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article review ehow By Vern L. Bengtson , University of World Essay, Southern California, and Shelley M. MacDermid , Purdue University. Of Owning Your. Here are nine things you should consider as you examine the manuscript and write your review: Look for the intellectual plot-line of the article. You can do this from first skimming through the manuscript and World Oil Demand Essay, then giving it a once-over read. Online. As you do this, ask the Oil Demand, five major questions that are central to benefits of owning your the research review process: What do the Essay, researchers want to and weakness find out? Why is Oil Demand Essay that important to investigate or understand?

How are the researchers investigating this? Are their research methods appropriate and adequate to the task? What do they claim to have found out? Are the machine, findings clearly stated? How does this advance knowledge in the field? How well do the World, researchers place their findings within the context of legitimacy definition, ongoing scholarly inquiry about this topic? Look at the organization of the Oil Demand, article . Definition. Can you find answers to World Oil Demand Essay the above questions quickly and political legitimacy definition, easily? Can you trace the logic of investigation consistently from the opening paragraphs to the conclusion? Then go back to World Essay the opening paragraphs of the article . Are the benefits of owning your, research questions specifically stated? Is it clear what the Essay, authors want to stair formulas find out?

Do they make the case that this is an important area for research inquiry? The next section is usually a review of the World Oil Demand, existing research literature on this topic . Do the followership theory, authors present a convincing line of argument here--or does it appear that they are just name-dropping (citing sources that may be important, without a clear underlying logic for how they may be important)? Do the World, authors focus on ideas, or merely on discrete facts or findings? Have they given sufficient attention to theory--the cumulative attempts at and weakness essay prior explanations for the questions they are investigating? Are the Oil Demand Essay, research questions or hypotheses clearly derivative of the theory and the literature review?

In short: How well do the authors set the stage for shop online, the research problem they are reporting? The methods and procedures section is usually next; and this is where neophyte reviewers often start (unwisely) to sharpen their knives. The selection of World Oil Demand Essay, methods by Lord and Hitler’s Nazi Essay, which the World Essay, researchers collect data always involve compromises, and there are few studies that cannot be criticized for errors of commission or omission in benefits your own business terms of textbook criteria for research design and Essay, data collection procedures. You could focus on three questions here: Do the authors clearly describe their research strategies? Do they present sufficient detail about the stair formulas, sample from World Oil Demand, which they have collected data; the of civil, operationalization of measures they have attempted to employ; and Essay, the adequacy of these measures in terms of external and stair formulas, internal validity? In addition, there should be no surprises here: The measures should be clearly matched to the research questions or the hypotheses. Are their choices of methods adequate to find out what they want to find out in this study? Would other methods provide a substantial improvement; if so, would employing these methods be feasible or practical? Do they provide some justification for the methods they have chosen? Does this appear to World be adequate?

The section presenting research results is surely the heart of the article--though not its soul (which the causes, reader should find in the opening paragraphs and in the discussion section). Reviewers might consider four questions here: Does the results section tell a story--taking the reader from the World Oil Demand, research questions posed earlier to Lord and Hitler’s Nazi Regime Essay their answers in World Essay the data? Is the logic clear? Are the shop online, tables and figures clear and succinct? Can they be read easily for World Oil Demand, major findings by themselves, or should there be additional information provided? Are the stair formulas, authors' tables consistent with the format of currently accepted norms regarding data presentation? Do the authors present too many tables or figures in Essay the form of undigested findings? Are all of them necessary in order to tell the followership, story of this research inquiry; or can some be combined? Remember that tables and World Oil Demand, figures are very expensive (from the son of machine apa, standpoint of the journal) and that undigested data obscure rather than advance the Oil Demand Essay, cumulative development of son of citation machine, knowledge in a field. World Oil Demand. Are the results presented both statistically and substantively meaningful?

Have the authors stayed within the bounds of the results their data will support? The discussion section is citation where the authors can give flight to their findings, so that they soar into the heights of World Oil Demand Essay, cumulative knowledge development about this topic--or crash into strength and weakness, the depths of their CV's, with few other scholars ever citing their findings. Of course few research reports will ever be cited as cornerstones to the development of knowledge about Oil Demand, any topic; but your review should encourage authors to legitimacy definition aspire to these heights. Consider the Oil Demand, following as you evaluate their discussion section: Do the benefits of owning, authors present here a concise and World Oil Demand Essay, accurate summary of their major findings? Does their interpretation fairly represent the son of apa, data as presented earlier in the article? Do they attempt to integrate these findings in the context of World Oil Demand Essay, a broader scholarly debate about Lord of The Flies Nazi Regime, these issues? Specifically: Do they integrate their findings with the Essay, research literature they presented earlier in their article--do they bring the findings back to son of machine apa the previous literature reviewed?

Have they gone beyond presenting facts--data--and made an effort to World Essay present explanations--understanding? Have they responded to the conceptual or theoretical problems that were raised in the introduction? This is how theory is son of developed. Do the authors thoughtfully address the Essay, limitations of their study? The writing style is important. Lord Of The And Hitler’s Nazi Regime Essay. Consider the three guidelines for successful communication--to be clear, concise, and Oil Demand Essay, correct---and whether the authors have achieved it: Is the writing clear? Do the legitimacy, authors communicate their ideas using direct, straightforward, and unambiguous words and phrases?

Have they avoided jargon (statistical or conceptual) that would interfere with the World Essay, communication of their procedures or ideas? Is the causes, writing concise? Are too many words or paragraphs or sections used to present what could be communicated more simply? Is the World, writing correct? Too may promising scientists have only a rudimentary grasp of stair formulas, grammar and punctuation that result in meandering commas, clauses in complex sentences that are struggling to find their verbs, and adjectives or even nouns that remain quite ambiguous about their antecedents in the sentence. World Oil Demand Essay. These are not merely technical issues of grammar to Lord Flies and Hitler’s be somehow dealt with by World, a copy-editor down the followership, line. World. Rather they involve the strength and weakness, successful communication of a set of World Oil Demand Essay, ideas to citation an audience; and this is the basis of scholarship today.

Your evaluation to the editor: Should this paper be (a) rejected for this journal? (b) or does it show sufficient promise for revision, in ways that you have clearly demonstrated in your review, to encourage the authors to invest weeks and months in revision for World Essay, this journal? Your bottom-line advice to the editor is followership theory crucial. Essay. Make a decision; state it clearly (in your confidential remarks to machine apa the editor on World Essay, the page provided). Remember that only machine, a few of the Essay, articles submitted to a journal will result in own business publication. World Oil Demand Essay. Rates vary from causes of civil, 5% to World Essay 25% of son of machine, initial submissions (for JMF it has averaged 15% over the past few years). Some reasons to reject a manuscript: (a) The research questions have already been addressed in prior studies; (b) the data have been collected in such a way as to Essay preclude useful investigation; (c) the machine, manuscript is not ready for publication--incomplete, improper format, or error-ridden.

Most rejected articles do find a home in other journals. World Oil Demand Essay. Don't tease authors with hopes for, publication in this Journal if you feel it is Essay not likely. A good review is son of supportive, constructive, thoughtful, and fair. World Oil Demand. It identifies both strengths and son of apa, weaknesses, and offers concrete suggestions for World Oil Demand Essay, improvements. It acknowledges the strength essay, reviewer's biases where appropriate, and Oil Demand Essay, justifies the reviewer's conclusions. Son Of Citation. A bad review is superficial, nasty, petty, self-serving, or arrogant. Oil Demand Essay. It indulges the reviewer's biases with no justification.

It focuses exclusively on, weaknesses and offers no specific suggestions for improvement.

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never does homework Copyright 2002 by Elizabeth Yeow. Included here with permission of the author. #9;Every fall excitement fills the air as students arrive at Oil Demand, school with new backpacks and school supplies, eager to meet their new teacher. Causes? Always a new beginning, the start of school allows every student to have a fresh beginning and make this year the best year ever. Yet within weeks of the start of school, teachers begin to see a certain pattern emerging: the same students repeatedly neglect to World Oil Demand Essay turn in homework. The teacher will then remind, reprimand, take away recess, and son of citation machine, threaten to call home and talk to their mom and dad. Occasionally, this will work and the student will miraculously appear with homework in hand, most of the World Oil Demand, time there are just excuses. Benefits Of Owning Your? More often, the teacher becomes more frustrated and disheartened, the student#146;s grades drop and he or she will feel like a failure.

The repetition of this scenario caused me to really consider the Oil Demand Essay, value and effect of son of homework. Every year, and this year is no exception, I have at least one student, usually two, who never bring their completed homework back on time. I was puzzled by these students#146; attitudes towards homework. Oil Demand Essay? I wanted to understand more about their perceptions of homework and to find out what kind of Lord and Hitler’s Nazi Regime Essay support they were receiving at home. Perhaps, these students do not understand the homework or maybe their parents are unable to help them.

Maybe the instructions were unclear or the Oil Demand Essay, homework is theory, too difficult for them. World Essay? I wanted to understand more about their parents#146; views about school and stair formulas, homework. I also wanted to know more about other issues that may be going on at home. What are some things that I could do to help them bring their homework back? As I began this study, I had several assumptions. I saw homework is an important part of Essay their schoolwork and is a reinforcement of what is learned at school. Machine Apa? This extra practice is helpful to students and when students do not do their homework it affects how they do in school. Also, lack of finished homework may be an World Oil Demand Essay indication of their attitude towards school or learning. I teach at Clara Barton Elementary School (pseudonym), a public elementary school in the suburbs of a metropolitan area, about shop, 15 miles outside of Washington, DC. At the beginning of this school year Clara Barton Elementary School switched from Oil Demand a traditional school calendar to a year round calendar. On the benefits of owning, year round calendar school is in session for nine weeks and then there is a two or three week intersession break.

During the intersession remediation and enrichment classes are offered to students. The cost of attending intersession is five dollars. The community around Clara Barton Elementary School is comprised of single family homes, townhouses, and multifamily dwellings. The majority of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School live in the townhouse community directly behind the school. The townhouse community accepts Section 8 housing certificates. Many of the townhouses house more than one family. There is World Oil Demand Essay, a high transience rate at shop online, Clara Barton Elementary School of World Oil Demand Essay about 40 percent. Of Owning Own Business? Seventy-five percent of the World Essay, school is own business, composed of ethnic- and language-minority students. More than 22 countries and many different languages are represented at Clara Barton Elementary School. Many of the World Oil Demand, students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School are from of owning low-income families. Clara Barton Elementary School receives funding from Title I and many of the students receive free or reduced lunches.

The school is organized primarily into self-contained classrooms. Oil Demand? The school does not have a formal homework policy, but in shop the staff handbook there is a recommended amount of time students should spend on Oil Demand homework based on grade level. Third grade students should have between 30-60 minutes of homework per evening. The school slogan is Clara Barton Reads and causes of civil, students are encouraged to read 20 minutes at home every night as part of their homework. This is my fourth year teaching and I have taught third grade at Clara Barton Elementary for World Essay all four years.

I am an causes of civil war Asian female. Essay? The students in my class are all in the third grade. The class is composed of 18 students, 8 boys and 10 girls. Sixteen out of the 18 are ESOL students. Eight of the students speak Spanish at theory, home, 5 speak Vietnamese, and 1 speaks another language. Homework in my classroom is assigned Monday through Thursday evenings and usually includes spelling, reading, and Essay, math. Own Business? When students arrive at school in the morning they take out their homework and Essay, stack it on of The Nazi Regime a table at the back of the room. While they are putting their backpacks, books, and jackets away I check in their homework. Any student who does not bring in completed homework has to finish their homework during free activity time.

Selecting a Focus Group. As I looked over my homework grade sheet I noticed that I had three students, all boys, who repeatedly did not bring in their homework. Two of the boys, Jose and Juan (pseudonyms), are Hispanic and one, Aaron (pseudonym), is African-American. Originally I decided to look at Oil Demand, all three students, but then Juan moved mid-year. Online? So, I had two students to World focus on, but the more I collected data and reflected I realized that I really was focusing more on followership Jose. World Oil Demand? Due to time constraints and the inability to contact Aaron#146;s mother I decided to Lord of The Regime focus this study about Jose.

#9;Jose is a third grade, ESOL student. His primary language is Spanish; however he is very fluent in English. Jose has helped translate a few words for me before. He is the oldest child in his family and has one younger sibling who is not old enough yet for school. He lives with his mother, father, grandmother, and Essay, younger sister. His father and mother both work full-time. Stair Formulas? His father often has to Oil Demand Essay work night shifts and sometimes does not get to see Jose much because of his work schedule. Jose has attended Clara Barton Elementary School since kindergarten and lives in the townhouse community behind the school. Jose loves to followership draw during his free moments and World Essay, will frequently take out a notebook and draw action figures.

Jose takes Tae Kwon Doe classes in the evenings and frequently talks about causes war, how he enjoys these classes. He is well-liked at school and World Oil Demand Essay, has many friends, both boys and girls, in his class. He is reading on theory grade level, but his writing and World Oil Demand Essay, math are below grade level. Frequently Jose needs short extensions on in-class assignments. As I considered my puzzlement over citation machine, students#146; attitudes towards homework I realized there may be many different things contributing to this puzzling situation. My own beliefs and values may be contributing to Oil Demand this puzzling situation. Perhaps my expectations for completed homework are too high or I am giving too much homework. My expectation that students should have and do homework may be influenced by my experience with homework as a child.

#9;In the last thirty years the controversy over the value of shop homework has come up again and again. Depending on the decade there are either demands for more homework or cries for less homework. Proponents for Oil Demand Essay homework believe that it can help students retain more, improve study skills, and stair formulas, teach students that learning can take place anywhere. In addition, homework can promote independence and Oil Demand Essay, responsibility and it can help parents connect with what their children are learning in school. Opponents of homework believe that homework can hinder children from participating in other beneficial activities, such as sports or scouts. In addition, parental involvement with homework can confuse students if their parents use techniques that are different than their teachers. Benefits Of Owning Your Own Business? Homework can also accentuate the disparity between students from low-income homes and students from middle-class homes. Students from low-income homes may have more difficulty completing an assignment (Cooper, 2001). It is also possible that there is World Oil Demand Essay, a cultural mismatch between what is emphasized at shop, home and what is emphasized at school. My belief that homework is important and should be given Monday through Thursday nights is also emphasized by the administration at my school.

Perhaps Jose#146;s parents do not value schoolwork and homework as much as it is World Oil Demand Essay, emphasized in school. They may feel that homework is repetitious and unnecessary for followership their child. Maybe they feel they can provide more authentic learning after school for Oil Demand their children by providing them with cultural, athletic, or other experiences. Parents may feel that these other activities will benefit their child more and may therefore not stress homework. It is of civil, also possible that parents may not value school and this feeling is conveyed to students. Outside influences may also affect Jose. Perhaps he has seen older friends or relatives who do not do their homework. He may view these older ones as cool or maybe he has seen kids on television or in movies that do not do their homework.

Another outside influence might be the economic situation of the family. The family may be struggling to make ends meet and there may be difficulties at home that are a higher priority to students than homework. #9;These cultural influences are important for me to look at because they could change the way I administer homework or the World Essay, amount of homework that I give. After considering all of the possible cultural influences, I decided to narrow them down to the two that I believe to be the most significant. Of Owning? The two cultural influences that I thought might be the most applicable to World Oil Demand my puzzlement are teacher beliefs (CIP 3.1) and a cultural mismatch between home and school (CIP 3.3.2). My beliefs as the shop, teacher affect my giving of homework, my expectation that it be done, and how much I actually assign to students. I believe that one of the strongest influences on young children is their family and Oil Demand, their home. Since young children are still very much under the direct charge of their parents, if they bring in their homework or not is of owning own business, especially dependent on their parents.

Their parents have control over whether or not they are given time after school to complete homework. The school culture emphasizes an importance on homework and this may not coincide with parental beliefs or practices. This discord will ultimately affect how a child is perceived by World Essay his/her teacher and how successful he/she is academically. In order to determine what cultural influences were contributing to my puzzlement I needed to gather information about my beliefs. I chose to look at followership, these by journaling, a technique recommended in the Cultural Inquiry Process (Jacob, 1999). In my journaling I needed to consider why this situation was puzzling to me and why I think this situation is happening. My beliefs, background, and previous experience influence how I look at World Essay, this puzzling situation and how I approach this situation. Stair Formulas? If I can identify my beliefs and values then I can see how they might be contributing to the puzzling situation. After reflecting and journaling about my homework beliefs I had the opportunity to discuss the topic of my research with my colleagues at school. Through this discussion I realized that I should ask them what their beliefs were about homework and find out how much homework the other third grade teachers were giving (CIP 4.1). #9;Information also needed to be gathered about a mismatch between the Oil Demand Essay, student#146;s home culture and Lord Flies Nazi Regime, the school curriculum (CIP 4.3.2).

The school or the school district might have a homework policy that I am unaware of. If there is World Essay, a homework policy then there is followership, not a strong emphasis on it and it does not seem to influence teachers and how often or how much homework they give. Weisenthal, Cooper, Greenblatt Marcus, (1997) found that schools with a strong emphasis on homework influenced how often teachers gave homework. I realized it was important to look at the school culture and then to Oil Demand Essay look at the home culture and see if there was a mismatch. In order to of civil war find out more information about Jose#146;s home culture I considered visiting his home but I had difficulty contacting his parents.

I sent many notes home, called home and tried to Essay leave messages. Eventually I was able to speak to Jose#146;s father. I also interviewed students using a modified version of The Student Survey of Homework Practices (Grajria, M. Salend, S. J., 1995) to followership theory try to determine what the World, home environment and culture was like as well as to find out what their attitude was toward homework. I looked at Jose#146;s school history and contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to see what Jose had been like as a second grader. #9;I grew up in an environment where receiving and shop online, doing homework was part of a daily routine.

Teachers gave me homework, my parents expected that I would have it done, and if I did not do it I felt horrible. My parents always made sure that my homework was done when I was in elementary school. By the time I reached middle school and high school I had acquired the habit of World Oil Demand Essay doing homework independently. Of Civil War? I have always believed that homework helps students learn and Oil Demand Essay, reinforces concepts. Stair Formulas? The question I have to ask myself in this puzzlement is Do I know for sure that homework benefits students? In order to answer this question I decided to look at some research that has been done on World Oil Demand the benefits or detriments of homework. The correlation between completing homework and academic achievement has been the online, subject of much research.

Depending on which side of the homework argument one is on, research can have both positive and negative effects on students. Oil Demand Essay? According to Cooper (2001) some positive academic effects of homework include retention and stair formulas, understanding of material, improved study skills, improved attitudes toward school. Some nonacademic effects of homework include promoting independent and responsibility in students and involving parents in what is going on in the classroom. World Oil Demand Essay? Homework also has some negative effects, such as boredom, denying students leisure time and the benefits of wholesome learning from scouts or sports. Homework can lead to cheating and can emphasize the shop online, disparity between the homes of Essay low-income and middle class students. Students from causes of civil war low-income homes may have to World Oil Demand Essay work after school or may not have a quiet place to study at son of citation, home. When looking at 50 studies done on homework and student achievement, Cooper (2001) found that homework had little or no effect on World Oil Demand student achievement at Lord of The Flies Nazi Essay, the elementary level. #9;After reading some research on the effects of homework on academic achievement I had to World Oil Demand Essay seriously consider how my beliefs fit into this. I realized that giving homework benefited me as the teacher. War? These benefits matched the benefits teachers expressed having in the Homework Attitude and Behaviour Inventory for Teachers (Weisenthal et al., 1997). Homework improved my ability to Oil Demand cover the curriculum and acted as a kind of bridge between the last lesson and the next one.

Although homework benefited me, as the teacher, I found myself reconsidering why I was handing out homework to students. Of Civil War? According to Kralovec and Buell (2001), elementary school students show no significant academic gain from doing homework. So, if homework was not helping students academically then how worthwhile was giving homework? #9; I found out that the other two third grade teachers, both males, at my school were not giving as much homework as I was. One teacher usually gave only spelling and reading as homework. Every once in a while he would give math homework. The other third grade teacher usually gave math and reading as homework and Essay, rarely gave spelling homework. I, on the other hand, gave math, spelling, and benefits of owning, reading as homework.

Why weren#146;t the other teachers giving as much homework as I was? According to Weisenthal et al. (1997) some teachers may go easy on themselves so they have less homework to collect and to grade. I decided to go back and interview the other third grade teachers to World Oil Demand Essay find out benefits of owning what their beliefs about Essay, homework were. One of the teachers did not believe that giving homework was a big deal unless a child did not understand the causes of civil, homework. He believed that homework should be given for students to build responsibility and for character building. In his experience the ones that don#146;t bring their homework back are usually the ones that don#146;t understand the Oil Demand Essay, concepts.

He also felt that at the elementary level if students pay attention in class then they will achieve and homework will not necessarily help them achieve. Lord Of The Flies And Hitler’s Nazi Regime? The other third grade teacher believed that homework should be a reinforcement of what is taught in Oil Demand Essay school and stair formulas, he felt that it made a difference in their achievement at school. He said that he could tell the next day by student performance if a student did or did not do their homework. He also believed that homework helped students learn to be responsible and build a good work ethic. After discussing homework policies and their beliefs about Oil Demand Essay, homework with my colleagues I went to the principal and asked her if we had a school wide homework policy. She referred me to the staff handbook. Although there is World, not a school wide homework policy, there were some generally accepted principles that should govern teachers when assigning homework. Some of the principles include, flexibility and differences in the assignments to individual students, homework should be reasonable in stair formulas view of the pupil#146;s situation including health, housing conditions, outside work or responsibility, leisure-time activity and conflicting demands of home and school. On the daily announcements students are encouraged to read for 20 minutes every night as homework. Any homework given out in addition to this is World Oil Demand, up to the individual teacher. I also looked through Homework Helper: A Guide for Teachers which was published by the school district.

This guide was handed out at online, a staff meeting at the beginning of the school year and teachers were encouraged to use it as a guide. Since that time homework has not been discussed with the staff. According to the guide the purpose of homework is to practice skills, reinforce academic concepts, extend learning, promote good study skills, apply new skills and World Oil Demand, concepts, involve parents, and develop positive attitudes toward school and learning. The guide does not discuss the Flies Nazi Regime, amount of homework to World Oil Demand be given. Any homework, aside from the daily reading, is up to the individual teacher. #9;In order to gather more information about Jose#146;s home culture I tried to contact Jose#146;s parents through notes and phone calls home. After repeated attempts to contact Jose#146;s parents, his father appeared one afternoon at my classroom door.

It appeared that he had finally received one of the many messages I left for him. I was very excited to meet with him, but wondered how the meeting would go as we did not have a translator. Benefits Of Owning Own Business? After a few minutes I thought it would be appropriate because it seemed that he had enough of a grasp of the English language for us to be able to communicate without a translator. Our meeting was short (we really did need a translator). I asked him a few questions about his job and Jose#146;s behavior and work habits at home. He seemed very responsive and concerned.

Apparently Jose had been telling him since the beginning of the World Oil Demand Essay, year that he did not have any homework. He had believed Jose and shop, did not try to contact me to confirm it. He and his wife both worked long hours and many times he had to work the night shift. Often when Jose comes home his mother is at work and World, his father is either at work or sleeping. His grandmother, who speaks only Spanish, is there to watch him. Shop Online? Jose#146;s father said that he or his wife always asked Jose if he had finished his homework. He did mention that one afternoon when he told Jose his friend had to go home he saw Jose give his friend a piece of Oil Demand Essay paper that looked like homework.

His father didn#146;t ask about shop online, it and forgot about it until his meeting with me. The weekly notes that I had been sending home did not reach Jose#146;s parents either. Jose#146;s father suggested that he could sign Jose#146;s homework every evening and World Oil Demand, maybe this would help Jose do his homework and bring it to school. Of Civil? The day after meeting with Jose#146;s father, Jose did not have his homework. He did bring his homework the next day signed by his father, but since then he hasn#146;t had anything signed by Essay either parent. #9;I realized through this brief interaction with Jose#146;s father that he and his wife both cared about their son and machine apa, his success in school. However, I realized that they also had other things, such as tae kwon do lessons, that they wanted their son to learn. World Oil Demand Essay? Gonz á lez (1995) points out how important it is for teachers to know their students#146; culture and to not have a prepackaged awareness of citation apa cultural diversity. They were providing nonacademic experiences for their son that they felt were important for World his development as a person. In addition, I realized that Jose#146;s father wanted his son to do his homework, but was very limited due to citation apa his work schedule to encourage and help Jose. I#146;m not sure why Jose#146;s mother did not return phone calls or come to school with Jose.

I have only seen Jose#146;s father with him when attending school events. Although Jose#146;s father indicated that they asked Jose about Essay, his homework they did not seem to do anything to encourage or require that Jose do his homework. Since they may not have been encouraging him to do his homework Jose may have been getting the message that homework was not valuable to his parents. #9;I contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to discuss his homework habits in second grade. I found out that he rarely brought in causes finished homework and Jose#146;s second grade teacher frequently tried to contact his parents to discuss work habits. She noticed that when his father had to work the World Oil Demand, night shift Jose came to school quite disheveled and without any homework. When Jose#146;s father switched to working during the day Jose seemed more attentive in school and sometimes was able to bring in finished homework.

Jose#146;s achievement in school, including homework completion, seemed to be directly affected by his father#146;s work schedule. Tapia (1998) indicated that the most important factor influencing poor students#146; academic performance is family stability. Jose#146;s feeling of family stability seemed to be affected by seeing his father regularly during the afternoon and evening. #9;To find out my class#146; attitude and homework habits I passed out the Homework Survey to my whole class and read it to them as they circled responses. I emphasized that this was not for a grade and they should answer exactly how they felt and not be worried about benefits, being wrong. Some sample questions from the survey are as follows: - I get easily distracted when I am doing my homework. - I feel unsure about which homework assignment to do first. - I feel teachers are unfair and World Essay, give too much homework. - Activities such as sports and music are more important to me than doing my homework. - Someone checks my homework for of owning your me when I am done.

- Someone at World Oil Demand, home asks me if I have finished my homework. I handed out the surveys and online, then read through each item and explained any of the Oil Demand, questions that students did not understand. As I looked over theory, the surveys I realized that my students were limited in their ability to self-report because of World Oil Demand Essay their young age and followership, their self-reports may not be identical to their actual practices at home. For example, Aaron reported that he always turned in his homework when he actually rarely turned in his homework. Essay? Nine students, half of the class indicated that they need someone to remind them to do their homework. Half the class indicated that they sometimes need help with their homework. It was interesting to note that Jose indicated that he does not like to do homework, many times feels he needs help with his homework, and he thinks homework is important only some of the time. Jose also indicated that he received daily reminders at citation machine apa, home to do his homework, but despite these reminders he did not always do his homework. Interventions and Monitoring. #9;One intervention I tried was to change homework assignments so there wasn#146;t as much of a mismatch between Jose#146;s culture and the school curriculum (CIP 5.3.2).

Maybe Jose did not see the relevance of the homework that was given and needed homework that was more meaningful. Kravolec and Buell (2001) found homework could be very disruptive of family life. It can interfere with what parents want to teach their children and punish children in poverty from being poor. Parents may have cultural and religious beliefs or life skills that they feel are important for their children to learn, but homework may interfere with the limited time they have with their children to World Oil Demand share those beliefs or skills. Since Jose frequently talked about Tae Kwon Do lessons and other things that he did during the week with his parents, I realized that it was important to them for their son to be trained in some kind of sport.

They might also feel that as a growing boy Jose needed some physical activity after school. Although Jose indicated that his parents asked him about his homework they did not ask to see his homework. They believed him when he said he did not have homework or that he had finished his homework. It is possible that they did not have the time or energy to look at his homework. They both worked long hours and it is possible that they had many daily survival demands that are more important than Jose#146;s elementary school homework.

Since outside influences can not always be controlled or changed, I realized that interventions had to be made at stair formulas, the school or classroom level to help students (CIP 5.4.1). It seemed that Jose was not getting the support that he needed from home because his parents#146; time is occupied with work and World, other basic survival issues, so one intervention was to give less challenging homework. Although all the homework I give students should be able to do independently, he had indicated on his Homework Survey that he needed help a lot. So, I modified his homework and noticed that he started turning in part of his homework. His parents#146; limited English may affect Jose, so I tried to machine give more homework that was self-explanatory and made sure that he understood all the World Oil Demand Essay, directions before he left school. Another intervention I tried was to allow Jose to begin his homework at school. I let him start his homework at school. Stair Formulas? I noticed that the World Oil Demand Essay, next day sometimes the only part he would have to turn in was the son of, part he had started in school. Jose seemed to World Essay have difficulty getting his homework from school to home and stair formulas, then back to Oil Demand school. So, I gave Jose a checklist with a Velcro check that he could move when he had completed a task. The checklist was to help him write his homework down, collect the materials he needed for son of citation home, put them in his backpack.

His father was given a matching one to keep at home. World? Before leaving to go home everyday he had to make sure to check in with me so I could check his backpack. Your Own Business? After receiving the World Oil Demand, checklist I watched Jose everyday and noticed that he wasn#146;t following it. I reminded him and encouraged him to use it, but he still didn#146;t use it. On a daily basis I continue to check Jose#146;s backpack and give verbal reminders to use his homework checklist. He lost the son of citation machine apa, Velcro check for World his end-of-the-day checklist on his desk, so I gave him a new one, but he still hasn#146;t used it. Shop? He has gotten used to checking with me before leaving.

For about two weeks I reminded him that he needed to see me before he walked out the door. Oil Demand Essay? Now he remembers on his own that he has to show me his homework inside his backpack. He comes up to me with his backpack open and online, his homework at the top so I can see it. I send informal weekly progress reports home to his parents so that they know how he is doing in school and whether or not he has been turning in his homework. Summary and Implications. After all the interventions and monitoring I can say that Jose turns in his homework about World Oil Demand, half the time. Followership? For the first half of the year he rarely turned in any homework assignments and World Essay, the ones he turned in were usually unfinished. He seems to have more of an understanding that for me doing homework is just as important as doing work in Lord of The Flies Nazi Regime Essay school. I also have a better understanding of his home situation and that although his parents want him to Essay do well in school they also have other things that they feel are important for Jose to learn. The communication between home and school is definitely better.

In addition I feel that I am more aware that the situation at home greatly affects students#146; ability to work on benefits of owning your homework and bring it back to school. This inquiry and research on World the benefits and negative effects of homework on students like Jose has really caused me to of The and Hitler’s Regime Essay rethink why I give homework and the amount of homework I give. World Oil Demand? I realized that my beliefs and values about homework really contributed to my puzzlement. Online? I have really been considering and debating within myself the issue of homework. I feel like I have been forcing my culture and background on students and making them relive how I went through school. World Essay? Do I give homework for stair formulas character building or do I really believe that it will help students#146; academic achievement?

Checking homework usually takes fifteen minutes in the morning. Maybe this time would be better spent giving minilessons at the beginning of the day or building community in Oil Demand Essay the classroom. Stair Formulas? Although the school and school district set policies for homework, they do not stress that homework must be given every night. As a result of World Essay this research, I want to make sure that I give meaningful homework. I have also decided to give more differentiated homework.

Students like Jose seemed to be overwhelmed with the amount of homework that I give so I will try adjusting assignments to fit the individual student as necessary. Cooper, H. (2001). Homework for all #151; in moderation. Educational Leadership , 34-38. Gajria, M. Salend, S. J. Son Of? (1995). Homework practices of students with and without learning disabilities: A comparison. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28 (5), 291-296. Gonz á lez, N. E. (1995). The funds of knowledge for teaching project. Practicing Anthropology, 17 (3), 3-6. Kralovec, E. Buell, J. Oil Demand Essay? (2001).

End homework now. Educational Leadership , 39-42. Tapia, J. (1998). The schooling of Puerto Ricans: Philadelphia#146;s most impoverished community. Anthropology and and Hitler’s Essay, Education Quarterly, 29 (3), 297-323.

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35+ Creative Ways to List Job Skills on World Oil Demand Your Resume. The competitive climate of the theory job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of candidates for any given career is far-reaching. To stand out in such an environment, job seekers need to focus on accentuating their experiences and backgrounds on their resumes. A degree from a prestigious university or an impressive roster of past employers can certainly make a good impression on hiring managers, but the real test of Oil Demand a candidate#39;s fit is how well the person#39;s skills align with the position in question. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by the keywords they choose to use. Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an of owning your own business, applicant tracking system (ATS), which is utilized by World Essay [the majority] of son of citation machine apa companies today to obtain the right candidates, Weiner said.

While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to simply list a string of phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of World Oil Demand MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to followership see concrete examples of those skills in World Oil Demand Essay, action. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. Followership. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an World Oil Demand Essay, explanation of those skills. If you have #39;problem solving#39; and #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into shop your explanation of job duties and how those specific skills played an Essay, important part. The challenge is greater for those who have been laid off or who have been out of shop work for an extended period of World Oil Demand Essay time. Son Of Apa. For these professionals, the task of proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. Ford R. Myers, a career coach, speaker and author of the book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from paid and unpaid past experiences. Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. By adding transferable skills to a resume, employers get a better understanding and World Oil Demand Essay broader picture of stair formulas who they are hiring, as well as the interests, values and experiences that the candidate brings to the table. Based on the advice of World Essay our expert sources, here are a few broad categories of skills your resume could include, along with unique ways to followership express them.

Jobs require teamwork. There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to know the level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others. The specific required skills will vary based on your position. A sales representative, for instance, would need to highlight customer service and relationship-building experience. On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for Oil Demand feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and followership theory works well with others; thrives in a collaborative environment. If the World Essay job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to show off your top-notch planning abilities. Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed.

Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for by outlining your involvement in, and results from, current and previous projects. On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to solve problems; handles details; coordinates and completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in followership, a variety of conventional and unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to express them on a resume. Demonstrating your management abilities on paper requires you to think about what it is you do as a leader and World Essay how you guide your employees toward success. Shop Online. To give employers a better idea of what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the size of the team and World Oil Demand Essay the scope of the projects you manage. Followership Theory. On your resume: leads and directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is one of the most ubiquitous and in-demand skills for jobs in a variety of fields.

Socially active organizations are more likely to attract top talent, drive new sales leads and better engage other employees and customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of strategy at social engagement platform Zoomph. Therefore, when employers look for new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for Oil Demand Essay new internal-brand ambassadors. Zonozi noted that, for positions that directly involve work on corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to see concrete numbers and metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and overall engagement. Stair Formulas. Even for nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by World Oil Demand Essay referencing specific networks and social media management programs you regularly use. On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and analyzes campaign results; identifies and stair formulas connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the brand#39;s community; creates and executes content strategies; drives engagement and leads; enhances brand image through social presence. Additional reporting by Nicole Fallon Taylor and World Jeanette Mulvey. Stair Formulas. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism. Oil Demand Essay. She has worked at a newspaper and in the public relations field, and shop is currently a staff writer at Oil Demand Essay, Business News Daily.

Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.

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Essay on the CDF Appeals Decision. By Cosette Creamer, USA. About the CDF Trial. The Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) issued an indictment against the three accused. persons of the Civil Defence Forces (CDF), Sam Hinga Norman, former Deputy Defence.

Minister and later Minister of Internal Affairs; Moinina Fofana, alleged to be the National. Director of the CDF; and World, Allieu Kondewa, alleged to be the High Priest of the causes of civil war CDF between. March and June 2003. The indictment include 8-counts for crimes against humanity, violations. of Article 3 Common to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II (commonly. known as war crimes), and other serious violations of international humanitarian law. Sam Hinga Norman being the First accused made his initial appearance at the temporary. courthouse on Bonthe Island on World, 15 March 2003. Of The Flies And Hitler’s Nazi! Mr. World! Norman pleaded not guilty to all charges. against him.

Messrs. Fofana and causes, Kondewa, Second and Third accused respectively also pleaded. not guilty to all the charges against them when they were arraigned before the World Oil Demand Essay Court at son of citation machine the. temporary courthouse on July 1, 2003. The Prosecution presented its case from 3 June 2004 to 14 July 2006 presenting 75 witnesses.

From 19 January to World, 18 October 2006, the Defence presented 44 witnesses. Closing arguments. were made from 28-30 November 2006. The specifics of the charges include: 2. Lord! Violence to life, health and Essay, physical or mental well-being of persons, in benefits of owning your particular murder *2. Physical violence and mental suffering. 3. Inhumane acts *1. 4. World Oil Demand Essay! Violence to life, health and physical or mental well-being of persons, in particular cruel treatment *2. Looting and burning.

Terrorizing the civilian population and collective punishments. 6. Acts of followership, terrorism *2. 7. Collective punishments *2. Use of child soldiers. 8. Conscripting or enlisting children under the age of 15 years into armed forces or groups or using them to. participate actively in hostilities. Following that, first accused Hinga Norman was. hospitalized in Dakar to undergo a surgery. Unfortunately, he passed away on 22 February 2007. in Dakar.

On 20 July 2007, the Court issued its judgement and Fofana was found guilty on. Counts 2, 4, 5 and 7. Kondewa is found guilty on Counts 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8. The case against Hinga. Norman was dropped since he is deceased. The Trial Chamber sentenced Fofana to 6 years and. Kondewa to 8 years.

The Appeals phase- Second Accused Moinina Fofana and Third Accused Allieu Kondewa- was. concluded on 28 May 2008. The Appeals Chamber re-sentenced Fofana to 15 years as opposed. to the original 6 year term and Kondewa to 20 years as opposed to the original 8. Mr. Fofana.

never appealed his original sentence. Kondewa appealed but in Oil Demand Essay either case, it was the. Prosecutions appeal for higher sentences that was ruled upon. The convicts are still at the. Special Court premises in Sierra Leone. One of the war most controversial aspects of the Civilian Defense Forces (CDF) trial before the. Special Court for World Oil Demand Sierra Leone (SCSL) has been whether and how the idea of a just cause is.

relevant to the prosecution of international criminal law violations. The idea that the CDF were. fighting for Lord Flies Nazi Regime Essay a just cause - namely the World Oil Demand Essay restoration of the democratically elected government of. President Tejan Kabbah - has been raised as a defense to the crimes committed, as material to. establishing the stair formulas elements of the crimes charged, and as a mitigating factor in World Essay sentencing.

decisions. Some argue that the theory idea of a just cause has absolutely no place in adjudicating. crimes under international humanitarian law, which does and should apply equally to all parties. to a conflict regardless of their reasons for fighting. Others argue that claims of a just cause are. relevant to establishing the nature of the crimes committed and as a mitigating factor in.

sentencing decisions. Both the Majority Opinion in the CDF Appeal Judgment1 and the. Honourable Justice George Gelaga Kings dissenting opinion adopt a different approach and. attempt to differentiate between claims of a just cause and the reasons a group has for fighting. In doing so, both opinions help illuminate how the reasons for Oil Demand Essay fighting, regardless of the. perceived justness of the citation cause, may be legally and evidentially relevant to adjudicating.

international crimes. While claims of a just cause imply that a party was fighting for a. legitimate purpose, or on the right side, references to a partys reasons for fighting do not. imply such a normative judgment, and instead are merely descriptive of the end goal or objective. Given that the idea of World, a just cause is often viewed as a divisive political issue, it might make. sense for internationalized criminal tribunals to absolutely prohibit such considerations from. entering into judicial proceedings. To be sure, claims of a just cause do not provide an excuse. for violations of international humanitarian or criminal law. Of Owning Own Business! If one looks at the underlying. tenants of World Oil Demand, Just War Theory, as propounded by 16th and 17th century philosophers, a just cause. only provides a group with an excuse to causes of civil war, resort to World Oil Demand, war as such.

In fact, one of the war defining. elements of a Just War was that the Oil Demand Essay party must fight the war justly - that is, abide by the laws. of war, which today would include international humanitarian and criminal law. While in. principle claims to of civil war, a just cause have no place in determining whether or not parties to Oil Demand, a conflict 1 See Prosecutor v. Fofanah and Kondewa, Judgment, SCSL Appeals Chamber, Case No. SCSL-04-14-A (May 28, 2008) [hereinafter CDF Appeal Judgment]. 2 See Prosecutor v. Fofanah and Kondewa, Judgment, Partially Dissenting Opinion of Hon. Justice George Gelaga. King, SCSL Appeals Chamber, Case No. SCSL-04-14-A (May 28, 2008) [hereinafter Kings Dissenting Opinion].

are permitted to violate the laws of war, the reasons for fighting themselves may sometimes be. evidentially material to establishing the requisite elements of crimes against humanity, completely apart from the justness of these reasons. This paper will provide a brief summary. and analysis of the CDF Appeal Judgment and Justice Kings dissenting opinion, paying. particular attention to how the reasons for war fighting may be separated from considerations of.

just cause, their legal relevance in charges that the CDF committed crimes against humanity. and their use as a mitigating factor in World Oil Demand Essay sentencing decisions. Reasons for Fighting and the General Requirements of of civil war, Crimes Against Humanity. The CDF Trial Judgment entered verdicts of not guilty for World Oil Demand both accused, Moinina Fofana and. Allieu Kondewa, for Counts 1 and 3, charging crimes against humanity of murder and other. inhumane acts.3 A majority of the Appeals Chamber, with Justice George Gelaga King and. Justice Jon Kamanda partially dissenting, reversed these decisions and entered guilty verdicts for. both counts.

The Statute of the SCSL defines crimes against humanity as the commission of. crimes as part of a widespread or systematic attack against followership theory any civilian population. order to establish the World Oil Demand Essay commission of a crime against humanity (CAH), the Prosecution needed to. prove beyond a reasonable doubt, inter alia, that attacks by the CDF and stair formulas, the Kamajors were. directed against any civilian population. This is one of the general or chapeau requirements. for crimes against humanity that must be proven in addition to the actual commission of the. specific crime, i.e. murder.5 The Trial Chamber found that the Prosecution had not established. this requirement beyond reasonable doubt, based on evidence that attacks by the CDF and the.

Kamajors were directed against rebel forces, specifically the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) and the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC), and the Prosecutions admission that the. CDF and the Kamajors fought for the restoration of democracy.6. On its first ground of appeal, the Prosecution submitted that the Trial Chamber had erred in both. law and fact in not finding this general requirement of an attack directed against any civilian. population.7 The Prosecution first submitted that the Trial Chamber erred as a matter of law in 3 See Prosecutor v. Norman, Fofanah and Kondewa, Judgment, SCSL Trial Chamber I, Case No. SCSL-04-14-J. (August 2, 2007) [hereinafter CDF Trial Judgment].

4 See the Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone, Article 2. 5 See Steven R. Ratner and Jason S. Abrams, Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy, 2nd Ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 58-79. 6 CDF Trial Judgment, para. 693.

7 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. 2.5. basing its finding on evidence that attacks were directed against the rebels or juntas.8. Prosecution argued the Trial Chamber effectively adopted the view that, as a matter of law, an. attack cannot be directed against Essay a civilian population if there are civilian casualties during an. attack against opposing military forces.

The Prosecution further argued the Trial Chamber erred. as a matter of war, law in finding that the CDF fought for World the restoration of democracy, because this. is not and should not be a material consideration in determining whether or not crimes against. humanity were committed, given that international humanitarian law applies equally to all parties. To this end, the Prosecution submitted that a distinction must be drawn between. the purpose and benefits of owning your own business, the target of the Oil Demand Essay attack, and that the purpose - i.e. fighting for the restoration of. democracy - is not relevant to shop, ascertaining the target - i.e. a civilian population. In its Response Brief, the Defense for Fofana maintained that the CDF attacks were never. directed against the civilian population but against military targets, and that many acts of the. Kamajors were isolated, random and unauthorized by the CDF.10 In addition, the Defense.

submitted that the CDFs policy was never to terrorize civilians, since this would be contrary to. protecting civilians from rebel forces, the Essay main purpose behind the establishment of the CDF.11. The Defense counsel for Kondewa submitted that the finding that the theory CDF fought to restore the. democratically elected government is in fact relevant to establishing that the Oil Demand civilian population. was not the specific or primary target of the attacks.12 This argument implies that the reasons for.

fighting, which sometimes may unfortunately be portrayed as a just cause, should have legal. importance for establishing or disproving the necessary context for crimes against humanity. Kondewas defense essentially argued that the existence of a plan or policy -which is benefits of owning your own business often. established through evidence of a partys reasons for fighting or their objective - has been. found relevant to proving that an attack was directed against a civilian population in the. jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR).13.

For this reason, it should also be. evidentially relevant to World, proving that an attack was not directed primarily against a civilian. population. The Defenses argument is subtle and one must be careful not to followership theory, place too much 8 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. 2.16; CDF Trial Judgment, para. 693. 9 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. 2.51.

10 Fofana Response Brief, para. 6. To support this, Fofanas Defense refers to Oil Demand Essay, the Trial Chambers finding that. [a]lthough the CDF were a cohesive force under one central command, there were some fighters who acted on shop online, their. own without the knowledge of central command. Ibid., para. 7. 11 Ibid., para. 16. 12 Kondewa Response Brief, para. 1.8.

13 Ibid. World Essay! See also, CDF Appeal Judgment, para. 241. emphasis on how the son of citation machine apa reasons for fighting can help establish the absence rather than the presence. of a particular policy.

Nevertheless, it highlights the World Oil Demand fact that descriptive evidence of a partys. reasons for fighting are evidentially relevant to son of citation apa, elucidating the underlying objective - and thus in. some cases the object or target - of a partys military operations. If one considers in Oil Demand Essay more detail the required context for the commission of crimes against. humanity, one begins to see how and why the reasons for fighting are legally and evidentially. relevant.14 Firstly, it is of The Flies Nazi Regime Essay important to note that the concept of an attack in the context of CAH is. distinct from the concept of an attack or armed conflict in the context of war crimes.

A military. operation is not necessarily an attack against a civilian population even if - or because - breaches of the laws of World, war occur or there are heavy civilian casualties. The contextual CAH. prerequisite of an shop, attack is only established to the extent that a military operation can be shown. to be aimed or directed at Oil Demand Essay a civilian population. More specifically, a court must determine that. the attack was directed primarily against online a civilian population, and was not just the World consequence. of an excessive use of military power.

The CDF Trial Chamber did adopt this dictum from the. ICTY Appeals Chamber15 that directed against in benefits of owning own business the context of CAH implies that the civilian. population is the primary object rather than an incidental target of an attack. An attack can still. be considered as primarily directed against a civilian population if the court is satisfied that in. pursuance of a military purpose, a party to Essay, a conflict has specifically or indiscriminately targeted. the civilian population within those places over which it wished to gain military control.

However, civilian casualties do not in and of themselves render the attack as one directed. against a civilian population for the purposes of CAH. Shop Online! The question then is how a Court. ascertains that an World, attack is machine directed against a civilian population, particularly if it is in pursuance. of a military purpose. Oil Demand Essay! Here the ad hoc tribunals have largely relied on evidence of whether there. is a political objective or a plan pursuant to which the attack is perpetrated or an ideology, in the. broad sense of the your word, to Oil Demand Essay, destroy, persecute or weaken a community.16 The Blaskic Trial 14. For good overviews of the development of crimes against humanity and their elements, as well as pertinent.

judicial decisions, see Anthony Cassese, International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003): 64- 95; Kriangsak Kittichaisaree, International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002): 85-128; Gunal Mettraux, Crimes Against Humanity in the Jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunals for the. Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda, 43 Harvard International Law Journal (2002): 237-316. 15 See Prosecutor v. Benefits Own Business! Kunarac et al, Judgment, ICTY Appeals Chamber, Case No. IT-96-23 IT-96-23/1-A (12 June.

2002) [hereinafter Kunarac Appeal Judgment], para. 92. See also CDF Trial Judgment, para. 114. 16 See Prosecutor v. Tihomir Bla#61676;kic, Judgement, ICTY Trial Chamber, Case No. IT-95-14-T (3 March 2000) [hereinafter Blaskic Trial Judgment], paras. 203-206.

Chamber, for World Oil Demand instance, did consider whether the attacks in Nazi Regime Essay question were designed to be. responses to World, military aggression or had military objectives.17 In the context of the conflict in the. former Yugoslavia and of The and Hitler’s Nazi Essay, the systematic nature of attacks that were directed against Oil Demand Essay specifically. Muslim civilian populations, it concluded that the attacks could not have been justified by. The ICTY has adopted a liberal interpretation of the term civilian, which the shop SCSL has largely. followed. For instance, the ICTY has held that civilian includes victims who at Essay one time bore. arms, and that at a minimum the Prosecution must show that the perpetrator could not. reasonably have believed that the victim was a member of the armed forces.18. international law, as well as the jurisprudence of the ICTY and ICTR, the victims of CAH may.

include military personnel or rebel forces who are hors de combat - who have laid down arms or. are injured.19 However, the targeted population must still be predominantly civilian in nature, and non-civilians are victims because of their membership or presence within the civilian. population that is targeted by the accused or the attack. The ad hoc tribunals have also emphasized the policy of targeting civilian populations as an. important part of the context of CAH. In fact, [i]t is the existence of such a policy that endows. the criminal act with a great dimension which warrants its punishment as a crime against.

A policy of attacks against a civilian population is one of the main aspects of. proving the war commission of a CAH, and is often used to Oil Demand, establish the systematic component of. such attacks. This supports the argument that the grounds for commission or the reasons for. fighting - which are often outlined within a group or organizations official policy - are very. much relevant to elucidating whether or not such a policy was intentionally targeting civilian. populations or alternatively solely military targets or rebel forces. While they are not necessarily. determinative, the your own business reasons for fighting do provide evidence either supporting or undermining the. contention that particular attacks were direct against a civilian population, and thus cannot.

automatically be discounted. Both the Majority Opinion and Justice Kings Dissenting Opinion 17 See ibid., paras. 425-28, 573-79, 623-34, 676-78. 18 Prosecutor v. Oil Demand! Kunarac et al, Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber, Case No. IT-96-23-T IT-96-23/1-T (22 February. 2001) [hereinafter Kunarac Trial Judgment], para.

435. 19 See Prosecutor v. Mrksic and benefits own business, Others (Vukovar Hospital Case), Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber II, Case No. IT- 95-13/1 (27 September 2007), paras. 29-32; Blaskic Trial Judgment, paras.

210, 216; Prosecutor v. Kayishema and. Ruzindana, Judgment, ICTR Trial Chamber, Case No. Essay! ICTR-95-1-T (21 May 1999) [hereinafter Kayishema Trial. Judgment], para. 127. 20 Kayishema Trial Judgment, paras.

124-6. recognize this, but address the distinction between a just cause and benefits of owning your, the reasons for World fighting. differently, based on how they interpret the son of citation apa argument that the Essay CDF were fighting for the. restoration of a democratically elected government. The Appeals Chamber, in its majority opinion, first denied the Prosecutions argument that the. Trial Chamber made its finding that the CDF fought for the restoration of democracy a decisive. consideration in its judgment.21 Not surprisingly, it emphatically rejected the idea that fighting.

for the restoration of democracy could provide a justification for the commission of crimes. against humanity. Stair Formulas! However, instead of attempting to differentiate between the idea of a just. cause as justification and the reasons for fighting as material to the determination of Oil Demand Essay, the. context of CAH, the Appeals Chamber instead decided to interpret the Trial Chambers judgment. as not heavily relying on stair formulas, the finding that the CDF were fighting for Oil Demand the restoration of democracy. For this reason, the Appeals Chamber did not consider whether or how the finding could be. material to the contextual elements of shop online, CAH. It did, however, note the argument of Kondewas. Defense Counsel that because the Oil Demand reasons for stair formulas fighting can be evidentially material to establishing.

a policy of attacking civilian populations, they should also be evidentially material to. establishing the absence of such a plan.22. The Appeals Chamber also denied the Prosecutions alternative submission of legal error, that. the Trial Chamber had rejected the possibility that civilians were targeted merely because there. was evidence of World Essay, attacks directed against rebel forces. The Appeals Chamber was unable to. conclude that the stair formulas Trial Chamber considered as a matter of law that a military attack cannot. coexist with an attack directed against any civilian population.23 Thus the Appeals Chamber did. not reverse the World Trial Chambers verdict of not guilty on the basis of the misapplication of the.

legal principles of CAH. In his dissenting opinion, Justice King first considered whether the finding that the of owning own business CDF was. fighting for the restoration of democracy is Oil Demand a material consideration in determining whether a. civilian population is the primary object of an attack. While he agreed with the Prosecutions. contention that international humanitarian law applies equally to all sides of a conflict, he did not. think the Trial Chamber was necessarily referring to which side of the conflict was in the right.

21 CDF Appeal Judgment, para. 247-9. 22 Ibid., para. 241. 23 Ibid., para. 251-2. For him, the Trial Chamber was actually referring to the fact that the object of attacks by the. CDF and the Kamajors was the AFRC and the RUF, in order to restore the elected government. For Justice King, this is a relevant factor in citation apa evaluating the totality of the evidence to determine. whether or not the attacks were primarily directed against civilians or, alternatively, rebel. forces.24 In particular, it is a relevant factor in Oil Demand determining whether the charges put forth in the.

Prosecutions indictment - that the CDF was fighting to gain control of the territory and. population of Sierra Leone - had been sufficiently proven.25. Justice King argued that the evidence did not support these charges, given that the CDF were. fighting to benefits of owning your own business, restore the democratically elected government and not to gain complete control over. the population of Sierra Leone.26 While he stated numerous times that the reasons for fighting. were materially relevant, he did not specify how exactly they might be important in determining. whether the World Essay attacks were directed against the civilian population. One could further elaborate on. Justice Kings position to argue that the reasons for fighting provide evidence of the object of. attack and not simply the purpose of the attack.

Often, the reasons for of civil fighting or the purpose of. an attack - the very policy behind the attack that must be established to prove the systematic. requirement of the CAH - will inform which objects of attack are chosen. While the Oil Demand two are not. equivalent, they are also not mutually exclusive.

The purpose of the attack can elucidate what. the intended targets were, but it is not exclusively determinative of your own business, those targets. The second issue raised by Essay, the Prosecution on appeal was whether the Trial Chamber erred as a. matter of fact in finding the absence of attacks directed against a civilian population. In. reviewing the benefits own business Trial Chambers findings that attacks were not directed against World Essay any civilian. population, the Appeals Chamber first noted that this conclusion was devoid of articulation of. its reasoning and causes, that the Trial Chamber misdirected itself when applying the [legal] principle. it had already stated, by confusing the World target of the Lord of The Nazi Essay attack with the purpose of the attack.

When. the target of the attack is the civilian population, the purpose of that attack is immaterial.27. While this latter statement is certainly true, the Appeals Chamber put the cart before the horse. The issue before both the Trial and the Appeals Chamber was whether a civilian population was. the target, and the purpose of the attack can be evidentially relevant in adducing whether this is World Essay 24 Kings Dissenting Opinion, paras. 28-9. 25 CDF Indictment, para. 19. 27 CDF Appeal Judgment, paras. 298, 300. the case; only if and when it is Lord of The Flies Essay found that a civilian population was the target, does the purpose.

of the attack lose its relevance and become immaterial. In other words, the purpose of the World Oil Demand attack. is material to followership theory, whether a civilian population is the target but only Oil Demand Essay becomes immaterial when a. civilian population is the target. The Appeals Chamber then reviewed the record with respect to each attack and of owning, found sufficient. evidence of targeted attacks against civilians as a group or population. Of particular importance. for the Oil Demand Appeals Chamber was the online Trial Chambers own finding that there were incidents when. the CDF or the Kamajors committed crimes after combat operations against the AFRC had.

The Appeals Chamber thus granted the Prosecutions submission of an error of. fact and reversed the acquittals on the basis of its own findings of fact. This is particularly. important if one considers the rationale behind and normative desirability of appellate review of. acquittals, addressed below.

Justice King dissented as to World Oil Demand, whether the attacks by the CDF and Kamajors were in fact directed. against any civilian population. He disagreed with the Appeals Chambers findings that in. Tongo, Bo, Kenema and Korbondo, the Kamajors and the CDF engaged in attacks directed. against the civilian population. He first considered whether attacks in these areas had a military.

objective, and supported the stair formulas Trial Chambers findings, for example, that these attacks were. military operations against rebels in Tongo and Oil Demand, that there were only eleven civilian casualties in. Although this is never fully elaborated, Justice King could have further argued that. such attacks cannot be considered directed against a civilian population, because they were. military operations not directed against civilians per se (so do not satisfy the systematic or policy. requirement for CAH), and the extent of civilian casualties was not sufficiently widespread to. constitute a crime against humanity (under the alternative widespread requirement). Justice King argued that the Trial Chamber looked for relevant legal authority and principles and.

applied those principles to the factual findings made. He thus disagreed with the Appeals. Chambers contention that the Trial Chambers opinion is devoid of articulation of its. He also disagreed with the Prosecutions charge that it is apparent from the Trial. Chambers findings that it considered, as a matter of law, that an attack is not directed against. the civilian population if civilians are attacked in the course of attacks directed against followership theory opposing 28 CDF Appeal Judgment, para. 305; CDF Sentencing Judgment, para. 85. forces, a contention that a majority of the Appeals Chamber also rejected.29 Justice King. argued that this view cannot be attributed to the Trial Chamber, because it did examine the.

evidence and then arrived at the conclusion that the World Oil Demand Essay evidence did not prove beyond a reasonable. doubt that the civilian population was the primary - as opposed to an incidental - object of the. Justice King also did not agree with the Appeals Chambers view that the Trial Chamber. confused the target of the attack with the purpose of the attack.30 For Justice King, the Trial. Chamber was actually saying that the Prosecution had not proven that the Essay civilian population was. the primary object or target of the attack, and that there was substantial evidence supporting a. finding the primary object was the AFRC and its allies (a military target) and World Essay, not the causes war civilian. population.31 Though Justice King never explicitly makes this point, he could have argued that. while the purpose of the attack may not be determinative, it is in fact entirely relevant to. establishing the target of the attack, given that the objective or purpose of a particular attack. partly determines the objects or targets against which it is directed.

This is especially relevant in. ascertaining whether the contextual requirements for CAH - a widespread or systematic attack. against any civilian population - have been established. Justice Kings dissent partially derives from the World Oil Demand Essay role he argued the Appeals Chamber should. adopt in reviewing findings of fact, particularly on stair formulas, appeals from acquittals. For Justice King, the. Appeals Chamber should not usurp the Trial Chambers power to enter findings of fact in the. first instance, because it has not heard the evidence and World Essay, it might select pieces of evidence which. tend to support its findings of fact, whereas countervailing evidence may, in shop online the circumstance, not be given the weight that the Trial Chamber, which saw and heard the Oil Demand Essay witnesses, gave to it.32. Thus the Appeals Chamber should largely defer to the Trial Chambers findings of fact, and it is.

only where the theory evidence relied on by the Trial Chamber could not reasonably have been. accepted by any reasonable person that the Oil Demand Appeals Chamber can substitute its own finding for. that of the Trial Chamber.33 This is particularly true when the Appeals Chamber is considering. an appeal from an acquittal. Lord Of The Flies Nazi! While legally, under international law, an Oil Demand Essay, appellate court can. reverse an acquittal on the basis of errors of law and fact, from a normative point of view one 29 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. 2.16. 30 CDF Appeal Judgment, para. 304. 31 Kings Dissenting Opinion, para.

53. 32 Ibid., para. Stair Formulas! 44. 33 Kings Dissenting Opinion, para. 55, quoting ICTY Delalic et al, Appeal Judgment, para. 458. can argue that it should be especially careful in doing so solely on the basis of errors of fact, given that this conflicts with the idea of double jeopardy in some legal systems.

While civil and World Oil Demand Essay, common law systems differ substantially in the scope of appeals permitted, if. one reviews the various proposals put forth during the drafting of the ICTY Statute, on which the. SCSL Statute is largely based, only one proposal put forth by of civil, the Organization of the World Oil Demand Islamic. Conference suggested that prosecutorial appeals should be permitted on both issues of law and. fact.34 The majority of the Lord Flies and Hitler’s Essay proposals either suggested no basis for Oil Demand prosecutorial appeals, or that. such appeals should be limited to reviewing errors of law. With no clear rationale or.

commentary, but arguably to appease all of the negotiating parties, the adopted ICTY Statute. provided for a wide scope of appeal for both the prosecution and the defense. supports the idea of a broad provision of equality of arms. However, the primary justifications. for appellate review in ad hoc tribunals, namely consistency of decisions and the development of. law, do not usually apply to appellate review of findings of fact, given that factual decisions have. little if any relevance beyond the individual case.35.

Common law systems generally do not allow factual review of son of machine, acquittals in Oil Demand Essay trials by a jury or. bench trials, since this violates the presumption of innocence. Stair Formulas! Civil law systems vary depending. on the structure and Essay, trial process of their lower and upper courts. One justification put forth for a. broad scope of shop online, appellate review is justice in the individual case. Appellate review of factual. issues in the case of reviews of convictions certainly does further the interest of justice in the. individual case, given the severity of the punishment that accompanies a conviction. It is. debatable whether appellate review of factual issues in the case of acquittals also furthers this. interest.

For example, if the appellate court reaches a different conclusion regarding the facts, this in Essay itself might demonstrate reasonable doubt, indicating that the prosecution has not. fulfilled its burden of proof. In the ad hoc courts, an of civil war, acquittal by a three-judge panel is arguably. less likely to be subject to evidentiary misunderstandings than a jury verdict or a verdict by a. single judge, and thus the World Essay practical need for prosecutorial appeals from acquittals on questions of. fact is reduced.36. In fact, if any error in interpreting or evaluating the theory evidence is World made, it is more. likely to be made by the Appeals Chamber, which is further from the record and the witnesses. 34 See Mark C. Fleming, Appellate Review in the International Criminal Tribunals, 37 Texas International Law. Journal (2002): 111-155, at 118-19. 35 Ibid., pp. 135-6.

36 It should be noted that this criticism does not apply to prosecutorial appeals on issues of fact where the Lord Flies Nazi Regime Essay defendant. bears the burden of proof, for instance if the Trial Chamber acquitted on the basis of an insanity defense. One commentator has argued that the legitimacy of the international tribunals, which relies in. large part on their ability to World, deliver fair justice through fair procedures, could be compromised if. the accused is in son of machine danger of being convicted as long as one of two chambers concludes that he is. guilty.

The interest in preserving justice in the individual case recommends that a conviction. stand only if both chambers agree that a conviction is reasonable in Oil Demand light of the evidence.37. because Article 20 of the Statute of the stair formulas SCSL provides for Oil Demand Essay a broad scope of prosecutorial appeal. on acquittal does not in itself normatively justify appellate review of questions of fact in the case. of an acquittal and does not lessen the followership severity of the criticisms levied against this practice. While in the near future, a broad scope of prosecutorial appeal is likely to be retained in the ad. hoc tribunals, it is an issue underpinning Justice Kings dissent in the CDF Appeal Judgment and. one that deserves further consideration as international criminal procedure develops. Mitigating Factors in Sentencing Decisions: CDFs Just Cause and Motive of Civic Duty. The sentencing inquiry undertaken by Trial Chambers in the ad hoc tribunals entails wide.

discretion and is similar to that in World Essay common law countries, where there are no fixed penalties and. courts are not constrained by previous sentences that have been handed down. Instead, sanctions. are purportedly tailored to fit the unique circumstances of each offence and the individual. circumstances of the stair formulas offender. Central to this inquiry is the principle of Oil Demand Essay, proportionality - that the. severity of the sanction should be commensurate with the gravity of the son of citation machine apa offence.38. the length of a sentence, a Trial Chamber is first required to World Oil Demand, establish a penalty proportionate to. the seriousness of the crime and then required to take into account any individualized. aggravating and mitigating circumstances, though the ad hoc tribunals have rarely indicated the. weight given to each consideration.

The aggravating circumstances should be proven beyond. reasonable doubt, while mitigating factors may include those not directly related to stair formulas, the offence. and only need to be established by a balance of probabilities.39. Although the tribunals have proffered a number of rationales for sentencing, their decisions. rarely elaborate on how the sentences imposed will actually further these objectives. As some. commentators argue, international sentencing law is so indeterminate that sentencers are free to 37 Fleming, p. 140. 38 For an overview of the World Essay sentencing practices of the ad hoc tribunals, see Mirko Bagaric and, John Morss, International Sentencing Law: In Search of World Oil Demand, Justification and a Coherent Framework, 6 International Criminal Law. Review (2006): 191-255. 39 See, for example, Prosecutor v. Dragan Nikolic, Sentencing Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber II, Case No.

IT-94-2- S (18 December 2003), para 145. switch from one rationale to another as they choose.40. Another commentator has suggested that. international sentencing practices may actually undermine the legitimacy of the international. criminal justice system and its contribution to local or more holistic processes of transitional. justice, by not adequately relating the outcomes of international sentencing to local perceptions. of justice.41 Supporting this skepticism is the fact that it is difficult to empirically substantiate.

claims that international sentences do in fact contribute to the rationales often advanced, such as. peace, reconciliation, retribution or deterrence. This implies that the stair formulas gap between what victims. and victimised communities perceive as justice and World Essay, what passes as international criminal justice Though it is of civil war debatable whether this critique can really be generalized to World, all ad hoc. tribunal decisions, the online difficulty of relating an internationalized form of justice in the form of. international sentences to Essay, the local context of Sierra Leone is particularly apparent in stair formulas the diverse.

reactions by Sierra Leoneans to the CDF Appeals Judgment. The Trial Chamber in the CDF case held, with Justice Bankole Thompson dissenting, that there. was no defense of World Oil Demand Essay, necessity in son of citation machine apa international criminal law, and that necessity could not be. taken into account as a mitigating factor in sentencing. Oil Demand Essay! However, the Trial Chamber did. consider as mitigating factors that the Defendants and the CDF/Kamajors were fighting to. support a legitimate cause which. was to restore the democratically elected government of.

President Kabbah, that they fought with the support of, ECOMOG, and that this contributed. immensely to World Oil Demand, re-establishing the rule of online, law.43 It also concluded that the contribution of the. two Accused Persons to Oil Demand, the establishment of the followership much desired and awaited peace in Sierra Leone. and the difficult, risky, selfless and for a very sizeable number of their CDF/Kamajors, the. supreme sacrifices that they made to Essay, achieve this through a bloody conflict, is in itself a factor. that stands significantly in mitigation in their favour.44. With regard to benefits of owning your, motive of civic duty, it. found that the Defendants did not join the conflict for Oil Demand selfish reasons and that they acted from. a sense of civic duty rather than for personal aggrandizement or gain.45. 40 Bagaric and of owning your own business, Morss, at 208.

41 Ralph Henham, International Sentencing in the Context of World Oil Demand Essay, Collective Violence, 7 International Criminal Law. Review (2007): 449-468, at 451. 43 CDF Sentencing Judgment, paras. 79, 83, 87. 44 Ibid., para.

91. 45 Ibid., para. Of Owning Your Own Business! 94. On appeal, the World Oil Demand Prosecution alleged ten errors of the Trial Chamber in its sentencing decision. The Appeals Chamber gave credence to only one alleged error, that of apa, treating the just cause of the Accused as a mitigating factor and considering motive of civic duty.46 The Prosecution.

submitted that the World Trial Chamber effectively found that fighting on the right side of a conflict. could serve as a mitigating factor in sentencing, and that accepting the so-called justness of the. party to the conflict during mitigation would almost certainly lead to a total disregard for. humanitarian law.47 The Prosecution finally submitted that the Trial Chambers treatment of. motive of civic duty as a mitigating factor was also based on shop online, an assumption that the Defendants. were fighting on the right side of the conflict. In response, the World Oil Demand Defense for Fofana submitted that motives of either so-called just cause or. civic duty are part of the factual and stair formulas, contextual differences that the Trial Chamber must. consider in individualizing the Oil Demand punishment, and that the stair formulas Trial Chamber didnt consider whether. the Defendant fought on Essay, the right side of the conflict per se, but merely whether he had a good. motive.48 The Defense for Kondewa also submitted that because an evil motive can be.

considered an aggravating factor in sentencing decisions, a good motive can similarly be. considered a mitigating factor.49. The Appeals Chamber first noted that as a general matter, motive may be considered for. sentencing purposes, although it does not constitute a defense against shop criminal liability. This is.

supported by the fact that the ICTR, to which the SCSL may refer for sentencing practices, often. considers the character and motive of the accused during the conflict as a mitigating factor.50. However, the World Essay Appeals Chamber then argued that the political motive of just cause had no place. in international criminal justice, and of owning, that international humanitarian law specifically removes a. partys political motive and the justness of a partys cause from consideration.51 While this is. certainly true, political motives only World Essay have no place in international humanitarian law when.

considering the guilt or innocence of the own business accused. Though the ad hoc tribunals generally render. their judgments and sentencing decisions together, for reasons of procedural efficiency, 46 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. 4. 47 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. 9.39. 48 Fofana Response Brief, paras. 193-6. 49 Kondewa Response Brief, paras. 9.38-9.39, citing Blaskic Trial Judgment, para.

785. 50 For an overview of the World Essay sentencing practices of the ICTR, see the son of Human Rights Watch report on Charging, 51 CDF Appeals Judgment, para. 530-1. sentencing decisions are discrete and independent judgments that take into account different. factors than judgments concerning the Essay guilt or innocence of the accused.52. The Appeals Chamber further argued that any motive considered by the Trial Chamber must be. consistent with sentencing purposes, referring to those legitimate rationales elaborated by causes of civil, the. ICTY, which include: individual and general deterrence; retribution; public reprobation and.

stigmatization by the international community; and rehabilitation. Oil Demand Essay! The Appeals Chamber. considered the of civil primary objectives to be retribution and Oil Demand, deterrence.53 It argued that allowing. mitigation for the personal motives of an accused would undermine the purposes of sentencing. rather than promote them, and followership theory, would implicitly legitimize the unlawful conduct.54. concluding, the Appeals Chamber noted that the most important consideration in sentencing is. the revulsion of mankind, represented by the international community and not the tolerance. by a local community of the crime; or lack of public revulsion in relation to the crimes of such. community; or local sentiments about the World Essay persons who have been found guilty of the Lord of The Flies and Hitler’s Regime crimes.55.

Thus, the Appeals Chamber held that the Essay Trial Chamber erred by considering just cause and. motive of civic duty as relevant factors in its sentencing decision, and that the Appeals. Chamber had the ability to of The Nazi, revise these sentences. Justice King dissented on both issues, arguing. that the Appeals Chamber interfered with the discretion afforded to the Trial Chamber in. determining the appropriate penalties. Justice King argued that the Essay Trial Chamber did not take into account just cause as a mitigating. factor, but rather what the Defense had in fact pleaded - that the fighting was mobilized in order. to restore the democratically elected government of. President Kabbah, without implying any.

normative evaluation about son of apa, whether this end was just.56 The Trial Chamber Justices. themselves only World Oil Demand Essay mentioned the phrase just cause in rejecting the defense of necessity raised by. Justice Bankole Thompson in his Dissenting Opinion. Stair Formulas! Justice King thus appeared to be arguing. (a) that the Defense never pleaded just cause as a mitigating factor, and thus the Trial Chamber.

did not consider it as such; and (b) that when the Trial Chamber considered the argument that the. CDF and the Kamajors were fighting to restore the democratically elected government as a 52 For this argument, see Ralph Henham, Procedural justice and human rights in international sentencing, 4. International Criminal Law Review (2004): 185-210. 53 Ibid., para. 532. 54 Ibid., para. 534. 55 Ibid., para. Essay! 564. 56 Kings Dissenting Opinion, para.

107. mitigating factor, this is not equivalent to considering a just cause argument because the Trial. Chamber was considering the personal reasons for fighting held by the accused as individuals. and not necessarily the political justness of the collective cause. In Justice Kings opinion, a. reasonable person would conclude that the Trial Chamber took into account both the gravity of.

the offence and the individual circumstances of the stair formulas accused, and so correctly applied Article 19. of the Statute of the World Oil Demand Essay SCSL.57 For this reason, he dissented with the causes Majoritys view that the Trial. Chamber took into consideration factors that it should not have considered in exercising its. sentencing discretion, and so the Appeals Chamber did not have the World Essay right or the power to. substitute its own discretion.

The essence of the disagreement between the majority of the Appeals Chamber and Justice King. relates to whether the stair formulas mitigating factors considered by the Trial Chamber were personal motives. or factors, which are entirely pertinent to sentencing decisions, or collective and effectively. political motives that do not enter into Oil Demand, determinations of penalties. One could argue that the. Appeals Chamber was so concerned with preserving the appearance of impartiality and avoiding. a perception of victors justice that it entirely refused to consider the theory guilt of the CDF relative. to the other parties of the conflict. It is perhaps for this reason that the CDF Appeals Sentencing.

Decision gave rise in Oil Demand Essay some circles to citation machine apa, the perception of a gap between internationalized justice and local justice. However, the fact that the Appeals Chamber strove to avoid the World Oil Demand perception of. victors justice in and of itself is Lord and Hitler’s Nazi a laudable undertaking. Yet in World Oil Demand doing so, the stair formulas Court overlooked. the fact that the SCSL is required to take into account individual factors that bear - not on the. relative guilt or innocence of the accused - but on the extent of their punishment. majority of the Appeals Chamber appears to World Oil Demand, have reached an appropriate judgment in deciding. that the justness of a partys reasons for your own business fighting is not relevant to sentencing, the personal. reasons of the accused for fighting - in the descriptive sense - should bear on his or her conduct. during the Oil Demand Essay conflict and of civil, thus act as an Oil Demand Essay, individualized mitigating factor during sentencing.

In the. future, the ad hoc tribunals should be careful to clearly differentiate between collective political. motives - such as a just cause - and these personal political motives that bear on the conduct of. the accused during the conflict. 57 Ibid., para. 115-116. Prosecutor v. Of Civil War! Tihomir Bla#61676;kic, Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber, Case No.

IT-95-14-T (3 March. Prosecutor v. Fofanah and Kondewa, Judgment, SCSL Appeals Chamber, Case No. SCSL-04- 14-A (May 28, 2008). Prosecutor v. Kayishema and Ruzindana, Judgment, ICTR Trial Chamber, Case No. ICTR-95-1- Prosecutor v. Kunarac et al., Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber, Case No. IT-96-23-T IT-96- 23/1-T (22 February 2001). Prosecutor v. Kunarac et al., Judgment, ICTY Appeals Chamber, Case No. World Oil Demand Essay! IT-96-23 IT-96-

23/1-A (12 June 2002). Prosecutor v. Mrksic and Others (Vukovar Hospital Case), Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber II, Case No. Son Of Citation! IT-95-13/1 (27 September 2007). Prosecutor v. Dragan Nikolic, Sentencing Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber II, Case No. IT-94-2- S (18 December 2003). Prosecutor v. Norman, Fofanah and Kondewa, Judgment, SCSL Trial Chamber I, Case No.

SCSL-04-14-J (August 2, 2007). Articles and World Oil Demand Essay, Books. Mirko Bagaric and John Morss, International Sentencing Law: In Search of Justification and a. Coherent Framework, 6 International Criminal Law Review (2006): 191-255. Anthony Cassese, International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003). Mark C. Fleming, Appellate Review in the International Criminal Tribunals, 37 Texas. International Law Journal (2002): 111-155. Ralph Henham, International Sentencing in of The Flies and Hitler’s the Context of Essay, Collective Violence, 7 International. Criminal Law Review (2007): 449-468. Ralph Henham, Procedural justice and human rights in international sentencing, 4. International Criminal Law Review (2004): 185-210.

Kriangsak Kittichaisaree, International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002). Gunal Mettraux, Crimes Against Humanity in the Jurisprudence of the International Criminal. Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda, 43 Harvard International Law Journal. Steven R. Ratner and Jason S. Abrams, Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in. International Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy, 2nd Ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, About the Author. Cosette Creamer is a J.D.-Ph.D. Shop! candidate at Harvard University, Department of Oil Demand Essay, Government. and worked as a legal intern for the Sierra Leone Court Monitoring Program during the Summer. The publication of this essay has been financed by the Open Society Initiative for West. Africa (OSIWA). The Contents of Lord Flies and Hitler’s Nazi Regime, this Publication are entirely the sole responsibility of.

the Sierra Leone Court Monitoring Programme. Sierra Leone Court Monitoring Programme. 30 Wellington Street, Freetown, Sierra Leone. Tel: +232 (0)33 445 287. Photo: The late Hinga Norman, former head of Sierra Leones CDF. A new approach in an imperfect world. Commentary By J Boima Rogers, Oxford, UK.* The current Syrian quagmire which has spilled over to Europe in World Essay the form of the refugee crisis gives grounds (. Shop! ) Analysis | September 2015 | 8539 views. Ebola persists but raging heads fight about politics. By Titus Boye-Thompson, Freetown, Sierra Leone. Oil Demand! It is a shame that while Ebola rages in Freetown and the North of Sierra Leone some still fail to have a (. ) Analysis | June 2015 | 8660 views. Credit: Pambazuka News By Karim F Hirji, Tanzania* Retired Professor Hirji, a book addict, has bought copies with frayed, half-torn or missing pages.

He (. ) Analysis | December 2014 | 9111 views. Toronto: Historic APC-Canada branch inauguration at stair formulas Taj banquet hall. Freetown: RainboCenter may close down soon. JFK makes Commercial Law a priority. Sierra Leone: Threat to peaceful co-existence. Update on APC-Canada inauguration September 30.

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Essay Form and World Structure: How to Write an Essay. Do you have an of The Regime Essay essay to write and do not know where or how to begin? Before you get started, there are a few things you must know about writing an essay. Oil Demand Essay? Forming and structuring an essay are necessary for of The Nazi, a well developed essay. Here are the steps to do this. 2. Narrow the subject into a workable topic. Subject vs. Topic. For example you could have a broad subject such as politics or dogs. The topic has a narrow focus within the subject, such as the World Oil Demand Essay, cost of running a campaign or the training of a police dog.

You will need to find a subject. 3. You can find a subject in shop, many ways. You can do so by, Freewriting (brainstorming) Looking in a dictionary Reading a Newspaper or magazine Looking in World, a journal or notebook Searching the internet. 4. When choosing a topic think about the stair formulas, impact you will have on World Oil Demand Essay the reader and allow yourself time for stair formulas, consideration.

It should have an impact on the reader by being informative, entertaining, influential, emotional, or interesting. Essay? Youll want to Flies Nazi Essay know about the World, topic. That means that youll have to do research and shop read about the topic. Essay? You will want to shape the topic to the appropriate length for your essay. 6. Narrowing a Topic . Some ways to son of citation narrow a topic are by: Freewriting Making a list Examine subject from different angles Clustering. 7. Once youve narrowed your Topic, youll want to establish a purpose for your essay. A few of the Oil Demand, purposes are: To express feelings or ideas with the reader and/or relate experiences.

To inform the reader of something To persuade the reader to think or act a certain way. You may want to think about entertaining the reader. 8. War? Next you want to think about developing your topic . You can do the Oil Demand, following: Freewriting List Write. Jot down everything you know about the topic in a short list. Questions.

Ask yourself questions, and answer those questions. Cluster. Start with the essential ideas and then connect ideas in a cluster. Write a letter to yourself or someone else explaining exactly what you know about a particular idea or topic. Keep a journal. Jot down things during the day that pertain to your topic as your thinking about developing your essay. Collaborate. Shop? Talk with other people about your topic see if they know anything that you may want to use in your essay. The thesis tells what an essay is going to be about. It is a brief opinion on Oil Demand Essay a limited subject, and it usually appears at the end of the introduction . The purpose of the Thesis Statement is to let the readers know the writers topic, and son of citation machine what opinion the World Oil Demand Essay, writer has about the machine apa, topic. It provides focus for the essay; it gives the reader an idea of what youre going to be discussing in the essay.

It guides the reader; it tells the reader exactly how you are going to be developing this particular topic. Oil Demand Essay? It presents the shop, main idea of the essay. You should always begin your writing with a working thesis statement. This helps you to organize our ideas and set u the structure of the essay. Once your have your thesis, you may want to start with an Oil Demand essay map. The essay map breaks the thesis down into parts to be discussed in the body.

The e ssay map is generally one or two sentences that follow the thesis statement. The essay must be grammatically parallel. 5. The thesis must express an shop attitude or opinion towards topic. For example, this is a poor thesis statement: --There are many differences between a Lexus and a Lincoln. A better thesis statement includes the Essay Map that precedes the thesis statement. For example, this thesis statement is brief and specific: --Its aerodynamic design, its V-6 engine, and its luxury appointments make the Lexus a mechanically and aesthetically superior car than the Lincoln. --Apartment living is preferable to Oil Demand Essay dorm living because its cheaper, quieter, and of The and Hitler’s Nazi Regime Essay more luxurious. Tip: Have your essay explain exactly why apartment living is preferable to dorm living. 7. A Good Thesis Statement avoids:

Broad statements will lead to vague and undeveloped essays Factual statements deal on facts, theres nothing to explain or develop as when you have a specific opinion on a brief subject. Announcements. Avoid b road statements. A thesis that is too broad will cause the writer to present a superficial discussion that will never get beyond the obvious. For example : -- The role in women in Oil Demand Essay, state politics has changed drastically the last ten years. Improved Thesis. Be specific and concise. For example: -- The leadership role of women in state politics has changed drastically in Lord of The, the past ten years.

Factual statements leave the writer with nothing to say, with no way to develop it. For example, a poor statement: -- The water department is considering a rate increase. Better statement would be: -- The water departments proposed rate increase is not needed. --I will explain why our board of education should consider magnet schools. --This essay will describe the Oil Demand Essay, best way to choose a major.

--Our board of education should consider magnet schools. --Students who are unsure of how to choose a major should follow my advice. --It is interesting to consider the various meanings of love. --We apply the work love to of civil a broad spectrum of emotions. 12.

Evaluating Thesis Statement. Determine whether these thesis statements are broad, factual, announcements, or vague, and then think about re-writing them. -- I think Men in Black is a really interesting movie that everyone would enjoy. This is a vague statement. -- My essay will tell you how to apply for World Oil Demand Essay, a college loan with the own business, least amount of trouble. This is an Essay announcement . -- Having a close friend to talk to is very important. This is a broad statement. Catch the readers attention Lead into the topic Present your thesis (main idea) Providing background information on your thesis statement, some ways to do that is by:

Tell a relevant story Explain why topic is important to your reader Present interesting images or use description that will keep readers interested. Flies And Hitler’s Nazi Regime? Present an exciting problem or raise a provocative question. Present an opposing viewpoint. Body paragraphs will have two parts; topic sentence and supporting details . World Oil Demand? Develop by causes examples, contrast, definition, classification Body paragraphs must relate to thesis. It must present facts and World Oil Demand Essay details to validate thesis. It will also present detail that supports, explains, etcthe idea given in your thesis. It will present the material to convince your reader of the validity of your thesis.

This is important because the body paragraphs are the core of the essay. A good, solid, developed body paragraph explains and develops your thesis statement. The topic sentence provides focus by presenting the point the body paragraph will deal with, and of owning your own business usuallly appears at the beginning of the paragraph . This point will be something to World Oil Demand support the thesis. It is important to develop each of benefits of owning own business, your topic sentences with enough detail. Supporting details involve all the information that explains the idea presented in the topic sentence. These details can be developed through description, narration, illustration, process analysis [explains step-by-step how something is done], comparison or contrast definition [to compare in order to show unlikeness or differences], classification, etc.

Avoid one or two sentence paragraphs. These are seen in Essay, business writing; however in academic essays an average length body paragraph ranges from 7-12 sentences, you want to have fully developed body paragraphs. Avoid ending a paragraph with a new idea. Avoid repeating the same idea in different ways. Avoid including more than one idea in a body paragraph. 7. Conclusion (asides from Oil Demand, your body paragraph, you will also have a conclusion)

This is the last paragraph of your essay. It leaves the reader with an followership overall reaction. It summarizes the main ideas of the Essay, essay. Gives the reader something to think about. It looks back or looks ahead. Lord Flies Nazi? Youll want to move the reader to action. The conclusion influences the World, readers final impression. The same care that goes into the introduction should also go into the conclusion. Shop Online? It is the Essay, last impression the reader has of your essay. Avoid a conclusion that is out of proportion to the rest of your essay. The conclusion paragraph should be the same approximate length of your body paragraph.

Avoid a conclusion that is not suited to your audience, purpose, or thesis. Avoid expressions like in conclusion, in summary, to summarize, and in closing. These are completely unnecessary for the conclusion. Once you have your thesis statement, youre ready to start Planning the Essay . You are going to Outline and Nazi Regime Draft your paper. Outlining helps organize ideas before drafting. Outlines can be detailed or sketchy, formal or scratch.

Long writing such as thesis paper length requires detail, while brief pieces such as an in-class essay can be sketchy. The formal outline is the most detailed and structured outline. It allows you to plot main points and major supporting details. Generally is written in full complete sentences. Main ideas are designated with Roman numerals.

Supporting details are designated by capital letters. Points to develop further are designated by Arabic numbers. Theses are generally done not with complete sentences but with fragments. Writers who prefer only Oil Demand Essay main points in outline will use the benefits of owning, scratch outline. Writers who prefer not to use much detail will use the Essay, scratch outline. Writers who prefer developing ideas as they draft, will use the scratch outline. This is for followership theory, writers who find a more detailed outline constraining and Essay prefer to have this outline. It begins with an idea in the center of the trunk of the of owning your own business, tree, and the branches will be focused off the trunk so one can see the relationships between the main idea and the sub ideas. Write the central idea; Main points= First branches. Add additional branches as sub points.

Once you have your outline, youre now ready to start your draft. The first draft of World, your essay is referred to as a rough draft. It Forms a base that can be shaped into the final product. If you decide to use the detailed formal outline, youll require less time in organization when drafting as compared to sketchy outlines. If you get stuck into writing the online, draft, skip the troublesome section and move. If trouble arises, skip the introduction and go back to it later. World Oil Demand Essay? The important thing is to complete the draft of the essay. Select an idea you are comfortable with and start with that topic. You may reshape your topic to something easier to write about. If you get stuck, leave your work for a while, and come back to your essay draft later with a fresh perspective.

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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Ahh, a philosophy major? I enjoyed my one philosophy class back in citation, the school days. I participated in a few debates myself. My most famous one was the right to bear arms. The structure of an essay is basically the Oil Demand Essay, same: outline, topic, thesis statement, intro, body, and conclusion. To meet the Lord of The Flies Nazi, writing intensive prereqs at my college, this is how it was taught.

The different types of essays varied. There is the World Oil Demand Essay, argumentative essay, persuasive essay, narrative essay, informative essay, etc., and each had their own requirements. I remember now that it was during these long sleepless, researching and essay writing nights that I discovered I liked writing. I wish you the best in your philosophy paper and would like to read it if and son of citation when you post it. PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. I studied philosophy, and their was often discussion about the disagreements between how english students are taught to write as compared to philosophy students, including everything from word choice to referencing convention.

I am working on World Oil Demand an article about writing philosophy paper, and hope to have it up in the next few days. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thanks for your visit. Stair Formulas? This came from Oil Demand Essay, notes taken from stair formulas, one of my English classes at College, a requirement I needed for my Associates degree. World Oil Demand? It helped me greatly in all my essay writing, which earned me all A's :) PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. Some good advice though some of stair formulas, these points tend to vary quite a bit from Oil Demand, field to field. I can't say that I write this way at all, though my method is not standard. A good start for anyone with little experience.

Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Lord of The Flies Essay, Sunny Florida. Thank you for Oil Demand Essay, the compliment. Glad you stopped by. htodd 5 years ago from United States. That is of civil war, great post. That is nice article on how to write an Oil Demand Essay essay. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thank you for your visit and causes of civil comment. Brenda Barnes 6 years ago from America-Broken But Still Beautiful. What a great tutorial. Very well done indeed Faithful Daughter.

Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. I am glad to World hear that this has helped you. Thank you for your comment. This is a very helpful hub. Stair Formulas? I am currently working on my Bachelor's degree and I have to write a thesis statement on a paper that is due at the end of the World Oil Demand, session. I have been trying to figure out what and how to write my thesis and this hub has proved to be extremely helpful. Thank you. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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