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APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. For Employment? APA format is the official style used by haber conditions the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in motivation for employment, psychology, education, and other social sciences. Check out this gallery of examples, tips, and Cultural Heroes Essay guidelines for writing papers in motivation for employment, APA format. Sample? Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. Motivation? The sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to sample essay introduction the format of an APA style title page.
Your title page should contain a running head that is for employment flush left at on Model NTEU Delegates the top of the page and motivation a page number that is flush right at the top of the page. The title should be at the top half of the in malaysia blueprint, page and motivation for employment should be centered between margins. Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the medea play, title of your paper, your name, and motivation for employment your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is no more than 12 words in 11 shifts blueprint, length.
Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. or Ph.D.) before and after your name. Your title should be a very concise statement of motivation, what the reader will find in by shirley jackson plot, the paper. In many cases, your title will identify the for employment, major variables and the relationships between them. On Model NTEU? For example, #34;Effect of Sleep Deprivation on for employment, Math Performance#34; is an jackson plot example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is about. Motivation For Employment? The APA style guide also advises writers to avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. #34; or #34;A Study of. Constant Experiment? #34;. You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to your title.
All sources cited in your psychology paper should be included in the reference page. The reference page should appear at the end of your APA paper. The purpose of this page is to provide a list of sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. One of the motivation for employment, first rules you should observe on plot, your reference page: If you cited the article in your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Conversely, if a source appears on motivation, your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in 11 shifts, your paper. Your references should begin on a new page with the motivation, title References centered at the very top. Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. 11 Shifts In Malaysia Education? Your references should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of motivation for employment, each source. By Shirley? All references should be double-spaced. Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to be indented.
In article titles, only the motivation, first letter should be capitalized. If a colon appears in the title, the first letter after the the lottery jackson plot, colon should also be capitalized. Motivation? The title should not be placed in the lottery by shirley plot, quotations, underlined or italicized. All major words in motivation for employment, the title of 11 shifts in malaysia, a journal should be capitalized; i.e. The Journal of Personality and for employment Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and sample essay myself journals should appear in motivation, italics. In the case where the constant experiment, same author is cited multiple times for different works, start by listing these references in chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and motivation working your way up to the most recent one. Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to display a great deal of by shirley jackson plot, information in a concise, clear and easy to read format.
In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is motivation for employment important to haber conditions note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in for employment, the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in a table. If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of your paper. The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is clear and easy to by shirley jackson plot understand. Basic Rules for Tables in motivation, APA Format. All tables should be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). The Lottery Plot? Each table should have an individual title, italicized and for employment presented with each word capitalized (except and , in , of , with , etc.).
For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores. Medea Play? Try to ensure that your title is for employment neither too general nor too specific. Cultural? Each table should begin on motivation for employment, a separate page. Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and Cultural Heroes Essay make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table. According to motivation the new sixth edition of the APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced.
The key is to keep the 11 shifts in malaysia education, table readable and the spacing consistent. All tables should be referenced in the text of the motivation for employment, paper. Essay NTEU Delegates? Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes. You should use a font that is large enough to for employment read without magnification Focus on keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and constant confuse the for employment, reader. Essay On Model? Stick to motivation reporting the most important data.
Remember that your table is temperate deciduous there to motivation supplement rather than replicate the text of your paper. Temperate Forest Definition? Do not feel the motivation, need to sample discuss every element of your table in motivation for employment, your text. Instead, mention key highlights and tell the reader what to medea play look for in your table. For Employment? Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Experiment? Abbreviations for for employment standard terms (e.g. M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Essay About Myself? Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the motivation, table. Additional Notes to an APA Format Table. In Malaysia Education? If additional explanation is for employment needed, a note can be added below the table.
There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and on Model Delegates probability notes. Motivation For Employment? General notes refer to some aspect of the the lottery plot, entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the for employment, probability level. Is the table needed to in malaysia education blueprint present data or could the motivation for employment, data simply be presented in Essay NTEU Network, the text? Does the motivation for employment, title of Cultural Heroes, your table clearly but briefly explain what it is motivation about? Is the deciduous definition, spacing consistent throughout the table? Does the motivation, body of the haber process, paper refer to the table? Is each column of the motivation, table clearly labeled? If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in introduction, format and motivation for employment presentation? Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in notes?
American Psychological Association. By Shirley Jackson? (2010). For Employment? Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Author: Washington, DC. Forest? Journal articles should appear in for employment, alphabetical order in your APA format reference list. Consult the image below for examples of journal articles in sample essay myself, APA format. Capitalize the motivation for employment, first word in medea play, the title, subtitle, and proper nouns. Motivation For Employment? Italicize the name of the publication and the volume number.
The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by the lottery plot their initials. Motivation For Employment? Next, the publication year is enclosed in planck's constant experiment, parentheses and followed by a period. Motivation For Employment? The title of the medea play, article should then follow, with only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the for employment, article should also be included. Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available. Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns.
Electronic References Are Similar to Other References. The basic format of an electronic reference is constant very similar to motivation for employment that of any other reference. However, you do need to include the Heroes, date the reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the motivation for employment, document. As you perform research and 11 shifts education blueprint accumulate sources, always be sure to motivation note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Because online URLs can change, the APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in Delegates Network, your references whenever possible. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to organizations) and for employment a suffix (a number assigned by the publisher).
Many publishers will include the DOI on the first page of an electronic document. If a DOI is available, simply include it at Heroes the end of the motivation for employment, reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.
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Archaeology/ King Tut's Tomb term paper 19039. What does the tomb of tutankhamen and its contents show about the Egyptian concern for the afterlife? Tutakhamen's tomb, and the artifacts inside are an indication of the concern the Ancient Egyptians held for for employment the after-life of their king. In 26th Nov. 1922, the English archaeologist Howard Carter opened the virtually intact tomb of a largely unknown pharaoh: Tutankhamen.
This was the first, and to date the finest royal tomb found virtually intact in the history of Egyptology. It took almost a decade of meticulous and painstaking work to empty the tomb of Tutankhamen. Around 3500 individual items were recovered. Planck's. When the Burial Chamber of Tutankhamen was officially opened, on 17 February 1923, the Antechamber had been emptied. It had taken near fifty days to empty the Antechamber; the time required to dismantle and restore the contents of the Burial Chamber including the gilded wooden and the sarcophagus was to be greater, and for employment, the work was not completed until November 1930, eight years after the original discovery. One must examine both the tomb itself, and its contents, to see the connection between the jackson tombs and burial rituals and motivation for employment, the doctrine of conditions, eternal life. Motivation. The royal tombs were not merely homes in forest definition, the hereafter for the kings, as are the private tombs of for employment, commoners and nobility. Instead the tombs are cosmological vehicles of deciduous forest, rebirth and deification as much as houses of eternity. As the king is supposed to become Osiris in a far more intimate way than commoners, he is equipped with his very own Underworld. And as the motivation for employment king is 11 shifts in malaysia supposed to become Re in a way entirely unavailable to motivation commoners, he is equipped with his very own passage of the sun, whether this is thought of as the planck's experiment way through the underworld or through the heavens.
Tutankhamon's tomb, hurriedly prepared for the premature death of the motivation king at temperate definition, the age of only about 18, is, as Romer says, a hole in the ground, compared to a proper royal tomb. The theme of fours is conspicuous in Egyptian religious practice. For Employment. Tutankhamon's tomb contains four chambers. Education. The burial chamber, with a ritual if not an actual orientation towards the West, is the chamber of departure towards the funeral destinies. The internment of the body certainly is the beginning of the sojourn of the dead, and the Egyptians saw the dead as departing into the West.
The room called the Treasury is then interpreted to have a ritual orientation towards the North as the chamber of reconstitution of the body. Since the most conspicuous object in the Treasury was a great gilt sledge holding the for employment shrine containing the canopic chest, which holds the planck's king's viscera, this could well suggest the problem of reassembling the king's living body. That task, indeed, has a very important place in motivation, Egyptian mythology. Planck's. After the goddess Isis had retrieved her husband Osiris's murdered body from Byblos, their common brother, Seth, the original murderer, stole the body, cut it into pieces, and tossed them in the Nile. Isis then had to retrieve the parts of the body before Osiris could be restored to life. Her search through the Delta, which is in the North of Egypt, seems to parallel the sacred pilgrimage to cities of the Delta that Desroches-Noblecourt relates as one of ritual acts of the funeral, as many of the other objects in the Treasury seem to be accessories for that pilgrimage. For the sovereign to motivation for employment be reborn it was necessary that a symbolic pilgrimage be made to the holy cities of the delta. The principal halts of the journey corresponded almost exactly to the four cardinal points of the delta where these cities were situated. Deciduous Forest. Sais, to the west, represented the necropolis where the body was buried; Buto to the north, with its famous canal, was an for employment, essential stage of the transformations within the aquatic world of the primordial abyss, evoking the water surrounding the unborn child; and constant experiment, Mendes to the east whose name could be written with the two pillars of Osiris, the djed pillars, evoking the concept of air.
There, said the motivation for employment old texts, the gods Shu and Tefenet were reunited, or again, according to the 17th chapter of The Book of the Dead, that was where the souls of Osiris and constant experiment, Re had joined. Finally, the southern-most city which completed the cycle of Heliopolis, the city of the sun, symbolizing the fourth [sic] element, fire, where the heavenly body arose in youth glory between the two hills on the horizon. [Christiane Desroches-Noblecourt, 1963, p. 238-9] As these four cities parallel the four rooms of the tomb itself, we seem to motivation for employment have a nice series of parallel symbols. If Sais, in the West, was significant for its necropolis, then Sais, like the burial chamber, can represent the departure into the West. Planck's Constant. Buto itself, the northernmost city, then represents the site of the actual reconstitution of the body. What followed Isis's reassembly of Osiris's body was its revivification. Mendes, in the East, where the sun rises, would then seem to motivation be the locus for that, with the associations, especially with Osiris.
In the by shirley jackson tomb, the small Annex is then associated with this ritual stage, the chamber of rebirth. The ritual pilgrimage then ends at Heliopolis in the South, where the motivation for employment king, having been reborn, reassumes his throne, as Desroches-Noblecourt views the planck's constant experiment Antechamber of the tomb as the chamber of eternal royalty. Overall, the tomb may be divided into three parts: The Inner Tomb, which means the burial chamber and its side rooms, however elaborate; the Middle Tomb; and the Outer Tomb. In the Outer Tomb, six parts may be distinguished: four passages, the Well, and the optional well room. The four passages originally consisted of two deep stairs and two sloping corridors. The outer stair might not now be considered part of the tomb proper, since it merely led up to the sealed entrance of the tomb; but the Egyptians saw it as already part of the tomb and named it the god's first passage, or the god's first passage of the sun's path.
All the corridors, indeed, were thought to motivation for employment represent the passage of the sun god Re through the twelve caverns of the underworld in the hours of the night, prior to his rebirth at haber conditions, dawn--the precedent for the rebirth of the king. Consequently, when decorated, they at first held excerpts from the Amduat, the book of That Which is in motivation, the Underworld, or the later Book of Gates. As the emphasis slowly shifted with time from the association with the underworld to an association with Re himself, another work, the Litany of Re made its appearance. The stair of the god's third passage was thus originally a room with the deciduous stair in its floor. As the stairs later became ramps, and as the descent of the passages leveled out by the XX Dynasty, the god's third passage was revealed as having a ritual as well as a practical meaning; for the flat spaces of the original room were preserved, even when they had been reduced to no more than long niches in motivation, part of the walls of the sample about third passage. These were called the sanctuaries in which the gods of East and West repose. For Employment. East and West refer to the ritual orientation of the passage, East on the Left when facing out of the tomb (as the medea play Egyptians saw it), West on the Right.
The fourth passage eventually acquired two niches at the end, called the doorkeepers' niches. The Well itself is for employment a feature that has excited considerable interest. The Egyptians called the essay myself Well the hall of for employment, waiting or hindering. The function of such a room, as symbolic of the whole tomb, provides a ritual locus for rebirth. The Ba soul in earlier representations flies up the shaft of the tomb and out into the world.
All that is added in the royal tomb is the king's trip through the underworld, the four entering or, as the Egyptians also saw them, exiting passages. The Hall of Waiting, with or without the well itself or the lower well room, typically shows scenes of the king meeting the gods--one of the motifs of the burial chamber in Tutankhamon's tomb--and this is often shown when decoration has not been completed elsewhere in the tomb, as in that of Thutmose IV. This would indicate some importance to the function of such a part of the tomb. This brings us, through the sealed door, to the Middle Tomb. As the Chariot Hall or Hall of Repelling Rebels, it contains the equipment needed for the king to live an ordinary life and perform his kingly duties once reborn, i.e. actual chariots, beds, clothing, etc. Some have labeled it the chamber of eternal royalty. One might call it the medea play living room of the tomb, the opposite of the for employment burial chamber with its uniquely funereal equipment. It then may be significant that the rest of the tomb is accessed through the stair or ramp dropped from the floor. If the spirit of the king comes up from the crypt, entering the Chariot Hall is like rising into the upper world. Medea Play. It is at motivation for employment, that point that we might divide the whole tomb into the Upper Tomb and the Lower Tomb. The Lower Tomb is about death and rebirth; the Upper Tomb is the lottery by shirley jackson plot about the new life and access to the world (the Chariot Hall and the Outer Tomb, both the motivation for employment shaft of the Well and the outer passages).
Significantly, the medea play wall of the Chariot Hall above the passage down (the another god's first passage), often displays an Osiris shrine, which signal an emphasis on Osiris. Once freed of its contents, it became possible to examine the wall paintings in the only decorated room in for employment, the entire tomb, the burial chamber. The walls had a yellow background, almost the colour of gold, as if underline the name that ancient Egyptians gave to the burial chamber - the 'Golden Room'. The surface of the paintings was in an excellent state of preservation though it was speckled with innumerable tiny circular stains due to the development of colonies of micro-organisms. The decoration quite simple and ordinary in temperate definition, style: the northern wall, seen on entering the room, features Tutankhamen in the centre, wearing the dress of living, holding the sceptre and the ritual mace, before the goddess Nut, depicted in the act of motivation for employment, performing the nyny ritual. Process. This central scene is flanked by two others: on the Tutankhamen's is motivation for employment shown dressed Osiris in the presence of Pharaoh Ay, his successor. Ay, wearing the costume of the sem-priest and the distinctive skin of a panther, officiates at the rite of the 'Opening of the Mouth', through which the deceased is revived. Tutankhamen is shown with his head draped in the nemes, and, followed by his ka, standing before Osiris. On the adjacent western wall, are illustrations of passages taken from the Book of Amduat, showing the voyage of the the lottery jackson sun barque through the 12 hours of the night, represented by 12 deities with the faces of baboons.
The eastern wall illustrates the transport of the motivation for employment royal sarcophagus, set inside a shrine mounted on a sledge, drawn by 12 characters, of whom two are dressed differently from the others, indicating a superior social standing. The south wall was painted last, and is a scene of Tutankhamen, accompanied by Anubis, in the presence of the goddess Hathor. Constant. The centre of the room is now occupied by the quartzite sarcophagus containing the outermost coffin. The last part of the tomb, the Annex, appears not to serve any ritual function. The contents of tomb are also an indication of the motivation importance the Egyptians placed on the afterlife. It is not necessary to examine all the contents of the tomb, as this would be a painstakingly long and arduous task. Education. To see the for employment significance the Egyptian's placed on the after-life, one need only examine a few of the articles found. One of the two life-sized statues which stood guard at the sealed door of the 11 shifts in malaysia education Burial Chamber, on the north side of the Antechamber. The two statues, almost identical except for their headgear, are made of wood, painted with black resin and for employment, overlaid with gold in parts.
They depict the pharaoh, or rather the pharaoh's ka, in a striding pose and sample essay myself, holding a mace in one hand and a long staff in the other. On the motivation for employment gilded triangular skirt, is written that this is the 'royal ka of Harakhty', the Osiris Nebkheprure, the Lord of the Two Lands, made just. Two life-sized wooden statues intended to plot protect the motivation for employment eternal rest of the Pharaoh. Tutankhamen's mask, made of solid gold, was placed directly upon the pharaoh's mummy, and sample introduction, had the function of magically protecting him. This beautiful object weighs 10 kg and is decorated with semiprecious stones (turquoise, cornelian and lapis lazuli) and coloured glass paste.
The pharaoh is portrayed in a classical manner, with a ceremonial beard, a broad collar formed of twelve concentric row consisting of inlays of turquoise, lapis lazuli, cornelian and amazonite. The traditional nemes headdress has yellow sripes of solid gold broken by bands of glass paste, coloured dark blue. Motivation. On the forehead of the mask are a royal uraeus and a vulture's head, symbols of the two tutelary deities of medea play, Lower and Upper Egypt: Wadjet and Nekhbet. A very fine shabti of Tutankhamen, portrayed holding the heqa-sceptre and the nekhakha-flail, and inscribed with a text from Chapter 6 of the for employment Book of the Dead. This passage specifies the functions of these mummiform statuettes, made of medea play, wood, terracotta, faience or metal, and in some cases left in the tomb in their hundreds. The shabtis (a name that means 'answerers') were intended to work in the Afterlife in place of the deceased, who could command them by reciting a special spell.
In the New Kingdom especially the shabtis were considered as chattels, not unlike slaves. Motivation. In Tutankhamen's tomb, a staggering total of 413 shabtis was found, arranged in 26 coffers placed in the Annex and in the Treasury, but only 29 of them were inscribed with the text of the formula from the Book of the Dead. With the canopic chest, as seen in fig 1, the theme of fours in Egyptian thought and ritual is the most conspicuously manifest. While the medea play embalmed heart was returned to the chest of the deceased, the liver, lungs, stomach, and intestines were separately packaged, coffined, and for employment, stored. Each of these was then under the protection of by shirley, one of the motivation for employment Sons of Horus, Imset (or Amset) for the liver, Hapi for the lungs, Duamutef for the stomach, and Kebekhsenuf for the intestines. Stone canopic chests typically have four chambers for the four coffins, closed with four stoppers, which themselves are either in the form of four human or of one human and temperate forest definition, three animal heads. With Tutankhamon we are fortunate to have the for employment further equipment of the gilt shrine and sledge for the canopic chest, and the four guardian goddesses who watch over the whole, each identified by a symbolic device on her head: Isis watching over the liver from the southwest, her sister Nephthys watching over the lungs from the northwest, Neith, the ancient goddess of Sais, watching over planck's constant experiment the stomach from the southeast, and finally Serket, a scorpion goddess, watching over the intestines from the northeast. The figures of these goddesses are masterpieces of art, now available in endless reproductions. Tutankhamen's royal Golden Throne was found in the Antechamber. The throne was made of wood covered with sheet gold, and adorned with semiprecious stones and coloured glass paste. His wife, Queen Ankhesenamun, whose head is motivation for employment adorned with two tall plumes and a sun disk, stands before the pharaoh, languidly seated on a throne; the queen places one hand on his shoulder while in her other she proffers a vase of scented unguents.
The rays of the sun god Aten shine upon the royal couple and endow them with vital energy. The influence of Amarna art and religious conceptions can be clearly seen in the sensitivity and naturalism of this scene. There was also a wooden shrine covered with thick gold foil, set on a wooden sledge encased with silver leaf, found in the Antechamber of the tomb. Originally it must have contained a gold statuette of the pharaoh, stolen during one of the two episodes of process, tomb-robbery which took place in for employment, antiquity. The walls of the shrine are covered with scenes executed with exquisite craftsmanship depicting scenes of hunting and everyday life, featuring the pharaoh and his wife, Ankhesenamun. A ivory headrest, depicting the planck's constant experiment god Shu, the motivation for employment god of air and breath, was found in the annex. It was there to ensure a supply of air for the sleeper (dead or alive).
It was a symbol of resurrection, because it enabled the head to medea play breath, by lifting it up from the prostrate position of for employment, death. There was also a pair of wooden sandals, overlaid with marquetry veneer of bark, green leather and gold foil stucco. The sole was decorated with figures of Asiatics and Negroes where the king could trample on them. These shoes, however are very uncomfortable to 11 shifts in malaysia education blueprint wear and it seems they were constructed for the king to wear in his next life. A number of lamps were found in the burial chamber, placed there for the King to use as he made his journey to the underworld. They were amazing works of motivation, art, decorated with detailed paintings of the king and queen. This was also the resting place of the three coffins, and planck's constant, of course, the mummy. The mummy itself is an excellent example of the Egyptians belief in the after-life. The concept of mummification was practiced because of the belief that after death the motivation for employment soul would return to the body and give it life and breath.
Household equipment and food were placed in the tomb to provide for a person's needs in the afterworld. The ceremony opening of the deciduous forest definition mouth was carried out by priests on both the mummy and the mummy case in motivation, order to prepare the deceased for 11 shifts blueprint the journey to the afterworld. This was an elaborate ritual which involved purification, censing (burning incense), anointing and incantations, as well as touching the mummy with ritual objects to restore the motivation for employment senses. Inside the bandages that wrapped the by shirley jackson plot mummy, lay a number of different objects the King was supplied with for use in his after-life. He was supplied with a gold dagger and sheath to protect him during his journey to the after-life, and 143 amulets and pieces of motivation for employment, jewelry were scattered through the several layers of bandages that wrapped his corpse.
In conclusion it is possible to say that Tutankhamen's tomb gave the modern world an excellent insight into in malaysia, the Egyptian's belief in for employment, the after-life. The Lottery By Shirley Jackson. Both the tomb itself, and its contents, show how much importance the Egyptians placed on the doctrine of Eternal life, and motivation, how strong their belief was that their King would be resurrected as a god. Thus, the tomb of Tutankhamen and its contents show that the Egyptian concern for the after-life, was very strong, and that they went to great lengths to ensure that the eternal life of their kings. Gardiner, Sir Alan. 1966 Eygpt of the Pharoahs. Great Britain: Oxford University Press.
1977 The Complete Pyramids, Solving the jackson plot Ancient Mysteries. Great Britain: Thames and Hudson. Chronology of the New Kingdom. Tombs of the motivation for employment Valley of the Kings. Model tomb in the American Museum of Natural History. Manchester Metropolitan University's site on the Tomb of Menna. Philosophy of History. Philosophy of Religion (Copyright (c) 1997 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D.
All Rights Reserved) Gardiner, Sir Alan. 1966 Eygpt of the Pharoahs. Great Britain: Oxford University Press. 1977 The Complete Pyramids, Solving the Ancient Mysteries.
Great Britain: Thames and Hudson. Chronology of the New Kingdom. Tombs of the Valley of the Kings. Model tomb in the American Museum of Natural History. Manchester Metropolitan University's site on the Tomb of Menna. Philosophy of History. Philosophy of Religion (Copyright (c) 1997 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved)
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A Comprehensive Guide to for employment, APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Medea Play. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to for employment, use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way.
This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is 11 shifts in malaysia blueprint derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. For Employment. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by plot, including APA format citations in your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and easily?
Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in for employment, your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. Haber Process Conditions. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of motivation, APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the plot, project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to motivation, help develop your research. These citations are listed in the lottery, alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different.
In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to motivation for employment, Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. Temperate Definition. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and motivation research information for everything psychology related.
APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and in malaysia books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is for employment a popular way to create citations. This citation format is medea play used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information.
APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the motivation, types of sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of the lottery by shirley, information needed to understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA.
APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. In previous versions of motivation for employment, APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the by shirley, date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to for employment, include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in the citation. Temperate Deciduous Forest. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in motivation for employment, APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations.
In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of jackson, a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the next section below to learn more about how to format and motivation include in-text citations in education, your project. For Employment. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for the lottery by shirley plot all of the in-text citations are found here.
The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. For Employment. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from haber, URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to for employment, find the proper format for planck's experiment the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is for employment a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. Haber. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of motivation, text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is definition done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to motivation, rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project.
When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to another piece of information from haber process conditions, another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the for employment, exact text themselves. It is not necessary to temperate deciduous definition, include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to motivation for employment, enter the temperate, land of the free and motivation the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport.
The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only haber conditions include the for employment, year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in temperate deciduous forest definition, their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine.
Try our APA citation machine which is found on for employment, our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. 11 Shifts Blueprint. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL.
Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Motivation. Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the 11 shifts in malaysia blueprint, authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the motivation, source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for by shirley “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to motivation for employment, honor Flyers founder.
The Philadelphia Inquirer . Forest Definition. If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. For Employment. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the process conditions, first word of the motivation, title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the sample myself introduction, first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Motivation. Hyde.
Roots: The saga of an education blueprint, American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. For Employment. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and deciduous political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in for employment, each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks.
In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in medea play, italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title.
If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. For Employment. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on sample myself, the source form that you choose. Motivation. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the by shirley jackson plot, publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States.
After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the motivation for employment, publisher. It is process conditions acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the motivation for employment, publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation.
The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. Medea Play. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from motivation, http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is temperate deciduous definition a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation.
After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books. Motivation. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in deciduous, your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more.
For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in motivation, response to the problem of broken or outdated links and haber conditions URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and motivation will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and temperate definition write it in for employment, this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. The Lottery By Shirley Plot. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the motivation for employment, online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for haber conditions you, automatically. Click here for motivation for employment more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for jackson plot Sources.
Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. For Employment. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and blueprint technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. Motivation. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of essay myself introduction, chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title.
In First initial. Last name of for employment, Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for 11 shifts education Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. For Employment. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Sample Myself. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). For Employment. Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Medea Play. Auerbach, K. For Employment. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and sample myself technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com.
If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. Motivation. (Year Published).
Title of haber process, work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. For Employment. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on planck's constant experiment, “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published).
Title of motivation, article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. Planck's Experiment. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of motivation, war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. The Lottery Plot. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet.
This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Motivation For Employment. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used.
Author Last name, F. 11 Shifts Education Blueprint. I. (Year Published). Title of motivation, article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. The Lottery By Shirley Jackson. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources.
Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of motivation for employment, article. Haber Process. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. For Employment. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. Plot. I. (Year, Month Date Published).
Title of article . Motivation For Employment. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. Deciduous Definition. USA Today . Motivation For Employment. Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. Education Blueprint. I. Motivation For Employment. (Year, Month Published). Title of article.
Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. By Shirley Jackson. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an motivation for employment, APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). Medea Play. How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post).
Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the for employment, Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the haber process conditions, third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for motivation blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs.
Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Haber. Writer Last Name, F. I. Motivation For Employment. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. Medea Play. I. Motivation. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. Planck's Experiment. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014).
Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. For Employment. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Definition. Producer Last Name, F. I. Motivation. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). Medea Play. (Year Released). For Employment. Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio.
Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. In Malaysia. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in motivation, film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films.
If your instructor requires a citation in sample myself introduction, the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the motivation, recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. 11 Shifts Education. Middle initial.
Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file].
Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. Motivation For Employment. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and haber easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Motivation For Employment. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. About Introduction. S. (2014). The influences of motivation for employment, community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you.
Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from 11 shifts, URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). For Employment. (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. 11 Shifts Blueprint. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of motivation, YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10).
Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from medea play, https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. For Employment. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to the lottery by shirley jackson, automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is for employment a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. Medea Play. When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations.
Looking to motivation for employment, create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on sample about, a specific interest or subject.
A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of motivation for employment, MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.
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clever essay title A Case Study of Medieval Japan through Art: Samurai Life in Medieval Japan. Medieval Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Ethan Segal, Michigan State University. Medieval Japan may call to mind honorable sword-wielding samurai and stealthy ninja assassins.
These figures, often seen in popular movies and games about pre-modern Japan, are only loosely based on reality. In fact, many different types of motivation, people helped shape the haber process conditions, medieval period. Over 400 years, from the late twelfth to the late sixteenth centuries, emperors and priests, women and merchants, poets and playwrights, and, of course, samurai created a complex yet fascinating society. Samurai governments administered the motivation for employment, country in tandem with the older imperial administration. Warriors’ rise to sample introduction, power led to motivation for employment, an increase in violence, and by the mid-fifteenth century, warfare was constant. But other aspects of society flourished in spite of the breakdown in civil order. Buddhism enjoyed the deciduous definition, strong support of both samurai and motivation for employment, commoners. Such new cultural traditions as the tea ceremony became popular.
The arrival of Europeans in the sixteenth century forced the Japanese to change their view of the world. The term medieval may seem curious, since it was originally applied to European history. It described a “middle” period between the haber, fall of the Roman Empire and the start of the Renaissance. During this period, central government was weak and society was divided among feudal rulers. Sixteenth-century Japan was divided among warlords known as daimy#333; , and Europeans who visited Japan at that time felt it resembled medieval Europe.
Early twentieth-century Japanese scholars also saw these similarities. They adopted the term medieval to describe the period when Japanese imperial authority was weak and warriors played an for employment, important role in governing society. These were the years of Japan’s first two warrior governments: the Kamakura (1185-1333) and the Muromachi (1336-1573) shogunates. 11 Shifts In Malaysia Education. What were those warriors like? What roles did they play in Japanese history? To answer these questions, we must turn to the creation of Japan’s first warrior government in the 1180s. As late as the 1170s, no one could have guessed that warriors led by the Minamoto clan were about to establish an independent government. Most warriors served as middle-level officials in the provinces, working as managers on government-owned public lands or on private estates ( sh#333;en ). They owed their positions to central government aristocrats and powerful temples. If a warrior disobeyed his superiors, he would be labeled a rebel and his lands given to rivals. Thus, for motivation most of the medea play, twelfth century, imperial officials controlled the warriors. By 1179, Kiyomori had made himself a virtual dictator.
In 1180 he forced the imperial court to motivation for employment, make his grandson (the child of his daughter who had married an emperor) the next emperor. That same year, a disgruntled imperial prince, upset that he had been passed over for temperate the throne, issued a call-to-arms. Yoritomo, exiled head of the Minamoto clan (and now an adult), mobilized warriors to join him in attacking the Taira. The Minamoto and Taira fought the length of the country for five years in for employment, a conflict known as the Genpei War. When the Taira were finally defeated, Yoritomo went on to found Japan’s first warrior government.
The real significance of the war, however, was the warriors’ first steps toward independence from the imperial government. Medea Play. Yoritomo convinced many eastern warriors to follow him by motivation promising to guarantee their lands and jobs. As a result, warriors who felt insecure under the old system chose to join the Minamoto, even if they were not actually part of the Minamoto clan. In many cases, their local rivals joined the Taira side (even though they weren’t members of the Taira family) just to oppose them. So the Genpei War was, more than anything, about warriors asserting themselves against neighbors and the central government. The imperial court, at a loss to stop such violence, turned to the only warrior capable of restoring peace: Yoritomo. In exchange for helping to haber, bring order to the countryside, Yoritomo secured authorization for his own warrior government in motivation for employment, the eastern city of Kamakura. His government is known as the essay about myself, Kamakura bakufu or shogunate.
Its primary duties included supervising warriors and motivation, deciding lawsuits. Yoritomo rewarded loyal warriors by appointing them as jit#333; (military land stewards) on private estates. These jit#333; served as police and tax collectors. While jit#333; worked on individual estates, Yoritomo later began appointing other warriors as shugo (military governors) over entire provinces. Shugo investigated major crimes (such as murder or treason), summoned warriors for guard duty, and collected information for Kamakura. Yoritomo himself held several titles, including shogun. Myself Introduction. Later that title would be passed on to the motivation for employment, head of the warrior government. When Yoritomo died in sample essay about myself, 1199, his sons succeeded him, but they proved to motivation, be weak leaders.
Real power was maintained by the family of haber conditions, Yoritomo’s wife, H#333;j#333; Masako. Together with her father and brother, Masako created the for employment, position of regent for the shogun. Male members of the H#333;j#333; family served as regents from definition, 1203 until 1333. Masako herself was never regent, but she was a very influential person wielded much authority in motivation for employment, Kamakura. For much of the thirteenth century, the Kamakura government kept the peace. It never eliminated the plot, imperial government in Kyoto, but instead shared power. Kamakura managed warrior affairs while Kyoto supervised the aristocracy, temples, and civilians.
The bakufu also created an advanced legal system. Trials relied on testimony, cross-examination, written documents, and precedent. Outcomes could be appealed. Although it was a warrior government, great energy went into motivation for employment keeping warriors off the medea play, battlefield. In 1221, however, a retired emperor tried to muster an army to destroy Kamakura. His forces were defeated and he was exiled, leaving the warrior government even stronger. Another threat came in motivation, the late 1260s, when the Mongol leader Kubilai Khan tried to intimidate the Japanese into submitting to his empire.
Japan’s warriors rejected Kubilai’s diplomatic efforts, so Mongol-led armies attempted to invade Japan in 1274 and 1281. The Lottery. In each case, samurai defenders fought off the invaders with some help from typhoons. Because the Japanese believed the bad weather was sent by the gods to defend Japan, they called those storms kamikaze (divine winds). Samurai of the Kamakura Period. Medieval war tales and motivation for employment, other accounts tell us a lot about the early samurai. Leading warriors were usually mounted archers. Although they carried swords, they valued the bow and arrow over other weapons. These samurai were quite independent. They supplied their own weapons, armor, provisions, and attendants. Conditions. There was no “samurai code” at this time, and motivation for employment, you can find tales of bravery as well as treachery among Kamakura warriors. Many fought in order to earn fame and rewards.
For that reason, they often wore distinctiveeven colorfularmor and clothing to enable others to easily recognize them. Warriors were witnesses for each other so that reports of battlefield valor could be confirmed and medea play, brave warriors rewarded. Consider, for example, the personal account of Takezaki Suenaga, a samurai who fought against the Mongols. In his version of events, he makes no mention of fighting to defend Japan. Instead, he fought to make a name for himself, be witnessed, and earn rewards. Since most battles were fought between Japanese, it was relatively easy to motivation for employment, reward the winnersthey would receive the property or positions of the losers. But the Mongol invasions proved much more challenging. Kamakura’s samurai fought off the invaders, but they did not capture any Mongol lands they could claim as rewards. Meanwhile, the economy started to expand, and many warriors found themselves in financial difficulties. Some had to use their lands as collateral to borrow money.
If they failed to repay loans, they had to forfeit their property. At the same time, the essay about myself introduction, H#333;j#333; family took advantage of the invasion crisis to further solidify its own hold on government, excluding members of other warrior families from top positions. These problems led many samurai to become increasingly frustrated with Kamakura by the early fourteenth century. New Directions in Buddhism. Religion underwent significant growth and motivation for employment, change during Japan’s medieval period.
The major Buddhist temples and Shint#333; shrines controlled estates in the provinces. In earlier times, they relied on the taxes from about introduction, those estates for much of their income. Samurai, however, started interfering with temples’ ability to collect tax income. As estate taxes became increasingly unreliable, religious houses needed to find additional sources of income. Some sects, such as Pure Land Buddhism, found new ways to appeal to the common people. Others, such as Zen, gained popularity among the warriors. Of course, religious thought also played an important role in motivation for employment, the evolution of Japanese Buddhism. Haber Process Conditions. Many people believed in the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation) as a form of cosmic justice. Depending on how you had lived your previous life, your soul might be reborn into better or worse circumstances.
The goal was for each person to attain enlightenment ( nirvana ) and motivation, be freed from the cycle of rebirth. However, another influential idea was that Japan had entered mapp#333; , the final days of the law. Deciduous. Mapp#333; was a degenerate age in which the for employment, teachings of the sample, historical Buddha were so distant that people were no longer able to fully comprehend them. Motivation. Therefore, it was almost impossible for individuals to achieve enlightenment on their own. For many Japanese, medieval warfare and constant experiment, the breakdown of civil order were proof that they were living in degenerate times. One response was Pure Land Buddhism. Pure Land came from the teachings of a religious reformer named H#333;nen. Unlike the Buddhist establishment, H#333;nen saw little value to study in the age of mapp#333; . He taught his followers to place complete faith in the Buddha Amida.
Amida had vowed to save others before achieving enlightenment. Thus, Pure Land practitioners believed that by repeatedly expressing their faith in him, they would be reborn into Amida’s western paradise. Anyone could say the phrase (known as the for employment, nembutsu ) that professed beliefyears of training were not requiredso Pure Land became quite popular among common people. Shinran, one of medea play, H#333;nen’s students, took this logic a step further. He claimed that repeating the nembutsu was unnecessary, since that still meant that salvation depended on individual effort. True faith in Amida’s mercy was the only hope for mankind. Motivation For Employment. Therefore, according to Shinran, one absolutely sincere expression of belief was all that was necessary. His teachings became True Pure Land Buddhism and sample about myself, gained widespread acceptance, especially among the peasantry.
Nichiren was another important Buddhist who taught that salvation came through faith. A nationalist, he taught that, although Buddhism had originated in India, it would achieve its highest form in Japan. He valued the Lotus Sutra above all other Buddhist scriptures. Nichiren openly criticized other Buddhist schools and was very dogmatic; this led to his eventual exile. Motivation For Employment. But his conviction won him followers, and essay myself introduction, his sect remains popular in motivation for employment, Japan even today. Zen Buddhism also won acceptance in Japan during the medieval period. It was based on Chinese Ch’an Buddhism, and the great Japanese Zen priests Eisai and D#333;gen both trained in 11 shifts education, China.
The faith they brought back to Japan promoted meditation ( zazen ) and the contemplation of questions with no logical answers ( k#333;an ) as paths to enlightenment. The emphasis on self-reliance and motivation for employment, discipline appealed to many warriors, and the samurai became some of Zen’s most loyal patrons. The warrior capital of Kamakura contained many Buddhist temples, some of which still stand today. A major shrine, dedicated to medea play, the Shint#333; war deity, was built at the heart of the city. Numerous Zen temples were constructed during the thirteenth century. Women were just as involved as men, and one famous temple, T#333;keiji, became a site of refuge for motivation women seeking divorces. The Lottery By Shirley Jackson Plot. The proliferation of temples reflected sincere religious devotion, but the dedication in 1252 of motivation for employment, a bronze Buddha figure over 40 feet high was surely also intended to rival the great Buddha at T#333;daiji Temple in Nara. The building that housed the Kamakura Buddha was swept away by a tidal wave in the late fifteenth century, but the bronze figure remains, sitting outside ever since. Poetry remained the most important literary form. Members of the imperial court were the best educated and most skilled, but samurai also began to take an interest.
The third shogun, Sanetomo, was considered a very skillful poet. Temperate Deciduous Definition. His teacher, the courtier Fujiwara Teika, compiled one of for employment, Japan’s greatest imperial poetry collections, the Shinkokinsh#363; . Prose literary works reflected the Buddhist influence of the in malaysia education blueprint, medieval age. The Tale of the Heike was the most popular. It described the Genpei War and the Taira clan’s downfall. Its stories are quite exciting and seem to offer an intriguing view of twelfth-century warfare. But the motivation, tale cannot be read as an accurate account of the war. Buddhist chanters composed the tale many decades after the war had ended. They sang it as they played biwa (stringed instruments similar to lutes) to illustrate Buddhist themes of impermanence and show how the the lottery by shirley, mighty will fall. Similar themes can be found in Kamo no Ch#333;mei’s philosophical essay, “An Account of My Hut.” Few works by women have survived. Motivation For Employment. A notable exception is the memoir of Lady Nij#333;, a court attendant.
Her work is lively, frank, colorful, and offers a valuable view of life in Kyoto and the provinces. Painting and sculpture reflected the influential roles of Buddhism and the samurai in society. Temperate Deciduous Definition. Illustrated scrolls ( emaki ) used pictures to show how temples were founded and how violent conflicts destroyed parts of Kyoto. For Employment. Takezaki Suenaga, the samurai mentioned above who fought against 11 shifts education blueprint, the Mongols, even commissioned an illustrated scroll to tell his tale. Another important art form was raig#333; , paintings that showed Amida welcoming people who had just died to for employment, his western paradise. The Lottery Jackson Plot. The influential Kei school of sculptors used graphic realism in their work. Their famous guardians at T#333;daiji look quite intimidating, even hyper-masculine, with detailed bulging muscles, fierce expressions, and crystals set in the eyes to make them look real.
Kamakura’s Demise and the Muromachi Bakufu. The Muromachi bakufu was never as stable as Kamakura had been. The shogun was not powerful enough to for employment, rule the country by medea play his own force of arms. Eastern Japan and the island of motivation, Ky#363;sh#363 were both semi-autonomous. The shogun’s authority was contingent on the lottery plot, his maintaining the support of a strong coalition of shugo . These shugo were much more powerful than their Kamakura period predecessors. Their posts were now hereditary, and one individual could rule more than one province at for employment a time. They also had the temperate deciduous definition, right to motivation for employment, levy special taxes on estates to cover their military expenditures. Three of the medea play, most powerful shugo familiesthe Hosokawa, Hatakeyama, and Shibaalternated in serving as deputy shogun ( kanrei ), a position designed to help mediate between the shogun and his shugo . Yet the shugo needed the legitimacy that they gained from the shogun’s support to help them fend off local warriors in for employment, the provinces under their control. Yoshimitsu is widely recognized as the strongest and most successful Ashikaga shogun. He ended the warfare of the divided imperial court and crushed those shugo who opposed him. He reopened diplomatic relations and official trade with China.
Yoshimitsu was an accomplished poet and a great sponsor of the arts. His patronage of a particular performing troupe helped give birth to Noh theatre. He also is credited with constructing the Golden Pavilion, one of Japan’s most famous medieval buildings. Constant Experiment. Yoshimitsu took it over as a retirement villa in the 1390s, covering it with real gold leaf (it is part of a Zen temple today). Motivation For Employment. His other great construction project, the Palace of Flowers, reflected Yoshimitsu’s ambitions to outdo, and perhaps replace, the emperor. The shogun’s palace was built across the 11 shifts, street from the imperial palace but was twice as large and far more sumptuous. Perhaps Yoshimitsu’s most controversial decision was to accept the title “king of Japan” from the Chinese emperor. In the Chinese view of foreign relations, only one ruler could have the title “emperor,” and that was the emperor of China. Other rulers had lesser titles, such as king. Motivation For Employment. When Yoshimitsu attempted to re-establish formal relations and by shirley plot, trade with China, he agreed to take the title king of Japan. Many Japanese of the time objected since it implied that Japan was subordinate to China.
Yoshimitsu’s motives are not entirely clear. Some suggest that he did this in order to bolster his legitimacy at for employment home. Others think that he was so eager to trade with the Chinese that he ignored the medea play, political implications of the title. Another theory is that he hoped to monopolize foreign relations as part of his plan to motivation for employment, replace the Japanese imperial family with his own line. Yoshimitsu died before he could realize any plans to replace the imperial family, and by shirley jackson, his son backed away from motivation for employment, his father’s bold policies. But shogunal authority remained strong until 1441, when the sixth shogun, Yoshinori, was assassinated. After Yoshinori, only the eighth shogun, Yoshimasa, stands out as a memorable figure. He ruled for over 20 years and was a great sponsor of the arts, including Noh theatre and the tea ceremony. He built the Silver Pavilion, another important cultural property in Kyoto, but plans to cover the villa with silver leaf were never carried out. Yoshimasa may have matched his grandfather Yoshimitsu’s flair for architecture and the arts, but he lacked Yoshimitsu’s skill at politics.
It was during Yoshimasa’s tenure as shogun that an 11-year civil war broke out, heralding the the lottery, end of for employment, strong central government in Japan for over a century. Muromachi Arts and Culture. In earlier times, the arts were dominated by in malaysia education blueprint the emperor and his courtiers. This changed in motivation, the Muromachi period, however, as other groups brought new ideas to the cultural landscape. Many samurai, now living in Kyoto, developed a taste for the arts. Elite warriors joined aristocrats in sponsoring painters, playwrights, poets, and other men of talent. The growth of trade and the economy enabled merchants to participate in the world of culture too. As the unstable political situation brought men of different classes together, aristocrats, warriors, and temperate deciduous definition, merchants interacted to motivation, create new cultural traditions. Previously unthinkable mixingsuch as a nobleman renowned for his calligraphy collaborating with a painter of humble originsled to some of the great art of the Muromachi period. Warriors, including the Ashikaga shoguns, became important patrons of the in malaysia education, arts.
They hosted lavish parties at motivation for employment which the attendees participated in linked verse poetry competitions or contests to distinguish among similar things ( monoawase ). Tea was also quite popular. Eisai, who founded an important Zen sect, is credited with having made tea popular in Japan. By the constant, fourteenth century, warriors were hosting tea parties in large banquet halls in order to motivation, display their prized Chinese tea implements. Merchants responded by favoring native Japanese wares. The grass-hut style of serving tea, which we associate with the tea ceremony, emerged in the fifteenth century. It is attributed to Murata Shuk#333;, who may have served tea for Ashikaga Yoshimasa. He and in malaysia education blueprint, other late medieval tea masters emphasized simplicity, humility, and motivation, self-awareness. Properly serving tea demanded discipline and by shirley jackson, offered spiritual fulfillment, resembling Zen practices. People began to speak of a Way of Tea. The most famous master, Sen no Riky#363;, came from a merchant family but taught tea to the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
Riky#363; served tea in motivation, a small, rustic hut. The entranceway was purposefully tiny so that everyone, regardless of status, had to about myself, crawl inside. For Employment. All participants were required to education, prepare and serve the tea. For Employment. Riky#363;’s student, however, saw things differently. 11 Shifts Education. Eager to display his wealth and motivation for employment, power, Hideyoshi had his own tea hut gilded in gold. Noh theater was another new cultural tradition that benefited from samurai patronage.
It drew upon many performing traditions, including court comics and peasant farm songs. In the in malaysia education, late fourteenth century, Kan’ami’s troupe attracted the for employment, notice of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Conditions. Kan’ami and motivation for employment, his son, Ze’ami, became two of Noh’s most important playwrights. Noh performances incorporate spoken dialogue, dancing, and music. Constant Experiment. Few props are used. An actor might simply state that he is leaving for a long journey and, with a few stamps of motivation, his feet, quickly announce that he has arrived. The plays generally illustrate such Buddhist themes as the dangers of pride or lingering attachment.
The main character might be a once-beautiful old woman who cannot forget her youth, or the ghost of a warrior who cannot let go of his military glory. Other plays centered on Buddhist priests overcoming demons. Often several plays were performed over blueprint, the course of a full day, with short comic pieces called ky#333;gen staged between the major Noh plays. The Medieval Japanese Economy. The Japanese enjoyed a growing economy during the medieval period. Markets began to develop around the motivation for employment, country. These were often at crossroads or near rivers so that sellers could easily bring their goods to the markets.
They also were often located near temples in hopes of avoiding interference from political or military figures. 11 Shifts In Malaysia. In the Kamakura period, markets met infrequently. For example, they might be opened only on days ending in motivation, fours (i.e., the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month) or another number. But over time, markets became increasingly common and were open on more days of the month. Improvements in blueprint, agriculture also contributed to the expanding economy. New strains of rice better resisted drought and disease. Motivation For Employment. Improved fertilizers allowed double cropping of fields, and better irrigation techniques helped farmers produce more. In addition, the spread of metallic money made it easier for estates to sell extra produce in the marketplaces. Starting in the twelfth century, Japanese began importing copper-alloy coins from China. The round coins had square holes in the middle so they could be strung together in units of 1,000 for large purchases.
Metallic money had several advantages over rice, silk, or other goods the medea play, Japanese used as money in Heian times. Coins were easier to transport, more durable, and motivation for employment, rarely led to medea play, disputes over quality. By the Muromachi period, most urban residents used coins. Even many rural estates paid their taxes in cash. The Ashikaga shoguns’ desire for more coins played an for employment, important role in the re-opening of formal relations with China in the fifteenth century. The Muromachi bakufu , and later several major temples and daimy#333; , sent merchant ships to China in hopes of obtaining copper coins. In exchange, the Japanese sold raw materials including lumber and sulfur, some finished art objects such as lacquerware, and swords and armor. Chinese officials regulated the trade by requiring Japanese boats to carry government-issued tallies; merchant vessels without the deciduous forest definition, tallies were turned away from Chinese ports. On the whole, merchants did well during the medieval period.
The breakdown in central authority may have reduced the power of political authorities to tax and regulate them. In some cases, such as the motivation, city of Sakai, merchants were able to form their own communities and even enjoy a limited form of temperate deciduous, self-government. Women’s Status in Medieval Japan. Over the for employment, course of the medieval period, women seem to essay about myself, have lost many rights. In ancient times, women served as rulers. By the Heian period, women had few official roles in government, but aristocratic women were educated, could own and manage property, and could choose their own heirs. Married couples often lived at the home of the wife’s family or maintained two residences; the wife’s family usually helped raise the children. Female writers of the Heian period created some of pre-modern Japan’s greatest works of prose and poetry. But conditions gradually began to change. In the early Kamakura period, women of motivation for employment, samurai families held jit#333; posts.
As violence became more common, however, women were no longer allowed to hold warrior posts or manage their own property. By Shirley Jackson. And as land became increasingly difficult to acquire, families began bequeathing property to for employment, only one heir, usually the eldest son. Married women were expected to join the deciduous forest definition, family of their husbands. Motivation For Employment. Lady Nij#333;’s memoir from the early fourteenth century is one of the last important literary works by a woman of the constant experiment, medieval period. Not even Buddhism offered much hope, since most Buddhist sects taught that women faced more obstacles to enlightenment than men. By the end of the medieval period, women retained almost none of the motivation, rights they had enjoyed earlier. The #332;nin War and the Age of Warring States.
From 1467 to sample essay myself, 1477, rival coalitions of powerful samurai fought in a protracted conflict known as the #332;nin War. The violence began when leading shugo families supported different candidates to succeed Yoshimasa as shogun (as well as for some other important posts). The violence centered on Kyoto, and much of the city was destroyed during the war. After some time, the issues became irrelevant, as seen by leading warrior families on each side switching to support other candidates. Yoshimasa felt that the shugo were beyond his control and, rather than make serious efforts to stop the conflict, he retired to his villa to enjoy the arts. The war solved nothing and motivation, left all central government institutions extremely weak. By the late fifteenth century, the planck's experiment, shogun had little real power outside of the motivation, central Japanese provinces that he directly controlled. The last century of the Muromachi period, from the #332;nin War to 1573, is known as the Age of Warring States.
During this time, provincial and regional warlords known as daimy#333; dominated Japan. Some daimy#333; families had formerly been shugo , others had been lieutenants or deputies, and the lottery by shirley plot, some were truly self-made men who had risen through the ranks. These new warlords differed from shugo in that they did not owe anything to the shogun or emperor. During the Warring States period, warlords could only claim authority over lands they could actually defend. They had to for employment, be continually vigilant against their neighbors as well as their subordinates.
The age is sometimes characterized by the term gekokuj#333; , which means the lower replacing the in malaysia blueprint, higher (or those of motivation for employment, humble origins replacing their superiors). Conditions. This period, perhaps more than any other, seemed to resemble the feudalism of motivation for employment, medieval Europe. Central authority was weak and divided, men survived by strength of arms, and warlords rewarded loyal samurai with appointments and lands. Portuguese sailors blown off course in the mid-sixteenth century were the haber, first Europeans to set foot in Japan. Motivation. The Spanish soon followed, and eventually the Dutch and haber process, the British found their way to motivation for employment, Japan too.
European merchants established a flourishing trade by medea play buying and selling goods amongst the various Asian nations. Motivation. Missionaries also came to Japan, hoping to convert the Japanese to Christianity. They enjoyed some success in the southwestern island of Ky#363;sh#363;, where a few daimy#333; became Catholic and ordered those living in their domains to plot, convert as well. The Europeans were strange curiosities to the Japanese, and folding-screens of themknown as namban by#333;bu show them as Japanese artists saw them, with balloon pants, high frill collars, long noses, and people of motivation for employment, color attending them as slaves. Christianity did not last in Japan. Opposition by Hideyoshi and Ieyasu (see below) led to blueprint, the persecution and elimination of motivation, most Christians by the early seventeenth century.
But the Europeans did affect Japanese society. First, they introduced new shipbuilding techniques, firearms, eyeglasses, mechanical clocks, and other devices. Process Conditions. Second, Europe’s existence forced the for employment, Japanese to change their view of the world. 11 Shifts In Malaysia Education Blueprint. Maps from the time reflect the motivation for employment, shift from seeing a world including only education Japan, China, and India to seeing one extending far beyond Asia. Third, interest in that world led Japanese merchants to begin trading in Southeast Asia. Some Japanese even emigrated, establishing communities in motivation for employment, the Philippines, Cambodia, Siam (Thailand), and Annam (Vietnam). From Medieval to Early Modern Japan.
Three warlords succeeded in unifying the country and bringing an end to the violence of the Warring States period. They are often referred to as the “three unifiers”Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Planck's Constant Experiment. Nobunaga ruled a small domain in central Japan, but his brilliance as a strategist enabled him to defeat much larger armies. He was the first warlord to motivation, successfully use firearms to win a battle. His innovations in castle development also led to the emergence of grand Japanese castles, with stone ramparts, donjons (central structures), and more. In 1573 he took Kyoto but kicked out the last Ashikaga shogun, bringing the Muromachi bakufu to an inglorious end. Many believe that only Nobunaga’s assassination at the hands of a vassal in 1582 kept him from bringing the whole country under his rule.
Hideyoshi came from a peasant family, but rose through the ranks to become one of sample essay myself introduction, Nobunaga’s top generals. He avenged his lord’s death and finished the job of unifying the country. However, Hideyoshi did not succeed through force alone. He used marriage alliances, political treaties, and other means to secure his position and bring peace to the country. Many of motivation, his policies paved the way for early modern growth and stability. For example, he carried out new land surveys so that proper rates of taxation could be determined. He also ordered all peasants to turn over their weapons, creating for the first time a sharp distinction between warriors and farmers.
In his later years, Hideyoshi set out to conquer China. When the King of Korea refused to help him, Hideyoshi sent armies of planck's, samurai to invade Korea. The result was the devastation of the Korean peninsula. The Japanese invasion was only called off upon Hideyoshi’s death in motivation for employment, 1598. Ieyasu had been allied with each of the two previous unifiers, but his patience (and long life!) clearly proved a great asset. In 1600 he maneuvered warlords loyal to Hideyoshi’s young son into a major battle at Sekigahara. Ieyasu’s forces won that battle, making him the most powerful daimy#333; in Japan. In 1603 he was proclaimed shogun and established the last of Japan’s major warrior governments, the process conditions, Tokugawa (or Edo) bakufu . The unifiers’ policies, and the peace that followed in the seventeenth century, led to profound changes in Japanese society and the start of motivation, what most scholars refer to as the medea play, early modern period.
Copyright 2008 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado. Permission is given to motivation, reproduce this essay for classroom use only. Deciduous Forest Definition. Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the Program for Teaching East Asia.