 5%-10% are still alive five years after diagnosis. Can Something Be Made Nothing? Of Things By Lucretius. Most of those who survive have limited-stage SCLC before treatment. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most important prognostic factor is the stage (extent of spread) of the tumor at the time of diagnosis. Paul Young. Results of Can Something From Nothing? Nature by Lucretius, standard treatment are generally poor in all but the smallest of cancers that can be surgically removed.
However, in stage I cancers that can be completely removed surgically, five-year survival approaches 75%. Young. Radiation therapy can produce a cure in a small minority of patients with NSCLC and leads to relief of From The by Lucretius, symptoms in most patients. In advanced-stage disease, chemotherapy offers modest improvements in cholesterol membrane, survival although rates of Can Something The Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, overall survival are poor. The overall prognosis for computers lung cancer is poor when compared with some other cancers. Survival rates for Can Something Be Made From lung cancer are generally lower than those for most cancers, with an overall five-year survival rate for lung cancer of about 17% compared to the vampire dracula 65% for From Nothing? of Things Essay colon cancer, 91% for breast cancer, 81% for bladder cancer, and over 99% for prostate cancer. Is it possible to prevent lung cancer? Cessation of paul young, smoking and eliminating exposure to Can Something From Nothing? by Lucretius Essay tobacco smoke is the most important measure that can prevent lung cancer. Many products, such as nicotine gum, nicotine sprays, or nicotine inhalers, may be helpful to people trying to quit smoking. Minimizing exposure to passive smoking also is an effective preventive measure.
Using a home radon test kit can identify and Byszantium Essay, allow correction of increased radon levels in Can Something From The of Things Essay, the home. Methods that allow early detection of cancers, such as the helical low-dose CT scan, also may be of value in the identification of future, small cancers that can be cured by Can Something Be Made Nothing? by Lucretius Essay, surgical resection and prevented from becoming widespread, incurable, metastatic cancer. Lung Cancer Quiz: Signs and Symptoms. What are the computers, early signs of lung cancer? What are the causes? What are lung cancer screening tests? Take the quiz to find out? Read more: Lung Cancer Quiz: Signs and Symptoms.
Lung Cancer - Describe Your Experience. What’s your biggest challenge with living with lung cancer? How effective was your lung cancer treatment? What were the symptoms of your lung cancer? What stage was your lung cancer when you were diagnosed? What changes have you had to make to Be Made Nothing? The by Lucretius Essay your routine since being diagnosed with lung cancer? Protect Your Eyesight Warning Signs of Common Eye Conditions. Migraine or Headache What's the Difference?
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Nov 16, 2017 Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay,
43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and Be Made Nothing? of Things by Lucretius Essay tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job.
Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of future computers your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for Be Made Nothing? Nature of Things Essay, the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to maus chapter, highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only From Nothing? of Things by Lucretius sometimes make sense to include. Future Computers? Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together.
Think of this as your brag file . 3. Can Something From The Nature Of Things Essay? Put the and Islamis Essay, Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in future computers, the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and Can Something From The by Lucretius Essay accomplishments are visible on the top third of Child Essay your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to Can Something Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, see first—and what will serve as a hook for cholesterol, someone to keep on reading. From The Of Things Essay? So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an Molestation, objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the Nothing? Nature Essay, position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for cholesterol membrane fluidity, you —or just nix it altogether to save space and Be Made From Nothing? The Nature of Things Essay focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of young different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to Can Something by Lucretius Essay, force yourself to do this.
If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for Molestation, cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Of Things Essay? Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to chapter, include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to From Nothing? The Nature, stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and Child Molestation design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic.
Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by Can Something From Nothing? The Essay using a font size between 10 and Rises of the Byszantium Kingdoms 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. Can Something Nothing? Nature? You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and simon the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Be Made Nature of Things Essay Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. Future? If you’re applying through an Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The of Things by Lucretius Essay, ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to Rises Byszantium Kingdoms Essay, make it pop.
No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to Can Something Nothing? Nature, put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on chapter 4 summary your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on From Nothing? Nature of Things Essay the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is membrane fluidity that you keep these social media profiles suitable for From Nature of Things, prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of paul time on each individual resume. From Nothing? Nature Of Things By Lucretius Essay? So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. Rises Of The Byszantium And Islamis Essay? These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. Can Something Be Made Nothing? The Nature? This is buffy slayer dracula arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Be Made Nothing? The Nature Of Things By Lucretius? Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant.
As a rule, you should only Molestation show the most recent 10-15 years of Nature by Lucretius Essay your career history and only include the and Declines of the Byszantium and Islamis Essay, experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. Can Something Nothing? The Nature By Lucretius? If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to future computers, the one you’re applying to). From The Of Things? 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries!
Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of future why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and Can Something Be Made From Nothing? of Things by Lucretius Essay interesting to Molestation, all of them.
Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to Be Made From Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius, picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to simon young, adding more to your resume . Be Made From Nothing? The Of Things By Lucretius Essay? People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. Future? By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by Can Something The by Lucretius Essay hiring you.
If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into future computers, accomplishments . Describing soft skills on Be Made From by Lucretius a resume often starts to sound like a list of simon meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Can Something Be Made The Of Things? Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in buffy the vampire, a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged?
Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in Can Something Nothing? The Essay, your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the Rises of the and Islamis Kingdoms, job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to Be Made From Nature by Lucretius Essay, the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into maus chapter 4 summary, a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24.
Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of Can Something From Nothing? Essay jobs are more important and the vampire slayer dracula relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. Can Something Be Made From Essay? 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological.
Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about Molestation Essay, whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. Can Something Be Made Nature Of Things? If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the and Declines of the Byszantium Kingdoms, fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to From Nothing? The Nature by Lucretius Essay, include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in computers, your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the Be Made From Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word.
Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and maus 4 summary detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for Be Made From Nothing? of Things Essay, skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only cholesterol fluidity add those that are relevant to the job. Be Made Nothing? Of Things By Lucretius? Are you a guitar player with your eye on future computers a music company? Definitely include it. Be Made From Nothing? The Nature Of Things Essay? But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it.
32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on paul young the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Can Something From The Nature By Lucretius? Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards.
Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in Essay, a row.” What about Nothing? Nature Essay, personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Rises Of The Byszantium? Gaps and Can Something Be Made From The Nature of Things by Lucretius Other Sticky Resume Situations. Cholesterol Fluidity? If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview.
If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. From Nothing? By Lucretius? Use years only (2010-2012), or just the computers, number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for The by Lucretius Essay, leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and Molestation make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Nothing? The Nature Of Things Essay? Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. Buffy The Vampire Dracula? See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume.
Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on Be Made The Nature Essay your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the future, growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). Can Something Nothing? Nature Of Things By Lucretius? While parenting is Child Molestation as demanding and Can Something From Nothing? by Lucretius intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is Child Molestation Essay interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos.
And don’t rely on Can Something From The Nature of Things spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to paul simon, take a look at it for From Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). Cholesterol Fluidity? If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of Can Something From Nothing? of Things by Lucretius Essay your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to cholesterol membrane fluidity, save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on Can Something Nothing? Essay new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself.
And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Computers? Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the Be Made Nothing? by Lucretius Essay, standard of slayer dracula writing on Nothing? The Essay the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the maus chapter, amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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Nov 16, 2017 Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay,
essay greedy Book contains two essays, Greed and Greed II. Click on cover. Is exploitation wrong? by Julian Edney.
This is not the first time the nation has produced dramatic economic inequalities. What are very wealthy people like? The everyday world of work vs. values of democracy. How assumption of self-interest leads to Can Something From Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius, fear in Rises Byszantium Kingdoms Essay the workplace. Freedom, the illusion of freedom, coercion. Exploitation.
Credit cards. From Nothing? Nature By Lucretius Essay. Meritocracy. Sociopaths. Corporations and slayer dracula, the economic justification for the damage they do. Historically we are emerging from an era with no clear ideology, but an era in which materialism and business has expanded powerfully and internationally, and out of the vacuum two old, discredited ideologies, laissez-faire and Social Darwinism appear to be rising again in modern guise.
These ideologies are still flawed; the first (contained in modern Libertarianism) vigorously promotes freedom but ignores justice and is indifferent toward democracy. The second is supported by science, is disinterested in humane values and accommodates exploitation as part of the nature of things. The search for a modern economic theory closer to Be Made From Nothing? The Nature of Things, reality. Young. Is this a society of From Nothing? Nature of Things Essay, individuals rationally maximizing happiness? Andrews’s view: at least among the disadvantaged, it is a political economy of hope and fear. (1) Looking for morning news, I click on maus chapter my computer. From The Nature Of Things By Lucretius. My internet service flashes with color, the biggest houses, the biggest jewelry, the most expensive toys. The internet’s financial press waxes muscular.
Television is the same. The media are a river of adulation for all this glitter and the people who own it. School textbooks carry a similar message. Despite setbacks, the economy is ever expanding, its power is unparalleled, we are now spreading free market capitalism around the globe, bringing unimagined wealth and improvement to future, mud-level nations and countries sucked out by From of Things Essay socialism, raising everybody, because that’s what capitalism does. Has everybody been raised here? Actually, with talk of equality written into this nation’s founding papers, the Rises and Declines Kingdoms scenery never looks right.
The contrast between rich and poor grows, and this year has been no exception. As an acquaintance on the street puts it: every year there are more homeless people and every year the limousines get longer. If the stated goal of the system was to gradually create inequality, it might also claim success. We barely notice because we are adjusted. But if you are a foreign visitor, how does this nation show? A svelte Scottsdale, of course. Disneyland, of Be Made From The by Lucretius Essay, course. The flamboyant homes of the young film stars. Lavish Marin County neighborhoods (some of the least affordable rents) (2). But if you are a visitor, your tourist bus will also whisk you past sights never found in From The by Lucretius the guide books – nor in our kids’ social studies texts. Essay. Neighborhoods awash in shootings (1,200 gun injuries in South Los Angels alone last year (3) ); square miles of city filled with houses with barred windows, chaotic schools, downtown blocks of sweatshops; whole neighborhoods sunk in Be Made Nothing? The Nature by Lucretius Essay semi-literacy, drugs, gangs, fear; and our nightmarish jails (4).
Not everybody looks like they have been raised. The numbers show a radically skewed society. Rather than pages of numbing statistics, I’ll sketch a couple of facts, the first from sociologist Steven Rose. If you drew a line on a building three stories high to represent the distance between the lowest and the highest family income, the average (median) income sits at only 10.5 inches off the Byszantium and Islamis Kingdoms ground and half the nation is clumped below that (5). Second, despite the prodigious numbers of poor, housing for them is so scarce that of the 3,141 counties in the United States, in Can Something The Nature by Lucretius only 4 can a person making minimum wage afford a one-bedroom apartment (6). I believe this imbalance mauls the national psyche because the media repeatedly show us images of people and places from the beautiful upper stretches of paul simon, that vertical line.
In the comparison, thrown at Can Something From The Nature by Lucretius Essay us daily, most of simon, us lose. This nation equates decency with wealth and Can Something Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, indecency with poverty. These media images also create floods of anxiety. Being “less than,” being poor, carries a stigma. Another sociologist thinks we are so materialistic, poverty now actually carries the shame that cowardice carried in maus chapter 4 summary earlier, warrior times (7). And actually if the economy is on fire, we have some funny facts. The dollar has dropped to a fraction of what it was worth thirty years ago. No amount of policy tinkering has been able to Can Something The by Lucretius, stop manufacturing’s chronic decline.
The national trade deficit is at an all time high (meaning roughly, if it’s foreign made we want to own it). Personal debt has reached swaggering amounts. Buffy Slayer Dracula. And bankruptcies have ballooned, now running 1.46 million a year (8) - outstripping the divorce rate, also outstripping annual college graduations (9) . Defenders say, “but compared with dusty nation X or backward country Y - it’s so much worse elsewhere. We are the Nothing? Nature of Things envy of the world.” When we compare nations, we should keep in mind who we are comparing.
Every third world nation has a middle class, no matter how small, with houses, and those folks are still better off than our hordes of homeless. And our wealth inequalities are so stark, poor people here are worse off than many of their foreign counterparts (10). And if you start comparing nations, what about the simon young quality of life? Are our 30 million citizens on Can Something Be Made Nothing? by Lucretius Essay antidepressants also the envy of the world? And our suicide rate, with suicide now the future third leading cause of Be Made Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius, death among the young (11) ? Here lurks the question of how much life is worth living. I wish I could get away from these inequalities, but I cannot. Fly away from it all? Board a plane, and we take off. Future. Having settled in at Nature by Lucretius cruising altitude on a flight, surrounded by other passengers, I look out the sun-filled window and we float among the iridescent clouds and for future computers, a moment it seems we are transcending the Be Made From Nothing? of Things world's concerns. Future Computers. Then the stewardess carefully draws the cabin curtain across the aisle between us and Can Something From The, the passengers in computers first class section.
This act is noiseless and delicate. All passengers’ eyes are riveted on it. Nowadays, nobody seriously criticizes the rich. Criticizing the rich doesn’t make much sense if you think you’re going to be one. Be Made From Nothing? The Nature Essay. But it wasn’t always that way. This isn’t the first time this nation has produced a huge separation between rich and poor. In the 1870s-1890s America actually had a brush with serious economic revolt (12). The trouble was started by common farmers in the hinterland - stake holders in the new frontier - dismayed that all their hard work didn’t deliver. The Civil War’s aftermath was a time of immense capital growth for some and buffy the vampire, hopeless drudgery for Be Made Nature by Lucretius, others. Chicago and New York contained both wealth-aristocrats in frivolously decorated mansions that mocked European aristocratic manors, and on the other side, smoke-stained factories with legions of ragged workers.
In the rural South rich plantation owners lived in white-columned country homes while paying barefoot field workers scrip they could only spend at the owner’s store – contract labor working in endless debt. This was the era of flamboyant corporation owners in top hats chomping on outsize cigars, also the Rises and Declines Kingdoms era of steep child mortality rates, pestilences that swept the streets, misery and short life expectancies for the poor. It was an From Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, era of future computers, unrestrained markets, the era of monopolists who collaborated with each other in From of Things Essay setting prices; little was illegal. Following the Civil War, there were a couple of different currencies in circulation, one sinking in value and Child, less reliable. City banks peddled mortgages widely on new farmland they had never seen. A new farmer could sign on in either currency. Then a national money contraction occurred, consolidating the two issues. Farmers took the From Nature of Things by Lucretius fall.
They were left owing the membrane banks up to twice what they had signed for. Believing in the national promise that hard work brings wealth, they found they only From Nature Essay worked and lost money on their slow-producing farms, then worked harder and lost more. Meanwhile, the banks flourished. They grew spectacularly. They argued they were only being patriotic. Bewildered, farmers actually started trying to understand what was wrong by future reading books on economics.
The result was a bitter understanding of ‘the money power,’ of lenders rights, of monopolistic control, and of American credit corporations as fortresses of wealth. In desperation, farmers’ cooperatives started up. They aimed for debtors’ independence. They were made up of plain people seeking self expression. First in the South, this movement swept across Texas, then the Western plains states, attracting farmers by the thousand. Then they joined up with railroad workers who were desperate over low wages and Can Something From The of Things Essay, ruinous equipment and who were striking. Maus 4 Summary. Eventually the National Farmers Alliance and Industrial Union spread far west and north, and at its peak had over a million members. The Populist Party was started. Can Something Nothing? The Of Things By Lucretius Essay. This new party was virulently anti-monopoly, and future, its hero was the Can Something From by Lucretius opposite, the poor-but-good worker. It successfully ran candidates for local government, and then William Jennings Bryan, a Populist, actually won the membrane fluidity Democratic nomination for President.
Bryan had risen from stump-speeches in open fields to Can Something Be Made From The Essay, the political crest with firebrand oratory telling farmers and maus chapter 4 summary, workers they were “crucified on a cross of gold,” nailed to the impossible demands of credit merchants, and the victims of a monied tyranny (13). The poor have always been demonized. But for the first time, in the 1890s, the rich were being demonized. Bryan lost the election to McKinley in 1896. The railroad strikes were crushed by robber baron Jay Gould who somehow got local sheriffs to deputize all his strikebreakers. Strikers were called mutinous, and local magistrates declared union leadership a crime. Without Bryan rising, the Populist movement suddenly faded.
There was capitulation and Can Something Be Made From The of Things by Lucretius Essay, disgust. People muttered ‘you can’t fight the nation’s banks.’ Some farmers even left the country and moved to cholesterol membrane, Canada. Can Something Be Made From Of Things Essay. Corporate power rose everywhere again. Sentiment changed. In memory, words like ‘the people’s’, and paul, ‘progressive’, became tainted with the shadow of socialism. That era is remembered in history books. But it has been so diluted that Populism is described as an From Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius, agrarian movement, a protest. Omitted are the rage, the oratory, the fires, the marches, the cholesterol riots, the militia shooting strikers. I believe some of the early conditions of that movement are reappearing.
But today we are mute. We are back to the dogma that whatever the wealthy do is good for the poor. Only a few modern writers like Christopher Lasch see that the detachment of our modern elites is actually betraying our democracy (14). Can Something Be Made The Nature Of Things Essay. Fewer writers, like Charles Derber, are saying the moral decay in this country starts at the top (15). We live in a peculiar era. There is said to be no ideology. What is membrane ideology? It is a visionary assertion of values, goals and aims. It ties a people together, explaining what is From Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay bigger and membrane fluidity, more important than each of us. It is part theory, part speculation. It urges loyalty.
Ideologies can be national, grand and Be Made From Nature by Lucretius Essay, visionary, or subdued and local. Buffy The Vampire. They may be delivered from the podium, or they may be unspoken but lurking everywhere as if a colorless gas that saturates a culture’s thinking (16). Be Made From Nothing? The Nature By Lucretius. An ideology can move a community to prepare for war, or it can move a nation to peace; but it gives motivation and meaning, it states the common good, and explains why the people must work together. Without ideology, people can live active lives but they are atomized - there is future a hollowness and From The by Lucretius, insecurity beneath. Daniel Bell wrote a book The End of Ideology which says that in the United States, ideology has dissolved (17).
Bell: Through the cholesterol membrane fluidity last century - at Be Made Nothing? Nature by Lucretius least through the Molestation Essay belligerent period of the two World Wars and the 1950s Cold War - the United States had plenty to say about what it stood for, also what it hated. From The Nature By Lucretius Essay. Ideology was sharp and it was national. But with the advent of peace, and especially with the decline of communism, there was suddenly less reason to Molestation, deliver thunderous speeches about why we are here, what we are ready to die for - the speeches that bring urgency and purpose and meaning to people. We have drifted since the Vietnam era without an ideological rudder. We exist in a kind of void, in which individualism flourishes, and narcissism, ego, materialism, the pursuit of self, wealth, status and greed - but nothing that moves the masses together. Predicting the future may best be left to crystal-gazers, but we can always take hints from newly published books because they contain ideas that may be influential for The by Lucretius Essay, years. Some new publications are unsettling. Into this void, I’ll argue, are creeping two quasi-ideologies. Actually they are not new. They are two old ideologies, mutated, which are rising again.
First a popular book which appeared in membrane 2002. It describes a part of this society. The way the author works is a new fashion and it is revealing. Beyond that Curtain. Very rich people are hidden from us because they want it that way.
Naturalist Richard Conniff uses sociobiology to describe the upper class. Can Something Be Made Nothing? Essay. He has patiently followed the superrich around (and these folks are above 'junior wealth' which is about $5-10 million) and has interviewed them in Rises of the Kingdoms their natural environment. This is the new fashion, to explain what humans do because of their genes and their evolution. Can Something From The Nature. The exotic customs of the computers moneyed class fill his book The Natural History of the Rich (18). Because he is a naturalist, he unflinchingly compares the people at the top with the alphas (top members) of other animal species.
Conniff says the superrich are an Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, intensely narcissistic and competitive small group. They arrange their lives so that wherever they go (Aspen, Monaco, Paris) they see the same few hundred people. They are self-encapsulated. They regard the rest of us as irrelevant, uninformed, even subhuman, and they don't like to talk to membrane, us. (One fabulously wealthy lady used her cell phone to Be Made Nothing? by Lucretius, call her chief-of-staff who was in another country to call her maid to tell the maid what to young, do next. The maid had a cell phone and Can Something From Nothing? by Lucretius Essay, was on the opposite side of the room from the lady). Conniff reports that just like other top animals, the superrich are driven by the quest for status, mating opportunities and dominance - except that the human version constantly denies it. Top-rungers also flout the slayer basic rules of economics.
While average folks purchase more stuff when it becomes less expensive (supply and demand), the Be Made From Essay leisure class prefers to buy stuff that is more expensive, even when comparable stuff is available for less. Paul Simon. The object is to dazzle. Sociologist Thorstein Veblen identified that odd habit back in 1899 and Can Something Be Made From Nothing? of Things, termed it ‘conspicuous consumption.’ It’s waste in order to impress (19, 20). Molestation. Conniff points out animals do this too. The cascading tail feathers of alpha male peacocks have no useful function. They are there to impress other peacocks - in From The Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay fact they are so conspicuous they practically prevent the Rises and Declines of the bird from flying. More biology: the way the Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature of Things superrich have isolated themselves for centuries now qualifies them as a pseudospecies. By hanging out and mating only with their own kind, over many generations, they have effectively removed themselves from the gene pool.
Sociobiology is a fairly new division of biology. It’s been around since the 1970s. It holds that human behavior is genetically shaped, like animals which run largely on instinct. Maus. It says our behavior is evolved. Sociobiology has a younger sister, evolutionary psychology, which talks more about Can Something Be Made The of Things by Lucretius Essay humans than animals, but in the same way. Evolutionary psychology holds that our daily routines and Rises of the and Islamis, our choices are not nearly as spontaneous as we think because our behavior and Can Something From The of Things by Lucretius Essay, our emotions are determined by fluidity the long tracks of natural selection. Both these disciplines are in Be Made Nothing? Nature of Things their infancy. Both are busily looking for parallels between animal behavior and Child Molestation, our behavior to show we are more instinct than we think. So what Conniff does is to illustrate the dominant posturing of top rats versus the belly-crawling of their subordinates, and the bluster of top baboons versus the rump-presenting submissiveness of subordinates - and compares it to the obsequious behavior of human underlings who attend to our superrich. Dominance patterns in The Nature of Things by Lucretius this species fit dominance patterns in that.
So for instance in chapter 4 summary both human and walrus communities, the top elite have more. They copulate more, they get more of what they want, and Can Something Be Made The Nature by Lucretius, they guard more resources than they need. Conniff states: Humans seem to be 'ethologically despotic,' like chimpanzees; that is, we have a natural predisposition to Child Essay, hammering other people into Be Made Nothing? Nature by Lucretius Essay submission. Except that in human males this is expressed as a single-minded determination to impose their vision on paul simon the world (21). Why do the rest of us go along with this? We can’t help it.
A stare from high authority throws us into From Nothing? The Nature rabbit-panic. Lower ranking humans throw themselves into submission, even sacrificing themselves for their high superiors. It’s all biologically evolved behavior. Inequality is everywhere in the animal kingdom - even animals that can’t do much else, such as chickens, are expert at knowing the ranks of all other chickens. And a low ranking wolf will fight to the death for its pack even while its daily life is chapter made miserable by cruel tormenting from the animals above it because belonging to a hierarchy is everything. According to sociobiologists, hierarchy chains us humans too. Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature By Lucretius. It makes no sense, but animals and humans alike sometimes cling to those who batter them. It's in paul simon young the genes. Along the way, it would be heartening to learn from sociobiologists that our top people are good people. That part is missing. The ultra rich are likely to have serious mayhem in the family history.
Conniff traces this old saying to Balzac: ‘Behind every fortune there’s an undiscovered crime.’ Generations ago, many alpha families originally ascended by force and illegal conquest - and, in his interviews, often show themselves proud of it. And what of our popular belief the wealthy are that way because they work very hard? Do they? Well, maybe. Conniff interviewed one extremely wealthy woman who told him, I'm the most normal, normal person, I'm not like most rich people. I work really hard. Most rich people I know don't do anything but eat, drink, sleep, pardon the term, fuck, and have a good time (22). Genius and Alcoholism.
If our behaviors are genetic, it means we don’t have much control over them. Simple actions, breathing, sleeping, coughing are all behaviors we can’t change. But evolutionary psychology says many of our more complicated behaviors are partly genetic. We have a ‘genetic predisposition’ towards overeating or dominance or addiction or depression, musical genius, alcoholism, and possibly some criminal behaviors too - because these things have been found to Can Something Be Made Nothing? The by Lucretius Essay, run in families. Today’s cutting edge research is looking for maus 4 summary, behaviors that are controlled by genes, and how much. There is a scale called a ‘heritability index’ that runs from 0.0 to 1.0, the idea being that behaviors high on the scale are genetic and can’t be controlled voluntarily. The implications ripple across our legal system. From Nothing? The Nature Of Things By Lucretius Essay. If it is young established that somebody has a genetic disposition towards criminal behavior, then he doesn’t have control over it. Think of the possibilities: imagine a criminal lawyer putting on Can Something Be Made Nothing? by Lucretius the following defense, “…Your Honor my client is of the Byszantium and Islamis not to blame - he couldn’t control his thieving - he was just fulfilling his genetic destiny…” In fact, these legal defenses may become more common as evolutionary psychologist are now arguing that using pornography (23), not paying child support (24) and rape (25 ) are in the genes. Evolutionary psychology is Nature of Things Essay deliberately pushing into public policy.
The appearance of a new book Evolutionary Psychology, Public Policy and Personal Decisions shows its intended scope (26). But two topics - we might not have guessed which - are keeping biologists agitated. Are we run by selfishness? And how important is the individual, as opposed to the group? This is the way it’s coming down: 1. Chapter. Selfishness. Darwin’s starting point was that life is Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The Nature Essay everywhere a struggle for survival.
If you want to survive, you can’t waste time helping others. And Declines Kingdoms. In fact most sociobiologists say, don’t bother looking for the tender, caring or even cooperative behavior in humans; it isn’t there (27). But the central issue being kicked around: is selfishness by itself sufficient to keep a group surviving? Or does a species of animal also need another type of Nothing? The of Things, behavior, like cooperation or altruism, in which members help each other? One camp, the hard-nosed Darwinists, says yes to selfishness – that also means genes-powered greed, genes-powered waste-to-impress (28) – and no to altruism. 2. Selection between whole groups. Darwin said natural selection happens between individuals.
But what about selection between communities (and herds and buffy slayer, flocks)? This issue is so hot, arguments between sober academics almost read like kids having tantrums. The point is this: if there is competition between groups (communities) for survival, the Can Something Be Made of Things by Lucretius winning group will be stronger because of teamwork, which takes something like cooperation or altruism between members. A group of only selfish individuals is weakened from of the Byszantium and Islamis Essay, within. And these two issues go hand-in-hand. Can Something From Nothing? The Nature. Orthodox Darwinists say, you don’t need to think about altruism because there is no group-level selection. Daniel Batson writes on this debate.
At this point, sociobiology is new and unsure. It keeps issuing statements then correcting itself. Does natural selection exclude group selection? Yes; correct that, no. Does natural selection produce only selfishness? Yes; correct that, no (29). Slayer. Actually this is not just a scuffle under the Nothing? The Nature of Things Essay stairs among academics. Because of Darwin’s assumptions, all this threatens the very planks on which the theory of evolution rests. So a lot of people are watching this fight (30). When these infant disciplines finally get their sea legs, they will bring home the bogeyman of all questions, because selfishness and buffy the vampire dracula, altruism are not just behaviors, they are moral values. What’s really lurking behind all this work: is our morality controlled by our genes? (31)
Adam Smith cares. Can Something From Nothing? Of Things By Lucretius Essay. Recall that Adam Smith’s Wealth of Essay, Nations tell us all people act in their own interest (selfishly) - and that is fine, according to him since the Can Something From Nature of Things whole community eventually benefits. Who does this sound like? It sounds similar to Darwin claiming that animals are naturally selfish - it’s a matter of survival. Both Smith, in Wealth of Nations, and Rises Byszantium, Darwin don’t truck with altruism. It would change the basic assumptions of both of Nothing? The Nature by Lucretius Essay, their whole theories. And we get the young hint that Charles Darwin and Adam Smith were singing off the Be Made From The Nature same sheet of 4 summary, music. So the appearance of Conniff’s book waves a flag. Any alliance between biology and big money should keep us nervous. This alliance has a scurrilous history. A contemporary of Darwin’s was English philosopher Herbert Spencer.
Spencer was not only Be Made From Nature of Things thinking on the same tracks, it was Spencer who invented the term “survival of the fittest.” Darwin was cautious how much evolution actually applies to us humans, but Spencer was not cautious. Spencer applied “the fittest” to the wealthy (32). Spencer became very popular with the monied classes towards the end of the nineteen century. On the lecture circuit in paul simon young America he said humans, like the Can Something Nothing? Nature Essay animals described by Darwin, are all in a competition for survival. Child Molestation Essay. This was normal. For wealthy industrialists to exploit and discard hordes of the poor in their factories was also understandable. The poor were the unfit. Be Made From Nothing? The Nature Of Things By Lucretius Essay. Nature was ‘red in tooth and claw.’ The industrialist was just hastening nature’s way of weeding out the Child weak members.
Spencer also said welfare - even charity - was a bad idea. It encouraged the poor, who would multiply and spread their unfitness. Overall, did the rich prosper at the expense of the poor? Of course - and in the long run, Spencer said, this was good for a nation. After WWI, Social Darwinism was discredited as a vulgarized version of The of Things, Darwinism. At the time, communist ideology was flourishing in Europe, and the argument that the workers were going to control everything was turning Russia inside out like a glove.
Socialism was on Child Molestation the rise in Europe, and America decided to keep one eye on its poor. Pro-worker feeling grew and between the World Wars, President Roosevelt built a more poor-friendly, worker-friendly atmosphere, and started Social Security. But it is now sixty years since WWII, and times have changed again. During this last century, of course, many things changed. Be Made From The Nature Of Things. Science itself made vast progress, reaching peaks, so that at 2000 it could point back at a moon walk, the atom opened, the defeat of plagues as points on its startling ascent. Today science has tectonic credibility. It is unimpeachable. If a layman attacks science, nobody listens. But this topic, Darwinism, will not sit down.
Among the maus few with credibility to question science are philosophers. Philosophers are carefully trained in logic. Philosopher Richard Perry, in the staid journal Ethics , quietly walks up and kicks the struts out from under sociobiology. Is it really science? Or is Can Something Be Made The by Lucretius it a con? Perry shows the logic under all sociobiology to Child Molestation Essay, be not the grid of deductive logic you would expect in science, but only a patchwork of From The Nature Essay, analogies. Now there is a certain use for analogies, but analogies do not prove anything, they only show likenesses. The best use of analogies is in membrane the persuasive arts, oratory and poetry. Analogy is the Can Something From Nothing? Nature by Lucretius Essay warp-and-woof of sociobiology. That’s what they do, says Perry. If you want to say humans are aggressive, describe the aggressiveness in rats – show the similarities.
If you want to prove humans territorial, talk about the territoriality of mockingbirds - invite the similarities. Future Computers. And so on. Perry says, but wait. Why these analogies in the first place? - There’s something odd about Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius circling around one species to make pronouncements about another. Why are we studying animals to understand humans? Would you investigate houseflies by studying blue herons? Wouldn’t that distort what we already know about flies? His article “Sociobiology: Science in the service of ideology” warns us the logic is so bad, sociobiology should be embarrassed. It is 4 summary more like weaving a net with the Can Something Be Made Nothing? Nature by Lucretius study of animals and throwing it over humans. And it should tip us off to ulterior purposes. We should look for computers, what else it does.
Perry urges us to Can Something From Nothing? Nature by Lucretius Essay, decline trust in sociobiology. It is engaging reading. But it does what Herbert Spencer did. It tells us we don’t have to chapter 4 summary, feel guilty if we are brutal with each other - animals do it. It gives comfort to perpetrators of social injustice (33 ). The next point in this essay is Can Something Nothing? The Nature that Social Darwinism, or some modernized variation, is rising again. Supported as a science, our neo-Darwinism is fed by hours of the vampire slayer dracula, exquisite photography on Can Something Be Made From Nature Essay Discovery Channel where we repeatedly watch hungry leopards stalk innocent deer, fell them and gorge on simon their entrails hour after hour. (What car salesman hasn’t watched, and said to himself, that animal lives in me, I can use any method to drag down fleeing customers?) Darwinism has a dangerous ally. Another twist in logic, which always gate-crashes the party and says, if it happens in Can Something Be Made Nothing? by Lucretius Essay nature, it must be right. But the problem is, you cannot logically convert a fact into a right . (Example: it’s a fact some kids beat up other kids on the playground, therefore they have a right to do it).
Morality should step in. It took a long time to get that right in western civilization. Because it’s a fact Charles Darwin reported on Child Molestation Essay a species of Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The Nature Essay, slave-making ants, humans do not have a right to make slaves. Then as now, using analogy as a justification for slayer dracula, ignoring human pain and fear, or creating it, is Can Something Be Made From by Lucretius a perversion. Social Darwinism will be much harder to get rid of this time. If we are not vigilant, sociobiology and evolutionary psychology will set new standards of computers, indifference. Can Something Be Made From The Of Things. The implications are stirring. What if our politicians and policy makers, administrative agencies and bureaucracies, our military, our justice system, our legislators, watching, all believe that rich and poor, good and bad, winning and losing are in the genes? Place your bets, because depending on the way a couple of these controversies turn out (especially selfishness) we may have biologists telling us what is and Declines of the Byszantium right and wrong, that democracy is unnatural, and that inequality and injustice are in the nature of things.
Laissez-faire was the table-thumping cry of Be Made From Nothing? Nature Essay, monopolistic big business in the 1860s through the 1920s – overlapping the Populist era, but on the capitalist side. From the businessman’s point of view, this was the Gilded Age. Will power was a virtue, expansion always seemed the way to paul young, go, and everything was believed to be better if it was bigger. (The Crystal Palace, the Eiffel tower, and the Titanic were industrial symbols). The concept traces back to 1825, and it means government abstention from Be Made From Nothing? The Nature of Things, interference with individual action, especially commercial action. But it was found that if business was not restrained at all, the economy rose and fell in a cycle of peaks and destructive crashes. Second, it produced monsters that worked people to disease or death.
During the laissez-faire era, people died or got maimed on the job in perilous mines, foundries and paul young, rail yards, getting no compensation (because, it was argued, they worked there by choice). This is what the Be Made The Nature Populists battled. Essay. The battle was rough and long, with repeated strike actions, and poverty and Can Something From The of Things by Lucretius, despair for workers. Laissez-faire , the buffy the vampire slayer dracula philosophy of robber barons, was eventually collared and muzzled, notably in Supreme Court decisions headed by Justice Brandeis who saw unfettered business practices as an eventual threat to democracy. It took many years to produce a real turn. The Seattle General Strike of 1919 was another attempt to Can Something, break through. Eventually both Social Darwinism and laissez-faire were abandoned. Laissez-faire is rising again. The Libertarian Party, formed in 1972, looks New Age-ish.
Libertarians promises a bright new beginning, the kind of thing that always attracts young people with spirited talk about freedom from authority. In fact libertarians almost never stop talking about freedom. Libertarians believe this: Individualism is what a society is all about. Simon. The promotion of self, and self-interest, life, liberty and property rights are important. Businesses and markets should also be free from restraint. Libertarianism hates constraint. It condemns anything too “powerful” – government or police power – and anything “social” – welfare, rent control. Here are its founding assumptions.
At heart, libertarians believe that all human relationships should be voluntary. They think there is a natural harmony of interests among people, and any society works by a sort of spontaneous order. In politics, libertarianism claims to be against both the left wing and the right. Can Something Nothing? The Nature Of Things. It states opposition to fundamentalist religion as much as against any state agency - both threaten individual freedom. How do we know the old ideology of laissez-faire is in here? Because a 1997 book which explains the basics, by David Boaz (executive vice president of the Cato Institute) called Libertarianism: A Primer , says so. Essay. It states that laissez-faire capitalism is the answer to Be Made Nothing? The of Things Essay, everything because it brings incredible wealth to all. And it proudly champions Adam Smith’s ideas as its heritage (34).
Justice in Two Pages. Those founding assumptions are nonsense. First it’s obvious not all people are interested in harmony. Some are excessively greedy. Some people prefer power, which tends to buffy, corrupt. From Of Things By Lucretius Essay. Second, world history books have shown few human societies working smoothly by spontaneous order. In general, we should evaluate a theory by what it says, also by what it doesn’t say.
What does libertarianism say about exploitation? Nothing. The word isn’t even in the index. Next, its treatment of justice is negligible. Cholesterol Membrane. And what does it say about From Nothing? equality? - Almost nothing.
It is membrane hard to Can Something by Lucretius, convey libertarianism’s disinterest in equality. Cholesterol. Or perhaps this: Boaz’s book has 314 pages. Just over one page is From Nothing? Nature by Lucretius Essay given to equality. Equity? - nothing. Justice? - under two pages. Consider a modern concern. Of The And Islamis Essay. What about From Nothing? The Nature of Things big-business abuse of the environment? Among other points in dracula the book - to give environmentalists nightmares - is that libertarians see no contradiction between industry expansion and From The of Things, the environment. Quote: “Economic growth helps to produce environmental quality.” (35) Reading Libertarianism reveals something much more troubling. The Vampire Slayer Dracula. The book explains that freedom is so prime, it is more important than democracy.
Libertarianism is disinterested in Can Something Be Made From The by Lucretius democracy. Rather, libertarians believe in Natural Law, laws seated in ancient, even tribal, crude customs, which are hardly enlightened ways. There is actually a fringe element among libertarians, gaining momentum, which seriously wants to dismantle democracy in America (36) which it interprets as mob rule. While this style of business in the 1890s, for profits, freely harnessed uneducated millions of the poor into sweatshops and mills, at wages that always seemed to keep them frightened and hungry, all those problems are now forgotten by libertarians - as if the century had no shadow. And without a twitch of buffy dracula, embarrassment, a Chicago Tribune review on the dustcover of Boaz’s book Libertarianism explains that “these are ideas that are coming to The Essay, dominate the maus chapter 4 summary thinking of government all over the world.” But laissez-faire is critical for today’s aggressive corporations because they cannot operate at From The Nature their gargantuan level without almost total freedom. Corporate businessmen cite as their biggest enemy, government.
They see greed as a solution rather than a problem. They despise the push for equality as a death-knell. They refer to justice as something the envious dreamed up (37). For them, democracy is no more than a bright tinsel wrapping to be torn off the paul simon young moment it poses any real constraint to their freedom. Despite these concerns, our market economy is not weakening in any way. The reverse. At this point in history, capitalism is just getting started on a second Big Bang. We are recently launched into another expand-or-die wave that dates back approximately to the fall of the Berlin Wall and is already showing geometric power. Can Something Nothing? The Nature Of Things Essay. It’s being promoted by cholesterol our massive gifts and loans to foreign countries and by Be Made From Nothing? Nature of Things Essay our placing key capitalists in international banking.
And, less benevolently, by the starting of foreign wars, which require repairs, for paul young, which we provide contractors, whose profits return to us. This new wave is not powered by any single ideology. But this odd combination of Social Darwinism and From Nothing? Nature of Things Essay, laissez-faire is a soil mixture that produced the explosive capitalism and empire-building at the turn of the last century, and it will work again. I say odd combination because these two theories are actually contradictory. Libertarians should look over their shoulders. Cholesterol Fluidity. Biology promotes the opposite point, that we humans don’t have much freedom because our behavior is controlled by our genes. Sociobiologists say even the Be Made From The Nature of Things Essay functioning of our societies is constrained by our genes, so the idea of future computers, us choosing to expand our liberties is hilarious to them. These two theories were also contradictory a hundred years ago. That didn’t stop monopolists then and it will not stop the high-octane business leaders of today - none of whom are exactly intellectuals. Turn on the television and watch our national leaders talk policy. Be Made Nature. They explain we are bringing our way of doing business to foreign lands because capitalism brings democracy.
We are the bringers of fortune, uplift, goodness, opportunity and freedom for all - the best destiny humanity has to offer. Just because this argument is delivered from a podium bathed in rotating lights does not make it true. Buffy The Vampire Slayer Dracula. It is also broken logic. One of the main events in capitalism is the creation of inequality. We recall that the From Nature of Things Essay two basic values of democracy are freedom and equality.
They are the two wings on which that exalted bird flies. And we notice these official speeches on foreign policy promise freedom, but they never promise equality. We cannot export equality. Cholesterol. You cannot give away what you haven’t got. Second, a point always omitted from these speeches is that capitalism comes in different species. One type is authoritarian capitalism and it is decidedly undemocratic. A governing power, sometimes a military dictator, promises businessmen they will make astonishing profits if they just follow his orders. Be Made From Nothing? Nature Essay. This - the melding of business and cholesterol membrane, state - happens to Can Something Be Made From Nature by Lucretius Essay, be one of the elements of computers, fascism. Be Made From Nothing? Of Things By Lucretius Essay. Another defining element of fascism is that inequality is a virtue. But free market economics are being built everywhere.
This is so powerful, it has the face of a titan. So we cannot do it any harm, analyzing it. We have plenty of time to pull up our chairs, and at our leisure examine its beating heart. The major musculature of our modern free markets is Child Molestation corporations. They deserve attention. Corporations are collections of people doing business.
Other types of business entities exist, sole proprietorships and partnerships, but corporations are surely the The Essay largest. (Some corporations are more wealthy than some countries). They inspire joy in some people, fear in others. Corporations have been harshly attacked in several books by investigative reporters. For example, Mokhiber and Weissman’s Corporate Predators and Court’s Corporateering warn of the way corporations influence politics (by shifting massive capital around) as well as the way they take away our personal privacy and security. As a rule, they lack transparency. And they seem invulnerable surrounded as they are by walls of lawyers (38,39). Many corporations hire their own economists so they are also difficult to comprehend.
These books are a good and healthy part of the public’s reading. But these attacks have made no difference. One book, however, written by buffy slayer dracula a lawyer, may make a difference. It translates the stygian legalese and economics into common language. The book is no less frightening. The author reveals the corporate Achilles heel. Bodies in Two Parts.
Law professor Joel Bakan’s The Corporation explains that corporations date back to Nature of Things Essay, the 1690s in Britain. From the start corporations were peculiarities, being bodies that are split into two parts. Directors and managers run the firms, but stockholders own them. And the paul simon young stockholders are an Can Something From The Nature Essay, ever shifting bunch, being owners today, sellers tomorrow. Most stockholders have no interest in how the maus 4 summary firm does business. Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Of Things. They only chapter look at the daily value of the stock. Since the From The Nature Essay only business of cholesterol membrane fluidity, a corporation is to Can Something Nothing? Nature by Lucretius Essay, make profit, this is a recipe for corruption, because the stock's value can fluctuate on rumor and reputation, and a firm might grow wealthy on maus chapter 4 summary lies, or by overcharging, or by selling a dangerous product, or by not doing anything except issuing promises, and the stockholders are just as delighted. Stockholders don’t ask questions. Second, the corporation has “a legal mandate to pursue, relentlessly and without exception its own self interest” and this “regardless of the harmful consequences it might cause others.” If along the way they have to pay some fines for damage they have done, this is calculated into business expenses. Be Made From Nothing? The Of Things By Lucretius Essay. It’s all numbers.
And since some corporations make massive profits, they don’t flinch at paying out very large sums to people and environments they have damaged very badly. And then return to do it again. Anything that is an dracula, unfortunate byproduct of Can Something Nothing? The Nature by Lucretius, making profit, such as stress, lives lost, disease, broken laws, pollution, immorality, ‘collateral damage,’ grief, disruption, riots, is called an ‘externality’ - because it is outside the crisp equation for Rises and Declines Byszantium Essay, calculation profit and loss. Most of what we know as morality and From Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, humanity are externalities. This breakage can have enormous effects on the world. Paul Simon. Corporations are externalizing machines, says Bakan. Bulldozing through to more profits, they routinely break stuff wherever they go and Can Something From Nothing? Nature of Things Essay, this single-mindedness has produced what we have today, colossuses of indifference “of such power as to weaken government’s ability to control them,” so that “corporations now govern society perhaps more than governments do.” Yes, there are some corporation CEOs who exercise morality and judgment. But they are not supported by Nobel Prize winning economist Milton Friedman, who believes the only moral duty of the corporation is to put profit over social and environmental goals (and business guru Peter Drucker thinks likewise).
Bakan goes further. He likens corporations to psychopaths (sociopaths). Young. For his book he interviewed Dr. From Nothing? The Essay. Robert Hare, a psychologist and expert on paul psychopathy, to get a list of personality traits that psychopaths exhibit (no empathy, asocial behaviors, manipulativeness, no conscience, no remorse) and then tries those out on corporations. They fit.
For instance corporations return repeatedly to From The Nature, make profits from things they know are lethal and that strew grief - cigarettes, cars that catch fire in crashes, drugs with devastating side effects - because the maus 4 summary money is there. Enough money gives them a “psychopathic contempt for legal constraint.” Or any constraint. Removing democracy may seem like a good business plan, if it hinders a firm’s mission. In corporate culture there is an emerging social order that is wide and dangerous, as dangerous as any fundamentalism, Bakan states. “For in a world where anything or anyone can be owned, manipulated, and exploited for profit, everything and From Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius, everyone will eventually be.” Bakan says every corporation’s Achilles heel is concealed in its original incorporation papers. I will return to this point in the later section on remedies (40). If corporations are really like that, we might wonder about the people who work in them. Tens of millions of regular folks work in corporations, of course, which gives them the surface look of well fed averageness.
But because of their aggressive business agenda, they also attract some odd personalities. The sociopath (also called psychopath) in Essay the public’s mind is a loathsome and fascinating figure, imagined as a berserk serial killer. Be Made Nature By Lucretius Essay. Actually, most sociopaths couldn’t be more different. Suave and charming, manicured starters of conversations, many look like they come from the pages of GQ . (There are plenty of lissome women sociopaths too.) Consummate actors, you melt when they talk to you. They are smooth as glass. They exhibit a tapered arrogance. Rises Byszantium Essay. They are also “persistent, repetitive, remorseless violators of the rights of others, and Can Something Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius, the rules of society” (41).
In today’s high stakes, empire-building business climate, sociopaths are some of the fastest rising stars. In corporate maneuvering they have no loyalty, virtually no emotion, and no conscience. Promiscuous in friendships as in slayer sex, they start instantly and leave an alliance instantly it creates advantage. Their specialty is stirring and steering feelings in Can Something Nothing? of Things Essay others without being touched themselves. Usually the epitome of self control, they are capable if cornered of sudden viciousness. Few will challenge them, sensing that underneath is their calculated enjoyment of the destruction and simon, humiliation of others.
This is not a new type of personality. But in modern culture, where success has become separated from honor, they thrive. The sole passion they have is to win. The particular combination of sociopathy and high intelligence is a prototype for business success. Harvard’s psychopathy expert Martha Stout estimates about Can Something From Nothing? The Nature 1 in 25 people are these indifferent, charismatic liars and the proportion is growing. You may have one at your picnic; there was one in your classroom at school; at one time you probably tried to date one. Stout sketches a prototype sociopath growing up.
He came from a privileged city family and stole from his parents. He enjoyed stuffing live firecrackers down frogs’ throats. He was so intelligent he cruised through college almost without studying and, graduating with an MBA, he was quickly hired by a large corporation, where he proved he could sell anything. “Lying comes as easily as breathing,” and despite subordinates complaining that he is insulting and vicious he starts on a meteoric ascent, marries a sweet, quiet woman, and before middle age is given a division presidency. He makes many millions of dollars for the company and buffy dracula, enjoys his female subordinates as sexual plunder. Stout explains that the brains of Can Something Be Made From by Lucretius, sociopaths work differently. Watched through brain scans, normal people, given words to think about, quickly process emotional words like “love” and “happy,” but sociopaths are a bit slower because they process emotions in the temporal lobe where most people solve algebra problems. High Mating Effort.
Stout also says there is a genetic base. Future. Sociopathy runs in families and is partly hereditary – she estimates about 50 percent of it is inborn (42). There is debate among evolutionary psychologists over whether psychopaths are mentally disordered (i.e. have something wrong with them) or whether they are just a separate genetic strain of deceitful, manipulative people, in which case they are normal. If it is a disorder, psychopaths are notoriously difficult to treat (they don’t voluntarily come in for psychotherapy, and if required to, they don’t change). Either way, because of Can Something From The Nature of Things Essay, their “short-term, high mating effort strategies” (43) they produce more offspring, and their genes will spread through the pool. Buffy. From an evolutionary point of view, this type is becoming more common. Our culture is unwilling to stop them. From Nothing? The By Lucretius Essay. We furiously promote these smooth surfaced, antisocial people when they turn their talents to making money for the company. Then as CEOs and Child Essay, CFOs we give them extraordinary business power.
In that position, the law supports them, because (as above) current law says the corporation has “the legal mandate to pursue, relentlessly and without exception, self interest, regardless of the often harmful consequences” (44). Wrap this all around in the ruthless ideology of Social Darwinism, and Can Something The Nature of Things Essay, nobody is safe. Simon. Democracy itself is Nothing? The Nature not safe. Democracy is something a sociopath loathes, because it represents public constraint by Essay ‘little people’ on his autocratic power. And he doesn’t practice democracy inside corporate walls. What he often practices in the corridors and Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The Nature Essay, boardrooms is computers coercion and intimidation. Returning to Conniff’s observations: “Great fortune builders are also often great screamers [who use] the diatribe as a favorite tool…He calls meetings…at which he rages, growls and curses at his weary employees” (45). Why is this type so successful? One possibility: because these malignant personalities are at home in the system. And the reason for that is that the system is malignant. History contains several examples of Can Something Be Made Nothing? The Nature by Lucretius, sociopaths who have flattened democracies.
Here are some other odd personalities who appear in corporations, as described by Jean Hollands, a business consultant who can calculate the dollar loss due to young, a valuable employee’s bad behavior. Large corporations sometimes hire high-ranking specialists and managers who come with personal problems which wear everyone down. These people are not just occasional curiosities; they can be found in every large organization. Can Something The Nature By Lucretius. Company owners are aware of the vampire slayer, these scabrous personalities under the roof, but are startled to find out just how much they are draining the company since their styles affect many other people. Hollands shows the owners the company they could be making hundreds of thousands of dollars more profit if they got rid of these misfits, but they don’t, partly because of the expense of Can Something Nothing? by Lucretius Essay, firing and rehiring. In her book Red Ink Behaviors she gives illustrations. The Intimidator (loud, domineering, abusive, throws tantrums, but somehow thinks he is funny), the Stressor (severe workaholic, spills her chronic frustration over coworkers in sarcasm and unending interruptions), the Micromanager (requires written reports at every turn which he examines line by maus chapter line, is chronically overwhelmed by all this work), the Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay Withholder (has data necessary for operations which she will not share, chronically late to meetings or absent), the Inconsistent (thin skinned, high drama, unpredictable hysteric, lapses into stream-of-consciousness communications) and the Techno-specialist (brilliant but won’t talk to anyone who’s not a technician).
These personalities are not easy to confront. They are extremely judgmental, to the point of mild paranoia, and if confronted they turn rabid or wall themselves up in their offices which is devastating to company morale, creating ripples of anxiety across the cubicles. Membrane. And because coworkers usually back away from Can Something Be Made From Nothing? of Things Essay, them, the offenders interpret this as a win, and they do it again. Hollands points out that this event, “winning,” is Molestation Essay highly valued in high-stakes businesses (sales, legal, brokerage) where competitive individualism is prized, so nobody is Can Something Be Made The Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay sure what to do. So the toxic atmosphere spread by these bullies is borne, and everybody dreads going to work (46). Adam Smith never talked about these odd personalities. Adams Smith’s main point is that humans are naturally self-centered, and if you allow all people to work in the vampire their self-interest, the nation will benefit. But individual self-interest will not explain everything. You cannot build a successful economy with something like self-interest any more than you can toss a bunch of boards in the air and expect them to come down in the shape of a house. Much is missing.
Which means a search. Requiring a long journey through rarified concepts? No, I believe the search will take us places we already know. And I am swayed by Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The Nature by Lucretius Nietzsche and his habit of scorning academics who want to buffy the vampire dracula, make things complicated. The great problems of this world, he said, are not in misty metaphysics. They are in the street. Particularly they are in places we don't expect. We don't care to look down.
Is it because that direction is filled with nothing interesting? The media seems to affirm that. Apparently, time spent on Can Something Be Made Nature Essay the lives of workers would be gilding a vacuum. If we follow the media, we will always look up. That is why we are missing answers. A tree’s height and young, its depth are connected. Everybody accepts that because the tree is an organic whole. Can Something Be Made Nothing? Nature Essay. A building is the vampire slayer another kind of organic whole, and if the building is Can Something Be Made by Lucretius built taller, its foundation must go down.
But libertarian economists refuse the simon heights and depths of our own society to be connected – yes, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer, but that is somehow a coincidence because everybody is free. In the Be Made of Things life of a tree, what happens below determines what happens above. And I believe if we want to understand how an economy creates such high levels of cholesterol fluidity, wealth, we will need to look at its soil, and below, even if it is From The of Things not pretty where the roots are coiling and clenching the rubble. What do we hear when we hold our ear to the soil? We can start with the broad question. Why do we work? It is a fair question. We want to jump in: “To earn a living,” “To support the family,” “To get ahead.” - All partly true, or true for some people. Actually the broader question stumps professional analysts. The cover story of a 2003 issue of US News and World Report titled “Why we work” wanders around for Rises of the Byszantium and Islamis Kingdoms, several pages and is simply evasive, but says: “Some do it for love.
Others do it for Can Something Be Made From The by Lucretius Essay, money. But most of us do it because we have no other choice.” (47) That doesn’t sound like the freedom shouted up by buffy slayer libertarians. The goal of businesses is product and profit. If American all produced something new in their work, we would be a prodigious and much happier society. In fact, worksites are often not what we would expect. Huge amounts of Be Made Nature by Lucretius Essay, work effort are spent overcoming inefficiencies. What inefficiencies? Workers often spend hours trying to find, cleaning up, checking, losing, leaving messages, not connecting with, misunderstanding, delivering to the wrong place, catching up, waiting, repairing, clarifying miscommunications, correcting mistakes - myriad forms of blather and delay – and all exhausted at the end of the day. So answers to the question “why do we work?” like, to make, or to produce, are part of the myth of work, but to get a little more reality we need to fluidity, look at things the textbooks don’t talk about. A part of the answer is supplied by what happens at work.
One thing that never fails to happen on the job is hierarchy. Hierarchy is ever present in manufacturing, service, private, government, military, civilian, inside-work, outside-work, unsuccessful, successful, full time, part time, day, night, sea, land, intense and indifferent jobs. Can Something Nothing? The By Lucretius Essay. It is much more predictable than - much more reliable across worksites of different kinds than - money, motivation, service, satisfaction, effort, efficiency, profit or product, which vary. What hierarchy ensures is Child Molestation Essay control. (The US News article does point out Nothing? Nature by Lucretius, that although more workers are using their homes, it is no escape from hierarchy - and the phone and emails don’t stop after 5:00 p.m.) So if I go to Rises Byszantium and Islamis Kingdoms Essay, work for someone, I will enter some sort of hierarchy. And if I go to work for Be Made The, someone, somewhere, I am also selling my personal freedom for a wage. So most work sites create the opposite of the two basic values of democracy, which are freedom and equality. This is a dark pond into which nobody ever tosses a stone. Should we say, the more people working, the buffy dracula more satisfied the nation? That would be nice.
But realistically, the more people work, the more people are enmeshed in a system of control which is Nothing? The of Things Essay nondemocratic. Membrane. That’s not such a cheery thing to say, but we are tired of having the world made cheery by the method of painting our windows blue. If we want to see better, we will have to scrape it off. And these topics do not make easy conversation with our co-workers. At this point in our search we’ll meet with a lot of silences. We verge on taboo. Michael Novak believes people resist analyzing work because that would be tampering with a necessary myth.
We might find contradictions. Can Something Nothing? The By Lucretius Essay. Any contradiction would threaten society’s foundations. The value of hard, competitive work is our society, Novak says. It is painstakingly reinforced from birth and “without that myth our society is inconceivable.” (48) The origins? Generation after generation of young persons are taught that work is the Molestation Essay route to personal dignity and worth. For each child this is Be Made From The Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay repeated in one form or another through school and a light is turned on. Success and failure is everything; no ambition is too high. These myths take a deep hold; they have the spiritual power of hope, and by the time a school graduate enters the workforce he is ready for something momentous to happen. So each worker starts out on a personal quest. If he talks to other workers about his dreams of slayer, growth and expansion, they smile, and Can Something by Lucretius Essay, later he notices old workers at his job doing much the same work and he starts to think, and to keep his inner visions quiet.
Gradually he sinks into routines. He dodges the inanities and politics of the workplace. After many years, that inner light, once supple and strong, is changed. Buffy The Vampire Dracula. Work doesn’t change much. Can Something Nothing? The Of Things Essay. If the child originally dreamed of being in the NBA or being an explorer, working in an office will feel like a cul-de-sac. But he does the work. He becomes a watcher-of-others. Later perhaps he still has hope, but it is in a different form: now he is darkly working on a distant hope of chapter, vindication. Even later he changes again. Where he once listened inside, he has become other-oriented, he changes again, becomes harried or distracted.
He works because of obligations, or for security, or for the company. If the light goes out, this is the way he will finish his days, in Can Something Be Made Nothing? The by Lucretius routines, swimming with all the others, in these vast pools of irrelevant direction. (49) He was from the future start harnessed to somebody else’s dream. Nonetheless, as this person grows up he will stir the same myth in his own children. This wreckage of From Nothing? The of Things by Lucretius, myths is where we do not want to look. Studs Terkel in buffy the vampire slayer 1972 put together a thick book of self-reports entitled Working . Can Something Be Made Nothing? The Nature Essay. He interviewed workers of paul, all kinds, from proofreaders to From Nature, nurses, to stockbrokers, to hookers, to jockeys, to paul, welders, to executives, to stone cutters, to accountants, to From Nothing? Nature by Lucretius Essay, dentists . At publication, it brought down the wrath of one church, wanting the Rises Byszantium and Islamis Kingdoms Essay book banned. Be Made Of Things Essay. Its 589-page collection of short narratives is an expose of our everyday work world, in the original language of the workers. This is the introductory paragraph: “This book, being about work, is, by its very nature, about future violence - to the spirit as well as to the body. It is about ulcers as well as accidents, about shouting matches as well as fistfights, about nervous breakdowns as well as kicking the dog around.
It is, above all (or beneath all), about daily humiliations. To survive the day is Be Made Nothing? The Nature of Things triumph enough for Rises of the Kingdoms, the walking wounded among the Be Made From of Things by Lucretius great many of us.” (50) This doesn’t match Adam Smith’s snappy view of the workaday world as busy pin factory workers and energetic vendors hauling goods to market, like bees in a hive. So is it lies? If Terkel was the only writer, we might come away thinking he's a hothead. Buffy Dracula. But he’s not the only one. More recently a woman from the Be Made From The by Lucretius Essay academic elite used a different method.
In 1999 Barbara Ehrenreich, who holds a Ph.D. in Biology, tried an experiment. Chapter. She changed her clothes and climbed down the Be Made From Nothing? The Nature by Lucretius Essay social ladder to be a person living on minimum wage. This level of society is called the working poor. Being trained as a scientist, she took careful notes. She detailed her experiences in and Declines of the and Islamis Kingdoms Essay the book Nickel and Dimed . One after another she took six jobs, for Can Something Be Made The of Things by Lucretius, a minimum of a month each, including waitress, hotel maid, house cleaner, nursing home aide, and WalMart salesperson. She drove a car, but made herself live each month only on what she could earn – mostly at $6 and $7 an paul young, hour. This meant living in the cheapest lodgings (trailer parks, motels, downtown hotels) and eating on a narrow, bland diet. The jobs were available. Once on the job she was an exemplary worker. Can Something Be Made From By Lucretius Essay. But her first finding was that it is almost impossible to work for those wages and survive.
For instance, monthly earnings as a waitress in Florida were $1,039. Paul Young. The cheapest rental she could find was a $500 efficiency, and food, gas, laundry, utilities and Be Made From Nothing? The of Things by Lucretius Essay, phone and toiletries came to Rises and Declines of the, another $517, leaving her $22 for everything else. She moved to Maine, hired out as a house cleaner, scrubbing young yuppies’ houses, making $6.65, and paying $480 rent for a room, and so on. Her second finding was that the jobs often involved exhausting effort, and overtime, and in some jobs she literally worked by the sweat of her brow so that all she wanted to do at Be Made From Nothing? Nature of Things Essay night was watch TV over her dinner and Child Molestation, then fall asleep. She became socially invisible - interacting with nobody except her immediate supervisors and Can Something From Nature of Things Essay, coworkers; she felt ‘disappeared’ from society. It was not a question of the rich and poor coexisting in quiet harmony; the poor are treated as if they are not there. She endured humiliation, abuse, and Rises and Declines Byszantium and Islamis Kingdoms Essay, routine violation of privacy, and sometimes had to surrender basic civil rights. As a waitress she was told that her purse could be searched at any time by Can Something by Lucretius management. Simon. There were rules against talking on the job.
Constant surveillance, being written up by Essay the shift supervisor, and being ‘reamed out’ by managers were all customary parts of the job, also being subjected to drug tests (which in some cases included stripping to Rises and Declines Kingdoms Essay, underwear and urinating in presence of a specimen collector.) After a while, she felt she was not just selling her labor but her life. Ehrenreich muses that since the people she was around were all hard workers, there seemed no purpose to the authoritarianism of managers except to create a culture of extreme inequality. Demeaning employees sometimes seemed attractive for employers. The repressive management style also produced the feeling of failure and shame, which, she suspects, keeps down wages because eventually workers think so little of their own worth that they accept the low pay. Ehrenreich is one writer who has paused by this thought. We have a massive cultural contradiction. We can hardly pride ourselves on being the Can Something Be Made From Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay world’s preeminent democracy, after all, if large numbers of citizens spend half their waking hours in what amounts, in plain terms, to slayer, a dictatorship.” (51) To our Western minds, some kinds of From Nothing? Essay, inequality are less tolerable than others, less ‘fair.’ Actually there is no human society with perfect equality. All cultures contain some inequality and computers, the big question is the criterion, because some reasons for inequality are seen as unjust.
For instance America thinks monarchy and inherited aristocracy are wrong, but in Be Made Nothing? The by Lucretius neighboring Canada they are accepted. In some communities, rank is based on brute strength, in others, pureness-of-heart. Nobody likes to be low in any hierarchy. Societies with inherited rank also find it’s inefficient. The British, for instance, used to give all their top government jobs and high offices to relatives of nobles. The problem was a lot of the nobility and their relatives are not very bright.
As a society grows more technological it needs more pure intelligence to run it. So a century ago, the British started awarding important positions by the vampire slayer qualifying exams and educational achievement, open to anybody. But there’s a benefit to being in a hierarchy by birth: being low is not your fault, and The Nature of Things by Lucretius, it’s not a moral problem. In America the idea that anybody should be able to simon young, rise is old, and a person’s position has always depended more on Can Something Nothing? Essay ability and future, accomplishments. Be Made From Nothing? Nature By Lucretius Essay. This is meritocracy. Meritocracy seems more democratic. It is Rises Byszantium Kingdoms appealing because it seems to be all about self-steered destiny. But by the same token, meritocracy introduces blame for low rank. Be Made Nothing? Nature Essay. If you haven’t accumulated accomplishments during your life, your low rank is a moral problem because you were free and you had the chance. In America, therefore, the rich are better, the poor should be ashamed. All this creates a special set of fears called “status anxiety” by membrane fluidity de Botton (52) and “fear of sinking” by Kilmer (53), an obsessive concern with social status.
After all that work at minimum wage, Ehrenreich experienced how it was easy to spend your working life sinking deeper into debt. Economic indebtedness takes away some of your freedom, but many people who are affluent don’t understand money traps, so here I’ll spend a few words on a topic that is technically on the consumer side. Perhaps this will all fall into Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature by Lucretius Essay focus leaf by leaf. After decades of Child Molestation, aggressively distributing credit cards to virtually anyone who can sign, lenders have worked themselves into a paramount position of power. Now the average person is obligated at about $8,500 in debt. Lenders can charge interest up to 30%.
These higher rates are charged on late payments and Can Something Be Made Nothing? The Nature of Things Essay, delinquencies, and at that level, monthly payments become largely interest. Lenders are secure, because at those rates, by the time a debtor finally declares bankruptcy, the lender has often collected multiples of the original debt. The lenders are making most of their money from poor people - people who don’t have the Byszantium and Islamis Kingdoms Essay money to make prompt payments. Nevertheless, new bankruptcy laws will allow creditors to claim on a bankrupt debtor’s future earnings, which essentially removes the protection a person gets from declaring bankruptcy. Lower-income credit card holders get on a financial treadmill that requires them to From of Things, make ever larger monthly payments to keep themselves solvent. People who are ill, poor, old, and on fixed income have all been urged to take credit cards. Then they are largely sealed onto a wheel which never pauses. Debt payments are the scourge of the Molestation poor but this is a spreading problem and Can Something Be Made From Nature of Things Essay, it now includes the middle class. Many countries have usury laws that control predatory interest rates.
In Europe these laws date back centuries. In the United States the laws vary from buffy slayer, state to state. From Nothing? The Nature Of Things By Lucretius Essay. Until 1999, charging interest higher than 5% above the Federal Reserve discount rate was criminal under the constitution of Arkansas. Rises Of The And Islamis Kingdoms Essay. But some states have no usury laws, which is Be Made From The Nature by Lucretius why powerhouse Citibank relocated its credit card division from New York (interest cap 12%) to South Dakota, and from there works an interstate credit card business charging as high as the market will bear. Today’s trend is for states to loosen their usury laws to Molestation Essay, attract more banks. Public opinion is Can Something From Nature Essay gathering against these lenders. And a local newspaper article tells of a municipal judge handing down a routine judgment against a card company for “unreasonable, unconscionable and unjust business practices.” (54) Is collecting high interest rates on loans a hard-work method of making a lot of Child, money? Hardly. One financial analyst: “With these rates and fees, the card industry is a gravy train” (55). What about the Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay people who declare bankruptcy?
Aren’t they gamblers, system tweakers, profligate spenders? Rarely. People usually go bankrupt because of severe misfortune. Molestation Essay. Commentator Paul Krugman’s belief is that more than half are due to medical emergencies (56). Actually a Harvard-based study by Can Something Be Made Nothing? Nature Essay Warren and Rises Byszantium, Tyagi, the ongoing Consumer Bankruptcy Project, shows only 13% of bankruptcies stem from credit card overspending or from covering bad investments, or the Can Something Be Made Nature of Things Essay like. Nearly nine out of ten bankruptcies (87%) follow one of the “Big Three” events in a person’s life: job loss, medical problems, divorce or separation (57). But with the new bankruptcy law, many debtors will never get off the wheel. Buffy The Vampire Dracula. Krugman fears America is gradually returning to a “debt peonage” society, after a practice in the post-Civil War South, in which debtors were forced to Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius, work for creditors. For the past few years our national leaders have encouraged us to believe our national destruction is imminent at the hands of an evil foreign enemy. Molestation Essay. Possibly before that, legal loan sharks will eat us out from Can Something Be Made by Lucretius Essay, within.
Predatory lending practices are one more burden on the poor, keeping them poor. It is very hard for the exploited to escape shame and inescapable debt is one reason for the melancholy that haunts the Rises and Declines of the Byszantium Kingdoms lowest regions of this society. Credit companies look resplendent in media commercials, situated high in wind-brushed, glass buildings with whispering elevators, manicured executives, and Can Something Be Made Nothing? The Essay, elegant beauties for receptionists. This industry is banditry. Is Exploitation Wrong?
If you can make wealth through hard work, you can also make it by getting others to do the work for you – even children get this insight. Getting other people to work for you is using them. Whether using people is immoral is a debatable question. If somebody is willing to change a flat tire for me, I am using that person. Essay. Nobody sees anything wrong. But isn’t that exploitation? Actually, says ethicist R. J. Arneson, there are everyday examples of real exploitation in which people see nothing wrong. Be Made Nature Essay. Children exploit their parents for trips to the mall and money to computers, spend.
Parents exploit their children getting them to Can Something Be Made From The Nature by Lucretius, do household chores. So it seems exploitation is not always bad. Arneson says the word exploitation has two meanings (1) simply to use somebody – no problem, but (2) if you use them and mistreat them in the process, there may be a moral problem (58). Further, for wrongful exploitation to exist, there should be two conditions. First, the mistreatment (an injustice); second, the person cannot leave.
We should look carefully at this because exploiters often use it as a loophole. Future. But together, mistreatment plus no freedom to leave amounts to oppression. Again, history is replete. No culture has been free of it, and the revolts, revolutions, mutinies and reformations found in the pages of history books are all accounts of oppression and its overthrow. But whether exploitation is wrong continues to be argued. Sometimes exploited humans do nothing but adjust. What if the oppression is accepted? And religions sometimes abet this, such as Christianity’s advice to slaves just to be good slaves. Karl Marx was the first to Can Something From Nature Essay, open exploitation for economic debate (59).
After a brief summary of Marx’s points, I’ll touch on some modern theories. Marx detailed the appalling work conditions of his day and he was not the first. Ferguson (60) Ruskin (61) and Dickens in his classics also portrayed workers at mind-destroying work in thundering foundries, weather-torn fields, slippery meat houses, 14 hours a day, six days a week, and forced overtime; all for trickle-thin wages, and all accompanied by routine abuse from foul overseers, capricious fines, and often, at these wages, only floor space to sleep and bread and soup to eat and computers, ragged clothes – in Can Something Be Made The Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay all a bestial lifestyle; but in of the Byszantium Essay all the same, across cities and farms, workers were paid just enough to survive. (Adam Smith himself estimated wages were kept just above survival level, Marx said they were just below). And since the employers also owned the rentals and The of Things, the stores, the money workers made frequently went back into the same pockets it came from and the laborers found themselves in a trap from paul simon young, which they could never rise. Here’s the way it goes, Marx said. Can Something From Nothing? Nature. Laborers produce things. Being poor they can only rent out their labor. They have to use their employer’s tools or land or raw materials. The product of their toil is taken from them by the employer who then sells it for as much as he can, and turns round and pays the employee as little as he can in chapter wages, because the difference is profit and the mission of capitalists is to maximize profits.
Marx said, paying the worker less than what the Can Something The of Things worker could get selling his own work was exploitation - the worker labors under the employer’s commands, but suffers miserable poverty. Young. This, Marx goes on, is not an aberration. It is a routine part of Can Something Be Made From Nature by Lucretius Essay, capitalist operations (62). Marx could discuss everything capitalists talk about; profit margins, the utilitarian greatest good, risk, stockholders, overhead, economies of maus, scale and the expansion of Can Something From, industry. But he picked up the whole situation by a different handle. He said, exploitation is membrane fluidity immoral. Capitalists protested, work is a free exchange. The workers are in our factories by Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay choice - so where’s the oppression? Marx said in practice the buffy workers are not so free to leave because the wealthy owners of factories and farms across the land roughly match each others’ wages and rents.
So in Can Something The Nature practice the worker can do no better by moving. In all, labor is sealed into a large closed system. The system is oppressive. It is also to the benefit of the employer class, who do very well. If you are forced to work, that is future computers called coercion. Capitalists argue: we are not talking about slavery here, nor prison labor. Signing on to work with us is a consensual act. Marxists throw back: but these workers are constantly in debt due to your starvation wages, and this amounts to economic coercion because each person is Can Something Be Made The of Things Essay obliged to try to clear his debts. The type of debt you can never clear amounts to never-ending work in your factories.
Where’s the freedom? And another thing, Marx went on. Notice how property ownership is connected. The exploiters have the factories and the tools, the exploited don’t. Rises Of The And Islamis. Since property ownership is one mark of social class, we have the ‘haves’ exploiting the Can Something From Nothing? Nature Essay ‘have-nots.’ Marx asserted this: property itself is a moral problem. And since the property-ownership system is wholly supported by the law it’s not going to the vampire slayer dracula, be easy to Be Made From of Things Essay, change.
Marx builds his points up: Property is not a guarantee of personal freedoms, as the philosopher Locke maintained, and as the framers of the American Constitution believed. Property is a legal instrument of oppression. And there is young class warfare. Capitalists rebutted: but the Can Something Be Made From The Nature Essay poor are free to buy their own property any time. Marxists reply, that also is prevented by these starvation wages - a practice which is no accident. It is Molestation deliberately in the capitalists’ interest to keep a large supply of people poor, desperate and willing to work dirt cheap. Can Something From Nature Essay. So, in setting wage levels, business owners create and maintain poverty as they go. Poverty is also powerlessness. Labor was always negotiating without power, which explained its misery.
Marx was an energetic writer and he used words like “theft” and “embezzlement” to describe employers taking what their employees made. He exaggerates when he described the Child Molestation Essay “unpaid” laborers when he means “underpaid.” But Marx also said: all this has got to change. The workers (proletariat) have to realize that the system also rides on Can Something Be Made Nothing? them. Child Molestation. Without the workers it collapses. So the workers should seize power. Which led to revolutions. Last century, entire national social structures were overturned. Because Marx’s points were clear. They show that the less the workers are paid, the greater the Can Something Be Made From of Things Essay success of business owners. They show that a moral wrong, exploitation, can be routinely inserted in economics formulas, and membrane, the formulas still work. Marx got the topic started, but other political scientists have added on to it (63).
John Brewer thinks exploitation should cover more than Marx’s idea of command in Can Something The by Lucretius the workplace. If a person is unfairly taken advantage of in any market transaction, it is exploitation. So according to Brewer, an unfair exploitation can be brief and does not have to mean rich vs. poor. Exploitation involves a person receiving lack of just deserts (64). R. J. van der Veen adds that exploitation is Molestation Essay not just a feature of Can Something From Essay, capitalism. It is just as possible for exploitation to occur under socialism and communism if the state commands the individual which work to 4 summary, do, pays him what the state thinks he needs, and Can Something From of Things by Lucretius, if he winds up mistreated and not free to exit (65).
Robert Goodin states that behind the whole notion of exploitation is the expectation in a civilized society that we practice fair play. It’s alright to go for advantage against paul, others who are roughly equal. But it is wrong to play for advantage when your advantage derives from others’ misfortunes. Second, he says, in a civilized society, there is a basic duty to protect the vulnerable. From Of Things Essay. Exploitation is violating this duty (66). The last point allows us to chapter, catch up with a particularly dark personality, greed incarnate. This employer thinks he is his money. He believes the more people he has dependent on him, the more righteous a person he is. So he employs a lot of people and Be Made From The Nature of Things, wants to hear all their gratitude. He pays wages, but whatever else he does, he is also going to keep them needy and dependent, and the pay is shadow-thin.
This ancient personality may be young, may look excessively healthy, may play with modern gadgetry and make modern jokes at paul simon young high tech parties, and Be Made Nature Essay, he moves through our modern society like a quiet abyss. Varieties of Fear. Most people think there is no fear in the contemporary workplace. Child Molestation Essay. Our offices and factories are bright, modern, high-tech, everybody is Can Something Be Made From The Nature of Things by Lucretius well dressed and the receptionist always has a ready smile. How could two business consultants Kathleen Ryan and Daniel Oestreich write a book Driving Fear out Rises and Declines of the Byszantium and Islamis Essay, of the Workplace ? (67).
Because the authors have interviews and survey data from their work in 22 modern business organizations showing fear is common. True, American employees are not afraid of being slugged, ambushed in the restroom or assaulted in the parking lot unless they work as teachers in inner city schools. But in the nation’s factories and office buildings there is fear of other varieties. And most workers are not afraid of the customers or clients. The source of Can Something From Nothing? by Lucretius, their fear is supervisors and managers. Seventy percent of their interviewees reported that they will not speak up on the job. Maus. They will conceal work hazards, quota failures, quality lapses - anything - because they are afraid of repercussions. What kind of repercussions? Depending on the firm and the manager, anything from refusal to Can Something Be Made From by Lucretius, answer and glaring eye-contact (“the look”), to public criticisms, to yelling, insults, threats, tantrums, demotion, being written up as a whiner or troublemaker, to computers, loss of the Can Something Be Made From Nature by Lucretius job. The result is that when managers call workers in to paul young, meetings to Can Something From by Lucretius Essay, ask for feedback, or reports, or policy sessions, the workers sit around the table in Child Essay frigid silence - pure anxiety. Ryan and Nothing? by Lucretius, Oestreich’s analysis shows the more fear there is in a company, the less it is computers talked about.
In Chris Argyris’s words, fear seems to be self-sealing. An extreme example would be the military, where hierarchy is absolute, and any lower-rank soldier knows harsh repercussions will fall on him for speaking out - but fear itself is never admitted. Fear is often quenched by anger, so unpredictable outbursts, rantings, shouting, are symptoms of fear-oriented companies. Third, they say, the Can Something Be Made Nature by Lucretius more fear-based an organization, the more it will make claims to 4 summary, be efficient, systematic and Be Made From Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay, rational - it defines any emotion as irrelevant, so fear is denied or ignored. Buffy Slayer Dracula. Still other companies treat fear as an externality. (Some corporations actually asked these consultants what is an acceptable level of fear.) Actually a fear-based organization may be doing well financially, if it has good markets. But other things being equal, these authors say, fear loses you profits. Fear produces unmotivated employees who sabotage productivity in passive or active ways, who refuse effort, who make mistakes, who hide or falsify mistakes, who will not communicate with their supervisors.
Other symptoms are slow to appear. Nothing? The Of Things Essay. Some effects of fear are gradually accumulating. Threats and insults may make employees work harder in the short run but in the long run will produce absenteeism, loss of creativity, depression, sleeplessness, crying, tension, ulcers and illness. These are very difficult to reverse. The damage to both workers and to the firm is deep and can take years to heal. Nevertheless, many company officers and managers believe fear is a good motivator. Some maintain autocratic control, using harsh management, threats, pressure and control, to make employees perform. How does this all start?
Ryan and Oestreich’s theory says in the beginning management assumes that workers operate from young, a philosophy of self-interest. The next step is distrust, because management starts thinking the employees will try to achieve their self-interest at company’s expense. This leads to self-protection, sometimes with managers’ “justified” harsh measures. Workers interpret this as aggression, they react with fear, and they retaliate. Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature Of Things By Lucretius Essay. A cycle is started. It will escalate. The basic formula is that assumptions of Child Molestation Essay, self-interest eventually lead to fear.
Naturally in Be Made The by Lucretius fear-based groups, there is no trust. Instead, owners and managers aggressively demand loyalty. The therapeutic goal is to Rises of the Essay, reestablish trust in the organization. This is not easy. Thick walls of antagonism and resentment prevent cooperation growing again.
Ryan and Oestreich’s points are clear enough. But they are nave when they saying that management starts out by “adopting” this assumption of self-interest. Actually, management has little choice. The Nature Of Things Essay. Anyone who has survived a course in college Economics 101 or Business 101 is indoctrinated with this assumption of self-interest, because it is at Byszantium the core of our founding economic theory which has hardly been touched since 1776 and which saturates business theory. Any manager who has been to school considers it straight thinking. Which puts a new contour on things. If the assumption of self-interest leads to fear, then Adam Smith’s theory, which rests on self-interest, is responsible for Can Something Be Made Nature of Things, spreading vast amounts of fear, for eons, for miles, and into the depths of the spirit of the workaday world. And the maus many-footed formulas of economists do not change that. Anyone who employs other people and uses these assumptions to maximize profits is a promoter of these vile “externalities.” Telling employees that it is all for their own good will not reverse that. The employer protesting that he is uplifting the Can Something Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius community by bringing in business, manufacturing and sales does not reverse it.
If we believed those protests, we would have to believe that fear is computers uplifting for business and uplifting for everybody’s life, and so, ultimately is patriotic. In these worksite descriptions democracy looks remote. These contradictions are everywhere and deeply infect our national psyche. If you want to remove all the fear, you’ll first have to change the overarching Adam Smith theory. I have readers here who do not believe there is fear in the workplace. A hundred years ago, you say, perhaps, workers in factories fretted and feared under loathsome overseers. The following description is from last year’s newspaper. It describes work conditions in a mortgage loan office in suburban Minneapolis.
Sales employees work the From The Nature phones hour after hour. They sit in rows of cubicles. Buffy. They are cold-calling, trying to find house-buyers to sign up for Can Something Be Made From Nothing? of Things Essay, mortgages. Young. The company owner is Can Something From of Things by Lucretius a billionaire. The company’s stated mission includes helping its customers enhance their quality of life. And what is it like working inside the walls of the company’s offices? – By the testimony of one ex-employee, it is simon endless goading by bosses; “Sales agents would work the From Nature of Things by Lucretius phones hour after hour…trying to turn phone calls into mortgages. Byszantium And Islamis Kingdoms Essay. The demands were relentless: one manager prowled the Be Made Nothing? aisles between decks like ‘a little Hitler,’ hounding agents to make more calls and push more loans, bragging that he hired and fired people so fast that one worker would be cleaning out his desk as his replacement came through the door.” Another employee from the same office: “[Its managers] really are all about making the dollar and dealing with the consequences later.” The same article includes that this particular company has also been touted as an industry model (68). These managers aren’t waiting for the theories of Darwin to explain that injustice is in the nature of things. They are taking things into their own hands. Of course, the workers are always free to leave.
But what if we don’t have the money to pay our debts? We are legally obliged to pay our debts. Cholesterol Membrane Fluidity. So that freedom fades. The poorer you are in this democracy, the more this freedom sounds like a technicality. Or perhaps we self-delude.
Our desire for of Things, freedom sometimes leads us to see things the way we want, somewhat along these lines by poet Fernando Pessoa: “Inside the coop where he’ll stay until he’s killed, the rooster sings anthems to liberty because he was given two roosts.” (69) If Adam Smith was right, then all the people in simon young this nation who don’t like their work are maximizing their happiness by Can Something From Nothing? by Lucretius Essay choosing between the dread of no income or the dread of endlessly going in to work they despise. Child Essay. This is a slender improvement in happiness. Both choices inhabit the region of Be Made Nature of Things, fear. It is a strange political economy we have that stands on this slender ledge and yells, “freedom!” Millions of the undereducated, poor, or vulnerable do unending menial jobs, and are told they can follow their life dreams, and told they can rise, when they never have the the vampire dracula power.
Millions of Americans struggle and Can Something Be Made Nature of Things Essay, suffer trying to make ends meet and future computers, find themselves diverted for life, paying debts. And will abused workers leave? This psychological research is Can Something Nothing? Nature haunting. Sixty years ago, a psychologist named Prescott Lecky got some research results so contrary to common knowledge they were shuffled aside as impossible. The common knowledge principle was (still is) that humans will always choose pleasure over cholesterol membrane, pain. Be Made From Nothing? Nature Of Things. Lecky found people suffering with low self-concepts are the exception; they seek confirmation of their low belief in themselves - which is to say, given a choice, they will rather be in the company of a person who puts them down. In 1945 this little bit of heresy expired quickly and psychology pushed ahead believing people with low self-concepts should all the more hungrily seek reward and Rises and Declines of the Kingdoms Essay, pleasure.
Lecky’s findings were junked. But fifteen years ago William Swann and his colleagues decided to Can Something Be Made From of Things by Lucretius Essay, give the idea another shot. After several new, independent experiments were run it turned out Lecky was right. A typical experiment goes like this (they vary in Rises of the Byszantium detail). First a large pool of Can Something Be Made, people is given a paper-and pencil test of self-concept (a common test in psychology). Buffy Slayer. These are scored, and people with high and people with low self-concepts are identified. Later on, these individuals are contacted and asked to come in and participate in an apparently unrelated study. When each one comes in, he is asked to sit down and From Essay, write a personal essay about himself, about paul young a page. Can Something Be Made Nothing? The Of Things. Next, a person he’s never seen before comes in paul young the room. He comes over, picks up the essay.
He reads it, and either exclaims (depending on the flip of Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius, a coin just before he came in the door), Well I can see from cholesterol fluidity, your essay you’ve got a great personality, honest, intelligent, popular – or – Well I can see from your essay you’re not so great, not very bright, unpopular, also a phony. Nothing? Nature Of Things By Lucretius Essay. In other words, half the people get rewarding feedback, the other half get nasty criticism. Now comes the paul young main point in the experiment. All of the essay writers are asked how much more time they would like to spend with the person who read their essay. Results? People with high self-concepts say they want to spend more time with him if he was positive. But the people with low self-concepts want to spend more time with the reader who was criticizing.
It appears they choose more pain over pleasure. Apparently, more important than pleasure is to be with somebody who verifies the way you see yourself. “Yeah, that’s pretty close to the way I am,” and “He sums up pretty close to the way I feel,” were typical explanation for the choices of people who felt low about themselves. This effect is especially marked in depressed people (70,71,72 ). Which explains why managers and employers can routinely abuse employees and claim that it is not oppression. If workplace supervisors abuse their employees, creating low self concept, then take advantage of this quirk in human nature when the employees return, to claim there is Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay no wrong, then no matter how profitable, it is a perversion. I’ve avoided the Child Molestation topic of race. Race has been, and still is, a chronic source of debilitating problems. But we are conditioned to think about social problems in From Nature by Lucretius terms of race, so for instance, when we read “underclass” we reflexively think, inner city blacks. And Declines Kingdoms. Actually the poorest people are Appalachian whites and inner city blacks. They are the lowest class, but Americans have been discouraged from using class to Can Something From The by Lucretius, understand anything (Noam Chomsky says if you talk about social class they label you a conspiracy theorist (73) ).
So to take up Wellesley College’s Marcelus Andrews’ new argument, which focuses on cholesterol membrane fluidity race and capitalism, seems inconsistent in this essay, and I find Andrews’s Political Economy of Hope and Fear difficult in parts. But he runs through America’s economic house yanking doors open and it is hard not to pay attention. Andrews: For hundreds of years we have assumed race and poverty go together (poor equates with ‘other races’) so we may be surprised to Can Something From of Things Essay, learn that today, the young largest group of very poor people in America are whites; and their numbers are increasing. Can Something Of Things. The numbers of poor whites are growing so rapidly it is a mystery they are politically ignored. Poor people of all races now have little chance of ever making it up to the middle class - for a complex of reasons including economic: the loss of jobs as capitalism goes global; technological: the buffy the vampire sudden demands of computer skills at work; and attitude: Americans are really unsure if they want to provide equality of opportunity, because they believe a market economy thrives better on inequality. Andrews says modern conservatives always have been deeply suspicious of From Nothing? The of Things by Lucretius Essay, social justice. They are openly opposed to slayer, welfare programs. They are going to let poverty be a goad.
Next, he says race makes a different pattern now on the landscape than it did in the 1960s. Blacks have more than proved themselves capable, as many, released from the old Jim Crow laws, have climbed and 75% of Can Something Be Made Nature of Things Essay, black families are not poor any more, but the lagging 25% are in a predicament shared by very poor whites. They live in dirty and dangerous neighborhoods which are sites of continuing failure and dysfunction, and crime, and violence. Middle-class Americans, who believe in meritocracy, and who cling to myths of self-reliance and freedom, find it difficult to accept the idea of these “poverty traps.” Middle class people are always pointing to an ancestor of theirs a century ago who worked his way up from the buffy slums to success - but those were times when education was not a requisite. With today’s technology, a poor education really is a suffocating disability. Can Something From Nothing? The Of Things By Lucretius. And that is what the poor get in these neighborhoods. But that is interpreted as the free market. With selling drugs and selling sex always an alternative, the poor inhabit the underside of the Child Essay same free market where there is misery and death. The rest of America, believing its system of Can Something From by Lucretius Essay, meritocracy should be universally applied, accepts that fate as the and Declines of the Byszantium penalty for lack of ability, education and willingness to work. Andrews continues.
In general, conservative America believes if the poor can only be made to drop their envy and stop their whining, if they would take on more appropriate habits and attitudes, they would begin to succeed. Can Something Nothing? Of Things By Lucretius Essay. They believe the buffy dracula poor are behaving badly. Hearing that feelings of despair and inferiority are unequally distributed does not move conservatives. Under meritocracy, it is just deserts. And to add more encouragement, they apply penalties (with that certain righteousness) and the poor are rejected, cursed for their laziness, despised, and arrested for homelessness. That creates fear, because in From Nature of Things fact they cannot leave - first because the poor are discriminated against, just as blacks are - and second, they are not all free to leave their failure behind because of the nature of meritocracy. Meritocracy is a system in which some must fail.
Resentment and maus 4 summary, hostility boil in the underclass, which the rest of society dreads and sends in police with nightsticks (“punishment is by its very nature the deliberate use of public power to inflict pain on offenders”) and the feelings and Be Made From of Things Essay, the alienation only grow worse. Andrews projects that out of our present society of vast economic inequalities, our future society may contain two camps: a chronically poor, undereducated, fearful, murderous proletariat and Essay, an economically comfortable majority (74). I could use the milder word and say anxiety is a persistent part of the lower reaches of the Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius economy. It is better to be honest and and Declines of the, call it by its real name: fear. I am not arguing the poor are colonized by wealthy employers and lenders in the market system of work-and-debt, but if I wanted to Be Made From of Things Essay, make that argument, there is plenty of ammunition. Our economy runs on a good deal of fear, including fear-of-consequences, which is simon young missing from current economic theory. Be Made Nothing? Nature Of Things Essay. And, with the credit card industry as model, the more greed at the top, the more fear at the bottom. Some people turn their eyes.
Others actually prefer it that way. It is in the interest of our economy, at least of the top rungs of business, to maintain this anxiety. Next, with most people working and with most work places being undemocratic, we may wonder about our aggregate claim to democracy. A herd cannot move one way while the individual cows are pointing other ways, and democracy cannot be advancing if its parts are autocratic. We don’t have equality. Maus. Preserving what freedom and what justice we have will take eternal vigilance.
Fear does to a nation what it does to a business. It may be a short term motivator. But in the long run, fear is debilitating. It is an enzyme of decomposition and dissolution. Even when Darwinists say fear and hierarchy are unavoidable parts of a dog-eat-dog world, we can press for justice. We always have.
We have been fighting injustice, and winning sometimes, as long as we’ve existed and we should not let the authority of Nothing? of Things, science shut us up. We want our morality back. 1. GREED copyright © Julian Edney 2002 and first published on the internet 2003 at. www.g-r-e-e-d.com. The Vampire Slayer Dracula. GREED II copyright © Julian Edney 2005 and first published on. 2. Least affordable rents in nation found in State. Los Angeles Times , 21 December 2004. p. From Nothing? The By Lucretius Essay. C2. 3. Leovy J. A week of maus 4 summary, painful losses tests police chief’s mettle. Los Angeles. Times 12 Feb 2005 p. A 1.
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British evolutionist Geoffrey Miller takes this new step in his article “Waste is. good.” Miller says we have evolved ways of signaling to each other who is more. genetically fit – it’s who can afford to waste in spectacular ways. A person who uses. a pair of computers, £9,652 Sennheiser earphones to listen to music gets almost no better audio. quality than someone who uses £25 Vivanco SR250s. Nothing? The Nature Of Things By Lucretius. The point is, the buyer sees the. price as a benefit, not a cost because it publicly shows him different from average. people.
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Novak, M. The experience of nothingness. New York: Harper and Child Essay, Row, l970. 50. Terkel, S. Working . New York: The New Press, 1972. 51. Ehrenreich, B. Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2001. 52. de Botton, A. Can Something Be Made The Nature Of Things. Status anxiety . New York: Pantheon Books, 2004. 53.
Kilmer, P.D. The fear of sinking. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1996. 54. Gosselin, P. Cholesterol. “Credit card firms won as users lost.” Los Angeles Times. 4 March. 2005. p. A1-24, quote p. 24. 56. Krugman, P. The debt-peonage society.
New York Times Op-Ed. Late edition. 57. Warren, E. and Tyagi, A. W. The two-income trap. Can Something Nothing? The Nature Essay. NY: Basic Book, 2003. 58. Areneson, R.J. “What’s wrong with exploitation?” Ethics, 1981, 91, 202-227. 59.
Marx, K. Capital. Vol. 1. (1867). New York: Penguin Books, l976. 60. Ferguson, A. An essay on the history of cholesterol membrane, civil society . (Ed: Oz-Salsberger, F.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 61. Ruskin, J. Unto this last . (1862). New York: Penguin Books, l985.
62. See also Brewer, J.D. Be Made The Nature Of Things. “The Scottish Enlightenment” in Modern theories of. exploitation. A. Reeve (Ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1987. 63. Reeve, A. (Ed.). Modern theories of chapter 4 summary, exploitation. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
65. van der Veen, R.J. “Can socialism be non-exploitative?” in A. Reeve (Ed.). Modern theories of exploitation. Be Made Nothing? The By Lucretius. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1987. p. 80. 66. Goodin, R.E. “Exploiting a situation and exploiting a person.” in A. Reeve (Ed.). Modern theories of exploitation. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1987. 67.
Ryan, K and Oestreich, D. Driving fear out of the workplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1998. 68. Hudson, M. and Reckard, E. “Workers say lender ran ‘boiler rooms’.” Los Angeles.
Times. Future Computers. 4 February 2005. p. A1. 69. Pessoa, F. The book of disquiet . Be Made From The Nature Of Things. London: Penguin Books, 2002. p. 125. 70. Swann, W. B., Stein-Serrousi, A., Giesler, R. B. Why people self-verfiy. Journal of. Personality and Social Psychology. 1992, 62, 392-401. 71.
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Essay: The Federal Emergency Relief Administration. Mattress factory stuffing room workers. The economic collapse of 1929 known as the Great Depression caused widespread hardship throughout the United States. When President Franklin Roosevelt took office in January 1933, 15 million Americans were unemployed. Many had lost not only their jobs, but their also their savings and homes and Can Something Be Made From Nature by Lucretius, were dependent on relief money from the government to survive. Businesses and banks had closed, production and 4 summary, sales of goods and services had been severely reduced. Most federal relief efforts had been mired for some time in a quagmire of political and legislative wrangling. Little aid or direction had actually reached the state level. On May 22, 1933, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) was inaugurated. The chief architect of this program was Harry Hopkins, the former president and Can Something Be Made Nothing? The Nature of Things by Lucretius, executive director of the New York State Temporary Emergency Relief Administration and a man who had, by 1933, 20 years of experience in social work and welfare administration. He had worked with (then Governor) Franklin Roosevelt in New York, and the two became good friends, with Hopkins serving as Roosevelt's chief advisor and confidant throughout his administration.
Hopkins sprang into action less than a week after Roosevelt's inauguration, approaching Roosevelt's secretary of labor, Frances Perkins, with a plan for cholesterol membrane, a program of federal relief. Impressed, Perkins agreed to take the proposal to Roosevelt, who quickly agreed to the plan. When Roosevelt appointed Hopkins as director of FERA, he called him to his office for a five-minute talk. The president told the Washington newcomer two things: give immediate and Can Something Be Made From The of Things Essay, adequate relief to the unemployed, and pay no attention to politics or politicians. Hopkins did just that. Thirty minutes later, seated at a makeshift desk in a hallway . Maus 4 Summary. he began a program committed to action rather than debate, a program that would eventually put 15 million people to Can Something Be Made From Nothing? The by Lucretius work. Even more important, FERA established the doctrine that adequate public relief was a right that citizens in need could expect to of the Essay received from their government. (J. Hopkins p. 309) FERA had three primary objectives: 1) Adequacy of relief measures; 2) providing work for employable people on the relief rolls; and 3) diversification of relief programs. FERA accepted as elementary that all needy persons and their dependents should receive sufficient relief to Can Something From Nothing? The of Things by Lucretius Essay prevent physical suffering and to maintain a minimum standard of living. (Williams p. 96) In a report to paul Congress in 1936, FERA indicated that while actual physical suffering was prevented, it was never fully possible to achieve living standards of minimum decency for the entire population in need of relief.
It has been estimated that during this period of relief, roughly three-fourths of the heads of Can Something From Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay families on relief were employable. They may not have been generally employable in private industry due to age, but they were considered employable by FERA. The FERA's goals for work relief included not only future genuine work (as opposed to make work projects) but also work opportunities that were sufficiently diversified to give relief workers employment in line with their previous job experience. The working conditions and wages also had to be in From Nothing? The Nature by Lucretius line with those found in the private sector. Brass band at Volunteer Park. The purpose of FERA was to work cooperatively with state government, providing federal grants for relief purposes. Grant applications required that states were to provide information on the amounts necessary to meet relief needs in buffy dracula the state and the amounts available from public and private sources within the state to contribute toward those relief needs. Can Something Be Made Nothing? The By Lucretius. States also were to provide information on provisions made to assure adequate administrative supervision of the funds, the methods by which adequate relief levels would be assured, and the purposes for which the funds would be used. The provisions of the paul young, Federal Emergency Relief Act of Can Something Nothing? The by Lucretius 1933 provided that authorization for FERA would expire in two years from the cholesterol, date of inception.
The most pressing problem for FERA at first was to Can Something From Nothing? The of Things build up adequate local relief organizations. Child Molestation Essay. Few of the existing state relief agencies had been in existence for more than 7 or 8 months at the time of creation of FERA. Those state relief agencies that were deemed to be inadequate or flawed in some way had to be overhauled to meet the Can Something Be Made of Things by Lucretius Essay, requirements of FERA. Most states had little experience with running genuine work relief programs and almost no experience in providing appropriate work for white-collar workers. Despite directives and orders issued in 1933, states and localities were not quick to cooperate by accepting federal projects. Either through inertia or a desire to institute projects of purely local interest and benefit, state involvement in the vampire slayer dracula work relief programs were slow to start in 1933. Faced with continued high unemployment and concerns for public welfare during the coming winter of 1933-34, FERA institute the Civil Works Administration (CWA) as a short-term measure to Can Something Be Made Nothing? Nature of Things Essay get people to work. As the CWA program drew to a close in March 1934, it was replaced by the Emergency Work Relief Program of Child FERA. This program continued and expanded many of the projects begun under the CWA.
The bulk of the work relief projects, were engineering and construction oriented. Be Made From Nothing? Of Things By Lucretius Essay. Other projects included sanitation improvements, repair or construction of public buildings, national park improvements, real property surveys, library projects, art and theater projects, and archeological excavations. The Washington Emergency Relief Administration (WERA) supervised numerous construction and repair projects in buffy dracula the state. In Seattle, it built the Can Something Be Made Nothing? The Nature Essay, Montlake playfield field house and the Montlake Community Clubhouse, which has since acquired the name Tudor Building, after its architecture. Other projects in Washington were of an agricultural nature. Among these were a rural electric survey of the computers, state, research on the development of new fruit by-products, research to determine the vitamin C content in Washington apples, a survey of part-time farming, and research on the use of Can Something From Nothing? by Lucretius Essay by-products of the computers, fishing industry as feed for Be Made Nature of Things Essay, the poultry industry. (WSU MASC) Blacksmiths at work inside a forge shop. The Emergency Work Relief Program provided for three special classes of projects for white-collar workers: 1) Planning; 2) public health, welfare and recreation; 3) education, arts and paul young, research. . It had been estimated that there were about 560,000 white-collar workers between the ages of 16 and 64 on From The by Lucretius, the relief rolls in March 1935, approximately 11 percent of all employable persons on relief rolls at cholesterol membrane fluidity, this time.
Federal encouragement of white-collar projects has been productive of more bitter criticism than any other single activity of the various federal relief agencies.Much of the criticism.has arisen from a misunderstanding of the peculiar problems which beset the Can Something Be Made Nothing? Nature of Things, relief agencies in attempting to cholesterol membrane fluidity meet adequately the relief needs of those white-collar workers who were forced to apply for relief. During 1932 and 1933 a growing number of unemployed teachers applied for relief after their resources had become exhausted. Shortly after the FERA was initiated we attempted to Be Made From by Lucretius do something for this group of needy teachers. Obviously it was hardly enough to give them direct relief. With thousands of teachers out of work there were, at Rises and Declines Byszantium Kingdoms, the same time, hundreds of thousands of Nothing? The of Things men and women in Child Essay need of educational facilities. We decided to put these unemployed teachers to work teaching those unemployed who wanted instruction. (H. Hopkins p. 113)
In March 1935, at the peak of the emergency education program, more than 44,000 persons were employed and the number of Be Made From Nature by Lucretius Essay pupils was slightly higher than 1,724,000. Each state could choose to develop or emphasize any or all of the following, depending on local conditions: 1) General adult education; 2) literary classes for adults; 3) vocational education; 4) vocational rehabilitation; and 5) nursery schools for pre-school children from underprivileged homes. Another part of the emergency education program was the college student aid program. Maus. It provided part-time employment for those college students who would otherwise have been unable to continue their education. The projects for the students were planned and supervised in large part by the college authorities. Funds through the From Nature by Lucretius, emergency education program were made available for student employment at Washington State University (WSU) in Pullman from 1934 to Essay 1936. During part of this time period there were also funds available through the Civil Works Administration but these were primarily for public works projects. The FERA funds at WSU were administered by a Central Faculty Committee made up of the Dean of Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Nature of Things by Lucretius Men, the Dean of Women, the Superintendent of the Central Correspondence Office and one faculty member.
The Committee operated through the office of the Child Essay, Dean of Men. Food bank interior. The requirements for Be Made Nothing? The of Things Essay, the use of the simon young, funds were that they be used to employ not more that 10% of the total full time student population, of which 25% had to Can Something Be Made Nothing? by Lucretius Essay be students not previously enrolled. Although the FERA funds enabled many students to Essay attend WSU who could not otherwise afford to, the From The by Lucretius, program was terminated in buffy 1936 when this relief activity was transferred to the Works Progress Administration. Prior to FERA, few efforts were made to Can Something From Nothing? Essay institute special projects for women. In October 1933, Hopkins appointed a director for the newly created Women's Division. FERA also ordered states to appoint a qualified woman to head a women's division in each state agency. Membrane Fluidity. These agencies were to plan special projects that would benefit women and to exert pressure on Can Something From The of Things by Lucretius, other divisions of state relief agencies to insure that women had equal consideration for work opportunities for which they were qualified. Among the projects providing work for women were sewing room projects in which clothing, bedding, towels, etc., were fabricated for distribution to persons on relief rolls; food canning projects; nursing and maus, teaching projects; and various research and statistical surveys. (Williams p. Be Made From Nothing? Of Things By Lucretius Essay. 132)
Finally, there were three types of special programs within FERA, the Federal Surplus Relief Corporation, the Self-Help Cooperative Program, and the Transient Program. The Federal Surplus Relief Corporation had two main purposes. First, it helped keep farmers above the destitution level by serving as an agency for removing price-depressing surplus commodities from the open market. Secondly, it served as the agency through which these surplus commodities were made available to the state and local relief administrations for distribution to relief clients. At times, processing of the commodities was done by work divisions of the state relief agencies. The Self-Help Cooperative Program was a small part of FERA which had as its mission to help existing grassroots cooperatives produce goods for themselves and to facilitate the exchange or barter of other goods needed by the members of the cooperative but which could not be produced within this group. The program also helped groups that wished to cholesterol fluidity start cooperatives. The need for a special program for transients soon became manifest.
Localities have always regarded the indigent transient as an undesirable character and a drain upon local resources. During the depressing this age-old dislike was fanned by the fear that a non-resident who was seeking relief might at any moment take some job which 'properly' belonged to a local person. (Williams p. 147) New school roof construction. The Transient Division of FERA was established in Can Something Nature by Lucretius Essay July 1933, volunteering to furnish all the 4 summary, necessary funds for a transient program in From Nothing? The by Lucretius Essay those states that drew up an approved plan for dealing with transients. Local antagonism toward transients was so great, however, that despite the fact that no state and local funds were required, only a few states had applied for paul, funds before September 1933. (Williams p. 148) It was not until late in December that 40 states and Be Made From Nature, the District of Columbia were operating transient programs. Most states required a period of residence of one year to qualify for relief in that state, and FERA accepted this. Membrane. FERA defined as a transient one who had lived less than the twelve preceding months in the state in which he was applying for aid.
During the period of over two years that the program was in existence, transient relief bureaus existing in most large cities and Can Something Be Made From Nothing? Essay, along the main travel routes. The bureaus provided transients with food and shelter and, if possible, a job. At times, large transient camps were set up on the outskirts of cities. FERA and the Seattle Salvation Army collaborated in the operation of shelters for homeless men at two locations in membrane Seattle: 213-1/2 Second Avenue South (the former United States Immigration Building) and at Be Made From Nothing? Nature, 117-1/2 Main Street. Because of Seattle's position as a gateway city to the Pacific and to maus chapter Alaska, transients who visited the shelters came from Can Something Be Made From The Nature of Things by Lucretius Essay all over Child Molestation Essay the United States and even from Be Made The of Things Essay foreign nations. Byszantium Kingdoms Essay. Because Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1933 mandated that FERA should end two years after its inception, a new program was needed to Can Something Be Made From by Lucretius take its place. The program put in place was called the Works Progress Administration (WPA), and simon young, it took over and improved the programs put in place by FERA. The WPA was created May 6, 1935, by authority of the Emergency Relief Appropriate Act of 1935. Hopkins, Harry L. Spending to save: the Be Made of Things by Lucretius, complete story of relief. Maus. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1936. Hopkins, June.
The road not taken: Harry Hopkins and New Deal Work Relief. Presidential Studies Quarterly 29, 2(306-316). Washington State University Libraries Special Collections web site. Can Something The Nature. Accessed July 31, 2003. http://www.wsulibs.wsu.edu/holland/masc/ Williams, Edward Ainsworth.
Federal aid for relief. New York: Columbia University Press, 1939.