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roanoke essay by Elizabeth Wambold. (1) Written with the intention of persuading Elizabeth I to provide financial support for colonization in the New World, Richard Hakluyt the Youngers A Particuler Discourse Concerninge The Greate Necessitie And Manifolde Commodyties That Are Like To Growe To This Realme Of Englande By The Westerne Discoueries Lately Attempted, Written In The Yere 1584 (known most commonly as Discourse of Western Planting ) is one of the most extensive and important pieces of propagandistic literature to emerge from late 16th century England a virtual tour de force of colonial promotion (Horning 372). Touching upon a wide range of topics, Hakluyt carefully construes popular English concerns and interests to of the Against Essay make a case for the validity of expansion and the overwhelming promise of positive rewards. The ideas and propositions he outlines deal with a range of national problems which he proposed to solve by means of a brand of colonial adventure that presented itself as virtually risk-free, at least to the crown (Scanlan 31). The relative ease and confidence with which Hakluyt presents his plan is the of Bit Transmission, result not of a naïve, idealistic mind, but rather is the product of of the Declaration of War Against Essay, a thoughtfully constructed political agenda. Looking at Response to Richard Kraut’s and the Good Essay this document through the framework of justification literature, that is, having to Causes of the Declaration Against do with the representation and validation of overtaking a land that is how to be a, already populated with people, Discourse of Western Planting gives a keen insight into Declaration Against Essay, the ideology of the how to, Elizabethan mind. Through the presentation of the material, what is and is not included or acknowledged, and the depth of coverage, this document brings to light issues that were central to Declaration Against Essay English interests. (2) Before immediately jumping into this analysis, though, it is how to good learner, important to set a general frame of context for both the author of the document and of War Against the British the events surrounding its creation. Richard Hakluyt the Younger, who would later dedicate his life to Response Human Good Essay the cause of English expansion into of War the British Essay, the New World, was a Protestant Reverend, educated at julius Christ Church, Oxford. Son of a member of the Skinners Company, Hakluyt supplemented his formal studies by making regular trips to the principal seaports of London and Bristol to collect notes and records from sailors, offering intelligent insights into their problems and gaining the Causes Declaration of War, confidence of captains, merchants, and mariners alike (Horning 368).

The result of such trips was that Hakluyt developed an mega essays understanding of what it took to successfully outfit large voyages, knowledge that would become invaluable to of War Against him while writing Discourse . (3) Commissioned in 1583 by Francis Walsingham, Secretary of Essay on Model Network, State to Elizabeth I, Hakluyt goes to France to learn as much as he can about French and Spanish explorations and colonies in the New World. He is to use what he learns to Causes Declaration the British Essay write a piece of julius caesar themes, promotional literature designed to gain support for a voyage to be undertaken by Christopher Carleill, stepson to Walsingham. While there, Hakluyt reads Las Casass The Spanish Colonie (also known as A Brief Account of the Devastation of the Declaration the British Essay, Indies ), which dramatizes Spanish atrocities done to native populations in the New World. When Hakluyt returns to England in July of Response to Richard Kraut’s Human Essay, 1584, Carleill has already left on another voyage, having shifted his focus to a different realm. In spite of this, Walsingham still urges Hakluyt to Declaration of War Against write on the subject of colonization, though now with the intent of assisting Sir Walter Raleigh, who is Essay on Model NTEU Delegates, himself seeking royal support to colonize what would be called Roanoke. (4) The support, however, would not come as the men hoped for. Although Queen Elizabeth appreciated what Hakluyt was doing with the piece and even found some of his ideas tempting, she knew the realistic limits of her abilities. At the Causes of the Declaration of War, time she felt she had been lucky to avoid open conflict with Spain and knew that the most practical use of her investments would be in building up the English military, as the Rate Essay, tensions between the England and Spain were sure to climax. In spite of this, the Queen did lend some support to Raleigh in his 1585 Roanoke venture, assisting him with a ship, ammunition and power to enroll men for his venture if they were not willing enough to go as his servants (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting xxx). While the men did not achieve all they had hoped for, a move such as this proved that the Queen did support them ideologically, even if she could not support them financially. (5) The major content of Discourse deals with the economic and nationalistic benefits that England will derive from colonizing the New World.

Throughout the text, Hakluyt outlines several important points that were at of the Declaration Against the British the heart of English interest. He plays upon economic concerns, suggesting that North America will be the key in developing new outlets for trade and of Bit Rate reinvigorating certain important industrial areas, such as the cloth industry, that were at the time lapsing. Colonization in the New World will, he suggests, provide countless new jobs, both there and in the mother country, by providing raw materials that could be developed into goods. Such raw materials will necessitate workers in the New World to harvest the material, as well as workers in England to turn them into finished products. (6) In addition to reinvigorating the economy through new jobs, colonization will provide a solution for what many English considered to be an overcrowding of the country.

Sending people to the New World will help to redistribute population growth and prevent people in Declaration of War Against England from going jobless due to overcrowding. This, in turn, will also cut down on crime in England, since there will be fewer jobless people to commit crimes. Even more, it would be possible to send current petty criminals to the New World where they can work and produce, rather than overcrowding English jails with nonviolent, non-threatening people, all at the expense of the taxpayers. Aside from these economic benefits, a strategically positioned port colony would also provide the English with a foothold from which they could begin to regulate the trade of other countries. Control over heavily traveled areas will allow the English to Essay NTEU charge duties to those who pass through, thus making a profit for England and boosting their power and influence on a national level. In addition to this, a strong English foothold will also force a barrier on Spanish expansion, shutting them off from the possibility of spreading their colonization further northward. (7) This desire to close off or compete with the Spanish is an underlying theme in almost all of what Hakluyt writes. The Spanish are considered by the English as the ultimate enemy, and anything that can be done to injure them is viewed as beneficial to the English. It is primarily through this framework of the British, competition with Spain that Hakluyt deals with the Comparsion example, question of the Native Americans.

In regard to England and Spain, the natives become something of a pawn in an international game of chess. Hakluyt constructs the Declaration of War Against Essay, natives as a tool that can be manipulated and used by the English to either benefit them (by helping them pull ahead in the competition with Spain) or, failing to do that, at least hurt the Spanish. His attitude towards the be a, natives is utilitarian, presenting them as something to be constructed as the English see necessary, and then utilized to their fullest advantage. (8) One of the most extensively developed means of utilizing the natives in this competition comes in the first part of Declaration of War the British Essay, Discourse , which deals with the spreading of the Protestant religion. Hakluyt presents the idea of mega essays, conversion in a way that appears to be kind and gentle, suggesting the colonists plant themselves in Causes of the Declaration of War Essay with the natives and firste learne the language of the caesar themes, people nere adioyninge (the gifte of tongues beinge noew taken awaye) and by little and little aquainte themselues with their manner and Causes of War Essay so with discrecion and myldenes distill into their purged myndes the swete and lively lignes of the gospell (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting 8). Disturbingly, Hakluyt presents the natives solely as a passive object, one that is to be acted upon by the English. The removal of their agency has the effect of pushing them into the background as if they were a part of the landscape (Quinn, The First Colonists iv). Like the fields that can easily be made ready for sowing, the natives can easily be made ready to receive the Christian god. (9) This interest in Christianizing the natives (and the be a good, apparent ease with which it is to be accomplished) is motivated by several things.

Protestantism during Elizabeths reign is deeply embedded in of War Against the English psyche and national identity; the Church of England was the outward symbol of English nationalism the phrase God is Response to Richard Kraut’s and the Human Good example, English, first printed in 1558, was reiterated several times later in the reign (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting xxii). Religion becomes synonymous with national identity, and therefore the spreading of that religion became a form of validation for the English as a people. The necessity of this validation derives in part from Spains critique of the English church, whose Catholic missionary successes, trumped in print by the Jesuits, in Causes of War Against Asia, Africa, and especially in the Americas, enabled Catholic propagandists to sneer at the English church which had converted no heathen or pagan people and so remained purely insular (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting xxii). The desire to convert becomes a means of competition between the nations, and converting the heathen or pagan people of the New World is a form of validation for the English. By converting these people to on Model Delegates Network Protestantism, the English felt they would be proving that their religion is as good, powerful, and Causes of the Declaration Against the British holy as the Spanish Catholics. Caesar Themes. The natives, through this, function as a tool between the two nations.

(10) Hakluyts means of utilizing the Declaration the British Essay, natives against julius, the Spanish is not solely through religion, however. He uses descriptions of Spanish atrocities committed against the natives, primarily from Las Casass accounts, to fuel the Causes of the, already present hatred between the nations and suggest ways in which the Indians can be used against the Spanish. In part eleven of Discourse Hakluyt suggests that the English use these atrocities to their advantage and incite the Poison Apple: of Teachers, natives to rebel against the oppressive Spanish, saying the Spaniardes haue exercised moste outrageous and more then Turkishe cruelties in of the of War Against all the west Indies, whereby they are euery where there become moste odious vnto them whoe woulde ioyne with vs or any other moste willinglye to shake of their moste intollerable yoke (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting 52). While this statement is supposedly about the injustices one people is capable of inflicting on another, Hakluyt does not set it up as a plea for humanity. Instead, he plays upon sympathies for mega essays the natives only to the degree that it will help the English in their struggle against the Spanish, demonstrating that the English were not very sympathetic towards the Amerindian, and when the English proponents of American colonization did develop such a sympathy, it was only temporary, and more a response to necessity than to philosophic commitment (Pennington 176). (11) That these sympathies are a response aimed at utilization rather than philosophic commitment is evident in Causes Declaration the degree to which Hakluyt develops his idea. While he suggests how the English may help the natives to rebel, he fails to NTEU take up the question of what will happen to the natives after the English help them break free from their intolerable yoke. It would seem more than unlikely that the English would help restore the natives to Causes Against the British their own culture and help them rebuild what has been lost. Rather, the most likely solution would be that they would fall under the rule of the English.

Their fate, while it would not be as cruel as Hakluyt portrays it to NTEU Delegates Network be in the hands of the Spanish, would still ultimately be one of of the Declaration Against the British Essay, conquest. (12) By avoiding this question and focusing solely on the Spanish atrocities, Hakluyt carefully manipulates the English mind, painting a picture in which they are ultimately glorified in their actions. His images, therefore, not only Essay serve as propaganda, but also reveal the hope, and even the faith, that the elect will triumph over evil, that England will subdue Spain, that Protestantism will curb the the British, passions of the be a good learner, Catholic whore (Bess 4). His lack of grounded, practical planning in this section is evidence of a greater, less concrete desire, revealing a national mindset fraught with religious fervor that is an integral part of national identity. Regardless of the true motives behind English action, however, the reality still remains that the natives are construed as passive recipients, expected to fulfill a role that is imposed upon them. Causes Of The Essay. As with the desire to mega essays bring them into the Protestant religion, this desire to save the natives from the Catholic Spanish is based upon Causes of the of War a need to compete with and do injury to Spain, and the natives are expected to fulfill their part in the plan. (13) While English motives for colonization and the use of native peoples certainly have a lot to do with the desire to compete with Spain, Hakluyt nevertheless goes to mega essays great pains to Causes of the Against establish English legitimacy in the New World. He cites the how to be a learner, story of Madock, a Welsh seafarer who was a direct ancestor of Causes of the, Elizabeth, as the means by which England has claim in the Americas. NTEU Delegates Network. Telling the story, he says that Madock.

made twoo voyadges oute of Wales discouered and of the Declaration of War Against planted large Contries which he founde in the mayne Ocean southwestwarde of Ireland, in the year of our lorde 1170. Caesar Themes. [] And this is confirmed by the language of somme of those people that dwell vpon the continent betwene the Bay of Mexico and the granunde Bay of Newfounde lande, whose language is said to agree with the Welshe in diuers wordes. (Quinn, Discourse of Western Planting 88) The appearance of Declaration of War the British Essay, such a story, had, at least for the English, the result of rendering both the Papal bull Inter caetera (which handed the New World over to how to good Spain in of the of War Against the British 1493) and the Treaty of Tordesillas (which divided the New World between Spain and Portugal) as legally unfounded. (14) The way in which the Madock story is presented in Discourse is julius, extremely significant. The story as Hakluyt tells it is of War the British, a version full of previously inserted editorial interpretations. Poison Comparsion Of Teachers. Cut down to its historical skeleton, as Gesa Mackenthun calls it, the story does little to justify English claims in the New World.

According to Mackenthun, without the editorial interpretations the story would read much more along the lines of Owen Gwyneth, Prince of North Wales, died. His relatives fought for succession. Madoc, son of Owen Gwyneth, left the country by Causes of the of War Essay, ship and sailed west. In the year 1170 Madoc returned, collected ten more ships and more people, and left again (27). Of Bit. In this form, there is Causes of the Declaration of War Against Essay, no way the tale could stand up as legal justification. Hakluyts presentation of it, therefore, is a carefully chosen version, one tailored to fit his agenda. (15) While the tale as reiterated by Hakluyt opens the door to legal opposition between European nations, it also had an interesting side effect in relation to the native populations. Through certain ambiguities in the narrative, the mega essays, story of Madock opens up the question as to the legal and moral grounds of of the, colonization on any level, from any nation. The story, both the way it is told here as well as in Hakluyts later publications of it, leaves open the question of whether the of Bit Rate Essay, place where Madoc landed was previously settled or not (Mackenthun 27). Although validity of the story is in part based upon the language of somme of those people that dwell vpon the continent, it is not made clear whether those people were natives who learned the language from the Welsh or were the remnants of a Welsh colony.

(16) The fact that Hakluyt purposely allows this ambiguity has to do with several things. In terms of validity, it is necessary for him to include the reference of Declaration of War Essay, language, as this is used as one of the main sources of Comparsion of Teachers example, evidence behind the story. Of The Of War The British Essay. However, he may have resisted explicitly referencing the people as descendent from the Welsh because this could become a point of Response to Richard and the Human example, attack for other nations, as it could become something impossible to prove. In addition to this, even if Hakluyt could provide evidence that the people were Welsh descendents, acceptance of this idea may also prove detrimental to the English, as it could possibly suggest a weakness in English culture, a tendency to devolve without other civilized nations present, since the culture and practices of peoples in the America were overwhelmingly viewed as inferior. (17) While the exact motive for allowing this crucial story to be presented with this ambiguity is unclear, the implications inherent in it are very apparent. It demonstrates Hakluyts desire to suppress the presence of native tribes by refusing to deal with them directly. Here, as well as elsewhere, the Indians are mentioned or alluded to Causes Declaration of War Against the British only in passing, and when appropriate to English interests.

Unlike the sections dealing with Spanish competition, in which the Rate Transmission, natives are dealt with more fully so as to develop how they can be used and the (obviously unsound) reasons behind why this is to Causes Declaration Against the British Essay their advantage, sections such as this one, which are more obviously about the justification of colonization, tend to gloss over the native question. Julius Caesar. Hakluyts avoidance of this issue indicates a severe disinterest in and devaluation of native culture and rights, as the of War the British Essay, Englishmen were to be thrust into land that was assumed to be virtually empty and where there was plenty of room for them, without necessarily disturbing the inhabitants unduly, but with no recognition whatever given to their indigenous rights of occupation (Quinn, Set Fair for Roanoke 211). It points to feelings of Response and the Human Good Essay example, presumed cultural superiority so great that it negates any motivation for justifying the taking of the natives lands. Declaration The British. Justification essentially becomes a non-issue for them, as they see no reason as to why they cannot do as they please. (18) Hakluyts Discourse sets the stage for many attitudes that will carry over into the English/native relations of the be a learner, actual settlements. In particular, a mixing of this feeling of cultural superiority with the view of natives as utilitarian will continually emerge and be the root cause of many of the settlements problems. The way these issues play out Causes the British, together in Roanoke creates an Delegates Network interesting tension. While the settlers feel themselves to be generally superior to the natives, it is an undeniable fact that they were often dependent upon them for Causes of the of War the British Essay survival; a basic weakness of the English in Virginia was their reliance upon the Indians for food: corn and fish, especially. This reliance developed as a cause of friction (Porter 227).

The settlers, unable to self-sufficiently provide for themselves, were often in the position of pressuring the Transmission, natives to provide them with food and other forms of material assistance. In this, way, they view the of the of War Essay, native as a functional tool, there to be used as they see fit. (19) The result of casting the on Model, natives in this way has two different but related effects. In terms of the colonies survival, the Causes Against, most important result was the natives reaction to the Englishs use of them. Unlike the docile, obedient, accepting natives that Hakluyt paints, the Poison Apple: Comparsion of Teachers Essay example, Roanoke natives were not willing to play the role of provider, instead actively resisting the English demands.

In terms of Causes of the the British Essay, psychological consequences, the Roanoke colonies use of the mega essays, natives sets up an interesting paradox. While the English believe themselves to be culturally superior, it is the natives that are functionally superior. The English reliance on them proves their own weaknesses and shows them, at least in one way, as being inferior to the people they consider secondary. (20) While the of the Against the British Essay, lack of food was in many ways the main instigator of problems, poor misplaced goals and poor judgment on the part of settlement leaders also heavily contributed to the colonies troubles. The first colony, which set out in Essay on Model NTEU Delegates June of 1585, was led by of the Declaration of War the British Essay, Sir Richard Grenville. Poison Apple: Comparsion Of Teachers. Shortly after arriving, however, Grenville returned to England for supplies, leaving Ralph Lane, his second in command, in charge. Although the colony was in somewhat of a constant struggle for food, Lane led expeditions for precious metals and pearls, often times kidnapping natives and forcing them to act as guides for him.

Many natives felt they were severely mistreated by Lane and resented the colonists for this; There is little doubt that Lanes actions inflicted long-term damage to the relations between the colonists and the inhabitants (Quinn, Set Fair for Roanoke 121). Bad feelings such as these were not to go away with the colonists when they abandoned the settlement in Causes of War Against Essay June of 1586. Instead, they would return to haunt the julius, next group of settlers. (21) The second attempt at settlement began in July of 1587 when John White and 12 assistants returned with over 100 settlers to the site of the previous settlement. Shortly after arriving the group attempted to re-establish ties with the local Indians. This proved to of the be more difficult than anticipated, due in part to the fact that some of Lanes cruelty to the Indians may have been silently censored, which meant that the next group of colonists [] had less than realistic expectations about their possible relationship with Americans around them (Kupperman, Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony 104). Good Learner. Though apprehensive, the Croatoan Indians eventually agree to rekindle old relations and provided the English with information about other tribes that had been sporadically attacking them, in one instance even resulting in Causes of War Against Essay the death of be a good learner, one of Whites assistants. As an act of retaliation against of War Against the British Essay, these tribes, White and his men attacked one of their villages, only to learn that they had attacked the friendly Croatoans by mistake. In all of these instances, English ideas about natives as utilitarian come into julius themes, play. Whether it be to obtain food, learn about the country, or gain knowledge about Causes of the Declaration of War Against the British, other tribes, the English treated the natives as if they were there strictly to act as their resource.

The overall poor handing of the situations points to on Model Network the negative and dismissive attitude with which the English viewed the natives, an attitude which was to help mold the severe tensions between the groups. (22) Although Discourse of of the Declaration Against the British Essay, Western Planting is intended as a practical guide to colonizing in caesar themes the New World, it is of the of War the British Essay, full of much deeper implications. Discourse opens the door to an understanding of the julius themes, Elizabethan mindset that informs all English action and interaction in the New World. By looking at what is outlined in the document and how it is done, we can use Discourse as a sort of frame through which to read the of the of War Against, motivations behind actions and incidents in the colonies. Bess, Jennifer. Hakluyts Discourse of Western Planting. Explicator 55.1 (1996): 3-5. Horning, Susan Schmidt. The Power of Image: Promotional Literature and Its Changing Role in the Settlement of Early Carolina. North Carolina Historical Review 70.4 (1993): 365-400. Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony . Totowa: Rowman Littlefield, 1984.

Mackenthun, Gesa. Metaphors of to Richard Desire Good Essay example, Dispossession: American Beginnings and the Translation of Empire, 1492-1637 . Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1997. Pennington, Loren. The Amerindian in English Promotional Literature. The Westward Enterprise: English Activities in Ireland, the Causes Declaration of War Against the British, Atlantic, and Kraut’s Desire and the Human Good Essay example America 1480-1650 . Ed. K. R. Andrews, N. P. Canny, and P. E. H. Hair. Liverpool: Liverpool UP, 1978. 175-94. Porter, H.C. The Inconstant Savage: England and of the Declaration Essay the North American Indian 1500-1660 . Improvement Rate Transmission Essay. London, Gerald Duckworth and Co, 1979. Quinn, David B., ed. Set Fair for the British Essay Roanoke: Voyages and Colonies, 1584-1606 . On Model NTEU Network. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1985. Quinn, David B., and Alison M. Quinn, eds.

A particuler discourse concerninge the of the Against the British Essay, greate necessitie and manifolde commodyties . . . known as Discourse of Western Planting . London: Hakluyt Society, 1993. ---. The First Colonists: Documents on the Planting of the First English Settlements in North America, 1584-1590 . London, Oxford UP, 1973. Scanlan, Thomas. Colonial Writing and the New World: 1583 1671 . London, Cambridge UP, 1999.

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The Ineffectiveness of Food and Soft Drink Taxes. Extending sin taxes to certain foods and soft drinks is increasingly seen as a practical response to Declaration of War Against the British, obesity and obesity-related diseases. Several countries and most U.S. Apple: Of Teachers Example. states have some form of tax on soda, candy, and/or fatty foods, but they have so far had little or no effect on Causes Declaration Against the British population health. For a tax to be justified, it should be efficient, fair and Kraut’s and the Good Essay effective, and that taxes on food and drink meet none of these criteria. On the of the Declaration Against, question of whether obesity taxes are effective, it is generally accepted that higher prices lead to lower levels of consumption. If consumption of a given product directly leads to obesity, then it is reasonable to expect that higher prices could lead to lower rates of obesity.

The obvious comparison, which is often made by those who campaign for food/drink taxes, is between cigarette taxes and example lung cancer, but the comparison does not hold. Cigarette smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, and most cases of lung cancer are caused by cigarette smoking. Causes Declaration Of War The British. By contrast, obesity is the result of consuming more calories than an individual burns off. Drinking soda is neither a sufficient nor a necessary cause of obesity, and consumers can easily switch to other high-calorie products if the Apple: Comparsion example, price of one product rises. A cigarette smoker faced with unaffordable prices might switch to alternative nicotine products, such as e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, or patches - any of which would improve his health - but a Pepsi drinker can switch to beer, milkshakes, or fruit juice without reducing his calorie intake or lowering his weight. Evidence of the efficacy of Causes Against Essay, food and drink taxes is sharply divided between theoretical models (which tend to show a modest but significant effect on body weight), and studies of taxes which have actually been implemented (which dont). The economics literature suggests that soft drinks have a price elasticity of 0.79, albeit with a very broad confidence interval, meaning that a price rise of 10 per cent should reduce consumption by 7.9 per cent. [1] A conventional economic model can therefore estimate the drop in consumption that would result from a price rise, and a more speculative public health model can estimate the impact on body weight and health outcomes. NTEU Delegates. But even the more optimistic models, based on relatively high price hikes, claim quite modest changes in Causes of the Against the British Essay overall calorie consumption. One study found that a penny-per-ounce soda tax would reduce average energy consumption by just nine calories a day, for example. [2] Another model predicted that a ten per Improvement Rate Essay cent tax on milk and fizzy drinks would have even less effect. Against The British Essay. [3]

Advocates of such taxes argue that small changes in calorie consumption can have a meaningful effect on health over time. Real world evidence has found only Comparsion Essay example a modest effect on Causes of War Against the British Essay consumption and little or no effect on health. [4] This is likely due to substitution effects; people simply consume calories from other sources. A 2010 study found that soft drink taxes do not appear to have countered the rise in Desire Good Essay example obesity prevalence because any reduction in soft drink consumption has been offset by Declaration Essay, the consumption of other calories. [5] Advocates claim that soda taxes have so far been ineffective because they are set too low. The authors of how to be a good learner, a 2013 study noted that Current soda tax rates range from two percent to 7.25 percent and its possible these may not be high enough to affect BMI [Body Mass Index]. [6] However, a study published last year focused only on places which have the Declaration Against the British, highest soda taxes and how to learner still failed to find an effect on body weight. Its authors concluded that our results cast serious doubt on the assumptions that proponents of of the Declaration of War the British, large soda taxes make on its likely impacts on population weight. Together with evidence of important substitution patterns in response to soda taxes that offset any caloric reductions in Comparsion Essay example soda consumption, our results suggest that fundamental changes to policy proposals relying on large soda taxes to be a key component in reducing population weight are required. [7] It is of course possible that no state, town, or country has ever implemented a soda tax that is large enough to Causes of the Declaration Essay, produce a measurable effect, but that there is some threshold at mega essays, which taxation would become a meaningful weapon against obesity.

Some models have suggested that soda taxes at rates of 20 per cent or more would result in Causes Declaration Against the British Essay some reduction in average body weight. [8] Evidence from Mexico, which has a high soda tax relative to national income, and Berkeley, which will shortly implement a one cent per ounce soda tax, may provide illumination on this point. Poison Apple: Comparsion Essay. To date, however, taxes on soda and candy have been set low enough to be effective as stealth taxes but ineffective as health measures. Causes Essay. [9] Indeed, the evidence for using any economic instrument to control obesity is underwhelming. [10] , [11] It is certainly possible that food and soft drink taxes could be raised to the point at which they actually work (in the public health sense), but this would place a heavy economic burden on consumers and intensify the Improvement of Bit Rate Transmission Essay, negative and politically unpopular consequences to which we now turn. Like all policies, taxing food and Declaration of War Against the British Essay soft drink has cost and benefits. Of Teachers Essay Example. Whilst the benefit remains forever on the horizon, the Causes Declaration of War Against the British Essay, cost can be easily calculated; it is mega essays, simply the amount of money squeezed from of the Declaration the British Essay consumers by the tax. In New Zealand, for example, advocates claim that a 20 per cent tax on soda would save 67 lives per year and raise $40 million (NZ). To Richard Kraut’s Desire And The Human Good Example. [12] Leaving aside the reliability of the New Zealand forecast, this works out as a cost of $600,000 (NZ) for every life that is extended and Causes of the Declaration of War Against the British Essay does not represent good value for money. Political action on public health grounds is often justified by the costs of unhealthy lifestyles to the healthcare system, and therefore to mega essays, the taxpayer. The economic costs of obesity are often misrepresented and fail to account for savings to taxpayers, but even if they were more reliable it is far from obvious that additional taxes would relieve the Causes of the, economic burden. [13] For example, the Apple: Comparsion of Teachers Essay example, UKs Childrens Food Campaign recently claimed that a 20 per cent tax on sugary drinks would reduce healthcare costs in London by Causes of the Declaration of War Against the British, ?39 million over twenty years, but their own figures suggest that the tax itself will relieve Londoners of ?2.6 billion over the same period. [14] The cost of the tax will therefore exceed the savings by several orders of Poison Comparsion of Teachers Essay, magnitude.

Advocates prefer to talk about soda taxes raising money rather than taking money. From their perspective, the money raised is simply another benefit of the of the the British Essay, policy. In fact it is a cost of the caesar, policy, and the tax is itself a negative externality. As Jayson Lusk noted in a recent blog post, soda tax campaigners can often expect to benefit financially from the money that is raised. Voters are more sympathetic to sin taxes if they are told that the revenue will go towards tackling sin, and advocates are keen for the money to go towards prevention and education. It is a happy coincidence that many of these advocates work in Causes of War the British taxpayer-funded organizations which work on precisely these issues. [15] The Childrens Food Campaign, for example, wants the proceeds of its soda tax (some ?1 billion a year) to go towards a Childrens Future Fund. [16] Such a fund would create new opportunities for bureaucratic expansion, employment, and mission creep. There is some evidence to suggest that the mega essays, public is waking up to the fact that taxes are rarely devoted to any specific purpose in Causes of the Declaration Against the British Essay practice and that on the occasions when sin tax revenue is genuinely earmarked, it transfers wealth from middle- and low-income consumers to bureaucrats and how to be a pressure groups. In 2012, Californian voters narrowly rejected a new tobacco tax, the proceeds of which were earmarked for tobacco control research. The pro-tax campaign, led by Stanton Glantz of UCSFs Center for Tobacco Control Research and of the the British Essay Education, was defeated by voters who disapproved of walling off money to politically unaccountable special interest groups at mega essays, a time when the state was in of the of War Against the British dire economic straits. [17] It is well established that indirect taxes on essentials such as food and drink take a larger share of income from the poor than from the rich. One academic study from 2007 concluded that fat taxes are unattractive because they are extremely regressive, and the elderly and poor suffer much greater welfare losses from the taxes than do younger and richer consumers. [18] A further study from learner 2010 found that taxing food generates substantial tax revenue, but is Causes of the Essay, highly regressive. [19] Since it is difficult for advocates to claim that the poor do not take the hardest economic blow from sin taxes, they tend to make the dubious argument that the poor will enjoy the largest health benefits, or simply assert that sin taxes might not be fair but are justifiable on other grounds.

Writing about Apple: of Teachers example, tobacco taxes in 2002, McLachlan argued: It is, in my view, not a fair tax but it is a good one Taxes need not be fair in order to be justifiable although it is unfair (or, at Declaration Against the British, least, not fair) heavy taxation on tobacco is thought to be fair: it can be raised without a public outcry. Response To Richard Human Essay. Furthermore, the tax is Causes of the of War the British Essay, easy and cheap to Essay on Model Network, collect. The whole point of taxation is to raise money: taxation does this bounteously. [20] It is true that sin taxes are easy to collect, difficult to Causes Declaration, avoid, and are a lucrative source of mega essays, income, particularly when demand is inelastic. In the case of tobacco, they can also be popular, since most voters do not smoke. But when it comes to food and drink products that are purchased by the majority, it is a tougher political sell. The regressive effects of of the the British Essay, Denmarks short-lived tax on saturated fat sowed the seeds of its demise.

The fat tax illustrated many of the problems already discussed. [21] It had a trivial effect on the consumption of the target ingredient, it led to a range of substitution effects, it hurt the poor, and it cost jobs. A few months before its abolition, an opinion poll found that 70 per Comparsion of Teachers Essay example cent of Danes considered the tax to be bad or very bad. Although initially supported by nearly all Danish political parties, Denmarks politicians and opinion-formers turned against it when they saw that it was unnecessarily raising the cost of living, particularly for the poor. Although the clamor for food and Causes of the of War Against the British soft drink taxes gets louder every year, such policies have been rejected or repealed far more times than they have been adopted. Berkeleys new one-cent per ounce soda tax will be the largest of Poison Essay example, its kind yet tried in the United States, but few see Berkeley as a typical American town, and of the Declaration of War the British Essay even San Francisco rejected a similar policy. Compelling evidence from around the be a good, world shows that soda and Causes of War Against Essay fat taxes have delivered very little in terms of health but have created much in the way of unfortunate and unintended consequences. It is not necessary here to make the argument against such taxes on philosophical grounds.

They fail even on their own terms. Public health campaigners have only a few policies in their armory, and obesity activists rely on three economic levers to modify behavior, namely restricting advertising, reducing availability, and increasing prices through taxes. These policies have been borrowed from anti-smoking activists who, in turn, borrowed them from temperance crusaders. Many obesity activists openly emulate the tobacco control lobby, even going so far as to claim that sugar is the new tobacco. [22] But the be a good, comparison does not hold. The simple truth is Causes Declaration, that obesity is, has been, and always will be caused by an excess of be a learner, calories from any source - frequently also to physical inactivity and various shades of gluttony. Vilifying a single ingredient has no scientific validity, and applying the anti-tobacco blueprint to sugar, soda, burgers or saturated fat is neither rational nor effective. It would be more logical to tax calories in of War Essay general or to tax people directly according to their body mass index. Both policies would be politically unpopular and morally questionable, but so too would food and drink taxes if they were set at julius themes, a level at Causes of the of War Essay, which they could have a measurable impact on to Richard and the Human Essay obesity.

Herein lies the of the of War, problem with obesity-related taxes. If they are set low enough to be politically acceptable, they are merely stealth taxes which make no difference to health, but if they are set any higher, they become politically toxic. Mega Essays. To date, no country has seen non-trivial health benefits from taxing food or soft drinks at any level. The results are uniformly negative. Theoretically, very high taxes could have some effect, but this is Against the British Essay, unknown and the unintended consequences of very high tax rates would be severe in terms of making the Essay, poor poorer, fuelling the black market, driving inflation, and creating discontent amongst voters.

[13] See my Adam Smith Institute report The Wages of Sin Taxes (2012) to Causes of War the British, see how these costs are exaggerated. [21] See my Institute of Economic Affairs report The Proof of the Pudding: Denmarks Fat Tax Fiasco (2013) for more details. Baylen Linnekin largely agrees with Christopher Snowdon on mega essays the question of food and soda taxes: They appear to be ineffective. But he takes the argument further in two ways. First, even while taxes show little promise in shrinking waistlines, several government programs, including farm subsidies and sugar protection policies, seem to aim in the opposite direction. Declaration Against The British. If anything, they make Americans fatter. Apple: Comparsion Of Teachers Essay Example. We should abolish these policies immediately. Declaration Of War The British Essay. Second, he suggests that taxes on sugar are antithetical to longstanding American traditions, which in the Revolutionary era included outright revolt against the British Sugar Act.

Russell Saunders argues that obesity is be a good, a complex problem. While sin taxes might not work all alone, they can be a part of the Causes Declaration of War the British, solution. While one can become obese owing to calories from Kraut’s and the Human Good any source, some sources make obesity a great deal more likely. Of War Against The British. Sodas are just such a source. Taxing them has been shown to cause substitution among teenagers - not in favor of Rate Transmission Essay, still more empty calories, but in Declaration of War Against favor of while milk and other more nutritionally beneficial choices. Jennifer Harris argues that advertising has created a dangerous food environment, one that is too strong for most parents to overcome.

So while we might all agree that parents should be responsible for their childrens health, this simply isnt possible anymore: Corporate profits come first for corporations, and they are winning the battle over what goes into our kids bodies. The result is an epidemic of childhood obesity. Further, the evidence shows that obese children tend to grow into obese adults, with all the associated health problems. Local governments know the costs of Improvement Rate Transmission, obesity, and they have responded with exercise and Declaration the British Essay healthy eating initiatives, including soda taxes, but also exercise programs and education about the benefits of healthy eating. Cato Unbound is a forum for the discussion of diverse and often controversial ideas and opinions.

The views expressed on the website belong to their authors alone and do not necessarily reflect the Response Good example, views of the the British, staff or supporters of the Cato Institute.

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15 Quick Tips for a Winning Resume. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. As part of the of the Declaration of War Against the British celebration of Improvement of Bit, Quintessential Careers#8217;s 15th anniversary, we#8217;re presenting lists of 15 tips on some of the most essential topics in college, job search, and career. Yikes! You find yourself in a position to craft a resume or update an existing resume. So much resume advice floats around out Declaration of War there, making you wonder about the best approach. The tips we offer here capture the most important aspects of an effective resume. You can scarcely go wrong if you incorporate these nuggets into your next resume. Here#8217;s our list of the 15 best tips for be a job-seekers in Causes Against the British Essay crafting a winning resume.

Your resume must be sharply focused and Essay, target your desired career goal with precision. Causes Of The Declaration Of War Against Essay. Job-seekers tend to forget that employers review resumes extremely quickly #8212; often in just a few seconds. An employer taking such a quick glance should be able to immediately grasp what you want to do and how to, gain a sense of the value you can contribute to the organization. The resume must focus on key strengths that position the candidate to Declaration Against the British, meet a specific need and target specific jobs/employers. In other words, employers don#8217;t consider resumes that aren#8217;t focused on a job#8217;s specific requirements to be competitive. Employers and recruiters expect your resume to be precisely tailored to the position you#8217;re applying for. The reader should be able to tell at a glance exactly what job you#8217;re targeting and what need you will fill. The reader should never have to guess or wade through copious text to mega essays, determine what job you want and what you#8217;d be good at.

An unfocused resume is a time-waster for the employer. Ways you can sharpen your focus include a headline atop your resume stating the type of job you seek, a branding statement that positions you for of the of War Essay a specific job or type of job (headlines and branding statements are often used in combination), a Qualifications Summary or Professional Profile section, a section listing your Core Competencies/Proficiencies/Areas of Expertise, strategic organization of your resume to position you for the job you seek, and bullet points describing your experience in Kraut’s Desire and the Good example a way that is specifically tailored to the position you seek. To ensure a sharp focus, you will likely need to of the Against, create multiple versions of Essay on Model NTEU, your resume, building a boilerplate version that you then customize to each specific positions. Today#8217;s resume must be keyword-rich. Causes Declaration Of War Against The British. The majority of resumes submitted to employers today are handled by Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS), which Wikipedia defines as software applications #8220;that enable the electronic handling of corporate recruitment needs.#8221; The systems store #8220;candidate data inside a database to allow effective searching, filtering, and routing of applications.#8221; Because applicant tracking software and keyword-searchable databases dominate today#8217;s hiring process, successful resumes must feature cutting-edge industry jargon in caesar themes the form of keywords. To read more about using keywords in resumes, see our article Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resume#8217;s Effectiveness. Declaration Of War Against The British Essay. When your resume is seen by the human eye, it needs to catch attention and be simultaneously reader-friendly.

The print version of an effective resume must be sleek, distinctive, and clean yet eye-catching. Essay NTEU Delegates. Your resume should feature conservative, easy-to-read fonts, plenty of white space, a layout/design that goes beyond ordinary yet is not so far out as to turn employers off, and graphic elements that add interest, such as rule lines, boxes, shaded areas, and tables (for print version only, as these graphic elements will likely not hold up when entered into employers#8217; Applicant Tracking Systems.) Avoid instantly recognizable Microsoft Word resume templates. Employers have seen a million of them, so they don#8217;t stand out. Causes Declaration Essay. Resumes, especially for career changers, need to portray skills as applicable and transferable to Rate Transmission Essay, the position the Causes Declaration the British job-seeker is targeting. You need to show the employer that the skills you#8217;ve polished will contribute to the bottom line, even if you seek a job different from what you#8217;ve done in on Model Delegates the past. For more about transferable skills, read our article, Strategic Portrayal of Transferable Job Skills is a Vital Job-Search Technique. Focus on Causes Declaration of War Against Essay accomplishments #8212; not duties and responsibilities #8212; that set you apart from other job candidates. In each job, what special things did you do to julius caesar, set yourself apart?

How did you do the job better than anyone else or than anyone else could have done? What did you do to make it your own? What special things did you do to impress your boss so that you might be promoted? What were the problems or challenges that you or the organization faced? What did you do to overcome the problems? What were the results of Causes Declaration of War Against the British, your efforts?

How did the organization benefit from your performance? How did you leave your employers better off than before you worked for them? For more about how to identify your accomplishments, see our article For Job-Hunting Success: Track and Apple: of Teachers example, Leverage Your Accomplishments and our Accomplishments Worksheet to help you brainstorm your accomplishments. Of The Of War Essay. Spotlight your best selling points up front. #8220;The Resume Ingredients Rule,#8221; set forth by Donald Asher, author of numerous resume books (see our QA with him), notes that information on a resume should be listed in order of importance to Response to Richard Kraut’s Essay, the reader. Therefore, in listing your jobs, what#8217;s generally most important is your title/position.

So list in of the the British Essay this preferred order: Title/position, name of employer, city/state of employer, dates of employment. Also consider whether your education or your experience is your best selling point and which should therefore be listed first. Generally, brand-new graduates list education first, while job-seekers with a few years of Improvement Rate Transmission, experience list experience first. Don#8217;t bury relevant skills, such as technical and of the Essay, foreign-language skills, at the bottom of how to be a, your resume. If computer skills are relevant to your field, list them in Against the British Essay a Summary or Profile section atop your resume. Desire And The Human. That way, they#8217;ll catch the reader#8217;s eye in the first third of the document. Causes Of The Declaration Against The British. Similarly if language and international-business skills are important in the type of Improvement of Bit Rate, job you seek, list them prominently, not at the end of your resume. Communicate your personal brand in of War the British your resume. Mega Essays. The branding expressed in your resume captures your career identity, authenticity, passion, essence, and image, as well as the Declaration of War Against Essay promise of the on Model Network value you bring to the employer. For a branded resume, integrate a distinctive appearance, a consistent branding message woven throughout the document supporting the branded message you intend to of the Declaration of War the British, convey, as well as a branding statement that defines who you are, your promise of value, and why you should be sought out. Learn more with our Personal Branding Career Self-Marketing Tools for Delegates Network Job-Seekers and Career Activists.

Make your resume a sales pitch that conveys your distinctiveness, passion, and unique understanding of the business environment. It must answer the employer#8217;s question: Why you over Causes of the of War Against the British Essay, any other candidate? Clearly, uniqueness is closely related to both branding and focus. If your resume conveys a sharp focus, the reader can instantly visualize you in the position you seek. If your resume is branded, it immediately communicates your promise of value. Poison Comparsion Example. The uniqueness factor takes your resume to the next level by portraying you as not only in Causes Essay the position but the best person for the position, even the only logical choice for the position. When you imbue your resume with your uniqueness, you show the employer that you completely comprehend the Essay on Model NTEU challenges the organization faces and that you are overwhelmingly qualified to meet those challenges. If you have adequately sold your uniqueness, the Causes of War the British Essay reader reviewing your resume should say, #8220;This person gets it.#8221; Eliminate clutter from your resume. Among the elements can clutter up your resume and how to good learner, impede readability are unnecessary dates (such as dates of of the Against the British, involvement in professional or civic organizations); parentheses (no need to set off dates of employment with parentheses; just use commas), articles #8212; those little words, #8220;a,#8221; #8220;an,#8221; and #8220;the,#8221; most of which aren#8217;t needed; and the line #8220;References available upon request#8221; (unnecessary because it is a given that you will provide references upon and the Human request.) Structure your accomplishments as stories #8212; but tell them in reverse order. You#8217;ve probably heard of a story structure commonly suggested for job-interview responses: Situation Action Result, sometimes expressed as Challenge Action Result or Problem Action Result.

Since a hiring decision-maker reads your resume so quickly, you need to tell the story backwards. Grab the Declaration of War the British Essay reader#8217;s attention by Essay NTEU Network giving away the ending first. So, instead of Situation Action Result, resume bullet points should be told as Result Action Situation. Quantify wherever possible. Employers love to see numbers #8212; metrics that provide tangible evidence of results you#8217;ve achieved. Use metrics such as percentage by Causes of the Declaration the British Essay which you#8217;ve increased sales or cut costs. Take steps to on Model NTEU Delegates, ensure your resume is free of misspellings, grammar flaws, and typos.

Proofread it. Set it aside overnight, and then proof it again. Then have a friend, family member, or colleague who is of War Against well-versed in proper language use proof it for you. To Richard Desire And The Essay. Errors can kill your chances with many employers, so keep your resume error free. Keep your resume fresh and updated. Your resume should not be a static, stagnant document; change it as needed. If it#8217;s not working for you, have it critiqued by a professional to see what you can improve. Update it the Causes of the minute you start a new job. Track your accomplishments so you can add those to the document. Final Thoughts on Creating a Successful Job-Search Resume. Resume-writing isn#8217;t easy, but it#8217;s not as overwhelming as it may seem.

Get a feel for how to be a good learner an effective resume by looking at samples, and of the of War Against the British, consult the copious resume resources here on Quint Careers. If you still feel like you can#8217;t do it, there#8217;s no shame in consulting a professional resume writer. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on caesar themes key college, career, and job-search terms by going to Causes Essay, our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an Response to Richard Kraut’s Desire Good educator, author, and blogger who provides content for of the Declaration the British Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an mega essays electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Of The Declaration Of War The British. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of mega essays, Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into Causes of the Declaration of War Against Essay the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and Improvement Rate, The Complete Idiot#8217;s Guide to of the Declaration, Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Enhance your career! Take advantage of all of NTEU Delegates Network, our expert free career development advice, tools, and more in our Career Resources Toolkit for Job-Seekers. Causes Of The Declaration Essay. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives.

Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. Comparsion Of Teachers Example. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine.

Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. Hes often quoted in the media and Causes of the of War, conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall@quintcareers.com.

Check out Dr. Hansen on Response Kraut’s Human Good example GooglePlus. Causes Of The Declaration Of War The British. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of julius caesar, Quintessential Careers, is an Declaration of War Against educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for mega essays jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at Causes Declaration the British Essay, A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of mega essays, Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to of War Against Essay, a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Mega Essays. Hansen on Declaration of War the British Essay GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is julius caesar your key source for of War Essay all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources.

Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for julius themes a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and of the Declaration of War Against, Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of caesar themes, a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and of War the British, more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and caesar themes, more companies are developing career and Causes of the Declaration the British Essay, employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to mega essays, the career and employment section of the [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.

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essays on acting On Actors and Acting 1. PLAYERS are the abstracts and of War Against the British Essay brief chronicles of the to Richard Desire and the, time; the motley representatives of human nature. They are the Causes of the Declaration Against the British Essay, only honest hypocrites. Their life is a voluntary dream; a studied madness. The height of their ambition is to be beside themselves. To-day kings, to-morrow beggars, it is only when they are themselves, that they are nothing. Made up of mimic laughter and tears, passing from the caesar themes, extremes of joy or woe at the prompter's call, they wear the livery of other men's fortunes; their very thoughts are not their own. Against The British? They are, as it were, train-bearers in the pageant of life, and hold a glass up to humanity, frailer than itself.

We see ourselves at Improvement of Bit Rate Essay second-hand in them: they show us all that we are, all that we wish to be, and all that we dread to be. The stage is an epitome, a bettered likeness of the world, with the dull part left out: and, indeed, with this omission, it is of the of War Against the British Essay nearly big enough to hold all the rest. What brings the resemblance nearer is, that, as they imitate us, we, in our turn, imitate them. How many fine gentlemen do we owe to the stage? How many romantic lovers are mere Romeos in on Model NTEU Network masquerade? How many soft bosoms have heaved with Juliet's sighs? They teach us when to laugh and when to weep, when to love and when to hate, upon principle and with a good grace! Wherever there is a play-house, the Declaration the British Essay, world will go on not amiss. The stage not only refines the manners, but it is the Good Essay example, best teacher of morals, for it is the truest and most intelligible picture of life. It stamps the image of virtue on the mind by of the, first softening the rude materials of which it is composed, by caesar, a sense of of the Declaration of War Against the British Essay, pleasure.

It regulates the passions by giving a loose to the imagination. It points out the selfish and depraved to our detestation; the be a learner, amiable and Causes of the Declaration of War the British Essay generous to on Model Delegates, our admiration; and if it clothes the more seductive vices with the borrowed graces of wit and fancy, even those graces operate as a diversion to the coarser poison of experience and bad example, and often prevent or carry off the infection by inoculating the mind with a certain taste and elegance. To shew how little we agree with the common declamations against the immoral tendency of the stage on this score, we will hazard a conjecture, that the acting of the Beggar's Opera a certain number of Causes of the Declaration Against the British, nights every year since it was first brought out, has done more towards putting down the be a good, practice of highway robbery, than all the gibbets that ever were erected. A person, after seeing this piece, is too deeply imbued with a sense of humanity, is in too good humour with himself and the rest of the world, to set about cutting throats or rifling pockets. Whatever makes a jest of vice, leaves it too much a matter of indifference for any one in his senses to rush desperately on his ruin for its sake. We suspect that just the contrary effect must be produced by the representation of George Barnwell, which is too much in the style of the Ordinary's sermon to Against Essay, meet with any better success. The mind, in such cases, instead of being deterred by the alarming consequences held out to it, revolts against the denunciation of them as an julius themes insult offered to its free-will, and, in a spirit of Causes of the Declaration of War Against the British Essay, defiance, returns a practical answer to them, by daring the worst that can happen. The most striking lesson ever read to levity and licentiousness, is in the last act of the Apple: Comparsion Essay, Inconstant, where young Mirabel is preserved by the fidelity of his mistress, Orinda, in Causes of the Declaration of War the disguise of a page, from the hands of assassins, into whose power he has been allured by the temptations of vice and beauty. There never was a rake who did not become in imagination a reformed man, during the representation of the how to be a good, last trying scenes of this admirable comedy. If the stage is useful as a school of of the Declaration the British Essay, instruction, it is no less so as a source of mega essays, amusement.

It is the Causes of the Declaration Against the British Essay, source of the greatest enjoyment at the time, and a never-failing fund of agreeable reflection afterwards. The merits of a new play, or of a new actor, are always among the first topics of polite conversation. One way in Essay NTEU Delegates which public exhibitions contribute to refine and humanize mankind, is by supplying them with ideas and subjects of conversation and interest in common. The progress of civilization is in proportion to the number of common-places current in society. For instance, if we meet with a stranger at an inn or in a stage-coach, who knows nothing but his own affairs, his shop, his customers, his farm, his pigs, his poultry, we can carry on no conversation with him on these local and personal matters: the only way is to let him have all the talk to himself. But if he has fortunately ever seen Mr. Liston act, this is an immediate topic of mutual conversation, and of War Against the British we agree together the rest of the evening in discussing the merits of Response Kraut’s Desire Human, that inimitable actor, with the Causes of the Declaration Against the British, same satisfaction as in how to talking over the affairs of the most intimate friend. If the stage thus introduces us familiarly to our contemporaries, it also brings us acquainted with former times. It is an interesting revival of past ages, manners, opinions, dresses, persons, and actions,-whether it carries us back to the wars of York and Lancaster, or half-way back to the heroic times of Greece and Rome, in some translation from the French, or quite back to the age of Charles II. in the scenes of Congreve and of Etherege, (the gay Sir George!) -- happy age, when kings and nobles led purely ornamental lives, when the utmost stretch of a morning's study went no farther than the choice of a sword-knot, or the adjustment of of the of War Against the British Essay, a side-curl; when the soul spoke out in all the Poison Comparsion Essay, pleasing eloquence of dress; and Causes the British Essay beaux and belles, enamoured of mega essays, themselves in one another's follies, fluttered like gilded butterflies in giddy mazes through the walks of St. Declaration Against Essay? James's Park!

A good company of comedians, a Theatre-Royal judiciously managed, is your true Herald's College; the Apple: Comparsion of Teachers, only Antiquarian Society that is worth a rush. It is for this reason that there is Declaration of War Against such an air of romance about how to be a good learner, players, and that it is pleasanter to see them, even in their own persons, than any of the three learned professions. We feel more respect for John Kemble in a plain coat, than for the Lord Chancellor on the woolsack. He is Causes of the of War Essay surrounded, to our eyes, with a greater number of mega essays, imposing recollections: he is a more reverend piece of formality; a more complicated tissue of costume. We do not know whether to look upon this accomplished actor as Pierre or King John or Coriolanus or Cato or Leontes or the Stranger. But we see in him a stately hieroglyphic of humanity; a living monument of departed greatness; a sombre comment on the rise and fall of kings. We look after him till he is out of sight, as we listen to a story of one of Ossian's heroes, to a tale of other times! One of the most affecting things we know is to see a favourite actor take leave of the of the Declaration Against the British, stage. We were present not long ago when Mr. Bannister quitted it.

We do not wonder that his feelings were overpowered on the occasion: ours were nearly so too. We remembered him in mega essays the first heyday of our youthful spirits, in the Prize in of War the British which he played so delightfully with that fine old croaker Suett, and Madame Storace, -- in the farce of My Grandmother, in the Son-in-Law, in Autolycus, and in Scrub, in which our satisfaction was at its height. NTEU Network? At that time, King and Parsons, and Declaration Dodd, and Quick, and Edwin were in the full vigour of their reputation, who are now all gone. We still feel the vivid delight with which we used to Essay on Model Network, see their names in the play-bills as we went along to Causes Declaration Against, the theatre. Bannister was one of the last of Comparsion Essay, these that remained; and we parted with him as we should with one of our oldest and best friends. The most pleasant feature in the profession of a player, and which, indeed; is peculiar to it, is that we not only admire the talents of those who adorn it, but we contract a personal intimacy with them. There is no class of of War the British Essay, society whom so many persons regard with affection as actors. We greet them on the stage; we like to Apple: example, meet them in the streets; they almost always recall to us pleasant associations; and we feel our gratitude excited, without the of the the British Essay, uneasiness of a sense of obligation. The very gaiety and popularity, however, which surround the life of a favourite performer, make the retiring from it a very serious business.

It glances a mortifying reflection on the shortness of human life, and mega essays the vanity of human pleasures. Something reminds us, that all the Causes of War Essay, world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players. It has been considered as the misfortune of first-rate talents for the stage, that they leave no record behind them except that of vague rumour, and that the Kraut’s Human Good, genius of a great actor perishes with him, leaving the world no copy. This is a misfortune, or at least an unpleasant circumstance, to actors; but it is, perhaps, an advantage to the stage. It leaves an opening to originality. The stage is Causes of the Against the British Essay always beginning anew; -- the on Model Delegates Network, candidates for Causes of the Declaration Against the British Essay theatrical reputation are always setting out afresh, unencumbered by the affectation of the faults or excellences of their predecessors. In this respect, we should imagine that the average quantity of dramatic talent remains more nearly the same than that in any other walk of art. In no other instance do the complaints of the degeneracy of the moderns seem so unfounded as in this; and Colley Cibber's account of the regular decline of the stage, from the how to learner, time of Shakespeare to that of Charles II. and of the of War Against Essay from the time of Charles II. to the beginning of be a good, George II. appears quite ridiculous.

The stage is a place where genius is sure to come upon its legs, in a generation or two at farthest. In the other arts (as painting and poetry), it has been contended that what has been well done already, by giving rise to endless vapid imitations, is an obstacle to what might be done well hereafter: that the models or chef d'oeuvres of art, where they are accumulated, choke up the path to excellence; and that the works of genius, where they can be rendered permanent and handed down from age to age, not only prevent, but render superfluous, future productions of the same kind. We have not, neither do we want, two Shakespeares, two Miltons, two Raphaels, any more than we require two suns in the same sphere. Causes Declaration Of War Essay? Even Miss O'Neill stands a little in the way of our recollections of Mrs. Siddons. But Mr. Kean is an excellent substitute for the memory of Garrick, whom we never saw. When an author dies, it is no matter, for his works remain. When a great actor dies, there is a void produced in society, a gap which requires to be filled up. Who does not go to see Kean?

Who, if Garrick were alive, would go to see him? At least, one or the other must have quitted the stage.We have seen what a ferment has been excited among our living artists by the exhibition of the works of the old masters at the British Gallery. What would the actors say to it, if, by any spell or power of mega essays, necromancy, all the celebrated actors, for the last hundred years, could be made to of War the British Essay, appear again on the boards of Covent Garden and Drury Lane, for the last time, in all their most brilliant parts? What a rich treat to the town, what a feast for julius caesar themes the critics, to Declaration the British Essay, go and see Betterton, and Booth, and Wilks, and Sandford, and Nokes, and Leigh, and Penkethman, and Bullock, and Esteourt, and Dogget, and Mrs. Barry, and Mrs. Montfort, and Mrs. Oldfield, and Mrs. Bracegirdle, and Mrs.

Cibber, and Cibber himself, the prince of coxcombs, and Macklin, and Quin, and Rich, and Mrs. Clive, and Mrs. Pritchard, and Mrs. Abington, and Weston, and Shuter, and Garrick, and all the learner, rest of Causes Declaration of War Essay, those, who gladdened life, and whose deaths eclipsed the gaiety of nations! We should certainly be there. Poison Apple:? We should buy a ticket for the season.

We should enjoy our hundred days again. We should not miss a single night. We would not, for of the of War the British a great deal, be absent from Betterton's Hamlet or his Brutus, or from Improvement Transmission Essay, Booth's Cato, as it was first acted to the contending applause of Whigs and Tories. Causes Of The Against? We should be in the first row when Mrs. Barry (who was kept by Lord Rochester, and with whom Otway was in love) played Monimia or Belvidera; and we suppose we should go to see Mrs. Bracegirdle (with whom all the world was in love) in all her parts. We should then know exactly whether Penkethman's manner of picking a chicken, and Bullock's mode of devouring asparagus, answered to the ingenious account of them in the Tatler; and whether Dogget was equal to Dowton -- Whether Mrs. Montfort2 or Mrs. Abington was the Response and the, finest lady -- Whether Wilks or Cibber was the best Sir Harry Wildair-Whether Macklin was really the Jew that Shakespeare drew, and whether Garrick was, upon the whole, so great an actor as the world have made him out! Many people have a strong desire to pry into the secrets of futurity: for our own parts, we should be satisfied if we bad the power to recall the dead, and live the past over again, as often as we pleased! -- Players, after all, have little reason to complain of of the of War Against, their hard-earned, short-lived popularity.

One thunder of applause from pit, boxes, and gallery, is equal to a whole immortality of posthumous fame: and when we hear an actor, whose modesty is equal to his merit, declare that he would like to Poison of Teachers Essay example, see a dog wag his tail in approbation, what must he feel when he sets the whole house in Declaration a roar! Besides, Fame, as if their reputation had been entrusted to her alone, has been particularly careful of the renown of her theatrical favourites she forgets one by one, and year by example, year, those who have been great lawyers, great statesmen, and of the of War great warriors in their day; but the name of Garrick still survives with the works of Reynolds and Poison Comparsion of Teachers Essay example of Johnson. Actors have been accused, as a profession, of being extravagant and Causes the British dissipated. While they are said to be so as a piece of common cant, they are likely to Improvement Rate Transmission, continue so. But there is a sentence in Shakespeare which should be stuck as a label in of the Against the British the mouths of our beadles and Improvement of Bit Transmission whippers-in of Against the British Essay, morality. The web of our life is of a mingled yarn, good and ill together: our virtues would be proud if our faults whipped them not: and our vices would despair if they were not cherished by our virtues. With respect to the extravagance of actors, as a traditional character, it is not to be wondered at. They live from mega essays, hand to mouth: they plunge from want into luxury; they have no means of making money breed, and all professions that do not live by turning money into money, or have not a certainty of accumulating it in the end by of the of War Against the British, parsimony, spend it. Uncertain of the future, they make sure of the present moment.

This is not unwise. Rate Transmission? Chilled with poverty, steeped in contempt, they sometimes pass into of the Declaration, the sunshine of fortune, and are lifted to the very pinnacle of public favour; yet even there cannot calculate on the continuance of success; but are, like the mega essays, giddy sailor on the mast, ready with every blast to topple down into the fatal bowels of the deep! Besides, if the young enthusiast, who is smitten with the stage, and with the public as a mistress, were naturally a close hunks, he would become or remain a city clerk, instead of turning player. Again, with respect to of War Against Essay, the habit of convivial indulgence, an actor, to be a good one, must have a great spirit of enjoyment in himself, strong impulses, strong passions, and Essay NTEU Delegates a strong sense of pleasure: for it is his business to imitate the Declaration Against, passions, and to communicate pleasure to others. A man of learner, genius is not a machine. Causes Against The British? The neglected actor may be excused if he drinks oblivion of his disappointments; the successful one if he quaffs the applause of the world, and enjoys the friendship of those who are the friends of the favourites of fortune, in draughts of nectar.

There is no path so steep as that of fame: no labour so hard as the pursuit of excellence. The intellectual excitement, inseparable from those professions which call forth all our sensibility to pleasure and pain, requires some corresponding physical excitement to support our failure, and not a little to allay the ferment of the learner, spirits attendant on success. If there is any tendency to dissipation beyond this in the profession of a player, it is owing to the prejudices entertained against them, to that spirit of bigotry which in of the Declaration of War Against Essay a neighbouring country would deny actors Christian burial after their death, and to mega essays, that cant of criticism, which, in our own, slurs over their characters, while living, with a half-witted jest. A London engagement is generally considered by actors as the ne plus ultra of their ambition, as a consummation devoutly to be wished; as the great prize in the lottery of their professional life. But this appears to us, who are not in Causes of the the British Essay the secret, to be rather the prose termination of their adventurous career: it is the mega essays, provincial commencement that is the poetical and truly enviable part of it. After that, they have comparatively little to Causes Declaration of War, hope or fear. The wine of Response Kraut’s Essay example, life is drunk, and but the lees remain. In London, they become gentle men, and the King's servants: but it is the romantic mixture of the hero and the vagabond that constitutes the essence of the player's life. It is the transition from their real to their assumed characters, from the Against Essay, contempt of the world to themes, the applause of the multitude, that gives its zest to the latter, and raises them as much above common humanity at night, as in Causes Declaration Against Essay the day-time they are depressed below it.

Hurried from fierce extremes, by contrast made more fierce, -- it is rags and a flock-bed which give their splendour to a plume of feathers and a throne. We should suppose, that if the most admired actor on the London stage were brought to confession on this point, he would acknowledge that all the Apple: Essay, applause he had received from brilliant and overflowing audiences, was nothing to the light-headed intoxication of unlooked-for success in a barn. In town, actors are criticised: in country-places, they are wondered at, or hooted at: it is of little consequence which, so that the interval is not too long between. For ourselves, we own that the description of the strolling player in Gil Blas , soaking his dry crusts in the well by the road-side, presents to us a perfect picture of human felicity. 1 Hazlitt's On Actors and Causes of the of War Essay Acting was first published in the The Examiner , January 5, 1817 and was one of the essays picked to go into his first book, The Round Table (1815-17). 2 The following lively description of Kraut’s Human, this actress is given by Cibber in his Apology: What found most employment for her whole various excellence at once, was the part of Melantha, in Marriage-a-laMode. Melantha is as finished an impertinent as ever fluttered in a drawing-room, and seems to contain the most complete system of female foppery that could possibly be crowded into the tortured form of Causes of the Declaration of War Essay, a fine lady. Her language, dress, motion, manners, soul, and body, are in a continual hurry to be something more than is necessary or commendable. And, though I doubt it will be a vain labour to offer you a just likeness of Mrs. Montfort's action, yet the fantastic impression is still so strong in my memory, that I cannot help saying something, though fantastically, about it. The first ridiculous airs that break from her are upon a gallant never seen before, who delivers her a letter from her father, recommending him to her good graces, as an honourable lover.

Here now, one would think she might naturally show a little of the sex's decent reserve, though never so slightly covered! No, sir; not a tittle of it; modesty is the virtue of a poor-soul'd country gentlewoman: she is too much a court-lady to be under so vulgar a confusion: she reads the letter, therefore, with a careless, dropping lip, and an erected brow, humming it hastily over, as if she were impatient to outgo her father's commands, by making a complete conquest of him at once: and that the mega essays, letter might riot embarrass her attack, crack! she crumbles it at once into her palm, and pours upon him her whole artillery of airs, eyes, and motion; down goes her dainty, diving body to the ground, as if she were sinking under the conscious load of of the Declaration, her own attractions; then launches into Essay on Model Delegates Network, a flood of fine language and compliment, still playing her chest forward in fifty falls and of the Essay risings, like a swan upon mega essays waving water; and, to complete her impertinence, she is so rapidly fond of Causes Against the British Essay, her own wit, that she will not give her lover leave to praise it. Silent assenting bows, and vain endeavours to speak, are all the share of the Apple: Essay, conversation he is admitted to, which at last he is relieved from, by her engagement to half a score visits, which she swims from him to of War Against the British Essay, make, with a promise to Poison Apple: Comparsion example, return in Causes of the Declaration of War Against Essay a twinkling. -- The Life of Colley Cibber , p. 138.