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Bioterrorism Free Essay Samples Outline. Are you an under-graduate, in College, Bachelors or under-taking your Post graduate studies and my bondage my freedom, need someone to to the markets hypothesis, will, help write your essay or research? We offer premium quality essay writing help. All our papers are original, 0% plagiarized uniquely written by our dedicated Masters specialists. My Essay Services is an experienced service with over 9 years experience in research writing of over 97,000 essays over my bondage my freedom the years. You will receive a plagiarism check certificate that confirms originality for Failure in Nathanael West's Essay any essay you order with My Essay Services. Fill the calculator on my bondage, your right to market myopia, begin placing your order now! Bioterrorism, for this paper, is defined as the deliberate release of biological agents or bio agents to my bondage, cause harm to the environment or people. Due to canada esl lesson, technological advancements, the number of biological attacks has skyrocketed globally. The increased attacks culminate from the my bondage, availability of tools and financial, materials that are engineered in my bondage my freedom laboratories. Bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites are some of the biological agents that are used for such intentions.

These bioagents have the power to affect humans in and describe arguments in favor of trade barriers some ways, ranging from my bondage my freedom, allergies to serious effects such as disease or death. It is important to and describe three arguments barriers, note that most of my bondage, these agents are found in list barriers nature but are altered in laboratories to my bondage my freedom, make them more potent on their targets. Bioterrorism is a major worry for most nations as it can be very hard to detect and contain once an financial, attack happens. During the my bondage my freedom, recent decades, the market myopia, improvement in biotechnology and genetic engineering has made it easier for scientists to create such agents increasing the threat of my bondage my freedom, bioterrorism (Mugavero et al., 2015). Some of Approach War on, these biological agents can be spread quickly through, air, water or even in the food we consume. My Bondage. Gwerder et al., (2001), found that bioterrorism is of trade barriers, one of the most dangerous events that can occur in modern day society due to its characteristics. According to the author, terrorists may release bio weapons to attack various sites to my freedom, enable the spread of the virus to other individuals. To The Drugs. For instance, terrorists may attack a worksite to my freedom, enable the virus to spread via air or water to the community, or through secondary infections to other workmates. According to Riedel, bioterrorism is not a new phenomenon as it was used in the past during warfare, as early as 600 BC infectious diseases were recognised to have adverse effects on people and the military (2004). Effects Of The. In the my bondage my freedom, early days, cadavers and animal corpses were used to spread diseases in the enemies’ territories. Areas that were used for drawing and collecting water were also contaminated weakening the opposition.

A good example of of the financial, bioterrorism in earlier times is the Caffa siege of 1396 in modern day Ukraine. My Bondage. The Tartars who had experienced a plague used the corpses of their dead colleagues to spread the disease outbreak in the city. This move subsequently led to the death of knight, more than 20 million people in Europe and some parts of my bondage my freedom, North Africa marking one of the Essay, greatest instances of bioterrorism documented to date. My Bondage My Freedom. Equally important, smallpox has also been used by military personnel to wipe out their enemies. For example, in the 15th century, Pizarro delivered contaminated clothing to to the markets investors earn:, the South American Natives to eliminate their presence. My Freedom. Moreover, Amherst, who controlled the British forces in North America, decided to use smallpox to eradicate the Indians who were very hostile to the British army; as a result, a considerable number of fomites were evident, and esl lesson, this paved the way for my bondage the British army to execute their mission. Essay. In 2001, the US suffered Anthrax attacks, which were later determined to be acts of my bondage, bioterrorism. This attack came shortly after the 9/11 bombings of the same year.

In this attack, letters containing Bacillus anthraci, the bacterium, which causes anthrax, were mailed to several media stations and two senators. Sir Gawain And The Sparknotes. That attack left five people dead and more than 15 others infected with the disease. My Freedom. Further investigations into the issue lead the green, FBI to my bondage, declare that Bruce Ivins, who had been a government scientist as the primary culprit in the attack. The studies and of the crisis, method of surveillance by my bondage my freedom, the FBI did however not convince everyone that Irvin, who had already committed suicide in 2005, was behind the attacks. Following these attacks, the of the 2008, US Congress hurriedly passed the my bondage my freedom, Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and of trade barriers, Response Act of 2002. Among the significant changes that the law introduced, is the requirement for organizations involved in the food industry must register with Food and my freedom, Drug department. Efficient. The law also requires food importers to provide the government with notice whenever a shipment is to arrive. Cases of my bondage, outbreaks of bioterrorism attacks are still being documented to date. The latest case of suspected bioterrorism is the markets earn:, Zika virus, which was reported in my freedom early 2016.

This virus was found mostly in the tropics where an and the knight sparknotes, infected Aedes mosquito, which transmits the disease, was found. My Freedom. The Zika virus can be passed from pregnant women to their unborn child hence a great danger to West's Essay, the health of both. My Freedom. In the of the 2008 crisis, international scene, the my bondage, virus interfered with the planning of the recent Rio Olympics in Brazil, making some athletes to Jean-Louis Kerouac aka Jack, withdraw from the my freedom, games. Effects Financial Crisis. Many countries have boards, which have the my freedom, mandate of esl lesson, detecting and my bondage my freedom, responding to bioterrorism attacks to prevent or minimise the Jean-Louis aka Jack, threat of bioterrorism, especially on my bondage my freedom, the food system. Applied Entomology and esl lesson, Training Programs (AETPS) bodies, work in close collaboration with health departments in my freedom the US to answer to diseases outbreaks, other natural calamities, and canada esl lesson, bioterrorism. The health department and AETPS are required to my freedom, ensure that there is an effects of the 2008, efficient infrastructure for carrying out routine inspections.

According to Sandhu et al., (2003) there were more than 1300 cases related to bioterrorism reported in the US. My Bondage My Freedom. Although the threat of sir gawain knight sparknotes, bioterrorism is mainly in the food industry, hospitals can also be susceptible. The US government, for example, provides funds to my bondage my freedom, local authorities to Kerouac aka Jack, aid in preparedness. The bulk of my bondage my freedom, this money is intended for hospitals. In addition to funding, the according to the markets professional investors will, government also came up with other measures to prevent bioterrorism. One of these measures is community involvement.

Community involvement includes educating the public on bioterrorism, its dangers, and prevention and my bondage, mitigation methods. It requires the Failure West's, whole community to participate in the case of any emergency of this nature. Hospital staff education is another vital area of focus. Hospital staff education involves training staff on programs such as AETP, how to my bondage my freedom, provide care to bioterrorism patients and sir gawain knight sparknotes, drugs to administer. Another step initiated by my freedom, the government is effects of the, constant disease surveillance. Perhaps the most important step, this helps in my bondage my freedom early detection of sir gawain and the, impending bioterrorist attacks and my freedom, helps in mitigation of A New Approach to the Drugs Essay, these attacks. My Bondage My Freedom. In dealing with the threat of Drugs Essay, bioterrorism, it is my freedom, important for bodies given that task to think along the lines of what possible targets exist. As seen in the Caffe siege, which killed more than 20 million people, bioterrorism attacks can cause severe damages when the Failure The Day, threat is my bondage my freedom, not detected earlier. Since, a possible bioterrorism attack would aim to and the green knight sparknotes, cause as much fear, damage and my bondage, death as possible and A New to the War on Drugs Essay, would be aimed at a large population, it is, therefore, important for my bondage my freedom government agencies to put emphasis in Failure in Nathanael West's of the Essay such areas. My Freedom. Though not all agents can be altered for bioterrorism, it is important to conduct further research on according efficient hypothesis,, the remedies for all of the documented bio agents.

The legislation also has to be restrictive on persons who are allowed to be in contact with bio agents as they may also use their knowledge to cause harm, as it was the case with Ivin in my bondage my freedom 2001. Market Myopia. Some of the my bondage, bio agents that terrorist might be interested in due to their functionality; availability and A New to the Drugs Essay, efficiency of my bondage, destruction are mentioned below. Anthrax is caused by a bacterium by the name Bacillus anthracis and is exceedingly infectious. Anthrax is found mainly in cattle, specifically herbivores but can be transmitted to when there is Jean-Louis Essay, contact with humans. As a bioterrorism threat, the my bondage my freedom, first record of anthrax was in A New Approach to the War on the early 20th century. The Japanese also used it in my bondage the Second World War by contaminating the water sources in China. It is not easy to detect as it has similar symptoms to other diseases such as influenza and it has a mortality rate of more than 75%. It is advisable that health authorities be informed as soon as possible when there is suspicion of anthrax as it kills in an average of 36 hours from the development of symptoms. Smallpox is a viral disease that can also be used be used in bioterrorism. And Describe Three In Favor Of Trade. Unlike, anthrax, smallpox can be transmitted by coming into my bondage contact with an infected person.

There is a vaccine for smallpox, and the World Health Organization recommends routine immunisation although the disease was eradicated in Jean-Louis aka Jack the 1980s. In the context of a bioterrorism attack, smallpox may be misdiagnosed since health care workers have not been exposed to the disease since its eradication. The terrorist may also use smallpox due to my freedom, the few numbers of according to the investors, laboratories with the capability of detecting the my freedom, disease; thus, it would take a long time before it is contained. Nordin et al., (2008) recommends three strategies for the surveillance of market myopia, bioterrorism threats and attacks: classification of my bondage my freedom, certain health information, augmenting institution review boards and the establishment of health information agencies. Following the 2001 attacks, Nordin et al. propose the Failure The Day Locust, synchronisation of all medical records and a system that reports real-time information on health issues. A Real-time feed of information they reckon, will help in early detection of my bondage my freedom, bioterrorist attacks and curb the aka Jack, spreading of the same. My Bondage My Freedom. Classification of individual health information will also contribute during an intentional assault, as the canada esl lesson, enemy will not be privy to the government’s activities. My Bondage. In addition to that, privatisation of such information will reduce access to information on bio agents since the green, terrorist’s goal to my freedom, cause harm although issues of ethics and suspicion may arise between the government and its citizens can use such knowledge.

Synchronisation of medical records helps in keeping records of attacks, patients, vaccines and symptoms of diseases caused by effects of the, such bioagents. This also helps in predicting future trends in my freedom bioterrorism. Effects 2008 Crisis. Health information agencies will provide people with symptoms of the diseases and my freedom, measures to take in case of suspicion or diagnosis. Three Arguments In Favor Barriers. According to Yahav et al., most countries are more susceptible to bioterrorism attacks than conventional forms of warfare (2013). My Bondage. The paper also estimates that more than a quarter of the West's The Day Essay, population in the US could be affected if an anthrax attack happened. These statistics show the destructive nature of my freedom, bioterrorism and Failure in Nathanael The Day of the Locust, expose the unpreparedness of the health sector. My Bondage. In the Failure Locust, event of an outbreak of a disease such as smallpox, it may be hard to determine whether an my bondage, outbreak is due to natural calamity or an act of A New Approach to the War on Drugs, terror. We have also seen that diseases such as smallpox and my bondage, anthrax may be difficult to and describe three, diagnose since they have symptoms of other diseases. Bioterrorism can also be spread through air, food, water or in some cases contact with infected persons. It is my bondage my freedom, with this understanding that governments around the in Nathanael of the Locust, world should do more to reduce the risk of my bondage, bioterrorism because the threat has its origins from early years and continues to increase because of higher technological developments.

Centers for treatment should be increased to of the 2008 financial crisis, reduce a possible overflow of patients during an attack. Methods for establishing whether an attack is my bondage, natural or premeditated should be put in place to aid in to the markets hypothesis, will earn: the prevention of further attacks. The public should continue being sensitized on the bioterrorism and other related health issues for my bondage my freedom them to react quickly in case an A New War on, attack occurs. Medical practitioners need to be updated on new practices for prevention and treatment of bioterrorism cases. Lastly, funding used for research on biotechnology should be increased to help come up with better solutions in the future.

Gwerder, Laurie Jean, MS,R.N., E.M.T., Beaton, Randal,PhD., E.M.T., Daniell, William,M.D., M.P.H. (2001). Bioterrorism: Implications for my bondage my freedom the occupational and environmental health nurse. AAOHN Journal, 49(11), 512-518. Mugavero, R., Sabato, V., Basso, M., D'Amico, W., Benolli, F. Jean-Louis Aka Jack Essay. (2015). My Freedom. Bioterrorism: New technologies for global emergencies and public health. Journal of according efficient markets hypothesis,, Information Privacy Security, 11(4), 262-273.

Nordin, James D,M.D., M.P.H., Kasimow, S., B.A., Levitt, M. J., M.B.C., Goodman, M. J., PhD. (2008). Bioterrorism surveillance and my bondage, privacy: Intersection of HIPAA, the common rule, and to the Essay, public health law. American Journal of Public Health, 98(5), 802-7. Riedel, S. (2004). Biological warfare and my bondage, bioterrorism: a historical review. Proceedings (Baylor University. To The Essay. Medical Center), 17(4), 400–406. Sandhu, H. S., Thomas, C., Nsubuga, P., White, M. My Bondage My Freedom. E. (2003). A global network for market myopia early warning and my freedom, response to infectious diseases and sir gawain green knight, bioterrorism: Applied epidemiology and training programs, 2001. American Journal of Public Health, 93(10), 1640-2. My Bondage. Yahav, I., Barnes, S., Golden, B., Wasil, E. (2013).

Early detection of bioterrorism: Monitoring disease diffusion through a multilayered network. IIE Annual Conference.Proceedings, , 2561-2570. Client: (Berlin, G.K., CA) Topic title: Leadership shortfalls in Blue Chips

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sameer rathod resume AECOM Technology's (ACM) CEO Mike Burke on my bondage my freedom, Q4 2014 Results - Earnings Call Transcript. Nov. 11, 2014 5:26 PM • acm. AECOM Technology Corporation (NYSE:ACM) Q4 2014 Results Earnings Conference Call. November 11, 2014, 12:00 PM ET. Paul Cyril - SVP, Investor Relations. Mike Burke - CEO and Director. Steve Kadenacy - President and CFO. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital.

Steven Fisher - UBS. Tahira Afzal - KeyBanc Capital Markets. Justin Hauke - Robert W. Baird. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Chase Jacobson - William Blair Company. Good morning, and welcome to the AECOM Fourth Quarter 2014 Earnings Conference Call.

I would like to inform all participants, this call is being recorded at the request of AECOM. This broadcast is a copyrighted property of AECOM. Any rebroadcast of this information, in whole or part, without the prior written permission of A New to the Drugs, AECOM is my freedom, prohibited. As a reminder, AECOM is and describe arguments in favor of trade, also simulcasting this presentation with slides at Investors section at www.aecom.com. My Bondage My Freedom. Later, we will conduct a question-and-answer session. I would like to turn the call over to Paul Cyril, Senior Vice President, Investor Relations. Thank you, operator.

Before reviewing our fiscal 2014 fourth quarter and full year results, I would like to point you to our Safe Harbor statement on Page 2. I would like to remind everyone that today's discussion contains forward-looking statements based on according to the hypothesis, professional investors will, the environment as we see it today, and as such, does include risks and uncertainties. My Freedom. Our actual results might differ significantly from those projected in of the 2008 financial these forward-looking statements. Please refer to our press release or Page 2 of our earnings presentation and to our reports filed with the SEC for more information on the risk factors that could cause actual results to materially differ from projections. Note that we are using certain non-GAAP financial measures as references in the presentation. The appropriate GAAP financial reconciliations are incorporated into our press release which is posted on our website. Please also note that all percentages refer to my bondage year-over-year progress except where otherwise noted.

In addition, our discussion of fiscal 2014 financial results will exclude the sir gawain green sparknotes, impact of my freedom, acquisition and integration related costs, unless otherwise noted. Please turn to market myopia Slide 4. Beginning today's presentation is Mike Burke, Chief Executive Officer. Mike? Thank you, Paul. Welcome, everyone, to our fourth quarter and my bondage my freedom full year 2014 earnings call.

I also want to welcome former URS stakeholders to our first call as a combined company and thank you for your vote of confidence that made this transaction a reality. Joining me today is Steve Kadenacy, our President and Chief Financial Officer. On today's call, I will provide an overview of AECOM's fiscal fourth quarter and full year 2014 results. Then Steve will review our financial results in greater detail, provide fiscal 2015 financial guidance for the combined company, and review changes to our reporting structure. Market Myopia. I will conclude with additional remarks on business trends and the opportunities we see for the combined company. I'm pleased to report that in fiscal 2014, we finished with $25.1 billion of backlog including $3 billion from the acquisition of Hunt's Construction which closed during the my freedom, fourth quarter.

Including $4.2 billion of wins in the fourth quarter, we achieved a full year book-to-burn ratio of 1.7 times. In our PTS segment our organic growth rate improved and we benefited from in Nathanael West's The Day of the Essay a continued favorable mix shift in our MSS business, which help to drive strong operating performance. Throughout fiscal 2014, private infrastructure markets led growth especially in my freedom our construction services and international design markets. In Nathanael West's The Day Locust. This was offset by the slower than anticipated recovery of our Americas design business. Please turn to Slide 5. My Freedom. Before turning the call over to Steve, I will take a moment to efficient markets professional earn: talk about the structure of the my freedom, combined company. Effects Financial Crisis. AECOM will operate across three segments, design and consulting services, construction services and management services.

AECOM Capital will continue to support our integrated services platform and differentiate our competitive offering through direct investments in real estate and public private partnerships. To-date, we have committed $150 million to 13 projects that have driven approximately $1 billion in construction services backlog. This new operating structure is designed to reflect the strengths of both AECOM and URS. There are very few companies in the world that can execute at the scale and technical level that AECOM is known for delivery and our capabilities are enhanced with this new structure. With that, I will turn the call over to Steve, who will discuss our financial results. Thanks, Mike. Please turn to my bondage Slide 6. Before I begin, I would like to point out that our fourth quarter results included an extra week of business which favorably impacted growth rates as compared to prior periods.

As I discuss the financials I will speak to the actual results unless otherwise noted. For the fourth quarter gross revenue of $2.6 billion increased 23% from the prior year including approximately $150 million from the acquisition of Hunt Construction. Net service revenue of $1.3 billion grew 6% from the prior year. Organic PTS growth was essentially flat after excluding the extra week. Our MSS business continued to diversify with strong backlog growth and profit improvement due to the successful repositioning of the Failure in Nathanael West's The Day of the Essay, business. Much like the last quarter, strong organic growth trends in my bondage our international and construction services markets, help to offset the lack of list and describe arguments in favor, growth in our Americas design business. We are especially happy to report that following several strong quarters of wins, construction services began converting backlog to revenue with revenue growth accelerating in my bondage my freedom the fourth quarter. For the arguments barriers, fourth quarter, we delivered an my bondage my freedom 11.1% EBITDA margin. Our fiscal year EBITDA margin was 9.7% which was up 32% basis points from 2013.

We are pleased with our progress but as I mentioned earlier, our Americas design business wait on our performance. Our focus on free cash flow continued to deliver results. Once again, we achieved our targeted driving free cash flow in effects of the 2008 crisis access of net income for the quarter and the year. This marks our third consecutive year of my bondage my freedom, exceeding our target. And we delivered EPS of $2.53 which was within the 2008 financial crisis, range of guidance that we provided. Please turn to Slide 7. As Mike already noted, our backlog at the end of fiscal 2014 was $25.1 billion. Growth was driven by our private sector construction services business and we benefited from the continuation of strong international design demand. Looking at AECOM and URS together, we estimate that the pro forma contracted and awarded backlog was over $40 billion at the end of fiscal fourth quarter. We intend to provide more detail around the components of this backlog and the future as we harmonize our processes and definitions in my bondage the integration process.

Please turn to Slide 8. Moving to PTS, our fiscal fourth quarter gross revenue was $2.4 billion and net service revenue was $1.2 billion. Constant currency organic PTS net service revenue increased 7.7% from the prior year, but that was flat excluding the impact of the extra week. For the full year, our operating margin in PTS was 9.1%, which compares to 9.7% last year. We delivered 52% backlog growth for the year. Americas construction services and the acquisition of Hunt Construction were the main growth drivers. And as Mike will talk about shortly, our sales pipeline has increased by double digits as compared to last year in our Americas design business. Please turn to according markets professional investors Slide 9.Moving to MSS, our quarterly and full year revenue in operating income reflect the shift away from overseas contingency work for the U.S. Department of my freedom, Defense, to a more diverse business mix. Despite an 18% decline in revenue in fiscal 2014, MSS operating income grew 21% from the effects of the 2008 financial crisis, prior year, resulting in a 600 basis point improvement in our operating margin. Delivering improved profitability in my bondage MSS was a priority we shared at the beginning of the fiscal year, and three arguments in favor barriers we are proud of this accomplishment. We achieved 51% growth in the MSS backlog this year which resulted in the year-end backlog of $2 billion.

Despite the my freedom, removal of our Libya contract from awarded backlog, due to the continued political instability. As highlighted by our strong margin performance in fiscal 2014, the profit we expect to recognize on this backlog is higher than our historical overseas contingency operations work. Please turn to Slide 10. War On Essay. Turning to the balance sheet and capital allocation, we generated $298 million of free cash flow in my bondage 2014. This continues our strong track-record of Failure West's of the Locust, cash flow.

Our near term priority is to deploy cash to pay-down debt. As we have communicated, the forecast of free cash flow of the combined organization is quite strong, and my bondage we expect to pay our debt down to list arguments in favor barriers around 2x debt to my bondage my freedom EBITDA by the end of 2017. Please turn to Slide 11. Now, let's turn to Approach to the Essay our guidance for the combined company. This guidance excludes acquisition and my bondage integration costs as well as the amortization of intangible assets.

We expect our fiscal year 2015 adjusted EPS to A New Approach War on Drugs Essay be in the range of $2.75 to $3.35. Our guidance assumes a tax rate of my freedom, 32%, depreciation expense of approximately $210 million, interest expense of approximately $225 million, and a diluted share count of $155 million. Our guidance assumes that we continue to make progress on our $250 million synergy target. We anticipate, realizing synergies of approximately $110 million during the fiscal year and target ending fiscal 2015 at a cost synergy run rate of approximately $180 million. Our confidence in West's Essay achieving our synergy target continues to grow, and my bondage we will update you with more details at our planned Investor Day in December. Now we’ll take a moment to comment on the expected contribution of URS's highly successful chemical demilitarization contract for the U.S.

Department of Defense. Through the first nine months of the calendar 2014, URS generated revenue and operating income from the chemical demilitarization programs of $272 million, and $93 million respectively and sir gawain and the green was ahead of plan. While the four baseline sites for URS was leading are now largely completed, AECOM will continue to perform key services at my bondage two other chemical demilitarization sites, needless to say we are happy to have this world class capability at AECOM. We expect the contribution from these programs to operating income will be approximately $46 million for FY 2015. URS generated strong cash flow during the period before the close of the transaction. Cash flow that lowered the debt level we originally anticipated having to will earn: pay down on the deal.

Accordingly, the effective multiple pro forma for synergy savings is under 7x EBITDA, which is where we anticipated we would close. My Bondage My Freedom. Mike mentioned, we will report our results across a new set of operating segments. Let me spend a few minutes quantifying each. First, our design and The Day consultancy services segment would have accounted for approximately 45% of pro forma revenue on my freedom, a trailing 12 months basis, and Failure West's The Day comprises URS's infrastructure and environment segment and AECOM’s global design business. Second, we have grouped our construction businesses into construction services segment. This division would have accounted for approximately 35% of our trailing 12 months pro forma revenue.

This includes our building construction business, which is mainly vertical, and URS's engineering and construction, and oil and my bondage gas divisions. Lastly, our management services group combines our increasingly diversified national government businesses. This group would have accounted for approximately 20% of our pro forma revenue on a trailing 12 month basis. Beginning with our fiscal first quarter, we’ll provide segment level gross revenue, operating income, backlog, and green new wins. We will discontinue the use of net service revenue in the combined company. This metric is my freedom, more relevant when you have a mix of construction and of trade design in the same segment. My Freedom. Based on the new alignment of our businesses, gross revenue was the most relevant measure of revenue performance. And now, I would like to and the sparknotes turn the my bondage, call back over to Mike, who will provide an overview of the combined operations, and a review of end-market trends. Thank you, Steve. Sir Gawain And The Sparknotes. Please turn to Slide 12.

In mid-October, we completed the my bondage my freedom, URS transaction with strong support from our stakeholders. Through the efforts of effects of the 2008 crisis, countless people at my bondage my freedom AECOM and URS, we closed the transaction within three months of the announcement, enabling us to limit disruption in the business and move quickly to appoint new leaders to take the combined company forward. The combination of these two great companies furthers our path toward becoming the premier integrated provider of services in the infrastructure space, and we are pleased with the efficiency of our closing process as well as the initial stages of the integration. The optimism of our employees and client is market myopia, strong, and we are excited by my freedom, the opportunities in front of us. Green Knight. One of the great benefits of this combination is the tremendous advantage it gives us in building the my freedom, premier leadership team in our industry. As we fill the critical leadership roles for the combined organization, we are choosing the best leaders from both companies, creating a team that is of trade, stronger and more committed than ever before.

It is worth noting some of the key leaders, because it illustrates my point that we have taken the most talented people of the combined organization to create something even stronger. From legacy URS, Tom Bishop, will now lead our Americas design and consulting services business. My Bondage My Freedom. George Nash, will oversee our energy infrastructure and industrial construction group, and Randy Wotring will serve as Group President of West's of the, our management services business. I am excited about the addition of these leaders to my bondage my freedom the AECOM organization. And from legacy AECOM, Fred Werner will run our global design and consultancy business. Dan McQuade, will run our vertical construction business, and list three arguments Mike Donnelly will run our end-markets program. These are just a few of the most senior examples, but this process is my freedom, cascading through every level of the list barriers, company.

Please turn to Slide 13. Our opportunities are truly exciting, but let me pause for a moment and take you through our markets and the trends we have seen develop over the last quarter. I will begin with our design business. In fiscal 2014, our Americas business experienced weakness due to continued slow end-market growth, largely due to my bondage my freedom the lack of committed long term public funding. We saw intermittent signs of improvement throughout the according will earn:, year, but this has not yet translated into a sustainable recovery. Looking forward, our sales pipeline in the Americas remain healthy, and our new leadership is my bondage, working diligently to leverage the capabilities of URS and AECOM across our combined footprint. I mentioned public funding because it remains a bottleneck to improve the three in favor of trade barriers, performance for our business. But we're encouraged by a number of valid measures dedicated to my freedom infrastructure investment that were passed by voters last week. For example, a $7.6 billion water bond passed in effects of the 2008 California, a direct response to the states need to my bondage my freedom act on the ongoing drought that has now entered its third year.

Also in San Francisco, a $500 million infrastructure bond measure passed with strong support. We are also seeing an list and describe three in favor increase in freight opportunities as growing intermodal traffic and crude volumes being transported by rail are driving facility capacity expansions and improvements. In the port industry, the Panama Canal expansion is my bondage my freedom, nearly complete and of the 2008 crisis a number of my bondage, East Coast ports are pursuing projects to be able to crisis handle the my freedom, larger shipments. As the leading provider of services to both rail and efficient professional investors earn: port operators in my bondage my freedom the country, we see a significant opportunity for AECOM to benefit. Moving on to EMEA, we continue to capitalize on strong end-market trends and finish the fiscal year with double digit revenue growth across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.

Within Europe, the according to the hypothesis, investors will earn:, United Kingdom continues to be a source of growth for my bondage AECOM. Our work on large rail, highways, social infrastructure projects, carried our growth in fiscal 2014, and according to the efficient markets hypothesis, investors earn: provides us with a good visibility into fiscal 2015. The U.K. has ambitious high speed rail plants and we are currently supporting the my freedom, West Midlands to Manchester line, as well as an engineering for line to Scotland. We're also pursuing several major infrastructure programs and direct partnerships with contractors to leverage our vision for integrated delivery. In the Middle East, our business continues to market myopia benefit from a growing resume of marquee and infrastructure projects across the my freedom, region. Our backlog remains near all time highs at the end of fiscal 2014. We are positioning ourselves to be a central player in the build-out of infrastructure for decades with key roles for the World Cup in Qatar and a design in efficient hypothesis, professional investors earn: development of my bondage, entirely new cities in according to the markets hypothesis, professional will countries including Saudi Arabia. The Middle East is transforming and AECOM is helping to my bondage facilitate the growth in three arguments in favor barriers this region. Looking at my freedom Africa, which grew over 20% for the full year we saw continued growth in our private sector work in the energy and list and describe three arguments in favor of trade industrial markets. My Bondage. We are positioned to participate for three the outset in the potential multi decade investment required to monetize natural gas resources of the East Coast of Africa. In addition to my bondage my freedom the energy processing facilities that are being developed, large improvements and A New to the Drugs Essay infrastructure to facilitate world class energy export capabilities will be required and we're pursuing these opportunities.

Moving to Asia Pacific, in Australia the stabilization process we have noted throughout the year continued in the fiscal fourth quarter. Our wins reached the highest level in nearly two years. This has helped to support our backlog which was down only 2% on a constant currency basis from a prior year. In Asia, we delivered 9% revenue growth for the year, and my bondage my freedom 10% growth in the fiscal fourth quarter. Effects Of The Financial Crisis. Backlog increased 9% in the fourth quarter and we expect another solid year in fiscal 2015.

The market in Asia remains one of my bondage, AECOMs largest international growth opportunities due to the continued focus on building world class infrastructure to AECOM is best suited to deliver. Moving on to construction services which had a strong year for new projects awards and backlog. In Favor Barriers. We closed on the acquisition of Hunt Construction during the fiscal fourth quarter and as a result AECOM is now the premiere builder of arenas and stadia in North America which complements our industry leading design presence in this market. We also continued to my bondage my freedom win work on large vertical construction projects in metropolitan areas where non-residential and mixed use construction activity is outpacing overall infrastructure spending. Our construction services business in EMEA which is concentrated in Eastern Europe and Middle East markets delivered 100% revenue growth and 50% backlog growth in fiscal 2014. We have been successful and winning work on iconic projects over the past two years such as the Crescent development in effects of the 2008 crisis Baku and the midfield terminal in Abu Dhabi. The outlook for 2015 reflects the major opportunities we are pursuing in my bondage the regions and market myopia the continued progress on our existing portfolio of projects. Finally in my bondage MSS, we continue to successfully diversify our mix of business and expend into higher margin markets for our national government clients including an increase in intelligence work in the U.S. Excluding the expected decline in A New Approach to the War on Drugs Essay overseas contingency operations exposure, we expect to deliver revenue growth in fiscal 2015 and our plays to turn the coin are on absolute growth by fiscal 2016. Please turn to Slide 14. Now let me turn to the opportunities ahead for my freedom the combined companies.

I know you have often heard this me say, that our vision is to market myopia become the my bondage my freedom, leading provider of integrated services to our clients, but with URS we can confidently say, that we have attained the capabilities and scale to move us significantly closer to A New Approach this vision. We know possess the critical process engineering and my bondage my freedom construction capabilities in power and oil and gas to deliver fully integrated project execution to according to the hypothesis, professional will our clients. Through the combination, we have also broadened our exposure and my bondage my freedom capabilities with an industrial markets with URS's strength in manufacturing already opening up opportunities to participate more broadly. We have a more complete federal offering that includes world class nuclear and environmental remediation capabilities. And we have rounded out our already industry-leading capabilities in and describe three arguments in favor barriers light rail, ports, airports, highways and bridges, facilities and water and environmental markets through the combination. These strengths of the combined company are already being deployed through our industry leading global platform.

We are seeing tangible evidence as the my bondage my freedom, capabilities and market myopia the scale we now possess are allowing us to serve clients, and compete in my bondage new ways. List Three Arguments In Favor Barriers. We have clients from each respective company and many that we share asking us to reframe agreements to leverage our combined graph. The revenue synergy opportunity is growing and exciting. To-date we have identified and our jointly pursuing more than $3 billion of my bondage, projects in our industrial vertical alone that are our direct result of the combined company's capability set and footprint. Even more impressive than the dollar volume, is the Failure West's of the, mediate action by our nearly 100,000 employees to share resources and jointly identify where our new capabilities can create opportunities for my bondage growth. We believe this will prove to be the key differentiator versus our peers and the early examples of joint project pursuits clearly demonstrates the A New to the Essay, potential size of this opportunity. With that, I would like to now open the line for my freedom questions.

Operator? (Operator Instructions) The first question comes from Andrew Kaplowitz from Barclays. Please go ahead. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital. Hey guys, how’re you? Mike or Steve, can you talk about your adjusted 2015 EPS guidance a little more?

At least at the lower end of the range, it seems a little low versus what some might have thought during the summer. Market Myopia. So, can you talk about the puts and takes of the URS deal as you closed it? Were there any businesses that you think could be a little worse than you initially thought? And then are there any businesses at AECOM where the outlook has deteriorated a bit from where you were over the summer - maybe that's the my bondage my freedom, Americas design business but I'll let you answer the question. Thanks, guys. I will let Steve to address the puts and takes and three of trade then we can come back and my bondage my freedom give you a better sense of some of the of the Locust Essay, upsize and downsize of the mid point of range to frame it out. So, why don't I start with Steve will take you through the puts and takes. Andy, at the mid point take 305 is my bondage my freedom, about 15% accretive on a cash basis, on the adjusted EPS line which is market myopia, lower than the 25% that we had mentioned when we announced the deal which we know. And there is a few reasons for my bondage that. I think that the biggest is less - we pulled forward some of the chem demil work, or URS did into its first three quarter of the three which comes at sir gawain and the knight the detriment to my bondage FY 15 even though it's really a high performing contract.

And then further weakness in there IE business as well. So there is the financial, degradation to my freedom what we expected URS producing FY 15. And then the other piece is, we closed the deal two week into the fiscal year. So there is a two weeks less of an impact that will bridge you back to something close to 25% cash accretive. But I will turn it back to Mike to Failure in Nathanael of the talk about what could take us lower than that midpoint. Just trying to frame-out the wide range that we have starting with the mid pointed 305 Steve mentioned. So from a upside perspective, there is as you've seen in the past, there are significant award fees in our business and depending on the timing of those award fees, if we pull those award fees into 2015, we have upside to the plan. You heard me mention the EC pipeline of my freedom, opportunities. It's the biggest pipeline of opportunities that we’ve seen in quite a few years.

So, to that extent that pipeline of Failure The Day of the Locust Essay, opportunities comes to fruition as we expect, there is upside to that. And of course the timing of the my freedom, synergies. As Steve mentioned, we are moving very quickly against financial our synergy targets. We are very confident that we're going to achieve the numbers that we projected but to the extent we can move even faster towards that target and pull more that into my freedom 2015, we have some upside there. From a downsize perspective, you got the EC awards. The flip side of the in Nathanael West's, EC pipeline is its lumpy, they are big projects and if we win them but we win them later in the year, they push into 16. So that has some downside also. Another point is that the my bondage my freedom, recovery of the Americas design business. As you know the Americas design business both at AECOM and market myopia URS has had a challenging past couple of years and we’ve seen some signs of recovery there, we both the URS and AECOM legacy businesses had a recovery and wins in Q4.

And so that pertains well for the future. But if we don't keep that recovery heading in the right direction, that could take us below that midpoint. Oil prices are something we think about. My Bondage. Obviously our oil and gas business here in the Americas it can be impacted by the price of oil. We're not as much focused on according hypothesis, professional investors will, the spot price of the oil but looking more at the curve and curve still puts prices well above the cost of production. So that gives us a good outlook.

But this is skittish environment right now in oil prices. And important fact of our oil business is that half of my freedom, our business is driven by regulatory issues and as we all know and as we all expect to be more regulatory changes in this environment, it helps us with half the market myopia, business. But the my bondage my freedom, other half of the business is based on production and CapEx as we know decreases in a lower price market. So that's something we think about. And then of course the timing of the synergy, the flip side of what I just talked about is knight sparknotes, that if we don't get the synergies as quickly in 2015, there could be downside. So that’s some of the big picture issues that would take us to my bondage my freedom the upside and take us to the downside of that midpoint but all in all we feel pretty good about the range that we set forth. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital. That's very helpful. How much of the $110 million in synergies do you think is really low hanging fruit?

I know you mentioned $180 million run rate by the end of the in favor of trade, year. I assume that's because the real estate savings really start to my freedom ramp up at the end. But I'd be curious as to, of that $110 million what do you feel really good about in the short term versus develops over time? Andy this is Steve. Financial. I don't know if we would classify it as long hanging fruit but what we have around $110 is a lot of my bondage my freedom, certainty in according efficient markets hypothesis, will terms of what we need to do to achieve it. There is my freedom, a real estate piece of that. Our feeling is there is probably upside for the real estate piece that really depends on how fast we can execute on Approach War on, the projects because you’re talking about moving people from one office to another, closing down an office, sometimes doing tenant improvements. But in terms of the synergies around people where they are within departments, where they are within the operations, we feel very confident.

And as we mentioned in the script, we're more confident than we were when we announced the deal on the overall number and we plan to give you even more confidence in that in the Investor Day with more detail. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital. Got it. Steve, just one more thing. Is it possible to my freedom give us a little more color? You've given us the segments and the pro forma revenue, but is market myopia, it possible to give us more color around what we should think about growth of the individual segments within -- you've given us EPS guidance but you haven't given us much else in terms of my bondage my freedom, how to Failure in Nathanael West's The Day Locust look at growth of the individual segments and my bondage how to look at margins within the individual segments.

Obviously we can put the two models together, but any more color you want to give us around how to do this for 2015? For 2015 we’re not ready to start breaking it down further. I mean, we're still getting – we’ve had the combination for a few weeks, now we’re still getting our arms around certain pieces of this. But I think that the overall comments that Mike made in his prepared comments hold true. Our vertical construction business is growing quite fast, our design business internationally is to the professional investors will, showing quite strong, MSS is diversifying quite well, and my bondage the backlog is up significantly. A lot of those truths hold over onto the new business on a combined basis as well. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital. Okay. That's fine. But design and consultancy would still be more Americas based, given it two together, right?

So, I might think of Approach to the War on, that as a little bit slower growing overall versus the other construction services? Andy, I think that’s fair. My Bondage My Freedom. The Americas design business has not been growing for either URS or the Failure West's The Day of the, AECOM legacy businesses, and that's the most challenged part of our entire business globally, without question. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital. Okay. Thanks guys.

Thank you. The next question comes from Steven Fisher from UBS. Please go ahead. Great. Thanks very much. My Bondage. I'm wondering if you guys could help us understand the free cash flow a little bit better. Effects Of The Crisis. Do you have maybe a forecast you could give us for 2015?

Or, if not, maybe just help us with some of the pieces underlying that. We do not give a specific forecast for 2015, in the past we've always said we would exceed net income over the past three years, obviously that metric is not all that relevant given the significant cost that we have on acquisition, integration related expenses. So that's a significant moving piece. Our expectation as Steve said, our cash flow will continue to be very robust at the operational level, and that will be more than enough to keep us within our forecast to my bondage take down debt over the next few years to get down to close to two by FY 17. Can you just tell us how much CapEx is to the efficient professional earn:, going to be in 2015? The CapEx is still a fairly moving target, Steve, largely because we're still working through the my bondage, integration plan for our real estate portfolio, which could move that numbers significantly.

Okay. I mean - do you anticipate that it would still be less than your depreciation? Okay. And, can you give us a sense of what the cash integration cost are of that $290 million? The $290 million, we’re still not ready to break it out into cash and PL yet. But again, in the Investor Day we plan to spend a little bit more time on that, Steve. So again, I think from a cash perspective, the cash is in Nathanael The Day of the Locust Essay, going to be healthy, we’re going to stay on our track to reduce our overall debt, reduce our debt to EBITDA even with a lower EBITDA compared to when we announce. So, we’re feeling fairly confident on it.

Okay. Shifting over to margins in the quarter, they were down year over year in PTS. Just curious, how much impact maybe Hunt had on the margins there? And ex-Hunt would you still have been down year-over-year? And I'm curious, what's pressuring the margins there on a year-over-year basis? By far, the most significant impact on our margins is the lower than expected revenue in our Americas design business. Hunt had a very minimal impact on that particularly when you look at it from an NSR standpoint. Okay.

And then maybe just to follow up there, it sounded like a quarter ago Americas design was maybe getting a little bit better, some water projects were coming through. What is it that stunted the trajectory there? The way of the decline lessened in my freedom Q3, and then – it did not continue to improve in Q4. So, we were down a few percentage points in to the War on Drugs Q4 on organic basis. But we did see the my freedom, wins tick up in Q4. And so, as I think, you heard I say earlier, the wins ticked up very nicely in Q4 but the actual revenue production was still down by list and describe in favor of trade barriers, a few percentage points. It's a challenging market overall, it’s not something that is particular to AECOM, we saw it in URS, we saw it in AECOM, we see it in my freedom our competitors. It’s a tough market.

The civil infrastructure market in the United States is list and describe arguments in favor barriers, difficult. Certainly our private sector, construction market is my bondage, booming, but we are seeing an market myopia uptick in my bondage my freedom the pipeline in the Americas design business. In the quarter we were up 20% in our pipeline of opportunities. So, the pipeline is list and describe three arguments in favor, up, the wins are up, the backlog is up, and my bondage my freedom we just got to get it converted to revenue producing projects a little quicker. And the wins there, are those contracted wins or awarded wins? Well, everything comes into awarded first and then moves into contracted. So, it’s a combination. Okay. Thanks very much.

Thank you. Next question comes from Tahira Afzal from KeyBanc. Please go ahead. Tahira Afzal - KeyBanc Capital Markets. Hi, folks. Congratulations on an on-track integration. First question is and the knight sparknotes, really regarding your amortization. And thank you for breaking that down versus the expenses on the slides. As we look from 2015 to 2016, would it be possible to get an idea of directionally how much that ticked down by, to the extent you can comment?

We would expect it to tick down over my bondage my freedom, time, but we’re not prepared to get the amortization guidance for 2016, just yet, Tahira. Tahira Afzal - KeyBanc Capital Markets. Got it. Okay. Thought I'd try my luck. Failure West's The Day Essay. Second question is just another follow-up on my bondage, the free cash flow side. In your MA documents, you filed with the effects 2008 financial, SEC you put a projection out there for what you expected from URS.

Does the degradation, the slide degradation, and the outlook really impact that number directionally? And in terms of your integration costs that you've disclosed today, are they still in line with what you thought a couple of months back? So, if I understand the question, it’s on my freedom, cash flow relative to Drugs the degradation in our EBITDA. We did pull in my bondage my freedom cash flow into the calendar year - into list arguments barriers our fiscal year from my bondage my freedom URS's calendar year. They outperformed significantly before we closed the deal, and that of course helped the overall multiple that we paid for the company. Some of that obviously would come from an acceleration of what was their fiscal year, but as a whole we still anticipate the Failure in Nathanael West's The Day of the Essay, combined company exceeding the cash flow forecast that we had originally put together. Tahira Afzal - KeyBanc Capital Markets. Great. My Freedom. Thank you. Well, thanks Tahira. Thank you.

Next question comes from Justin Hauke from Robert W. Baird. Please go ahead. Justin Hauke - Robert W. Baird. Yes. Effects Of The 2008 Crisis. Good morning, guys. You've alluded to a couple of times that URS's cash flow was better than expected and pulled forward.

Can you give us a pro forma balance sheet, either for the combined entity at my bondage my freedom close, or at a minimum can we get URS's balance sheet as of the end of the third quarter? I don’t know if I want to to the markets hypothesis, investors earn: give a pro forma balance sheet, but let me give you just some high level numbers. I mean, we closed at right around the debt EBITDA numbers that we had anticipated, which was right around $4.4 billion, and the debt at the close was $5.3 billion-ish. Justin Hauke - Robert W. Baird. $5.3 billion? And did you care to comment on URS's cash flow in the third quarter? Their cash flow in the third quarter, their third quarter was quite good. I don’t know if you want an exact number, obviously they had three closes during the my bondage my freedom, month of October, so, it depends on what period of time, but they pulled forward relative to our original calendar year forecast and market myopia our fiscal year forecast about $270 million.

Justin Hauke - Robert W. Baird. Okay. Great. My Bondage My Freedom. Thank you. Arguments In Favor Barriers. And then on the backlog, being up so significantly, I assume some of that is my freedom, from the construction management business. I think last quarter you commented that net service revenue backlog was up at a comparable rate to the gross figures you report.

Is that still the sir gawain and the knight, case here in the fourth quarter or is there any kind of divergence we should think about? On a year-over-year basis, net service revenue was up 18% which is not as robust because of the construction wins, as gross revenue, but still quite healthy. Justin Hauke - Robert W. My Bondage My Freedom. Baird. Okay, great. Thank you very much. Thank you.

We have a question from Sameer Rathod from Macquarie. Please go ahead. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Hi, good afternoon. I was wondering what the impact of factoring of receivables had on cash flow in the quarter.

The net impact, Sameer, was negative actually. We factored about $77 million and unlined was around $85 million. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Okay. And then could you quickly comment on the drill rig moving business and oil sands-exposed part of market myopia, your businesses, given the my bondage, pullback in crude? Sameer, are you asking about the rig hauling business? Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research.

Yes, the rig hauling business. If you look at Baker Hughes, a number of rigs are coming off. And Describe Three Arguments Of Trade Barriers. I was just wondering if you guys have started to see any impact. The impact on what, Sameer? The rig hauling business that was sold?

Is that what you’re asking? It didn’t contribute at the EBITDA line. So, there is no impact on the bottom line. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Okay. And you mentioned several times that there was a pull forward in my freedom chem demil of the legacy URS business.

Does this imply there should be a sharper fall off in list three arguments in favor of trade 2016, just given the my freedom, prior guidance URS had given? Absolutely. They will be back down to according efficient hypothesis, professional investors will just the normal run rate on existing projects. There is a follow up from what we’ve mentioned in the prepared remarks about $90 million or so of income, and my bondage next year will be $46 million, 2016 will be even less, probably closer at $10 million. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Okay.

And then my last question, on Hunt-- any way you can comment on what new orders for Hunt in the quarter were? New orders for Hunt in the quarter, I don’t know if I have ever broken down at that level, they brought $3 billion of backlog to the business, about West's The Day of the Essay $2 billion of that was awarded backlog, and my bondage $1 billion was in contracted. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Thank you. According Hypothesis, Professional Investors Will. (Operator Instructions) We have a question from Chase Jacobson from William Blair. Please go ahead. Chase Jacobson - William Blair Company.

Hi, good afternoon. My Bondage My Freedom. On the core AECOM business you guys have had some -- it's been slow but steady margin improvement on the EBITDA line over the last couple years, 20, 30 basis points a year. But still tracking below the 12% target that you had talked about in market myopia the past. So, wondering if you could give any color on my bondage my freedom, to what's been different there versus when you gave that 12% target, and how you incorporate that into when you look at savings in the URS business. The reason that we haven't made more progress on that 12% EBITDA to NSR target is largely the West's Essay, slowness in our Americas design business. My Bondage. So, our outlook going forward, obviously we will be giving guidance in three arguments in favor barriers the future against gross revenue, since we’re not going to be stating net service revenue anymore in the news segments, that would translate to roughly 6% to 8% EBITDA to gross revenue margin. And we think that is highly achievable given the synergies that we see and with the expected improvement in my bondage my freedom our Americas design business and with the general efficiencies that we see in our business that we've taken out as AECOM standalone prior to the combination particularly on real-estate and procurement which will apply to the new organization. So, really the in Nathanael The Day of the, reason we haven’t made better progress on that is the slowness in the Americas business, which we anticipate will won’t last forever and my bondage we’ll make progress faster on that target.

Chase Jacobson - William Blair Company. Okay. Just so I understand, the $250 million targeted synergies is all focused on cost reductions, or there's revenue synergies included in that also, or growth? Those are all cost reductions. Chase Jacobson - William Blair Company. Okay. That's helpful. The other question I have is just more detailed. Market Myopia. Can you just help reconcile the my freedom, adjusted tax rate to what the GAAP tax rate would be in 2015? The adjusted tax rate for the GAAP, so FY 15 all in rate is market myopia, about 26% - the biggest reason that its lower is because of some of the cost of integration we're going to get deducted at a higher tax rate, because they’re all domestic. So, perhaps we can take you offline and help you with the my bondage my freedom, modeling of market myopia, that if you would like.

Chase Jacobson - William Blair Company. Yeah, okay. That would be great. My Bondage My Freedom. Thank you. Thank you. And our last question comes from Justin Hauke from market myopia Robert W. Baird. My Freedom. Please go ahead. Justin Hauke - Robert W. Of Trade. Baird. Thanks guys.

Just a quick follow-up. Post all your financing, is there anything that's changed in your assumed interest rate? I think previously you were highlighting an all-in of my freedom, 4.3%. It looks like it maybe a little bit higher. Is that correct? No, we actually came in slightly lower. So, the execution on efficient hypothesis, will earn:, the overall financing - there are moving pieces within that but we did slightly better. Justin Hauke - Robert W. Baird. Okay. Thank you very much. Thank you.

We have no further questions at this time. I will now turn the call back over to my bondage my freedom Mike Burke. Okay. Thank you, operator. Thank you every one for participating today. I want to remind everybody that we will be in New York on December 16th, for according to the professional investors will earn: our Investor Day. And as Steve mentioned a couple of my bondage, times, we look forward to spending more time giving you much more detail on our plans and our synergies and even more detail than we have today. We’re only effects of the crisis three weeks into this acquisition but by December, we’ll have even more information for my bondage my freedom you, little more certainty around the future and the details. So, we look forward to spending more time with you on December 16th. And for those of you that can't be available on that date, we’ll look forward to talking to you on our next quarterly earnings call. So, thank you and have a great day.

Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. This concludes today's conference. Thank you for participating. You may now disconnect. This article is for PRO members ONLY! Get Access to this article and 15,000 exclusive PRO articles from $200/m.

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essay general god Read the topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. And this is particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and my freedom evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Effects Of The Financial Crisis! Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations.

Nowadays, however, the concern is the my bondage, reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to in Nathanael West's The Day Essay encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young.

The birth rate has fallen dramatically in my freedom, many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Arguments In Favor Of Trade Barriers! Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the my freedom, population has the potential to create serious problems. Effects Of The Financial Crisis! Fewer children being born means that in my bondage my freedom, the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Market Myopia! Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in my bondage my freedom, the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and green knight sparknotes what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and my bondage their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to Locust Essay be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a).

Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of my bondage my freedom this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in according to the efficient markets hypothesis, professional investors earn:, Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to my bondage my freedom refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. And Describe In Favor Of Trade Barriers! These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on my bondage self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for list three of trade Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at my freedom, home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young?

The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). To The Essay! As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at my freedom, all incompatible with the idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the three arguments in favor of trade barriers, main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg. Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and my bondage motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the Failure West's The Day Essay, unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument.

For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to my bondage link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and class levels. In a recent survey of 2008 financial Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of my bondage my freedom what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the list in favor, decisive factor in reducing the my freedom, number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved.

Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the in Nathanael West's Locust, things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the my bondage my freedom, family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for West's The Day of the many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits.

McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to my freedom this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of effects of the 2008 crisis booms and busts. Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks:

Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of my freedom marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to to the Essay Yamada#039;s analysis of my bondage my freedom parasite singles, argues that the failure of according to the markets hypothesis, professional young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the my bondage my freedom, young who have had to to the efficient markets hypothesis, professional investors will earn: bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and my freedom a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an in Nathanael West's of the Locust increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for my freedom their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505).

Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and market myopia around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to my bondage reversing this trend is for governments to list of trade take action to remove this sense of insecurity. My Bondage! A number of policy approaches have been suggested. West's! Some writers have focussed on my freedom the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for efficient hypothesis, investors will more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the my bondage my freedom, living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). It is list and describe three barriers, hard to know what remedies are needed. My Freedom! What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to and describe in favor of trade barriers reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is my bondage, selfish to do otherwise.

Castigating the young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to list barriers just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02. Birrell, B. (2003). My Freedom! Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. A New Approach To The! The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997.

Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000). A debate on my bondage my freedom Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the effects financial, challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and my bondage other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of efficient markets professional investors earn: America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses.

People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). The toolbox of public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003). My Freedom! Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life.

California: Pine Forge. Notice what the Failure in Nathanael The Day of the Locust Essay, question is asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the my bondage my freedom, #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and green knight sparknotes reading for my freedom it. As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in Approach War on, the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in my freedom, a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in effects 2008, the essay (ie. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii).

In the last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the my bondage, explanation in the topic, and and the green then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the my bondage, first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about it?

Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to investors will earn: blame for declining birthrates. Notice how in my freedom, the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of according professional will a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in my bondage my freedom, your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. A New To The! Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of my bondage my freedom these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this.

But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out of the 2008 financial crisis women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to blame. My Bondage! (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the to the hypothesis, professional will earn:, argument is the key to any essay you write. In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for my freedom the argument.

The student is sir gawain knight, arguing that economic insecurity experienced by my bondage my freedom, young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in according to the efficient will, decline. Notice how in the rest of the my bondage, essay, he seeks to in Nathanael support this argument with various forms of evidence. My Bondage! The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by list and describe three in favor of trade barriers, McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to have an my bondage my freedom argument in your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to sir gawain and the green knight sparknotes do these two things. There are a number of my bondage my freedom things happening in the conclusion. In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to efficient markets professional investors will deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the my bondage, students#039; argument.

Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only A New Approach to the Drugs restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is my freedom, quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out of the thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay.

Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. My Freedom! Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the professional earn:, texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. My Bondage! Of course, all references have to be relevant to market myopia your argument.

Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in their written work. But in fact they can often be found in my bondage, academic writing. In general, the best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to 2008 crisis use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.)

Citations are used to indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is my bondage my freedom, required in each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of Failure in Nathanael West's of the Essay ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source. My Bondage My Freedom! These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of sir gawain and the sparknotes Yamada, but actually read about my bondage them in Ashby#039;s text.

Whilst you should make an effort to of the financial crisis read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from certain language. eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to my bondage my freedom reject the to the professional investors will earn:, view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. My Bondage My Freedom! Notice how he does this in markets hypothesis, will earn:, a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to my bondage use quotation marks, and indicate the West's Locust, exact page number in my bondage my freedom, the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the market myopia, wording of the my bondage, quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence.

If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the markets hypothesis, professional will earn:, wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in my freedom, a quote, you need to knight sparknotes indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in my bondage my freedom, some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and A New to the War on is very common in academic writing. Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the my bondage my freedom, other reporting expressions used in War on Drugs, the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . My Bondage! what McDonald calls.

. McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and market myopia a new one begins. My Bondage My Freedom! In this paragraph (#9), there is market myopia, some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of my bondage more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and sir gawain green sparknotes are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number. You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Title.

Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to my bondage my freedom providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the A New War on Essay, site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of my freedom junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and market myopia .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions?

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Issues/Gang Violence term paper 5348. Gangs are a violent reality that people have to my bondage, deal with in today's cities. What has made these groups come about? Why do kids feel that being in a gang is both an in favor, acceptable and my bondage prestigious way to live? The long-range answer to these questions can only be speculated upon, but in the short term the The Day of the, answers are much easier to find. On the surface, gangs are a direct result of human beings' personal wants and my bondage peer pressure.

To determine how to effectively end gang violence we must find the way that these morals are given to the individual. Unfortunately, these can only be hypothesized. However, by in favor of trade, looking at the way humans are influenced in society, I believe there is good evidence to point the blame at several institutions. These include the forces of the media, the government, theatre, drugs and our economic system. Originally the my bondage my freedom, word gang had no negative connotation. In Old English, gang simply referred to a number of people who went around together-a group. Sir Gawain Knight! Today a gang can be defined in my bondage, four basic ways: zh an organized group with a leader. zh a unified group that usually remains together during peaceful times as well as times of conflict. zh a group whose members show unity through clothing, language. zh a group whose activities are criminal or threatening to Approach to the War on, the larger society.

Gangs are one of the results of poverty, discrimination and my freedom urban deterioration. Some experts believe that young people, undereducated and without access to good jobs, become frustrated with their lives and join gangs as an alternative to boredom, hopelessness and devastating poverty. Studies have attempted to determine why gangs plague some communities but there has been no definitive answer. As a result, people working to solve gang problems have great difficulty. Green Sparknotes! They find the situation overwhelming, and the violence continues.

No groups completely fitting the above description of gangs existed in America until the early 1800s, but from the my freedom, beginning of the European settlement in America there was gang-like activity, especially when class distinctions came into being. Gang members tended to be from the poorer classes and and the green sparknotes tended to my freedom, be from the effects of the, same race or ethnic background. My Bondage! They banded together for protection, recreation or financial gain. The earliest identified American gangs formed after the Revolutionary War, which ended in 1783. They were known as Smith's Vly gang, the Bowery Boys, the Broadway Boys, and the Long Bridge Boys and the Fly Boys. List Three In Favor! The first three were white and the last two were African-American. Members were in their early teens and twenties but not all came from the lowest economic classes; nor were they necessarily criminals. It was not until the 19th century that criminal gangs first formed. As the result of a worsening economy and growing population that increased competition for my bondage my freedom jobs, gangs began to specialize in crime and and the knight sparknotes became a part of America's cities. Irish immigrants formed the first American criminal gangs in New York City.

Some were criminals; some were brawlers and my bondage most associated in an area of New York called Five Points. Market Myopia! They had dress codes and my freedom called their members by code nicknames. Approach To The War On! (Many of the gang rituals of today have their roots in this period.) The first Irish gang to have a recognized leader was the Forty Thieves, organized by Edward Coleman in 1826. Gangs also arose in the Bowery. These two sets of gangs brawled on a regular basis-over gang territory and ethnic differences. Sometimes the battles were so long and intense that the army had to be called in to my bondage, stop them. The decade before the Civil War was a heyday for efficient markets hypothesis, investors most New York street gangs due to the all-out corruption of city government. Gang membership swelled.

Gangs burned ballot boxes, plundered stores and businesses and private homes without fear of police interference. After the my bondage, Civil War in 1865 New York records indicate a presence of Jewish, Italian, African-American and according markets investors will earn: Irish gangs. With the increase in immigrant populations, so grew gang membership. My Bondage! Almost every criminal of note in the United States made New York its headquarters. Chinese gangs appeared in California in effects of the, the mid-1800s. Philadelphia reported gang activity as early as 1840 and between that time and 1870 became home to over 100 street gangs. During this time murder became a test of toughness and drugs (laudanum, morphine, cocaine) became a part of the gang scene. The level of violence escalated. The Whyos of my bondage my freedom, Five Points used murder as a membership requirement. By the end of the 19th century gangs started wearing distinctive jackets.

In the early 1900s the green sparknotes, U.S. economy worsened, the population grew at a rapid pace, and the gap between the rich and poor widened. All across the nation gangs appeared where poor, hopeless people lived. My Bondage My Freedom! The dawning of the 20th century also brought with it a widespread use of firearms. By mid 1920s there were 1313 gangs in A New War on Drugs, Chicago and my bondage more than 25,000 members. Gang warfare in A New Approach to the War on Drugs Essay, Chicago was widespread and fighting took place along ethnic, cultural and racial lines. My Bondage My Freedom! Some gangs had no noticeable cultural, ethnic or national ties and consisted mostly of whites. The 1920s and knight sparknotes 1930s saw the rise of Chicano (Mexican-American) gangs in Los Angeles. By the 1940s Chicano gangs established their place in Los Angeles-their zoot suits (a style of dress incorporating tapered pants, long wide-shoulder coats and broad-brimmed hats) had become a familiar sight.

Fighting back against harassment of white residents and visiting soldiers during the so-called zoot suit riots in my freedom, 1943 strengthened their cause. After World War II gang membership: 1. became younger, 2. the nationality of the membership became largely non-white (though Italians, Irish and other white ethnic groups still made up a percentage), 3. drugs became a more publicized concern, 4. gang activity centered around large-scale, well-organized street fighting, 5. fire-arms were used more often,

6. the structure of three of trade, organization became more rigid, 7. and society at large became concerned with gangs as a social problem and worked toward rehabilitation. Between 1941 and 1945 over half a million Puerto Ricans arrived in my freedom, the United States, most settling in New York City. During the 1920s the African American populations migrated from the South to the northern cities. Due, in part, to this influx of African-American and Puerto Rican into northern cities, the Post WWII period spawned the greatest era of youth gang activity in American gang history.

The Old Italian, Jewish and Irish inhabitants became fearful that these groups were taking over. During the 1950s gang fighting rose to an all time high in West's The Day of the, cities like New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles and Cleveland. Gang members were usually in their teens. Codes of my freedom, dress (black leather jackets were popular) and mannerisms were an important means of identification. Body language said a lot about the according to the efficient professional investors will earn:, nature of the gang. When a gang decided to become a fighting, or bopping gang, its members immediately took on a different way of walking. My Bondage! A rhythmic gait characterized by the forward movement of the head with each step. Terms for fighting were bopping, rumbling, jitterbugging. Gang members used guns, knives, and homemade weapons. Most common drugs-alcohol, marijuana, heroin. New York gangs fought along racial lines-African-American, white, Puerto Rican.

Usually they fought over girls or turf. Approach To The War On Drugs! Turf could be anything from my freedom a few blocks to an entire neighborhood. Gang members believed it was essential to protect the honor of their girlfriends. And in the late 1950, girl gangs, with strong ties to boy gangs, began to form. Revenge was required by an inflexible code of gang loyalty.

It was from such incidents that gangs drew their sense of pride, of Failure in Nathanael The Day of the Locust Essay, being somebody. In order to combat the rise of violence, organizations like the my bondage, New York City Youth Board sent social workers into the slums to form relationships with the gangs. In Nathanael West's The Day Locust Essay! In some cases it worked; in many it did not. The 1960s saw a decline in gang violence, in part because drug use escalated. Where there was more drug use there was less gang violence. America's attention also shifted to the civil rights movement, urban ghetto riots, Vietnam War protests.

A new racial consciousness had its effect on my freedom, local street gang, creating organizations that were more involved in communities. The Black Panthers arose in Oakland in 1968, the Black Muslims gained national prominence in the '60s and a Puerto Rican gang, the Young Lords, formed in the early '70s. By early 1972 gangs were making headlines again. Drug use seemed to be decreasing and violence increasing. Gang membership grew and the potential for violence was far greater for the gangs had access to weapons that no gang ever had before. They did not make their headquarters in public places, but in private places. Gangs also acquired greater legal and political sophistication. When it is apparent that someone must be arrested for a crime, often the Approach to the War on Drugs Essay, gang chooses a minor because his prison sentence will be shorter. Serving a term in jail helps boost his reputation. On the surface, peer pressure and greed cause gangs.

Many teens in gangs will pressure peers into becoming part of a gang by making it all sound glamorous. Money is my bondage also a crucial factor. A kid (a 6-10 year old, who is not yet a member) is shown that s/he could make $200 to $400 for small part time gang jobs. Although these are important factors they are not strong enough to make kids do things that are strongly against their morals. One of the ways that kids morals are bent so that gang violence becomes more acceptable is the influence of Essay, television and movies. The average child spends more time at a TV than she/he spends in a classroom. Since nobody can completely turn off their minds, kids must be learning something while watching the my bondage, TV. Very few hours of television watched by children are educational, so other ideas are being absorbed during this period of time. Failure Of The Locust! Many shows on television today are extremely violent. and are often shown this from a gang's perspective.

A normal adult can see that this is showing how foully that gangs are living. However, to a child this portrays a violent gang existence as acceptable. 'The Ends Justifies the Means' mentality is also taught through many shows where the good guy captures the my bondage, bad guy through violence and is then being commended. Efficient Will! A young child sees this a perfectly acceptable. because he knows that the bad guy was wrong but has no idea of my freedom, what acceptable apprehension techniques are. Gore in television also takes a big part in influencing young minds. Sir Gawain And The Knight! Children see gory scenes and are fascinated by these things that they have not seen before.

Older viewers see gore and are not concerned with the blood but rather with the pain the victim must feel. A younger mind doesn't make this. connection. Thus a gore fascination is formed, and has been seen in several of my peers. Unfortunately kids raised with this sort of my freedom, television end up growing up with a stronger propensity to becoming a violent gang member or 'violent-acceptant' person. Gangs bring the delinquent norms of sir gawain green knight sparknotes, society into intimate contact with the individual.1, (Marshall B Clinard, 1963). So, as you can see if TV leads a child to my bondage my freedom, believe that violence is the norm this will manifest itself in the actions of the child quite often in a gang situation. This is especially the case when parents don't spend a lot of time with their kids at and describe three in favor the TV explaining what is right and what is wrong.

Quite often newer books and some types of music will enforce this type of thought and ideas. Once this mentality is installed in youngsters they become increasingly prone to my freedom, being easily pushed into of the crisis, a gang situation by any problem at home or elsewhere. My Bondage My Freedom! For instance, in poor families with many children or upper-middle class families where parents are always working, the children will often feel deprived of love. Parents can often feel that putting food on the table is enough love. Children of these families may often go to the gang firstly out of effects financial crisis, boredom and to belong somewhere. My Bondage My Freedom! As time goes on, a form of love or kinship develops between the gang members and the child.

It is in Nathanael West's The Day then that the my freedom, bond between the kid and the gang is completed because the market myopia, gang has effectively taken the place of the family. The new anti social structure of cities also effects the ease in which a boy/girl can join a gang. The formation of my bondage my freedom, gangs in cities, and market myopia most recently in my bondage my freedom, suburbs, is facilitated by the same lack of community among parents. The parents do not know what their children are doing for two reasons: First, much of the parents' lives are outside the local community, while the children's lives are lived almost totally within it. Second, in a fully developed community, the network of relations gives every. parent, in a sense, a community of sentries who can keep him informed of in Nathanael The Day of the Locust Essay, his child's activities. My Bondage My Freedom! In modern living-places (city or suburban), where such a network is attenuated, he no longer has such sentries.2, (Merton Nisbet, 1971). In male gangs, problems occur as each of the members tries to be the manliest. This often leads to all members participating in and describe three barriers, one-up-manship.

Quite often this will then lead to each member trying to commit a bigger and more violent crime or simply more crimes than the others will. With all members participating in this sort of activity it makes for a never-ending unorganized violence spree (A sort of Clockwork Orange mentality). In gangs with more intelligent members these feelings end up making each member want to be the star when the my bondage my freedom, groups commit a crime. This makes the gang much more organized and to the hypothesis, professional investors improves the morale of members which in my freedom, turn makes them more dangerous and very hard for the police to effects 2008, deal with and catch (There is my bondage my freedom nothing harder to find and deal with than organized teens that are dedicated to the group). This sort of gang is usually common of middle or upper class people. although it can happen in gangs in the projects and other low rent districts too. This one-up-manship is often the reason between rival gangs fighting. All gangs feel powerful and they want to be feared. To do this they try to establish themselves as the only gang in a certain neighborhood. After a few gang fights hatred forms and gang murders and drive-by's begin to take place. Approach To The! When two gangs are at war it makes life very dangerous for my freedom citizens in the area.

Less that 40% of drive-by's kill their intended victim yet over 60% do kill someone. This gang application is one of the many reasons that sexual stereotypes and pressure to according efficient professional investors, conform to my bondage my freedom, the same must be stopped. Lastly one of the great factors in joining a gang is for Approach protection. My Bondage My Freedom! Although from an objective point of view, we can see joining a gang brings more danger than it saves you from, this is according to the markets hypothesis, investors will earn: not always the way it is seen by kids. In slums such as the Bronx or the very worst case, Compton, children will no. doubt be beaten and robbed if they do not join a gang. Of course they can probably get the my bondage my freedom, same treatment from rivals when in a gang. The gang also provides some money for these children who quite often need to feed their families. The reason kids think that the gang will keep them safe is from propaganda from the gangs.

Gang members will say that no one will get hurt and make a public show of revenge if a member is hurt or killed. People in low rent areas are most often being repressed due to poverty and market myopia most importantly, race. This often results in an attitude that motivates the my bondage, person to base his/her life on efficient markets hypothesis,, doing what the system that oppresses them doesn't want. Although this accomplishes little it is my freedom a big factor in gang enrollment. So, as you have seen gangs are a product of the environment we have created for ourselves. Some of these factors include oppression, the media, and knight greed, violence and my bondage other gangs. Sir Gawain Sparknotes! There seems to be no way to end the problem of gangs without totally restructuring the modern economy and value system. Since the chance of this happening is my bondage minimal, we must learn to cope with gangs and The Day Essay try to keep their following to my bondage, a minimum. Unfortunately there is no real organized force to help fight gangs.

Of course the police are supposed to do this but this situation quite often deals with racial issues also and the police forces regularly display their increasing inability to deal fairly with these issues. What we need are more people to form organizations like the Guardian Angels a gang-like group that makes life very tough for street gangs that are breaking laws. American Psychological Association. Internet Web-Site. Is Youth Violence Just Another Fact of Life?

4 April 2000. Graves, Chris. A?A§Research to Guide Crackdown: Study Analyses Explosion in of the financial, Violence.A?A? Minneapolis Star Tribune 17 June 1997: 01B. Haskins, James. Street Gangs: Yesterday and Today. New York: Hastings House, 1975. Lewis, Yablonsky. Gangsters: 50 Years of Madness. New York University Press, 1997. Opinion. A?A§Urban Perspective: The Peace Process Network.A?A? Los Angeles Sentinel 25 November 1998: A7.

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