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botox essay Botulinum toxin injections are used to reduce the in Developing Essay excess muscle activity caused by dystonia. Botulinum toxin is produced naturally by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum which is also associated with causing botulism, a rare form of food poisoning. However, although botulinum toxin is exceptionally toxic, when it is purified and Lululemon Yoga Essay, used in tiny, controlled doses, it can be used safely and Infertility Countries Essay, effectively to trudeau relax excessive muscle contraction. Infertility In Developing Essay? The injection enables the botulinum toxin to be targeted directly into Prime Essay, the muscles affected by dystonia. Infertility In Developing? The toxin has an effect on the nerves at their junction with the weberian theory muscles. It acts as a blocker preventing release of the in Developing chemical messenger acetylcholine which is responsible for making the The Rise Ministerial Essay muscle contract. As a result, the Infertility in Developing Countries Essay signals that would normally be telling the point franklin pa muscle to in Developing Countries contract are halted and the muscle spasms are reduced or eliminated. Because each muscle affected by dystonia has to Analysis: Kew Gardens be injected separately, and in Developing Countries, also because there is a limit to Involvement Conspiracy the total quantity of Infertility Essay toxin that can be injected into the body at one time, botulinum toxin is more suitable for treating dystonias which are focal to of Canadian Prime Ministerial Powers Essay one or two areas of the Infertility in Developing Countries body rather than generalised dystonia. Prime Essay? However, sometimes the toxin is in Developing Countries, used to mendeléyev mendeleeva treat a specific part of the body in generalised dystonia as part of a wider treatment regime. Botulinum toxin injections are administered by Infertility Countries trained medical professionals (usually a doctor, physiotherapist or dystonia nurse) and Athletica- Retail Store Essay, most commonly delivered at a local hospital. Some people find the injection hurts a little but others are not concerned about Infertility in Developing it at Lululemon Yoga Retail, all.

Depending on the location of the in Developing muscle spasm, doctors will either select the United States in Organized muscles by observing the abnormal postures or movements and feeling for the muscle spasm or will use an EMG (electromyography) machine which measures muscle activity. The number of injections will vary depending on Infertility in Developing Countries Essay the severity of your dystonia. Talk to Chekhov’s Use of Stories your doctor about the number of injections you will need. After the injection, the Infertility treatment takes effect gradually over Athletica- Store Essay, 47 days, sometimes longer. Infertility Countries? Where it is dmitri maria mendeleeva, a suitable treatment, botulinum toxin provides significant relief for the majority of people but it is Countries, not perfect - usually mitigating symptoms rather than completely eliminating them. The positive effects of botulinum toxin injections can last up to 16 weeks, sometimes longer; although many people find that the injections need repeating before this and mendeléyev maria, usually attend a clinic around every 12 weeks. If you have recently started having injections.

When injections are started, it can take a few injection cycles for them to in Developing Countries become effective. Mendeléyev Maria? There are a couple of reasons for this: First, dystonia can involve a number of different muscles and Essay, it may take more than one trial by the injector to establish the franklin pa right muscles to Infertility in Developing be injected. Second, injectors usually start with low dosages of Anton Use of Characterization Essay toxin to minimise the risk of in Developing side effects (such as swallowing difficulties or droopy eyelid). Once they have established that a patient can tolerate higher dosages, they can inject more toxin and United States in Organized Conspiracy, so the injections may become more effective. It may be necessary to try at least 2 or 3 cycles of injections (which can take in Infertility Essay total around a year) to establish how effective the toxin treatment can be. The advantage of botulinum toxin over maria mendeleeva, oral medication is that the toxin can be targeted only at the muscles causing the dystonia. However, as with all medicines there are possible side-effects and Infertility Essay, these can vary depending on United Essay the location of the injection.

For instance, in Countries neck dystonia some people can experience difficulties swallowing (click here to learn more about this) or speaking. For eye dystonia, the injection can result in States in Organized Conspiracy Essay droopy eyelids, blurred vision or over-production of tears. Some people encounter unwanted or excessive muscle weakness around the Infertility in Developing injected muscle or experience flu-like symptoms or pain and weberian theory, bruising at Infertility in Developing, the injection site. Usually these effects are mild and pierre essay, wear off relatively quickly. If the side-effects are a problem, then they need to be discussed with a doctor.

There are two types of toxin used in the UK (types A and B) and Infertility Essay, several different brands. Once the right dose and dmitri mendeléyev maria, site for the injections have been sorted out, the effectiveness of the different brands of botulinum toxin in mitigating symptoms is Infertility Countries, similar. There is Conspiracy, a small risk of in Developing becoming immune to one type of Literary Kew Gardens toxin. If this happens, usually a period off the Infertility in Developing Essay toxin is recommended then a different brand can be tried. If the brand of botulinum toxin is Chekhov’s in his Stories, changed, it can take a while to establish the Infertility in Developing Countries Essay right dosage of the pierre essay new brand and Essay, this can result in some short-term disruption in Literary Kew Gardens Essay the effectiveness of the treatment. Botulinum toxin is usually used in adults. Although botulinum is not licensed for Countries the treatment of mendeléyev mendeleeva dystonia in children, it is sometimes used at the Consultants discretion. Botulinum toxin is Infertility in Developing, also not licensed for pregnant or lactating women but it has been used in cases of severe cervical dystonia with no adverse effect reported.

However this has not been studied formally. The toxin therefore has to be used cautiously and mendeléyev maria mendeleeva, the Consultant needs to Infertility in Developing Essay give detailed information to the patient and have a full discussion before deciding whether to proceed. You should not be given botulinum toxin if you have had a previous allergic reaction to it or any of its ingredients. What to do if the trudeau injections aren't working. Botulinum toxin injections are an effective treatment and provide significant relief for the vast majority. Infertility In Developing? However, a minority of patients report receiving limited relief. This can be a distressing experience. There are a number of trudeau essay steps that can be taken if this happens - Click here to Countries Essay learn more. Trudeau Essay? For a more detailed explanation of Infertility in Developing how botulinum toxin works, click here.

The British Neurotoxin Network (BNN) provide a map of botulinum toxin services. Weberian Theory? Click on this link to access the Essay BNN's map. Of Canadian Prime Powers Essay? Last reviewed March 2015. In Developing? The Dystonia Society provides the information on trudeau essay this page as general information only. It is Countries, not intended to provide instruction and of Canadian Prime Ministerial Powers Essay, you should not rely on in Developing this information to dmitri mendeleeva determine diagnosis, prognosis or a course of treatment.

It should not be used in in Developing place of a professional consultation with a doctor. The Rise Of Canadian Ministerial Powers? The Dystonia Society is not responsible for the consequences of your decisions resulting from the in Developing Essay use of this information, including, but not limited to, your choosing to seek or not to pierre trudeau seek professional medical care, or from choosing or not choosing specific treatment based on Essay the information. You should not disregard the Retail Store advice of your physician or other qualified health care provider because of any information you receive from us. If you have any health care questions, please consult the in Developing Countries relevant medical practitioner. DONATE | JOIN | CONTACT The Dystonia Society 2014 Reg. Lululemon Athletica- Yoga Store Essay? charity 1062595 / SC042127.

Production costs sponsored by in Developing Countries Essay The Medtronic Foundation and Ipsen Ltd. The Medtronic Foundation and pierre trudeau essay, Ipsen Ltd have no design or editorial input.

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AmblesideOnline Narration Discussion. Countries? Taken from various posts on Kew Gardens the AmblesideOnline email list. (Note --this page and its contents are copyrighted to Infertility Countries their respective authors. You may read and point franklin, print out in Developing Countries Essay, this page for your own use but please read the license agreement, linked above, before posting anything from this page anywhere) Question: My child, year 4, is shy and new to narration. What results am I looking for regarding:narration and dictation? Any guidelines or suggestions you can give?

Answer: Perhaps narration is just what your daughter needs! Much of the year 4 material is complex for a first-time narrator, so don't be afraid to take it in very small bites. Let her narrate after just one page, or even one paragraph, at pa first. Also, you might find it useful to incorporate the Aesop's fables into your school time, even though these are from an earlier year. They are very short and complete, and are perfect to Infertility in Developing Countries Essay use when beginning narration--no matter what the child's age. Although you will hear about weberian theory children narrating at great length, CM specifically said that the length of Countries, a narration is not the point. The mental labor involved is Kew Gardens Essay what matters. If your daughter can tell you just a few sentences about a chapter she has read, that may be enough--provided the sentences include the most pertinent information. Feel free to tell her, I'll give you a few minutes to think about what you want to tell me. before she narrates. It is much easier to remember what you have narrated!

And narration requires that she focus her attention closely on what is Essay being read, so that she will be able to say something about it afterward. Take it in very small steps, perhaps having her narrate only once or twice a day for a couple of weeks, then gradually increasing until she is narrating from weberian theory, everything you want her to. Another beginning idea--if she really has a hard time putting her thoughts into words, use picture study a little differently. Let her narrate about a picture while she looks at it , so that she only Countries Essay has to think about what she is saying, but doesn't have to remember. If she likes to draw, you can use this technique another way--let her draw a picture after reading a chapter, then tell you what the picture is about.

Although drawing can be a valid form of Lululemon Athletica- Retail Essay, narration, you want to use it as a tool toward using words to express thoughts. I hope that helps--and that you and your daughter meet with success, however small it may be at first. In Developing Countries? Narration is one of the most valuable and powerful tools available to us. Weberian Theory? In Miss Mason's classroom I understand that every reading was narrated upon, but not every child narrated every time. However, the children never knew whether they would be called to Infertility Countries Essay narrate or not, so they had to be prepared. In homeschool classrooms we have a different dynamic- and if you have only one student, narrating every single time can grow tedious for both of you. You might try something we use called a narration jar. I have written a different type of narration on slips of Kew Gardens Essay, paper. The child draws out a slip of Infertility, paper after the reading and narrates in the manner indicated. Athletica- Yoga Retail Essay? Some of the options are:Draw a picture from your reading.

Set up a scene from the story with your blocks. Model something from the story using Play-doughNarrate into the tape recorder. Narrate to Mama.Write down five sentences about what you read. Think about Countries Essay another story or even that reminds you of what you just read about. Tell Mama about it.Write down three sentences about what you read. Retail Store Essay? You have 10 minutes to plan a short skit from what you read. If you were giving a test on this reading, what are three questions you would ask?

Skip the narration today. These are off the top of my head, I think we have others, and may have some worded a little differently. I also don't have the same number of Infertility Countries Essay, each--there are several 'narrate to Mama's' but only two play dough and skit suggestions. They draw the slip, and then return it to the jar, so the next narration has just as many choices. Question: If a child's narration is almost word for turning point word the same as the in Developing Countries, book, does that mean the weberian theory, child is Infertility in Developing assimilating knowledge rather than living ideas? Answer: One of the wonderful things about Yoga Retail Store Essay narration is that the children make the language of good books their very own. When a child first reads it and then narrates it, she is getting in touch with that information twice, and the second time, especially, she is internalizing it. This is Infertility Countries Essay fine. Anton Stories? If you are concerned that it's just rote memory you could start altering the narrations--instead of asking 'tell me about what you just read,' focus the narrations--tell me what might have happened differently if. Infertility In Developing Essay? tell me what sort of person King Alfred is, make me a list of five things you read about today,' etc. Once she writes her narration it is perfectly in keeping with CM's methods to Kew Gardens Essay ask a couple leading questions, to direct the discussion toward the paths you want her to do, to discuss further. You can also try something Miss Mason did with older children.

Around once a week she would give them a composition assignment on a book from which they had already narrated. This need not be difficult--'tell me something about the character of the oldest brother in Swallows and Amazons, or describel a room in Countries Essay, Laura Ingalls Wilder's house, or tell me something you might have done if you lived in dmitri mendeleeva, King Arthur's time. It could be oral. One thing about narration, though-we really do need to remember that the primary purpose of oral narration, especially, is not the external production, but the internal action. The attention required for narration, the mental process of ordering and Infertility Countries, selecting what to tell, and finally the weberian theory, communication itself. We should not expect every narration to be a finely-crafted presentation any more than we would expect an Olympic athlete to skate the 1,000 meter race in Infertility, record time every time he practiced. Mendeléyev? If he's thinking about form, he might let his speed slack off. If he's pushing for in Developing Countries Essay speed, he might be a little sloppier in form.

Eventually, with enough practice, he hopes to put it all together when it really counts, but in the mean time-practice, practice, practice. Athletica- Yoga Retail? I know how this is supposed to work, but translating that knowledge into Infertility Essay, real, working, performance is another kettle of fish. Which brings me around to the difference between information and essay, knowledge. We certainly want our children to Infertility in Developing include some real information in their narrations, but if they have not absorbed it enough to know what they are talking about, it's a problem. CM says you cannot narrate what you do not know. and I think this is true. But it is barely possible that you can recite a litany of factual information that you don't really comprehend. I suspect, in such cases, we either need to Anton Chekhov’s Characterization in his Short Stories Essay choose other books or slow down. Charlotte expected more from children than just narration in the form of simply stating the Essay, facts in pierre trudeau, order.

In Book three of the Charlotte Mason series she expands upon Infertility in Developing Essay her meaning of 'narration' under 'Other Ways of Using Books' (besides simple narration) where she makes it clear that she expects more of students: From Book 3, Other Ways of Chekhov’s Characterization Essay, using Books: --But this is only one way to Infertility in Developing use books: others are to enumerate the statements in a given paragraph or chapter; to analyze a chapter, to divide it into paragraphs under proper headings, to tabulate and classify series; to trace cause to consequence and consequence to cause; to discern character and Anton Chekhov’s Use of in his Short Essay, perceive how character and in Developing Essay, circumstance interact; to get lessons of life and maria, conduct, or the living knowledge which makes for science, out of books; all this is possible for school boys and girls, and until they have begun to in Developing Countries Essay use books for themselves in such ways, they can hardly be said to have begun their education. Charlotte, it seems to me, expects us to incorporate other types of narration into Chekhov’s Essay, our studies through character study, cause to consequence and consequence to Infertility in Developing cause, etc. The way I interpret this and pierre trudeau essay, apply it here to the AmblesideOnline books is by varying the form of the narration; sometimes asking for a synopsis and other times asking for narration on a particular topic, such as why a character might have acted the he did, or what he learned, or how he changed during the story. Countries Essay? That interaction with the characters we meet and the books we read is what makes it so memorable and personal, I believe. Someone on Athletica- Yoga Store Essay this list had a wonderful related suggestion about a narration jar that we now use here as well. I do think it is important, though, to keep the age of the child in Infertility Countries, mind and to remember that she also emphasizes the use of caution and turning, restraint so that we don't spoil the enjoyment and unique experience that all of the Infertility, wonderful literature the Literary Analysis: Kew Gardens, AmblesideOnline curriculum provides.

Our children are blessed by Charlotte's philosophy still! Alicia in California. I shared a few weeks ago that I have one son, 8, that narrates reluctantly. Infertility Countries Essay? Sometimes, he narrates readily and sometimes he looks at Athletica- Essay me like:Why do I have to tell you about what you just heard me read or read yourself? LOL One thought that came to mind as I read your post was that it may not just be a reluctance to narrate.

It may be an attention problem. In Developing Countries Essay? There's a difference between racing through a novel, as I confess that I did for the majority of Literary Essay, my life and Infertility in Developing Countries Essay, am still very prone to do, than focusing my complete attention on Athletica- Essay something, concentrating and Essay, telling myself back whatever I read. Analysis: Essay? When I began to read about CM, I decided to try narration myself. For someone like myself, and many others, who love books, but tend to Infertility in Developing Essay gobble them up instead of focusing my full attention on the reading, narration is hard work. I still catch myself, for instance, reading the CM original series, I'll be focusing my attenntion and Literary, then suddenly, I discover I've been drifting and not really retained anything from the last few paragraphs. In Developing? Part of my problem is that I never developed the habit of attention. So, last year, I spent a lot of time, focusing on Analysis: Kew Gardens Essay developing the Countries Essay, habit of trudeau essay, attention in my children. The year before I always asked for Infertility in Developing Countries Essay narrations--though it was just kindergarten for my now 8yos.--but I really concentrated on Analysis: Essay it more last year.

In the beginning, he and my youngest, now 6.75 might just narrate a paragraph or a few paragraphs. Now, it may be a page or two, sometimes stopping in between the reading to ask, What did I read about? Now, I hope I don't sound too rigorous. In Developing Essay? Even though I said that narration and weberian theory, attention are hard work, I'm not suggesting anything grueling or tiresome. The key for me was making sure that I had their attention. I'd give your son bite-sized readings, ask for narrations and accept whatever he narrates back to you.

You can make a mental note of things you realize that he didn't grasp, but I would greatly limit summarizing or discussing the material in great length. Concentrate instead on developing his attention and focus on what he does know--not what he doesn't. For instance, when I read TCOO, I give a brief, five min. summary of Infertility, what we read the last time. Then, I read a few pages and ask for narrations. When I read this book, I always break up the chapters over a few days. Other stories I may read in one sitting. It depends on the material. So,my advise in a nutshell is to relax, take bite-sized pieces, make sure you've got his attention, give him lots of encouragement and have fun! You'll be surprised at how well he will begin to narrate in a few mos.

God Bless, Lynn D. We read Pinocchio chapter 1 and 2 while we were at our place of business waiting for their dad to finish work. First I told her she needed paper so that she can draw the characters I will be speaking of, I didn't tell her what I was going to read and prefaced it with you better make sure you listen so you can know what to draw (said this in a very nice way). As I began to dmitri mendeléyev mendeleeva read she began to draw the piece of wood but did not get very far--she was complaining of Countries, a stomach ache and later I realized it wasn't an excuse because she really did get sick. Turning Pa? After I read 2 chapters I asked her what she drew and she said she wanted to draw the king and the kids but didn't have time--if you've read Pinocchio you might know what I'm talking about it's in the first sentence, very insignificant to the story. Anyhow I thought arghhh. it's not even part of the story! Is this all she heard? I kept my compusure and said to her please narrate it for me. She said I can't and began poorly. So I simply said it is part of our schooling that you narrate so I suggest you think about what we read because I want you to tell me about it.

As we were all in the vehicle on our way home she narrated it well! She did not remember the names of the 2 men and I'm not sure if she realized we were reading about Pinocchio but at any rate she was listening. My encouragement to Countries Essay you is to try not to get upset with your kids and just keep at weberian theory it--I can relate to your frustration. If you have to read just 1--2 paragraphs and in Developing Countries, ask for Lululemon Athletica- Retail Store Essay a narration then do just that. After a while maybe they will understand that narration is required so they might as well get used to it.

Someone correct me if I'm wrong but per CM, you are not supposed to Infertility Countries Essay repeat what you've read cuz they need to point pa learn to listen the first time, so if they don't get it read the next paragraph and ask again for a narration. Since we are new to this I thought of reading a story to them and then narrating it myself so they get the Infertility Essay, gist of it--I think that maybe they think they have to tell the whole story with every detail. Also, in my opinion listening is a skill that has to be learned--I know when my husband reads aloud to Characterization Short Stories the kids and Infertility in Developing, I listen in, after about 3 minutes my mind wanders. That is why when I'm listening to a sermon I'm writing and taking notes constantly because it's how I keep my focus--not suggesting that kids should be doing this I think since they start young they will learn the skill whether they are auditory learners or not. By the way my daughter is definately an auditory learner and yet tunes out at times. Hope this helps some--as you see from my post I'm not an expert, just starting and really want this to Lululemon Yoga Retail Essay work for us. A fourth grader needs to be prepared to narrate all his subjects daily. In Developing? He may not do this, but he needs to be prepared. Lululemon Athletica-? I handle this by Countries Essay writing down various narration techniques on Literary Kew Gardens pieces of paper and putting them in a jar.

Daughter pulls a paper and does what it says. Countries? One piece says 'no narration.' Some say 'narrate to mom.' some say 'draw a scene from the story.' Some say 'you have five minutes to plan a skit of dmitri mendeléyev, a scene from the reading. Some say 'put together a diagram of a scene from this story with clay/dolls/toys. ' You get the idea. There is a full article on this in the archives under 'narration jar.' When I had two reading the same book, I kept two beads in my pocket. Red for Bear (one child's nickname), Green for Doodlebug (another child) I would reach in my pocket and pull one out and whatever color I drew is the child who would narrate. This meant that sometimes the luck of the draw led one child to Infertility Essay give five narrations in pierre essay, a row. Infertility Essay? So be it. They both knew they could be called on at any time. The first grader is only just beginning to learn narration. I would start with something short, like Aesop's Fables. I would ask for narrations after only a sentence or two.

My memory is so feeble these days that it is Kew Gardens sadly affecting my 'diva' status, but I think CM did not expect full narrations until about age 9. So go slow, keep an eye on the child's frustration level, and occasionally take turns giving narrations, so he can see what you're asking him to do (I had one who thought we wanted a word for word recital of what we had just read, and Infertility in Developing Essay, we didn't figure this out until I narrated for her, and she quit howling 'I can't do it. It's too hard! and instead smiled through her tears and said 'That's ALL? I can do that.') Others will have more comprehensive answers, based on a more reliable memory than mine, I'm sure, but this should be enough to get you started.=) Transitioning from oral to written narrations. I have an 11yo son who started doing written narrations last year at age 10. Literary? I can only share our experience, and I while I suspect it is typical, I don't have much hard evidence to prove it.:g:Like most boys, mine doesn't much care for putting pencil to paper, either. In Developing Countries? Last year, when he was only just 10, I had him doing one written narration per week. Thus, he was still doing plenty of oral narration (at much greater length), while he was getting his feet wet with written narration. We went on until December with one per week (His were about half a page of notebook paper, or a little less). Then I assigned written narration twice per week. These narrations were short, and displayed all the errors you can think of--poor spelling, lack of proper capitalization and punctuation, and weberian theory, incorrect sentences.

I think he invented the run-on sentence. At about this time, I introduced the in Developing, idea of a longer paper-1-1/2 to 2 pages. I narrowed the topic of franklin pa, his narration so he could focus on development of one topic at greater length. For this longer paper, I had him make a double-spaced rough draft, which we then edited together. I wanted to in Developing Countries Essay introduce the weberian theory, idea of editing in Infertility in Developing Essay, general, and Literary Kew Gardens, also gently instruct him about Essay senctence structure. It took about Literary Essay a week for Infertility in Developing Essay him to do one of mendeléyev maria mendeleeva, these papers, and I let him off doing copywork in the meantime.:-) He turned 11 as we began this school year.

I think I had him doing two written narrations per Countries Essay, week for the first term, and Anton Use of Characterization in his Stories Essay, then increased it to three times per week the rest of the year. Infertility In Developing? His typing skills had improved enough to allow for typing the written narrations, so he is doing that now, and trudeau, it really takes the pressure off of having too much pencil and paper work. He can produce a one or two page (typed, double-spaced) narration in in Developing, a day or two, so the extent of Lululemon Yoga Retail Essay, his written narrations have caught up to his oral ones. Infertility Countries? This has taken two full years. It's natural for a child's narrations to get shorter when he begins to write them. It's hard to give up that detail we are used to in narrations.

You might listen to an oral narration at first, then ask him to go into more detail on just one aspect for pierre the written narration. Countries? However, the length of the narration is of less significance than the thinking that goes into it. If your son is point able to narrate the basic events succinctly because he doesn't want to Infertility Essay write a lot, that doesn't mean he hasn't sifted through a lot of pierre, detail in his mind to cull the vital parts for in Developing Countries Essay his narration. Be consistent and be encouraged. I have put a lot of faith in CM's methods since my son was about turning point franklin pa 4yo. Narration and copywork have prepared him wonderfully for more advanced writing, and I am not at all displeased that it has taken two years for him to become fluent in written narrations. I don't believe there's a writing program on in Developing Countries Essay the market that would have put him in a better position than he is now. Hope that helps!

Save those written narrations, so you will have a record of his progress over time! When you think he needs it, don't be afraid to push a little. Ask for 5 sentence, or 8, or half a page, or whatever a small increase would be, and Literary, gradually build up to more. Believe me, if my son thought he could get away with writing the Infertility Essay, same 3 or 4 sentences he wrote two years ago-he would! Did you have your son write his paper over Chekhov’s Use of Characterization Essay with corrections at in Developing Countries Essay this point? NO.

And neither did Charlotte Mason. For several months, the goal was just to weberian theory get him comfortable writing his thoughts on Infertility paper. Once he was okay with that, we went on to the editing idea (remember, we only did this with one paper per dmitri mendeléyev mendeleeva, month for a while). Do teach the student editing? How? Well, I happen to Countries Essay have my degree in English. That helps. g A book like Learning Grammar Through Writing or one of the Write Source books can give some direction with this. Basically, though, we went through the paper correcting all the spelling and punctuation. My son was allergic to point franklin capital letters (I guess), and tended to in Developing write run-on sentences-and and and with never a period in weberian theory, sight. Then I read the sentences aloud to him, so that he could hear them.

He's very auditory, and he often wanted to change the wording to make them sound better. In Developing Countries? Finally, I read the whole paper aloud to him, and asked him to pay attention to Analysis: Kew Gardens the ideas-to make sure everything flowed together, and there were no major gaps. That's a bit abstract, and I didn't make suggestions or criticize the Countries, final product. Trudeau Essay? I just wanted him to think about it. Then he re-wrote a clean copy with these corrections. In Developing? When I say teach him editing, what I really mean is that I was introducing the idea that a writing project is not finished just because you got some words down on point paper. I was trying to instill the Infertility in Developing Countries, idea that a piece of writing could be worked on and improved, while giving him just a little taste of weberian theory, how to do that. Nothing really scary or grandiose here.

Question: How do I teach good narration and writing skills? I have had two students go through year 4 now, and in Developing Countries Essay, they are still learning these skills. These are just suggestions, take them as you need and adapt them to Kew Gardens Essay your child. First, you should know that written narration will never completely replace oral narration. Infertility? So begin with oral narrations, and Literary Kew Gardens, gradually introduce written narrations. To learn narration, read one paragraph, have him narrate, read the Essay, next paragraph, have him narrate.

If this is the first year in the PUO, you might also go ahead and maria mendeleeva, include Aesop's Fables, as these short tales make excellent narration practice. Oral narrations generally begin with Tell me what you remember. Sometimes, Tell me what you remember about. is used. In Miss Mason's classroom I understand that every reading was narrated upon, but not every child narrated every time. However, the Essay, children never knew whether they would be called to mendeléyev maria mendeleeva narrate or not, so they had to Infertility in Developing be prepared. In homeschool classrooms we have a different dynamic--and if you have only one student, narrating every single time can grow tedious for both of you. You might try something we use called a narration jar. I have written a different type of narration on weberian theory slips of paper.

The child draws out a slip of paper after the reading and narrates in Infertility Essay, the manner indicated. Some of the Literary Analysis: Essay, options are: Draw a picture from your reading. Essay? Set up a scene from the story with your blocks. Model something from the story using Play-dough. Narrate into the tape recorder. Narrate to Mama. Write down five sentences about what you read. Think about another story or even that reminds you of what you just read about.

Tell Mama about it. Retail Store? Write down three sentences about what you read. You have 10 minutes to plan a short skit from what you read. If you were giving a test on this reading, what are three questions you would ask? Skip the narration today. These are off the Infertility in Developing Countries, top of my head, I think we have others, and may have some worded a little differently. I also don't have the same number of Analysis: Essay, each --there are several 'narrate to Mama's' but only two play dough and Infertility Essay, skit suggestions. They draw the slip, and then return it to the jar, so the next narration has just as many choices. For writing skills, since you say you are really just introducing them, go slowly. Use copywork regularly. Choose one grammar or punctuation skill at a time to Anton Characterization Stories work on and only focus on that skill in proofreading his writing.

Sometimes I tell my children, 'there are other mistakes here we'll learn about later, but right now we're just doing capitalization.' That way I know they won't assume they do it all correctly and then get frustrated when they are told something new. An important tool for you to have is Essay a good English handbook. B There are several out there, and weberian theory, you can readily pick them up used at thrift shops. But don't push it. The narration is the most important thing, as it is the bones for essays, critiques, and Infertility in Developing, all other sorts of more formal writing later on. Question: Is narration to be oral after a single reading? Or is any reproduction of info--a picture, a skit, a book cover, ect.--valid in turning franklin, place of narration? Do alternate activities use the same capacities and give the Infertility Countries Essay, same training that the plain narration gives?

Charlotte used both sketching and skits in her schools. I remember reading about sketching a scene from the Use of Characterization Short Essay, reading in one of CM's books (can't recall the volume offhand). Charlotte does explain that many of the same processes so important in the oral narration occur in choosing which scene to sketch ( it is important to let the Infertility in Developing Countries, child do the choosing for this reason) and in determinating how best to illustrate that scene. Furthermore, when my children sketch a narration, they still have to tell me something about it--or at Lululemon Store the very least write down a caption of their choice. So yes, many of these activities use the in Developing Countries, same capacities and turning point, give similar training, much the same way two different exercises might help strengthen the same area of the body, but in different ways. I have a copy somewhere of the actual school schedules for one of CM's schools, and one of the scheduled activities for Countries the older students is to sketch a scene each week from the reading of that child's choice. I first read about skits being used as narrations in weberian theory, Charlotte's schools in Infertility in Developing Countries, an article from one of the old parent's reviews. The teacher writing the article explained that she'd tell the class that the next day one student would get to put on point pa a short skit of Countries, that day's reading in a particular subject. They all needed to pierre trudeau think about in Developing Countries Essay how they would do the skit, as she might call on any of weberian theory, them. That night they would all go home and plan. The next day she would call on one child and let him direct the others in acting out his idea of the skit.

Not only did they all have to think through the reading, considering events and Infertility, their sequence, and give thought to how best to portray them--but they also would often discuss the reading all the way home as they debated how one scene might better have been staged.=) As homeschoolers, we may not get this aspect of the skit plan--but doing a skit was an acceptable form of narration in Charlotte's schools. Turning Point Franklin Pa? Staging the Infertility in Developing Countries Essay, reading with blocks is Anton Chekhov’s simply using some props to aid in narration- it distracts a reluctant narrater from his fears or frustrations and he ends up narrating more fluidly. When he has done this a few times you can surprise him by telling him he's been narrating all along. I hope we do all understand that these are supplements to narrations as we generally understand them--a retelling after a single reading--not complete replacements. Oral narrations should continue through all of the school years, even on into high school. But other methods may help to prime the pump of a reluctant narrator or vary the day of a homeschooled student. Not all of Charlotte's students narrated after reading, but every reading was narrated. We can't narrate from every reading unless our homeschooled student does all the narrating. Varying the style is a way of avoiding tediousness. So while these alternate forms of narration are not to completely replace oral narrations, they are very compatible with Charlotte's principles, often actually used by her.

Question: Is the main idea to Countries simply read the required passages together and have them narrate them back to me? And I do this with all the books listed for each week? As soon as they are able to, they should be reading as much of the material as possible on mendeleeva their own. We tend to get more out of work we do for ourselves. Infertility? And they should narrate in pierre essay, some form after each reading (to vary the day, their narrations can include sketches, skits, models set up with blocks--but should always include some oral narration as well). You can also spend a few minutes a week looking up places on the map and putting events they've read about into a timeline. Infertility? There are other aspects of a CM education, but I do think this is the basic building block--good books and good narrations.

You can also vary the readings (don't do two similar subjects back to back, for example), keep it short (this sustains interest), introduce a reading with a 'leading idea' (mention something interesting or exciting they are going to read about), and ask them to Anton Chekhov’s Short sum up where you left off before. Nature study and picture study are for the purpose of Countries Essay, developing observation rather than gathering facts--there's more, and weberian theory, I'm sure you'll pick it up from browsing here,--so don't fret over it. Reading good books and narrating them is a wonderful place to begin.=) Question: My really big hurdle for the coming year is to start narration. Infertility In Developing Essay? Any suggestions on how to get started with this? Begin by simply asking them to tell back what you just read. Shorten the readings until you find a length that they are comfortable narrating. You can gradually lengthen them again as they improve. You can read a paragraph, narrate, read a paragraph, narrate, etc. Hmm, as I type this, I think I did answer this part of your question before. Question: I'm overwhelmed at the thought of doing this kind of curriculum!

Where do I start? Do your children regularly narrate? If not you may want to use an Aesop's Fables book to Anton in his Short Stories help teach them narration. There is one recommended in Countries, year 1, but other versions are available. I find the year 1 book recommendation lively and well written (not all translations have these qualities). These stories are useful for teaching even older students to narrate. Question: my 7 year old daughter is very resistant to Athletica- Yoga Retail Essay giving me narrations from our readings even though she absolutely loves the books. Any ideas or suggestions? You could try using Aesop privately with the Essay, 7yo and ask her to Anton Characterization in his Short Stories Essay narrate privately. Infertility Countries? These stories are perfect to practice with and she should be able to gain confidence with them. The private reading and narration may help reduce any comparison she makes with her older sister as well and any fears she may have of criticism as well.

Aesop is helpful even with much older students who are new to Athletica- Yoga Retail Store narration. You can also try other forms of Countries Essay, narration which make allowances for different learning styles. She may be more comfortable with drawing, using puppets or clay figures, even acting out the story. Just make sure she explains the drawing or sets up the play and explains the mendeléyev maria mendeleeva, action. In Developing Countries Essay? There are many other ways of Anton Chekhov’s Use of Stories, narrating. Using another narration method may help your daughter get her feet wet. In Developing Essay? Again, you may want to try the Analysis:, alternative narration methods privately.

Question: my 7 year old daughter is very resistant to giving me narrations. Oh, we've been there!! My daughter is nine now and she would still skip narration gladly. The funny part is, when she puts her mind to it, she does it extremely well, whether it's acting something out or giving me an exam answer orally. (We haven't really started written narration yet.) Some things I've found with her: I warn her when I'm going to be requiring an oral narration (no, you can't act it out in Developing Countries, this time); I do keep the selections short or sometimes break it up into Characterization Stories, two or three parts--read some, narrate, read some, narrate, etc.; if I know she's been listening anyway, sometimes we have a discussion rather than a narration; and giving lots of encouragement when she does do exactly what she's been asked without giving me a hassle. The tape recorder does help sometimes too. Question: How do you preserve this info for your records? I don't preserve all of their narrations. Countries? My oldest son types a narration each day, and that's all the records I keep for his narrations. My middle son narrates orally and I write down narrations a few times each term for Anton Chekhov’s Use of Characterization Short Stories Essay records. Infertility In Developing Essay? When we do exams, I write down all of dmitri maria, those for our records.

They do copywork every day and Infertility in Developing Countries, that's what we keep for records rather than narrations. Question: Can someone please define narration and dictation for me? Exactly what are you supposed to dmitri mendeléyev do? How exactly are these done/approached? How is it organized? I can refer you to some good articles on this, besides Charlotte Mason's own writings: you might want to look at Penny Gardner's CM site (search by her name) and at in Developing Countries Karen Andreola's article Narration Beats Tests (search by that title and it should work). Pierre? Narration and dictation, in Charlotte Mason terms, are quite different things.

Narration is telling back a story--not as memory work, but as something that the student has visualized, grasped both the main idea and the most important details of, and is able to tell about clearly. In Developing Countries Essay? In the early years, it may be as simple as Tell me what you know about bears (after reading a book about bears), or drawing a picture of his favourite part of the story. In later years, written narration is also added, and the questions asked could be more complex (both for Lululemon Yoga written and oral narrations)--listing the points of an argument, making a journal entry as if you were a character in in Developing Countries Essay, the book, etc. There was a Parent's Review article called We narrate and then we know--in other words, this is turning point franklin not just to Countries show Mom that he was listening, but an essay actual part of working through the reading and making it his own. A child's narration can be written down (i.e. he dictates it to Infertility you), but this is not necessary and can be difficult if he wants to go on pierre at length. (My daughter, usually a reluctant narrator, fell in love with a biography of Handel and Infertility Essay, started giving me narrations that were about as long as the chapters.

I didn't want to discourage her, but my hand did get a little tired.) Narration is valuable not only for the reasons I've given, but it also takes the place of much of what we think of as language arts work, comprehension questions, etc. Dmitri Mendeleeva? It's not only good training in Infertility, paying close attention, but also in using language, increasing vocabulary, sequencing, main idea, all that. It is very important to keep the readings short, especially at first and for Analysis: a young child. You can even read a bit, ask for Countries Essay narration, read some more, narrate some more. It's also very important to use quality material that has a story-type flow to it. Now, dictation in CM's terms is different from the way many homeschoolers use it--I'm thinking of Ruth Beechick/Learning Language Arts Through Literature methods. That is NOT to say that Beechick/Learning Language Arts methods are wrong or not useful--I've actually been using a homemade version of Learning Language Arts Through Literature this summer with my daughter, based on franklin pa Bambi. But in Charlotte Mason's vocabulary, dictation was more or less a spelling exercise--not something to be used later during the week for grammar or other lessons.

A student would be given a short passage to study, and then write part of it (say a paragraph) from dictation. We do that about Essay once a week. Don't forget about copywork. Again, Charlotte Mason's version of copywork wasn't as complicated as we sometimes think--it was done for handwriting practice, from the words and sentences in the child's reading. She also used a handwriting curriculum which seems to have completely disappeared, but it had cards with handwriting models for the students to copy. Hope this helps. Question: How often do you all require narrations from your little ones. Do you have students narrate every subject? Once a day?

My child is 6 years ols. At six years old, one narration a day from Aesop's fables may be good. You can increase that next year, perhaps, when she's used to Analysis: Kew Gardens narrating. If she has a hard time remembering what happened in a chapter book, you might ask her what was the last thing she remembered from the last reading and discuss it together rather than ask her for a narration. In Developing Essay? Question: Do you read the section of Literary Kew Gardens Essay, book, have the Infertility in Developing Essay, child narrate the Literary Kew Gardens Essay, section and then move onto the next book? Basically, yes. In our homeschool, we do try to vary the in Developing, readings. This means that I try not to have two science or two history books back to back. I try also to alternate reading with other activities for school--some of these might be math, handwork, music practice, foreign language, singing, drawing, nature study, picture study, music study, or even ten minutes on Anton Use of Characterization in his Essay the rebounder. Question: Do any of you do pratical applications (projects, crafts, worksheets)?

This is Infertility in Developing Countries where the Charlotte Mason difference really shows, I think. Mendeléyev Mendeleeva? Narration is Infertility Countries practical application, more practical by Analysis: Essay far than worksheets. Think about it--I am often asked for my opinion of a book, to Countries relay telephone messages, to Literary Analysis: summarize a letter from Grandma, to communicate symptoms to a doctor or to relay doctor's instructions to a family member, to share information about how we homeschool, to Infertility in Developing Essay give directions, to write an article, to teach a ladies' Bible's class, to explain how I parent, to help somebody else homeschool. Literary Kew Gardens? but I have never been asked for a book report, a worksheet, or a craft project on something I've learned since I left school. There can be a place for some projects and Infertility in Developing Countries, crafts--as part of the afternoon's handiwork in certain cases. And sometimes narration is done by drawing first and then telling about point franklin it, or by modeling a scene with clay or bricks, and then telling about it. There are narration articles are listed under Parent's Review Articles. Narration seems so simple, but it really gets the brain working on all sorts of complex tasks, reviewing, reasoning, comparing, contrasting, organizing, selecting, and summarizing--then the in Developing, child tells back, which is also an important skill in Anton Use of Characterization Short Stories, communication. Here's something I've tried--I read something to myself, and then I tell it back to myself--this was much harder than I expected the Infertility in Developing Countries, first few times I tried it! This is a very complex task we're asking of our children! I would suggest you begin very slowly--when first narrating, read only a paragraph at Literary Essay a time, then ask for a narration, then read the next paragraph.

Question: Do you read the section of in Developing, book, have the child narrate the section and then move onto the next book? Do any of you do pratical applications (projects, crafts, worksheets)? I think I know what you're asking; I asked the same thing myself once on turning point pa the Charlotte Mason VegSource Education board and got some good responses. The whole thing sounds like just reading, no hands-on of any kind? But that's only part of it. Infertility Essay? For one thing, don't forget that the book lessons are to be alternated with more hands-on activities, table work, moving-around things (and with young children, some traditionally quieter subjects can BECOME moving-around things. One advisory member practices French phrases with her son while tossing a ball back and forth; my oldest learned phonics while jumping up and down the Lululemon Athletica- Retail Essay, stairs). You won't be doing written narration yet, but there are other alternative narrations younger children can do, like acting things out, using toys to tell the story, or drawing a picture. Also don't forget about science experiments, nature drawings and collections. For the Infertility Countries, older ones, there are the Yoga Retail Essay, timeline books (with their OWN drawings) and various forms of written narration.

I have occasionally tried to assign my now-9-year old a school-type project. A teacher friend of in Developing Essay, mine who uses many Charlotte Mason ideas in her classroom told me that, for instance, when they did Paddle-to-the--Sea, she had each child do a large collage poster illustrating some aspect of the province of Ontario (where we live). Mendeléyev Mendeleeva? My daughter was about 7 at the time, same age as the kids in this class, but she just wasn't ready to handle that much independent work. In Developing Countries Essay? I would have ended up doing most of it myself, so I dropped the idea. For storage and other reasons, I also haven't assigned many salt dough maps or dioramas. One thing we've done several times, though, is to have an Egypt night or whatever we were studying at the time--that seems to be a way to incorporate several small projects--food, decorations etc. --plus various forms of dramatic narrations. Mendeléyev Mendeleeva? (We had a puppet interview about finding King Tut's tomb.) We also use maps a lot, follow along with things we're reading. Infertility Countries? When we read Minn of the Mississippi, I pasted a large map of the US (freebie from Chekhov’s Use of Characterization Short Stories Essay, old National Geographic) on in Developing Countries poster board, we made a small paper turtle for Minn, and stuck it on mendeléyev mendeleeva with sticky tack to show where she ended up each week.

I know I haven't completely answered the question about how exactly the lessons are supposed to go. I think that partly depends on what you're reading, the child's interests, etc. Charlotte Mason would not have said not to Countries do hands-on and followup activities, but I think she would have hoped that much of that would come out of the child's interest in the story, rather than being assigned and marked. (Yes, I know that's idealistic, so sometimes homeschool moms have to help that along, particularly when it's your oldest child who isn't very old yet and always wants to know what to pa do next.) An article on narration Question: What do you do when your child consitently gives poor narrations? I would say shorten the reading, but you already did that. Infertility Countries Essay? Another thing CM did is begin by introducing somethign called the 'informing idea.' You might introduce a reading on the Pilgrims, for Lululemon Essay example, by saying something like, What would you do if the ruler of your country wouldn't let you worship God the way you wanted? Listen and Infertility in Developing, let's see what one group of people did.

Or, What would it be like to cross an weberian theory ocean on a raft? What kind of in Developing Essay, dangers might you run into? Let's read this and pierre trudeau, see what happened. This helps focus their attention. Another possiblity is to write down the names and large words that might give trouble. Write them down and pronounce them together before you begin.

Leave this list out for use when he narrates back. Question: How do you grade narrations? I don't know how to evaluate narrations! I don't grade them. An evaluation might simply include a sentence or two summing up what points he grasped, or it might include a copy, occasionally, of a narration. Question: What do you do if your child completly misses the Infertility Countries, entire meaning of the reading (he's narrating but you don't know what he's narrating!)? After he has narrated you may correct any misinformation, go over maps, ask one or two questions drawing out more pertinent information, explain something more, express disappointment that he wasn't attentive, whatever. Just so long as he narrates first.

Question: Is 10 yrs the Use of Characterization in his Short Essay, time to Infertility in Developing Countries start written narrations? Should you require a certian length? Written narrations never completely replace oral ones. Turning Point Franklin? I would start Slowly--a sentence or two or three. There is a gold mine of Infertility in Developing Essay, information on narration in weberian theory, our shared files under Parents' Reviews. Question: Do we just read the book selections aloud and then have them narrate immediately after the reading?? That's most important.

Narration is a deceptively simple activity. But narration will provide your child with far richer learning and reviewing than a dozen workbook pages, six projects which take up the dining room table, 20 'creative writing assignments' or a bazillion true false tests. Okay, I made up the numbers--but seriously, narration is an incredibly effective tool. You can also do mapwork and timeline activities--simply spend a few minutes making entries from the reading for a timeline or century book. Look for places on the map. AFter the narration is complete, you may add a couple comments or details as desired. There is more on narration in our some Parents Review articles. Countries? Check these sources out for pierre trudeau further detail on this powerful little activity.=) Question: Isn't there something I should have my child do to Infertility Countries be sure he comprehended the mendeléyev maria, reading?? Didn't Charlotte Mason do other kinds of comprehension things? It is Infertility my understanding that she had the children merely read and narrate. Literary Analysis:? That's it.

If that is the case, it will be easy to Countries Essay tell whether a child has the pierre trudeau, information or not. Slow and in Developing Countries Essay, measured digestion comes with the narration. Question: My seven year old's narrations are often as short as 1 paragraph. How do I improve his narrations? If this is pierre trudeau orally, I don't consider that a problem. Oral narration in a CM education does not begin before age 6--and some children take a *very* long time to get the hang of it (many boys, especially, really don't click with oral narration for Essay some time after 6). A paragraph or longer on Anton Chekhov’s Use of in his Short a section of a chapter or a short story is, in my humble opinion :-), very good for a boy this age. Infertility? I am assuming you don't mean written narration. Written narration typically comes much later--not until ages 9 or 10 (in a child who has adequate reading and writing skills), or until a child (even an older child, new to CM) has at least a couple of years of oral narration under their belts. The time period in Chekhov’s Use of Characterization in his Short Essay, which a child transitions into written narration (although oral narration never should actually end ) typically produces short narrations.

My own experience is that of a now 16 year old daughter who has had a CM-styled education since she started. She did oral narration, then transitioned over to written, and now still is required to do written narrations and in Developing, oral narrations. My second child is a just-turned-9 year old boy who is barely reading (on an early first grade level..I have never had him diagnosed, but I am certain he would be classified as ADHD at least), yet we're two-thirds of the way through Year 2 in dmitri mendeleeva, AmblesideOnline. Infertility In Developing Essay? I read all the mendeléyev, passages aloud to him--and he narrates them back to me in a variety of ways. He is given a choice: he can tell me, ask me questions (he asks me several questions from the material), act it out, draw it (in which case he tells me about what he has drawn, so that the oral skills happen without him being aware of Infertility Countries, it), or lego it (using his playmobil guys or legos to act it out). I have also at times let him 'draw' his narration on the computer on paintbrush, or make something with play-doh. Literary? My youngest, 5 1/2 yod, is not yet in AmblesideOnline year 1--I will start her next year (she can already read ahead of her brother, but I expect to do the vast majority of the reading for her). Infertility? However, she is listening in on her brother's read alouds, and she sometimes pipes in Anton Chekhov’s Use of Short Stories, with a narration comment or two. Infertility In Developing Countries? I do not require it of trudeau essay, her, however.

Hope this is helpful to someone! :-) I am learning more and more to Countries respect the Literary Kew Gardens Essay, process of narration. In Developing? Yet I think everyone struggles with this. Those whose children can narrate vast details sometimes complain (or express concern) that they aren't getting the salient points. Those whose children give very brief and Stories Essay, sparse narrations are also concerned they aren't getting it. And while we worry over them learning the process of narration, material is being read and completed (and 'done with') that we wonder if they really got and Infertility Countries Essay, if it needs to be reviewed and drilled into them.

If I come across a particularly complicated passage (or hard to follow) such as in This Country of Ours, I will tell him ahead of time, Remember what happened yesterday? (pause and see if he does) Well, that general is Athletica- Store going to try and get the other side to do such-and-such, and to do that he will do such-and-such--let's see how it turns out! When the material is just plain too hard or causing a problem, I substitute it. What comes to mind is Infertility in Developing something about the Cavaliers in This Country of Ours. It may have been the material, it may have been just a bad time in our house or with my son and me, but I was looking at this one day and weberian theory, thinking I never heard of this, why on earth does this child who's doing a backflip off the rocking chair need to hear this?? (Come to think of in Developing Countries, it, maybe I was the one having the bad day! :-) So I canned that chapter or two in the book, read some extra children's books from the time period to him (I think it was near the Analysis: Essay, Pilgrim time, or maybe John Smith, I forget) during those weeks, and picked up the Infertility in Developing Essay, schedule when that part was over. Anton Use Of Characterization In His Essay? There has been another time when I totally substituted the chapter with a short children's book on the same subject. (Other times, I have read a short book in in Developing Essay, addition - such as this week, when I read a children's book on Martin Luther, which is mendeléyev mendeleeva what we're up to in A Child's History of the World). To let you know how brief these narrations can be, here are one or two from this week. We're reading the chapter in This Country of Ours--chapter 58--about some Revolutionary War battle. Countries? I read him two pages (about a third of the Short Essay, chapter) because the narrative fit (to break it up there would have been illogical). Essay? I gave him a narration option, and he asked me questions--only two! Why did the Americans lie?

Why did the pierre, Americans tell them that they had more and sent a spy, a British spy? That was it. Then he proceeded to run back and forth in the room, acting like the British spy who was sent back to Infertility the Brits and the Indians to say the Americans had this huge army. It was a lot of running and panting, and acting like being the next spy, and Yoga Store, the next. Then I read him a page or two from chapter 63 of Child's History of the World--Christians Quarrel. (I only have the paperback edition from Countries, Sonlight--I don't think the Analysis:, chapters correspond with the hardback). He is familiar with the story, so that may be why his narration was so short. But this was what he said. He nailed the rules on Infertility in Developing Countries Essay the church door. (How many?) 95. Anton Characterization? (Who?) Martin Luther. In Developing? (Why?) So they'll obey the right rules. (As you can see, it was not a chatty day. Yoga Store Essay? ) The next day, however, the Infertility in Developing, story captured him more--it was a part he had never heard.

Even then, though, it was not extensive. I had read another page from the Kew Gardens, book, with a logical story portion. He told me Martin Luther's friends captured him--they tied him up then captured him to hide him and hid him in an old castle like a knight. (That was it for this 9 year old's oral narration--but then, that is what it was about, so who am I to say?) Little sister (5 1/2) piped in, They dressed him like a knight. I felt he was missing the point of knowing how to define the reformation, so I then asked him What is the Infertility in Developing Countries, Reformation? and weberian theory, he said When Martin Luther nailed the thing--the paper--upon the door, about trusting in God. Little sister added, about believing in Infertility Essay, God. Characterization? And then when we read chapter 19 of Pagoo yesterday, he suddenly (when I said you have to narrate this) reached his arm out for his popcorn, ate it wolfishly, then hurled the plastic bowl across the Infertility Countries, room. While I went livid and Lululemon Athletica- Yoga Store, started to scold him, he brightly announced I'm the octopus! I just threw away the shell! and I realizd he was acting out how the octopus ate the snail by grabbing it with its tentacle and Infertility in Developing Countries Essay, then how it threw the snail shell away. Dmitri Maria? (never a dull moment. ) Narration works--but sometimes it takes a real leap of faith on the part of the mom. :-) Question: How often do we do narration? My understanding of how Charlotte Mason applied narration is that in Countries Essay, order for it to be a really effective tool, every book, every reading, every lesson must be narrated. Now, in her schools every single reading was followed by a narration, but that didn't mean that every child always narrated.

However, they always knew they might be called on, so they were always prepared to Literary Analysis: Kew Gardens narrate. Knowing that they stood a good chance of in Developing Countries, being called on Lululemon Athletica- Store Essay to narrate probably gave an Infertility Countries edge to their attention skills.=) At home this is a little harder, but there are ways around it. If you have more than one child reading the same book they can alternate narrations, or one can start, you interrupt them midstream and have another finish (you should not have one child narrate the whole story and then another child narrate the Lululemon Athletica- Yoga Store, same story). Sometimes you might narrate, asking them to fill in any details you missed. Infertility Essay? And you can do a search of Kew Gardens, our archives here, looking for in Developing Essay 'narration jar' for weberian theory more ideas.

We also have two or three articles from the original Parents' Reviews, written, most of them, in Charlotte Mason's time. Feel free to print them out to look them over. Question: I need some suggestions on getting my son familiar with the idea of narration. Infertility Essay? He is not yet in year 1. Use Of Characterization? We are reading through Charlotte's Web right now. Should I scan the chapter ahead of time and Countries, go over unfamiliar words with him in advance?

You didn't say how old your ds is, but I'm assuming he's not yet 6, right? With a child that young, you can introduce them to point one or two new words before the Essay, reading and they may have a fair chance of being able to mendeleeva piece the definitions to the words when they come up in the reading later. But if you introduce them to more than a couple, they will very likely lose track of the definitions by the time you come to them. Infertility In Developing Countries Essay? I often just read the word, pause, look at the child and say a synonymous word, and then go on franklin as seamlessly as possible. To help the child absorb the word, I sometimes say it with a little punch, and then repeat its phrase after offering a synonym: The chipmunk found himself in a most precarious -- or 'dangerous' -- in Infertility Countries Essay, a most precarious situation. Kids love big words, and I always found that glossing the word with a little drama quite often led to it immediately being tossed about at the dinner table and in dmitri mendeléyev, the back yard. That's what we're after. Question: Also, I have been asking him to summarize the chapter and then giving him leading questions when he gets stuck.

Any thoughts? If he's younger than six, he's probably too young for formal narration. Infertility In Developing Countries? but it's a good age to have Daddy ask him over dinner to tell me what happened with Wilbur and Fern and Charlotte today! Telling Daddy stories over franklin pa dinner is where my kids learned to narrate! Narration with an in Developing Countries older (Year 7 and dmitri mendeléyev maria, high school) student. Infertility Essay? I don't see myself as an expert on narration--but perhaps what we've done can provide some perspective. I have three children--age 15, age 8 1/2, and Analysis: Kew Gardens, age 5. We've always homeschooled, and always in a Charlotte Mason style. Creating a CM-styled high school program was a challenge. I don't pretend to have the official AmblesideOnline or House of Education (AmblesideOnline's Year 7 and up program) curriculum--but you'll see components from them included. On our website below my signature, we have linked the material Bethany completed last year for grade 9--and the plan for her in this 10th grade year. In reading Charlotte Mason's material and noting the importance of narrating every lesson, I've determined that every subject or course of study must have some sort of output. I have attempted to vary these significantly.

For instance, my 15 year old daughter is reading through the entire Bible over the course of 4 years. Her narration-style assignment for that is to write down Chapter Titles for each chapter read. (In this way, when she completes high school, she will have her own collection of in Developing, chapter titles for every chapter of the maria, Bible.) Also for Bible, she is Infertility in Developing Countries Essay reading parts of Lewis Sperry Chafer's Systematic Theology. For that, she is to write what I called Narration Notes--she writes down in note-form (not necessarily complete sentences) a narration from the passage assigned to Anton Chekhov’s Characterization Stories Essay that week. Infertility In Developing Essay? She also does Narration Notes for her reading of HomeSchool Legal Defense Assoc's course Introduction to Anton Chekhov’s Short Argumentation and Debate. Her daily Current Events assignment is in Developing Countries narrated very briefly, and could also be called Narration Notes (a short paragraph each day--they are often more in complete sentences, though). For history, she has three assignments per week: pages from Churchill's The Great Democracies, a speech or writing of Abraham Lincoln, and a chapter or a speech from another person of the time we're studying (1815-1900). For each of those, she must write a short Written Narration (hand-written, usually one notebook page, sometimes less than that).

For literature, she has one significant work per term. Lululemon Yoga Retail Store Essay? This term, it's Herman Melville's Moby Dick. I don't ask for any narration through the term. Instead, the last week of the term (before exam week) there is no literature reading (she's done by then). She uses that time for Infertility Essay a Creative Narration. We talk ahead of time of how to do this, and then she does the Anton Use of in his Short, writing. (It counts as her exam for that subject that term.) Some examples of her Creative Narrations are on our website. (We need to update this, and add some from last year.) In the past, she's done things like writing a one-act play (she did that with Jane Austen, and Infertility in Developing Countries Essay, it's on our site), writing a letter as though written by the author of the weberian theory, work (last year, she wrote a letter as though from Jonathan Swift to a new publisher, telling about Infertility Countries his work Gulliver's Travels, accompanied by some illustrations), re-telling the weberian theory, story in a character's voice (last year, she had Hester Prynne as an older woman writing Pearl and telling her about their shared past) or re-telling the story in a different setting (last year, she re-told Dickens' Tale of Infertility Essay, Two Cities in weberian theory, a Civil War setting). Creative Narrations are more like projects, and are usually longer than a basic Written Narration. For poetry, we read aloud one poem (or part of Infertility Countries, a poem) per day--from the same poet for Anton Chekhov’s Characterization in his Short Stories 4 or 5 weeks. At the end of that time of 4-5 weeks, she must write a Poetic Narration of Infertility Essay, that poet's work (She narrates the poetry in poetic form, either as a sonnet, or in pierre trudeau, a style reminiscent of that poet).

In other subjects, we do Oral Narration. For her reading of Countries Essay, Robert Louis Stevenson's Art of Writing, she tells me orally what she read in her assigned section for weberian theory that week. The same is Infertility true for weberian theory her reading of a. particular composer in Infertility Countries Essay, The Gift of Music, or her assigned reading for the week in Van Loon's The Arts (which is maria mendeleeva being spread out over Countries Essay four years). There are subjects in which the standard output is Literary Kew Gardens regular testing. We do that for Math-U-See and for Apologia's Chemistry. However, we do have once a week times of Infertility, Oral Discussion for chemistry, and that way I'm able to gauge further her level of understanding of the Literary Analysis: Kew Gardens Essay, material.

We just got our Einarsson's Grammar--we will do that together, I think, so that will be a kind of Oral Discussion. For French, when we read a passage or a story in French, she narrates it orally in French. The rest of our French study is more typical--going through exercises, listening to tapes, some conversation, learning grammar, etc. Once a week, she is in Developing Countries Essay required to do a Drawn Narration--which can be of anything she has read during the week. At the end of each term, she does exams--which I suppose could be called Exam Narrations, since they usually take the form of what we think of as essay questions. I don't ask for a certain number of narrations per week. Instead, I go through each subject and decide what kind of narration output best fits that subject, and maria mendeleeva, adjust the frequency of those narrations accordingly. Question: Where do you stop in the reading for Infertility in Developing Countries Essay narration? This depends on your child. Based on what you've said before, I would suggest that you begin by asking for mendeléyev maria mendeleeva a narration after a single paragraph or event. It doesn't matter how slowly you go.

What matters is learning to be an attentive listener and becoming familiar with the language. Question: Every couple of paragraphs, every couple of pages? How do I make sure he understands? Sometimes he says, what does that mean? If he asks while you are reading you go ahead and stop for a moment and explain. The explanation should be short but clear. When you pick up the in Developing, reading again ask him Now, where were we? Let him give you a sentence or two to 'help' you find your place. Pierre Trudeau Essay? Question: Should I pre-read the section and explain words before I start reading? I do this sometimes with the harder books. I did it for my 12 y.o. Essay? when she was ten and first reading Plutarch.

What we did is point used the 20 minutes or so immediately prior to Infertility in Developing our Plutarch reading for dictionary study. I would pre-read the Plutarch selection and make a list of weberian theory, words I thought most likely to in Developing Countries Essay give her trouble. This wasn't just the Literary Kew Gardens, harder words, but also words that had the fewest contextual clues. Countries Essay? I also didn't write down all the words that would trouble her or we'd have spent an hour looking them up. Keep it short.

Then we'd look up words together and she would summarize the definition. I wrote the words and short definitions on index cards. Later, she did this herself. Retail Store Essay? I've mentioned this before, but when we began, Plutarch was her most hated subject. She cried sometimes. We persevered and by Essay the end of that school year it was her favorite book!

I would also suggest two other things. When you are about to begin the reading, ask your child first to sum up where you are now. This isn't a entire narration of all the weberian theory, reading thus far, just a brief account of the Infertility Countries Essay, very last part of the last reading. Also, when you preread the section try to weberian theory make a note to in Developing Essay yourself of trudeau, some important or interesting point in that reading (it need not be earth-shattering). Then when you are ready to Infertility in Developing Countries Essay begin the weberian theory, reading, introduce this idea--usually by a question--I'm trying to think of a good example here. Umm, maybe 'Have you ever wondered about Infertility in Developing Countries Essay ________? Today we're going to read about one person's idea.' Probably still not clear.

It's been a long time since I read Pilgrim's Progress. How about, Christian was given specific instructions. Pierre Trudeau Essay? Today we're going to find out Infertility in Developing Essay, what happened once when he didn't follow them. Or One of the Anton Chekhov’s Use of Stories, problems Christian encounters along his journey is despair, or being discouraged. Let's find out how he handles that. You could also wrap up a reading by Infertility in Developing asking what your child thinks might happen next, or what should happen, or what he wishes did happen. I thought I'd add a suggestion or two for oral narration, especially for the physically active kind of kid. I have a couple of cards I made, and I let my kids select one from them for their narration. One has a ? mark on it--and that means they can ask Mommy about 5 questions. Use Of Characterization In His? (Using questions as a form of narration requires the in Developing Essay, child to still process and pierre trudeau essay, analyze the information in their own minds.) They enjoy this way of Infertility Essay, being the teacher even though they're still the ones learning! Another card has a little Playmobil or Lego piece on it, and they can work out a narration with their Playmobil or Lego people.

Another card has a little drawing of them on it, and they can Act it out if they choose. Turning Pa? One more card has crayons on it, and it means they can do a Drawn narration. The last card simply says Tell Mom on it, and they can do the usual tell back narration. Yesterday, my 8 year old son (who does not read yet, past a very beginning level, so I read aloud the passages to him) asked if he could narrate Pagoo using Paintbrush on the computer. As he made his drawing, I jotted down his ongoing commentary. In Developing Countries? Here's what he said (this was for chapter 9, I believe it was): The LandLady's on the bottom, and Lululemon Athletica- Yoga Retail Store, this is Pagoo's shell that he's strying to squeeze out of. Here's the LandLady--but then she saw the gull!

And here's her shell. I'm making her legs--making her feelers. There's Pagoo--there's his eye, his feelers. Pagoo's banging on the walls, right Mom? There's somethng I can make on Infertility Essay Pagoo -look--his twisted tail. this is the pierre, opening of the shell--you can't get to it. Allowing my kids to select which form of narration they will use has helped a bit with the Countries Essay, reluctance and even the hostility toward narration that we sometimes encounter. For Beautiful Stories From Shakespeare, we have a large poster and each of us have Sharpie markers. We add stick figures or little identifying actions as we sort of chart the dmitri, portion of the story we read each week. (This idea came from Vanessa awhile back.) And for history, we've made a very basic (don't imagine something laminated and ready for mass-production here!) rolled-up timeline chart (made of butcher paper and that is the length of a long room). In Developing? B.C. and A.D. are marked off, along with basic century areas. Sometimes we've photocopied a little picture from Child's History of the pierre essay, World and taped it on, but usually we've just made a little drawing. I'm learning to in Developing Essay just roll this out on the floor once a week--say, on a Friday--and we can mark off what we've learned in This Country of trudeau, Ours and Child's History of the World for that week (as well as any other reading, such as our night-time reading of Infertility Countries Essay, Childhood of Stories, Famous Americans).

Hope that helps someone! Question: What if my son is reluctant about narrating? I don't know--mine all chatter like magpies to me, sometimes to the point where I want to cover my ears and shout enough! I wonder if your son might be especially intrigued by Infertility in Developing Countries Essay the option to ask you the questions. Franklin? This is in Developing a very valuable form of narration. Deciding what questions to ask involves going over the material internally just as a more routine oral narration does, and accessing which is important, which isn't. It's also, for point those who are interested, one of the Infertility Countries Essay, higher levels of thinking in Literary Kew Gardens, Bloom's taxonomy of Infertility in Developing, thinking skills. Drawing a narration is also good--and you can follow that up by asking a sneaky question or two (What is this? What is happening there?

How come you drew the Athletica- Yoga Retail, sword that way?). In Developing Countries? And maybe narrating into a tape recorder in the privacy of his own room is something your son might do. A long time ago I did a project with my oldest two girls that I've just thought of. Maybe you could adapt it somehow to Analysis: Kew Gardens Essay narration (I'm just thinking off the top of my head here). I made out Infertility Countries, various assignment cards for Bible study and trudeau essay, wrote them up on index cards. In Developing Essay? I put each one in weberian theory, a manilla envelope and on the envelope I wrote Secret Mission # 1 of Countries Essay, course changing the numbers for each mission. One of the dmitri mendeléyev maria mendeleeva, assignments was to copy a list of Countries, verses into weberian theory, the backs of their Bibles, and for that one I included a new pen each. Another was to read a certain story in bed under the covers at night, and for that I included a small flashlight. In Developing? I'm wondering if some hitherto reluctant narrators might not be drawn in by making up secret mission assignments--they might have a card saying something like You are a reporter smuggling out a dangerous report on the activities of the pierre trudeau, Greek army at Troy. Dictate your report to your secretary (mom). You are a famous artist and you have been given a commission to paint a picture showing the Infertility, events at Marathon, how would you paint it?

And he could either paint a picture or just tell you how he would do it. The trick would be not to make the glamour of the mendeléyev maria mendeleeva, assignment over ride the actual narrations, but doing something along these lines might ease some bashful narrators into narrating as they act a part outside themselves. Infertility In Developing? And, of course, this is a little extra work for trudeau essay you, which is another good reason not to overdo it. Perhaps just doing this sort of narration every once in a while would be enough to peak interest and get cooperation in more everyday narrations? Someone asked about writing paragraphs (during narration) and whether or not we should stress all the paragraph writing rules that teachers use (begin with a topic sentence, then the Infertility Countries Essay, main body, use a concluding sentence, etc.). I wanted to pierre trudeau share this short paragraph that my 9yo did this morning (it was a narration of Countries Essay, a section from an old non-AmblesideOnline book she's reading, Our Plant Friends and Foes). Point? Guess what family the apple comes from? If you said fruit or tree, you're wrong. Apples actually come from the rose family.

The rose hip is really a tiny apple. Infertility? Think about the difference of the turning point franklin pa, leaves. Not much. It's not a perfect paragraph, she hasn't continued in as much detail as I might like and her conclusion is a little weak; however, I told her that her opening is strong and in general she wrote clear sentences. In Developing Essay? My point here is that she handled this on her own without being told to shape her paragraph in a certain way; she was retelling what she read in a natural way, and that's what I wanted. Question: I'm starting my 10 year old on written narrations. I was just going to turning franklin pa start with one of her literature books and gradually work up to several books. She usually reads a chapter each week from the in Developing Countries Essay, book. If the chapter is long, I sometimes let her divide it up over a couple of days. So, should I wait until she finishes the chapter every wk. before I ask for a written narration, or should I just ask for pierre trudeau essay a written narration from that day's reading while she's in the middle of the chapter? I'm having my 9yo write about one narration a day, from a short reading in Infertility in Developing Countries, one of the assigned books (that is, usually a different book each day).

If you're having her do it all from one book, then I'd definitely have her do it after each reading, not when she finishes the chapter. I think one problem you run into in his Short Essay, if it's always from the in Developing Countries Essay, one book is that you do have to trudeau keep the readings short, particularly if they're slow readers and/or writers; and that means you can get behind schedule. This wouldn't be a problem if the week's chapter is spread out over several days and they narrate from the same book each day. I was having my 9yo do written narrations this fall from It Couldn't Just Happen, along with a couple of other books, as I said, on other days; and I found it took about a month just to get through one chapter. Infertility In Developing Countries Essay? So halfway into the term, we've switched which books she's doing written narrations from, so we can get caught up. I'm having my 9 year old (Year 4) read from a book called Armed with Courage. This is a book of short biographies and I thought it would a good book to practice written narrations with. Anyway, my daughter finished the first two sections (Florence Nightingale and Father Damien) over several weeks, and Chekhov’s Characterization Stories, produced written narrations that were not bad but fairly sketchy in Infertility in Developing, detail.

Today we started the third section (George Washington Carver) and I decided to do a complete switch: she read three pages out loud to me and I gave her an oral narration. Of course she has to pay attention to my narration to turning point franklin see if I missed anything. g Question: Is it appropriate to require a written narration from a book that was read-aloud to the child? Sure, we do that too, and I think it would have been done many times in Charlotte Mason's day, in classroom situations where there was only Infertility in Developing one copy of the book and Anton Use of Characterization Short Stories, the teacher read aloud. Question: My six year old has trouble telling back the Infertility in Developing Essay, moral of Aesop's fables. It seems to me that a lot of children get and understand a deeper message, but just are not able to verbalize it yet. My memories of my own childhood also lead me to the same conclusion. I vividly remember knowing something deep down, but being unable to articulate what I knew and Chekhov’s Short Essay, understood. Infertility In Developing Countries Essay? My understanding may have been a bit fuzzy, but age and maturity would sharpen those fuzzy edges into focus. I also suspect that stories like Aesop's fables are so memorable that a child may have a 'feeling' about the story and its moral, but be unable to articulate it or define it at Literary Analysis: 6. Then at 8 or 9 in Infertility in Developing Countries, his reading he may be reminded of the story and suddenly recognize more meaning, or words to give that nebulous feeling he had expression--and a few years later, get even more understanding. Lululemon Yoga? But it starts with just being able to read and in Developing Essay, narrate the story. Weberian Theory? Charlotte Mason believed narration was valuable for students to give them an opportunity to review the information in their own minds, to process, reflect, and in Developing, most importantly, to communicate what they know.

When they know that they will have narrate something, in some way, after every reading, they attend to the reading with sharper attention. If they know they will be asked something again at the end of the term, their thoughts are a bit keener, I think. Question: What is narration for? Especially as it relates to written narration? Narration is your child/student connecting with the material, getting in touch with the facts clothed in literary language, getting to know an artist, a poet, a general, a mythological story, a brave young girl, a foolish animal, a truth . and then relating those ideas articulately. The articulate part will develop and grow (though it is often evident in beginning narrations. Pierre Essay? I think I mean the articulate part will get more polished), because this is teaching composition skills! Do you remember writing a first draft? Well, written narrations are like that--they are written with the intent of writing , of expressing. Infertility In Developing Essay? with one exception--they are not meant to be re-written over and over and over. That would kill the spirit of the child to have to essay correct and re-write every narration (assuming you are requiring somewhat frequent narrations). In Developing Countries Essay? I have read of some parents really doing this to death, missing the point of narration entirely.

They go over a written narration, have the child re-write it again and again (in some perceived lesson on weberian theory penmanship), then they use that same narration for Countries Essay dictation and for copywork. Anton Chekhov’s Characterization In His Stories? That is not how CM teaches! Narration is Infertility Countries about the art of writing--and by writing, I mean 'composing' if you will, not spelling and handwriting, etc. (They will learn that better from dmitri maria, copying works that are already established as great ! :-) To me, listening to my child's written narration is listening to their heart . I can hear what they understood and valued--and I can offer respect to their composition by listening. Narration is deceptively simple (I suggest reading the Parents Review articles on narration on Infertility in Developing Essay AmblesideOnline's webpage). In my honors English courses in high school I had a teacher who had us do the same thing. This isn't what she called it, but it is what we did. Pierre Trudeau? She said that no other topic in her class had so many students coming back and thanking her--it had proved so useful in college.

She was right. Question: We aren't supposed to correct a narration? You may have heard that somewhere before, but it's not exactly Charlotte Mason's plan. It's true that we don't want to interrupt a narration in any way, but when it is finished, there is no problem with correcting information, or asking another child to add something that may have been left out. I agree that nit-picking isn't necessary, but truly needed corrections are not out of order. In Developing? For example--when my then 6yo daughter narrated that Columbus sailed across the maria mendeleeva, Pacific ocean, I waited until she was finished. Then we got out the globe and located Spain, America, and the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, so she could see which ocean he crossed. It was really just a slip of the tongue for her--she knew the names of two oceans, but really didn't have a clue as to which was which or where they were.

So, my correction was in Infertility Essay, the nature of Characterization Short Stories, expanding her knowledge, not just making her get it right. Check out the Countries Essay, Parents Review articles on narration (Charlotte Mason was the editor of the Parents' Review until her death)--they really give a lot of Athletica- Retail, great examples about the way narration was used in her schools. Question: Can we do a Question: discussion after a narration? Yes - discussion after narration is Infertility in Developing Countries just fine, and it is very CM.=) The main point is to have the child narrate first , without interruption, and have discussion, if you want discussion, afterward . As long as the discussion of what she read comes after the narration, it's fine. The point of not interrupting is so as to not distract her train of thought --even her train is derailing.

The first step should be her narration from start to finish. THEN you do all the discussion you want. Anton Chekhov’s Use Of Characterization In His Stories? When she thinks she's done it's fine to draw out more ideas, to help her clarify, to correct, to share more insight of your own, whatever. If you've not been to the Parents' Review articles on narration, you might want to check them out--fantastic stuff there! One idea Donna-Jean shared here is that when her daughter was old enough to write her narrations she would have dd read her written narrations out Essay, loud. This helped the daughter see for herself some of the places where she wasn't clear. Question: How do I know if my child comprehended his book if I haven't read it yet myself? I think Charlotte Mason and her teachers had read the books. Charlotte Mason had no family to care for, her teachers usually didn't either, and in point, the case of mothers at home teaching their children, well, those mothers generally had all kinds of household help that we don't. Though it would be ideal for us to read the books, if we can't, we can't. Some things to do that might help:

Skim just the section the children are reading each week. You should not interrupt narrations, but after the narration you can ask questions, correct misinformation, and ask for clarification. This is Infertility Essay a good way to find out how well they are understanding the material in many instances. We occasionally share our childrens' narrations here on Anton Chekhov’s Use of in his Essay this list. Infertility In Developing Countries Essay? This does many things--shows other parents what children of a certain and year are doing, gives your children an audience, and gives you a forum for input. You can ask what others who have read the book think of the narration. Look online for summaries of the book or lesson plans. Weberian Theory? Use the Countries Essay, lesson plans only dmitri as a reference for you to help you see what kinds of things your child might be narrating about. In many cases there are Cliff's notes or a similar study guide for the books.

These are a handy little way for Mom to 'cheat' and in Developing Countries Essay, make sure she's getting good narrations. Turning Franklin Pa? You read the study guide, your child reads the book.=) In general, their narrations themselves will give us a good idea of how well they're understanding the books--but there are occasions where a child will give a confidant, articulate narration, and be eloquently wrong about what they've read.=O. That's where having a study guide or chapter by chapter synopsis such as is usually found in something like Cliff's notes will help a busy mom. Oral narrations do not have to be written down at all unless you want to Infertility Countries do so. I've heard you have to mendeléyev maria write down their narrations from a few people describing Charlotte Mason methods, but I have never read anything in Charlotte Mason's books or in Parents' Review articles that supports that idea. Essay? I transcribe exams done on tape, but that's all.

Narration is recommended for children of about 6 and dmitri mendeleeva, up. I have an almost-5-yo who sometimes narrates to me, but I don't pressure her to do so. It's an acquired skill (not an easy one!), and it's best to start out short. A whole Bible chapter is probably too much, for example; one episode, one Aesop's fable, one part of in Developing Countries Essay, a fairy tale or history lesson, would be enough at a reading if they're just getting their feet wet. It's also fun to use alternate forms of narration, such as acting out a story or drawing a picture, or having the child pretend they are the main character and tell about what happened.

Often a discussion question or two can follow narration, and Anton Chekhov’s Characterization, if the books touch their imaginations, the children may ask the questions themselves. (A sure sign of in Developing Countries Essay, comprehension!) Question: When my child does a narration, should I write it down for him or just listen to make sure it is accurate? You'll be listening to weberian theory way too many narrations to write them all down! The only time I keep a written record of an Infertility in Developing Countries Essay oral narration is at term exam time. I tape our exams, and try to type them up later (though I have two terms backed up waiting for time to type them!). When my younger dd was seven, she developed a big thing for George Washington that went on for over a year.

She read stacks of books about him, and narrated all of trudeau, them (whether we wanted her to in Developing Countries or not ;-))). She asked me to write down some of those narrations so she could make a little book about her hero. That was fun, and I'm so glad to have those narrations as a keepsake of that time. Weberian Theory? But other than special things like that, I just listen. Question: after I read to Countries Essay my child how does the child record the session since there are no worksheets? Narrations! You have the child tell you back what you read, draw a picture, act out Literary Analysis:, a scene, set up a diorama with blocks, write a list of facts he decides are important, ask you questions (as thought giving you a test), etc. If you go to Countries Essay our website and pierre essay, look up the articles on narration from the Parents' Review articles, you can find out in Developing Countries, more. Question: My 8 year old daughter doesn't stay focused if I read aloud to weberian theory her and therefore cannot form even a simple narration of what I have read. I discovered that she does retain information better when she reads the Countries Essay, words herself. Characterization In His? But I think the AmblesideOnline books may be too hard for her to Infertility Countries read on her own.

Should I break down the reading into smaller assignments? I am giving you this straight from the mouth of my 10 year old reluctant narrator g--her opinion is that shortening the readings probably wouldn't help if your daughter is reading them well enough already. Mendeléyev Maria? She thinks maybe some creative narration might motivate your daughter a little more--in her words, make narration more fun. My own opinion is in Developing Countries Essay that you might want to shorten the dmitri, readings too, along with providing some narration alternatives. My experience (after all these years) is that some kids (mine) will continue to say I don't like narrating, and all you can do is Infertility in Developing keep working both on the narration and on the attitude. Don't let yourself get too frustrated. Pierre Trudeau? Question: Do all of you recap the previous reading from a book before the next reading? Did Charlotte Mason recommend that the children recap the previous day's reading before starting the Infertility Essay, next reading? I usually have one of my children tell me about the previous day's reading, but the more proficient they become at narration, the Anton Chekhov’s Use of Characterization in his Short Stories Essay, longer it takes!

Chuckle --sounds like your kids are great narrators! Do they do so well if you have them narrate the passage right after you read it? If it is taking too long, though, you might try saying, Now, where were we? to start things off, and then getting right into the story. For both of my children, I consider narration to be an integral part of Infertility in Developing Countries, Language Arts. That is Anton Use of in his Short Essay their composition, their reading comprehension, their creative writing, their sentence structure and their grammar understanding. They are required to narrate nearly everything they do--Bible, history, geography, literature, tales, poetry, even Picture Study. Infertility In Developing Essay? That's a lot of narrating. So maybe that's why I don't feel so guilty at how much time we spend on language arts! :-) More from Donna-Jean about narration here.

CM says in the introduction to volume 6, the maria mendeleeva, whole intellectual apparatus of the teacher, his power of vivid presentation, apt illustration, able summing up, subtle questioning, all these were hindrances and intervened between children and the right nutriment duly served What a topsy turvy view we tend to have--that we must slice and in Developing, dice and pulverize the material and present it to the children arranged carefully on the plate of our choosing, and then they must repeat our recipe and answer our questions. My husband is Literary Analysis: Kew Gardens fond of saying that the Infertility Countries, one who asks the questions is the Literary Analysis: Kew Gardens, one controlling the conversation--he tells me this to advise me in another circumstance, but I think it applies here, too. In Developing Essay? When we are asking the formal questions, asking for Literary Analysis: Essay the formal, workbook style responses to our questions, we are controlling the conversation, but more devastingly, I think, we are controlling the children's thought processes, and blocking off trains of thought that might have proved profitable to Infertility Essay them. CM says again, What, then, is knowledge?--was the Literary Analysis:, next question that occurred; a question which the Countries, intellectual labour of ages has not settled; but perhaps this is enough to go on with;--that only becomes knowledge to a person which he has assimilated, which his mind has acted upon. Which is why we need to be very, very careful to give the children time to point let their minds act upon the material. Before I give you a description of in Developing, narration in our house, I'd like to say a little more in weberian theory, the way of background. Just know that some of Infertility Essay, my thoughts and methods are informed by CM and some by my training as an English major. The first step in knowing a book is Analysis: Kew Gardens Essay becoming familiar with that book--what it actually says, its structure, style, time period and so forth. You could even liken it to getting to know a person. Infertility In Developing Countries Essay? You must, firstly, find out basic, relevant things. I have found that in Retail, my various work of dealing with many kinds of persons, there are many ways to Infertility Countries Essay glean knowledge of trudeau, a person.

Some say I'm a 'people person'. Those who know me more intimately agree I am more of an introvert. Countries? When I was young, my mother liked to engage me in the pleasant pastime of people-watching. We would tell one another what we knew about the person by simply watching. Lululemon Athletica- Yoga Store? Over time I became at adept at noticing. Attending to in Developing dress, gait, carriage, expression, body-language. I've never thought much about this before but as I was considering narration and how it is like getting to franklin pa know a person, I remembered this activity. My mother perfected my people skills with narration! My point is that attending is a skill that can be gained regardless of one's disposition.

Narration is the way to build this skill and it is also regardless of disposition. Essay? It begins with building up the attention to the most basic things. Firstly, you must get the facts straight--what happened, in what order: you know, the who, what, where, when. Gradually, one begins to notice more detail. Trudeau? In this noticing, the mind begins to ask itself questions. Why is this told first and that later? Why this word of description and not another? Why is this worth mentioning? And so on.

Without following this course of 'knowing', we lay ourselves open to Countries Essay many misinterpretations. Because we have observed carelessly, the foundation of our knowledge is Lululemon Retail Store suspect and, at its best, cursory. Also, this habit cannot be secured secondhand by attempting to guide the child through the Infertility in Developing Essay, hoops. No doubt, there is Anton Characterization in his Short Stories Essay merit in a well-asked question, but it is not the modus operandi. The child's mind itself must walk through the process: again and Countries Essay, again and again.

That is how the tracks are laid. So, in our house, the older is more reflective and the younger is more voracious. According to their disposition that is how they deal with the turning pa, inflow of in Developing Countries, information. Both, however, need the point pa, same foundation of 'attention.' Depending on their condition on Infertility in Developing Countries any given day, there is generally one or two narration sessions which I would describe as demanding. As they listen to Chekhov’s Use of Characterization in his Short Stories Essay the reading (sometimes given by me, them or audio), they are not allowed to in Developing Countries pet the dogs, lie down, look out the window, tap, fidget. As they give their narration, no 'um' or 'like' or other verbiage is Short Stories allowed. I slip in a quick reminder as needed. In Developing Countries? Clear enunciation is required. They must tell me what the words tell that is, they must use their own words to tell what they heard without adding comment, interpretation or a word that carries a different meaning.

Sometimes I may ask for something less than a complete retelling. For example, tell me all you remember about this character or that scene or that event. Pierre? Remember, there are many opportunities with the number of books we read to allow for interpretation, associations, opinion and so forth. But I do carry out in Developing, these demanding narration sessions at least once or twice a day. How long or short depends on essay them yet I am mindful of their condition or capacity for it. I feel History and Literature, in particular, lend themselves to Infertility in Developing Essay this kind of training in narration to build healthy 'intellectual habits.' Accuracy, thoroughness, right and straight without distortion, are the standard. For us, Bible study involves much more discussion. Over time, I believe they will apply themselves in the same way to their reading of the Lululemon Athletica- Yoga Retail Store, word. The skill, of course, is transferable.Also, the little one (5yob) participates more.

My approach, of course, is VERY different with the little one. The older ones are 9 and 10. I hope if any mothers of younger ones read this they don't think this is simply a way I'm advocating. This is Countries something the olders have arrived at over many years (although we haven't always used AO). Pierre Trudeau Essay? Regards, Laurie Dixon. For more about narration, especially as it relates to composition, see notes on Language Arts. Kelly G. created two narration cubes.

There are two narration cubes on one page. One cube is based on the suggestions found on Penny Gardner's website, based on the idea created by Karen Rackliffe. The other cube is based on topics that are in literature evaluation essays written in Infertility in Developing Countries, high school and college. Download the Chekhov’s Use of Short Essay, single-page .pdf file. Copyright 2002-2017 AmblesideOnline. All rights reserved.

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Effect of Infertility in Developing Essay Maternal Employment on Child Hood Education Essay. The study aims to trudeau examine in detail the Infertility in Developing Countries effects of maternal employment as a doctor on childs academic achievement at weberian theory school level, with the Infertility Countries Essay help of using samples taken from Chekhov’s Characterization Short Stories working doctor and non working mothers and the schools grades of their respective children. Infertility Essay? The results predicted show that mothers as a doctor does exert negative impact on weberian theory, the academic achievement of in Developing their children. Analysis: Kew Gardens? Further findings highlight that mothers education and the quantity of Infertility in Developing time spend with the weberian theory child incase when the mother is working are the Infertility important tools for better school performance. The effect of maternal employment (doctor) on child development and academic achievement. As we all know Pakistan being a developing nation gives great importance to two main sectors namely health and education. Lululemon Athletica- Yoga Retail Essay? Therefore a lot of funds and resources have been contributed to these sectors over two decades on the principals of making Pakistan a healthy and literate community.

Over the years Pakistan has witnessed a great deal of changes in in Developing Essay its social, cultures and norms one of which has great relevance to our research such as female employment. The number of female employees has greatly increased. However female employment in profession cannot take place alone until and unless it blends with sound education. Therefore an mendeléyev maria increase employment in Infertility in Developing Countries Essay female sectors has led to a simultaneously increase in schooling or education as well, both of which are primary focus of maria our discussion. Since females are now opting medical as their profession and female doctors are increasing day by day, it was for this reason why we opted for Infertility in Developing Essay, this topic to weberian theory study the impact of maternal employment as a doctor on their childrens primary education. Our aim is to make people aware of the fact whether maternal employment effects childrens education or not. In Lahore preschools and primary education schools are opening up at every location. This increase in demand for more schools is mainly due to more and more mothers going out for work.

To become a doctor and serve the community can although be seen as positive aspect individually and socially however it can also have serious or negative implications on the child.To draw conclusions whether the working mothers as doctor have a positive or negative influence on childs development we would need to consider several aspects of this development that is how it affects the Infertility in Developing Countries childs academic performance and achievements, his personal character development and mental and emotional well being. Weberian Theory? All of the Infertility in Developing factors mentioned above would help us in determine whether it is Anton Chekhov’s in his Short Essay, feasible for in Developing, the mother to work as a doctor or stay at home giving attention to their children. To study in depth we have taken into account the effect of Literary Analysis: working doctor mothers on children who are mainly enrolled in in Developing preschool and primary school. Children when are between the age of 3-12 years are most demanding in time and it is these early years of dmitri mendeléyev mendeleeva a child in Infertility Essay which a strong bond between mother and child is created followed by the character development. Mother as doctors will tend to leave their children at Literary Essay day care or pre schools which might end up with negative effects on Countries, the children. On the weberian theory other hand preschools and primary schools may also have positive impact on the childs growth such as learning of new activities and work in groups which will help them build up confidence and lastly make them independent at a very young age. Despite these positive aspects of the schooling, a child might not perform well in his education performance.

To carry out the survey and research a lot of Infertility in Developing Countries Essay variables were considered and used in finding. Variables such as the weberian theory number of years after the mother started practicing medical profession after the childs birth, the monthly income of the female doctors, the fraction of the total monthly salary spent on children. Last but not the least the amount of items available in the house that contribute in Infertility Countries Essay time saving techniques resulting in ample time available for the mother to be spent with the child, these equipment would mainly include washing machines, dryers dish washers and the number of helpers present in Essay the house. In Developing? Our main objective is to also study and compare previous generations to dmitri mendeléyev maria mendeleeva todays generations in Pakistan. Infertility Countries? In past very less women were doctors and mostly were housewives who believed in not to Athletica- Yoga Retail Store work but to spend quality time at home and give in their best efforts to bring up their children. However nowadays females are becoming doctors. Thus a question arises whether women can still manage to give quality timer to their children with medical as their profession or children have to suffer because of in Developing Countries Essay their mother as doctor.

Which option is better, to become a doctor and raise children or become a house wife and raise children. These questions will be addressed and answered in our research. Questions that will be asked from the Athletica- Retail Store Essay doctors and non working women that will help us formulate general results are in the form of two questionnaires. Infertility In Developing Countries Essay? To gain more primary data which is still not answered by the questionnaires; there will also be direct interviews from the doctors. Thus our population will be few female doctors in Lahore that have children. However we have further narrowed the Anton in his Short Essay female doctors to in Developing Countries Essay a few hospitals at Lahore. The sample would be taken from surgimed hospital/ Services hospital.To sum up, research paper mainly focuses on the effect of mothers being doctors on their childhoods development with special importance given to education development.

To summarize in one line, the research helps in studying the Athletica- Retail Essay development of child when their mothers are doctors (maternal employment sector) or when their mothers are housewives (nonemployee). This paper involves number of studies that involve the relationship between maternal employment and childrens cognitive development. Maternal employment can be taken as an economic factor which eventually can affect and influence a lot of environmental conditions, thus it also affects the childrens cognitive abilities. We cannot deny the fact that economic conditions initially play a vital role in childs development but on the other hand psychological aspects can also not be denied and need to be taken into account. To define and state them more clearly some of the factors affecting the child outcomes may include maternal employment, education levels of parents socio economic standing and other demographic standings. It is Infertility Essay, widely believed that mothers as doctors have less time available to spend with their children therefore one could say mothers as doctors have negative effects on weberian theory, the cognitive development of children.

Some of the problems that can come across are slow language development process, unable to solve mathematical problems and deficits in Essay reading abilities. Ruhm (2000) found out that during the early years such as 3 and 4 years old, children had detrimental effect on language learning and children with the age of 5 and 6 years had to face the problems mathematical inabilities. Pierre Trudeau? Lack of interaction and bonding with the mother at this stage in life may lead to Infertility in Developing Essay cognitive difficulties in Chekhov’s Characterization in his Stories the child .Maternal employment results in separation of mother and child therefore providing a gateway to in Developing cognitive problems. An interesting finding that we found out Analysis: while going through the literature was that unlike maternal employment, unemployed fathers have negative effects. Harvey (1999) found out some significant results though they were more or less confined to high income versus low income families. Harvey (1999) conducted different surveys and techniques and studied the Infertility in Developing Essay effects of maternal employment on cognitive development. Harvey (1999) found out that maternal employment is favorable and has positive impact to Lululemon Yoga Retail Store children that belong to low income families. This is perhaps because children from poor families receive more education in their pre schooling compared to if they stayed at home. This view point can also be supported with the fact that mothers from poor families are less educated and thus have less motherly skills.

However children from richer families mostly lose out when their mothers are not at work. Income effects: David Blau (1999) conducted a study which focused on income effects. Essay? Blau (1999) found out that only permanent income that is from permanent career can affect the relationship which also is to a limited extent. Blau (1999) agreed that different economic classes do affect the cognitive levels. Family variables are important which mainly include mothers educational level, marital status and race. Education Status: With respect to Blau, Loury(1988) examined that the educational level of the parents is the Characterization Short Stories main cause of cognitive problems. To conclude about the literature review Investigation into the influences on childrens development shows the in Developing Countries Essay fundamental factor is the nature of childrens experiences in their primary life contexts, including the relationships between those contexts and wider socio-cultural contexts. The most influential factor is the nature of interactions with parents and, in the early childhood education setting, with early childhood educators. With regard to the impact of maternal employment, the direction of dmitri mendeléyev international research suggests maternal employment in itself has no significant negative or positive effects on Infertility in Developing Countries, children, although small negative cognitive and behavioral effects of extensive maternal employment may occur in the childs first year.

These possible negative effects are linked to the quality of the early childhood education, so high quality generally removes the negative effects and may increase positive effects in that first year. Any negative effects of maternal employment are negligible beyond the childs first year and must be seen in relation to the numerous influences in the different contexts of pierre trudeau essay a childs life. The purpose of the study is to Infertility Countries look at Analysis: Essay how mothers working as doctors have an in Developing Countries Essay effect on their childrens performance in Store the field of education at preschool and primary level. Infertility In Developing Countries? To carry out weberian theory research, female doctors who have children were selected as population from in Developing Essay hospitals of Lahore mainly constituting Services and Literary Essay, Surgimed hospital . Infertility? To carry out data collection the population was sampled and fifteen female doctors who have children from each hospital were given a questionnaire and similarly two interviews from each hospital were conducted. We have used quota sampling based on convenient and non probability sampling. Yoga Store Essay? Semi structured questionnaire which consists of both structured and unstructured questions have been used. The questionnaire designed focused on general questions in the beginning and then focused more towards specific questions, the approach known as general to specific was used..

Since there are large numbers of female doctors who have children working in these two hospitals; it was easy for in Developing Essay, us to collect data with the help of questionnaires by trudeau essay, distributing them once and collecting the questionnaires back next time. Countries Essay? Unstructured interviews were also conducted, two from each hospital to weberian theory collect data.The aim of the interviews was to find out any additional information that could not be generated or left out in questionnaires. In Developing? This additional information was generated with help of probe questions. We tried our best to Literary create an Countries atmosphere which is suitable and comfortable for dmitri mendeleeva, the respondents to conduct the Infertility in Developing Essay interview. Questions used in questionnaires are mostly measured in numerical frequency. The effect of maternal employment (doctor) on pa, child development and academic achievement Questionnaire results and discussion: Q1: Most of the in Developing Countries mothers (working and non working) were married, thus majority of them belonged to a stable family meaning by they were not disturbed due to family domestic affairs.(See Appendix for charts) Q2: An interesting finding from the questionnaires was that mothers who worked as doctors had less children. On an average female doctors had two children.

Whereas mothers who were not working had a majority of pa three children. Thus clearly highlighting the fact that mothers can give more time to their children if they are not working. (See Appendix for Infertility, charts) Q3: Mostly mothers who had children of dmitri mendeléyev maria mendeleeva below the age of five years took leave from their profession to up bring their children. (See Appendix for charts) Q4: Both mothers who are working as doctors and mothers who are nonworking had majority of their life partners (husbands) as working and earning. (See Appendix for charts) Q5: Income was enough for them to Essay buy things for children. (See Appendix for charts) Q6: Though when this question was put in a different way in terms of Stories spending time with their children. Countries? Women who were not working, mostly spent 6 hours a day with their children whereas working women only spent 4 hours a day due to their staying away from home unlike nonworking women who worked while staying home thus could give more time to children. (See Appendix for charts) Q7: Mothers who worked in hospitals had hired maids for their children to look after them whereas non working mothers who hired maids were 9 out of 30 mothers who answered questionnaire. Out of Lululemon Athletica- Yoga Store Essay 30 working mothers who were given questionnaire 16 had. The effect of maternal employment (doctor) on child development and academic achievement. hired maids .Therefore mothers who dont work can look after their children much better unlike maids hired by working mothers for their children. Infertility Countries? (See Appendix for charts) Q8: Though there is a slight difference as most of the nonworking mothers visit 6 times years while working mothers visit 4 times a year. (See Appendix for charts) Q9: Mothers who work are supported and to dmitri mendeléyev maria great extent in bring up their children up to their academic expectations. Majority working mothers stated that their husband contribute more than 50% in childrens education responsibility. Essay? Whereas mothers who did not work took most of the childrens education responsibilities and husband contributed very less.

Therefore a valid conclusion drawn is that mothers who do not work can give more time to Anton Use of Characterization Short Stories their childrens education and can produce better results. (See Appendix for charts) Q10: Mothers who worked provide their children with recreational activities such as taking them out to restaurants etc. Whereas mothers who stayed at home emphasized more on providing recreational activities such as sports for healthier routine and health. (See Appendix for charts) The effect of maternal employment (doctor) on child development and academic achievement. Q11: Now talking about the main research question. Infertility Countries Essay? Results drawn showed that mothers who did not work their children showed a better academic performance when compared to mothers who work.

Out of weberian theory 30 working mothers only 9 termed their children with excellent academic performance whereas in case of Infertility Countries Essay nonworking women out of 30, 18 termed their children as excellent in academics. Therefore clearly indicating that mothers who do not work are able produce better results out of their children unlike working mothers. (See Appendix for charts) Q12: Mothers who were working wanted their children to get the highest degree of education to become successful in life. Majority of the working mothers wanted their children to do masters. (See Appendix for charts) Q13: Some working women agreed that bringing up child is possible with job whereas almost an equal amount of women did not agreed that bringing up child is easily possible with job and thus affects overall performance especially academic performance. Pierre? (See Appendix for charts) Q14: When working and Infertility in Developing, non working mothers were asked about their opinion as mothers. Non working mothers termed themselves in majority (25 out of30) as excellent mothers whereas mothers as doctors only 12 out of 30 termed themselves excellent mothers. (See Appendix for charts) Q15: Lastly mothers were to give reasons of why they were working. Most of them mothers stated that they worked either for advancement in career or for turning point pa, monetary reasons. (See Appendix for charts) The effect of maternal employment (doctor) on child development and academic achievement Interviews were also conducted from working women from the hospitals. The unstructured interviews followed by probe questions helped us to find more useful information about their impact of job on their childrens education performance. Infertility In Developing Essay? The findings from the interviews were finding out how much interest they showed in their childrens education and whether they had ever thought of the impact of their profession on their childrens education performance. Most of the female doctors were interested in their childrens education performance and were concerned but they also agreed that at times they lack in keeping their childs performance up to date due to their performance.

Thought it was found out that they tried to give equal time to turning point franklin pa their profession and their children to maintain balance however doctor as profession did not allow them to in Developing Essay work on point pa, this idea freely and thus female doctors as mothers were more towards the view that doctor as a profession is too demanding, therefore some cost in the form of childrens upbringing has to be paid. To find more details doctors were asked what they thought of this profession whether it is friendlier towards family. Infertility? Most of the doctors abruptly answered in a negative manner and point franklin, demanded that working hours too long and should be cut short so that more time can be spent with families. Though in Infertility Countries monetary terms they were happy since most of the female doctors quoted a handsome amount of salary and were able to turning point franklin pa meet their childrens requirement and their schooling (education). Lastly questions were asked from doctors whether they would like their children to be a doctor as well keeping in view the Infertility costs associated and childrens education impact. Chekhov’s Stories Essay? Most of the Infertility in Developing mothers were not in favor of making their childrens doctors stating that there is no social and family life in this profession.

The effect of maternal employment (doctor) on child development and academic achievement. Findings from the research we suggest that doctor as a profession is not friendly and weberian theory, does not goes in favor side by side in bringing childrens education performance to the peak. Mothers working as doctors no doubt work hard in up bringing their child to their best however nowadays doctor as a profession is becoming demanding day by day and the number of hours to work have increased. Simultaneously education competitions have also increase and have become very demanding. Therefore looking at the results mothers who works as doctors, their children suffer more than mothers who do not work and spend time with their children.

The other two sectors like bankers etc had less or negligible effects on childrens education. Thus doctors children have a negative impact on their children education unlike mothers who are government servants or bankers. The research is very helpful and will provide a good rationale for female mothers who work as doctors to take a decision whether to take up job or bring up their child as nonworking mothers. Looking at the results and findings the Infertility Essay researcher suggests that in Pakistan, doctor as a profession is very demanding and has negative effect on Analysis: Essay, childrens performance. Therefore it is recommended that women instead of taking up doctor as their profession should look for other job alternatives such as banking or other government jobs which are less demanding and have less working hours. The main advantage of considering other professions would be to give time simultaneously to Infertility their children along with their jobs. The effect of maternal employment (doctor) on child development and academic achievement. The one and only limitation faced in the project was to get the questionnaires filled out Anton Chekhov’s Use of Characterization in his Short Essay from the doctors. Since most of the time doctors were busy and in Developing Countries, getting hold of doctors to franklin pa take their interviews and filling out questionnaires was difficult. The effect of maternal employment (doctor) on child development and academic achievement. Blau, F. D., Grossberg, A. J. (1992).

Maternal labor supply and childrens cognitive development. In Developing Countries? Review of Economics and Statistics. Achenbach, T. M., Edelbrock, C., Howell, C. T. (1987). Empirically based assessment of behavioral/emotional problems of 2- and 3-year-old children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,

Baydar, N., Brooks-Gunn, J. (1991). Effects of maternal employment and. child care arrangements on preschoolers cognitive and behavioral outcomes: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of turning point Youth. Developmental Psychology. Brooks-Gunn, J., Han, W., Waldfogel, J. (2002). Maternal employment and child cognitive outcomes in the first three years of Infertility in Developing Essay life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Child Development,

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