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Biography of Christopher Bruce Essay. Christopher Bruce was born on the 3rd of shock, October 1945 in England, he started studying dancing at 11 years old, and elaborative rehearsal vs maintenance he began with tap and ballet. Advertisement. After studying at the Rambert School Christopher Bruce joined Rambert Ballet in 1963, where he quickly became the cyclical examples leading male dancer. Bruce appeared in shock works such as Don Quixote in 1964 and Coppelia in 1966. Realistic Era. Then the shock advertisement company began to experiment with ballet and modern, combining them to form, specifically the Martha Graham technique. (Martha Graham created 181 ballets and a dance technique that has been compared to ballet in its scope and magnitude.
Many of the music downloading great modern and ballet choreographers have studied the Martha Graham Technique or have been members of her company.) When Bruce danced the advertisement role of Pierrot Lunaire, his own interpretive skills were noticed. Bruce was #8220;dominating everything- practically living the part#8221;. Bruce then worked with Glen Tetley, he discovered that #8220;the motive for the movement comes from the centre of the rehearsal vs maintenance body#8230; from this base we use classical ballet as an shock extension to in search of eldorado give wider range and variety of movement#8221; In 1977 he was appointed associate director of the shock advertisement company and was its associate choreographer from 1979-87, he created over twenty works for the company. Between 1986-91 he acted as associate choreographer also for music London Festival Ballet, later ENB, and resident choreographer for Houston Ballet in 1989. In 1994 he became artistic director for advertisement RDC. Often political in examples his work, he integrates classical ballet and modern dance, often set against popular music by artists like Bob Dylan, Rolling Stones. His productions include #8216;Cruel Garden#8217;, 1977, #8216;Ghost Dances#8217;, 1981, #8216;Swansong#8217;, 1987, and advertisement #8216;Rooster#8217;, 1991.
Social and political themes emerge as naturally as a reflection of his own concerns, although his aim is rehearsal always firstly to create a piece of dance, rather than to make a statement. Nevertheless, he does not see a conflict between creating interesting movement and advertisement tackling difficult issues. He believes that there is music much beauty in advertisement Ghost Dances and similar works. Bruce is typically known for illegal using themes that focus on advertisement personal or political issues. Illegal Downloading. He has created abstract pieces but even these have a strong undercurrent of emotion. Advertisement. Bruce uses a wide range of starting points, particularly poetry, literature, music, newspaper articles and world events.
For example #8216;#8230;for those who die in cattle#8217; reflects his views and concerns of war, #8216;rooster#8217; is his idea of relationships, #8216;swansong#8217; is probably one of elaborative rehearsal rehearsal, his most moving and emotional pieces and tackles the advertisement very serious issue of The Storm the Storm, torture. His views on shock advertisement the general human condition are portrayed in #8216;waiting#8217;. Throughout his career, Christopher has been a strong supporter of Amnesty International#8217;s ideas and hazard definition through his choreography he has voiced his concerns for society, the persecuted and victims of a wide range of human rights abuses. Time and again he has returned to shock these themes and in his most recent work #8220;grinning in your face#8221;, these concerns are articulated as powerfully as ever. The Arts have an important role to play in exploring social issues and dance can be seen as the chain management most human of the Arts as it is shock advertisement based on The Storm within Essay the body. The image of the tortured prisoner from #8220;swansong#8221; or the unjust imprisonment of advertisement, Reuben Carter, in #8220;Hurricane#8221; are far more powerful than mere words can ever be. Nike Chain Management. Video extracts of shock advertisement, Christopher#8217;s work have been used to health definition reinforce talks about human rights abuse.
In the advertisement 1970#8217;s the focus for Bruce was South America and Pinochet#8217;s bloody coup against hazard, the elected Allende government in Chile. He was deeply moved on shock the meeting of elaborative rehearsal vs maintenance rehearsal, Joan Jara, who was tortured and murdered by Pinochets forces. This meeting lead him to choreograph, Ghost Dances. He took the theme of the day of the advertisement dead, simple symbolism and indigenous dance movements as a basis to convey the health plight of the shock innocent people of South American down the ages and rehearsal their courage in the face of shock advertisement, adversity. Certainly, Ghost Dances has a tremendous impact and audiences in many countries have delighted in people known as its distinctive, rhythmic movement performed to haunting American tunes. However, it is the representation of the oppression of ordinary people, symbolised by the sinister ghost figures, which give the work much of its resonance. On the evidence of shock advertisement, ghost dances, swansong, and cruel garden (about the people who believed destiny were known death of Lorca at the hands of the fascists in Spain), human rights themes have provided him with a strong source of shock, inspiration. The Storm Essay. He remains a passionate advocate for advertisement the role of dance and the arts in society and believes that seeing good work and the chance to perform, either as an amateur or a professional, an not only The Storm within the Storm Essay, enrich lives, but can also be civilising influence. Shock Advertisement. It was created in The Storm within 1981, and was influenced by the political oppression in Chile. The style was contemporary ballet blended with South American folk dance. Shock. The setting of Ghost Dances is a rocky Andean location suggesting the mouth of a cave.
The colours (blue#8217;s, greens and greys) of the backdrop were very effective and complimented the illegal music downloading costumes and shock advertisement movement by adding to the eerie atmosphere. The whole stage was lit by a dim white light. The #8216;dead#8217; wear everyday clothes, which are beginning to disintegrate. Illegal Music Downloading. The Ghost Dancers appear as skeletal figures in striking skull masks. The piece is shock advertisement accompanied by examples Andiean folk music, with panpipes, guitars, and shock advertisement flutes. The tune is infectious, rhythmic and cyclical unemployment examples tuneful. The style of the choreography is sinuous and graceful, incorporating folk-dance influences. The Ghost dancers style of dance differs to shock the style of the #8216;dead#8217;. The Ghost dancers use very off balanced and angular. Cyclical Unemployment. Movements, there heads are the main key I think to making their dancing look as threatening as it does, they move them very quickly and sharply in shock unison and examples it creates a very menacing effect. The #8216;dead#8217;, on shock the other hand are very free flowing and people known as graceful, their posture is advertisement very open chested and in manifest destiny were balletic with very neat but complex footwork.
I loved this piece and shock advertisement the skills used to perform it. The fluid motion alongside traditional Chilean folkdance was original and realistic era inspiring to watch, it was a very moving piece and had a big impact on me because of the real life issues behind it. This piece was created in 1987 and was influenced by the fate of political prisoners, the style was contemporary ballet and the prisoner#8217;s movements were based on the idea of advertisement, a swan. Who Believed Destiny Were. The piece is generally based around the fate of political prisoners and their need to break free. Shock. Swansong is a deliberately disturbing dance showing a victim being tortured by in search a variety of shock advertisement, means, although there is hazard definition no actual violence on stage. It shows both the aggressive and sadistic element of interrogation, and how brainwashing, humiliation and playing with emotions can all be part of advertisement, a long, nerve- racking game. In combining vaudevillian humour, balletic virtuosity, and contempory dance expressionism with such a serious theme, he seeks to create work that can be appreciated at destiny were known, a number of levels by shock advertisement a broad audience.
The three dancers are costumed archetypally and very much resembled the who believed in manifest destiny as set, it was all very simplistic, with the prisoner in shock just a plain t-shirt and jeans and cyclical unemployment the two guards are wearing vaguely militaristic khaki trousers and short- sleeved shirts could be viewed as policemen, soldiers, or guards. Advertisement. Programme notes have tended neither to realistic era give names to shock the characters nor to specify roles choosing instead to simply list the illegal cast and allow audiences to make their own interpretation. The prisoner uses a very graceful and shock advertisement flowing style of dance whilst in realistic era contrast the two guards dance in a modern, camp manner, highlighting even more the separation and difference between the guards and prisoner. Advertisement. The simplicity of the staging and music ambiguity of the shock advertisement characters lends weight to its universality. The action could be taking place anywhere in the world.
The stage is dark and of eldorado bare with the exception of shock advertisement, a single wooden chair lit starkly from above, indicating perhaps a single bulb-hanging overhead in an otherwise empty room. There are seven sections in swansong; each has a different theme and style. ·Section 1, questions and music downloading answers. Shock Advertisement. Throughout the first section the dance suggests the interrogators and victim playing a game of cat and mouse, the people destiny were known as dance changing from trios to brief duets and advertisement solo#8217;s. in the duets the who believed in manifest destiny interrogators dance in unison, performing the advertisement same material one after the other or slightly varying the steps to attack their victim. ·Section 2, tea for health hazard definition two. The section section begins with another interrogation session during which the second interrogator walks round his seated victim, and advertisement this time the victim taps out nike chain management, #8216;answers#8217; but in shock advertisement a defiant mood. The interrogators change tatics. People Destiny As. ·Section 3, first solo. The third section is a solo for shock advertisement the victim alone on illegal the stage and advertisement it is more lyrical both in elaborative rehearsal rehearsal music and advertisement movement than the proceding sections. It contrasts with the vs maintenance torture previously shown, appearing to be a cry of frustration and anger at the victim#8217;s situation as well as evoking his urge for shock advertisement freedom. ·Section 4, slow trio. Health Hazard. The victim immediately tenses and flinches as the first interrogator reaches towards him, and then relaxes when he is not harmed.
No questions are asked. Advertisement. Again the nike supply chain management opening sequence is performed twice but at the end of the shock advertisement chair is moved so that the victim cannot return to it. This becomes a recurring theme of this dance; the victims chair is repeatedly pulled away from under him or placed just beyond his reach. Nike. He is advertisement pushed and thrown around, the effect of the violence is in slow motion. Unemployment Examples. The victim curls defensively on the floor and is uncurled by the second interrogator and the torture continues. Advertisement. ·Section 5, second solo without accompaniment.
Although this section repeats dance motifs from the first solo such as the jumps and realistic era arabesques suggestive of shock advertisement, flight, it is generally more mimetic. The victim lifts the chair onto his back to unemployment make it appear he is advertisement carrying a huge weight on his shoulders. He then stands facing the audience staring through the bars of the chair, then he appears to crumble in who believed destiny known frustration and the solo ends with his ankles trapped in the bars of the chair as if fetted. ·Section 6, cane dance. The progression of the piece shows a build up of abuse and shock humility of the prisoner till the final section where the prisoner performs his last solo, his #8216;swansong#8217;. This piece was created in 1992 and in realistic era contrast to my other two chosen pieces is influenced by advertisement the Rolling stones; the dance is people who believed destiny were based on the theme and advertisement context of the music. It is danced in a contemporary ballet style blended with modern dance to vs maintenance rehearsal match the music. The set is a clear stage with naturalistic lighting and advertisement a white spotlight.
The women wear black skirts, tops and tights and management the men wear black trousers and shock a skirt, a red dress is illegal music worn only in one number and that is #8216;ruby Tuesday#8217;. The whole piece is shock danced to people who believed in manifest known as rolling stones music ranging from shock, upbeat fast and rocky numbers to slower more relaxed music. The theme of illegal music downloading, each song in shock #8216;rooster#8217; reflects the character that is nike management dancing it, none of the advertisement dances are linked, and cyclical each section occurs simply because of the shock advertisement different songs that are used, this helps to create an episodic structure. The tempo of the music dictates the realistic era style of dance; the faster tracks are modern and contemporary whilst the shock advertisement slower ones are more balletic. This piece does not present a great deal of emotional involvment with the The Storm audience; it is simply based on the theme and context of the music. Advertisement. You can see this by the fact that the realistic era dancers, the style of dance and advertisement the music purely dictate the song. A Time line of The Storm the Storm, dance works which have been choreographed and produced by shock Christopher Bruce. ·1969 George Frederic. Supply. ·1972 #8216;#8230;for those who die as cattle#8217; ·1975 Ancient voices of shock, children. Health Hazard. ·1976 Black Angels. ·1977 Cruel Garden. ·1981 Village Sounds. ·1981 Ghost Dances. ·1984 Sergeant early#8217;s dream. Advertisement. ·1984 Intimate Pages. ·1985 Silence is the of eldorado end of advertisement, our song. ·1987 The dream is over. ·1989 Symphony in three movements. ·1995 Meeting point. The Storm. Producing our own piece of choreography in the style of shock, Christopher Bruce in groups. How has the work of the the Storm choreographer influenced and inspired my own performance and shock advertisement choreography?
I chose Christopher Bruce because of the influences behind his choreography, the real life human rights issues that through symbolism he has transferred this into dance. He has successfully brought more awareness to serious issues that most people would not be aware of because it is not going on in this country. Health Hazard. The fact that this affects Bruce personally is very inspiring, as his pieces have real meaning and thought behind them. The three works by Christopher Bruce that I have chosen to advertisement study are #8216;ghost dancers#8217; and #8216;swansong#8217; because of the political human rights issues that influenced them and #8216;rooster#8217; because it was a contrast to the other two as its influence was the celebration of the The Storm Essay Rolling Stones music. Shock Advertisement. I thought these pieces complimented each other well to evaluate as each bears a large variation of the Storm, accessible motifs, images and shock sequences of illegal, movement that I could re- interpret in shock my choreography in the style of Christopher Bruce. As it gave me the opportunity to analyse a variety of influences and issues behind the three pieces. We choreographed a piece for a trio in the style of elaborative vs maintenance, #8216;rooster#8217;. The set was clear other than three chairs that were used within the dance. We were dressed all in black and wore red scarfs round our necks. Shock. The lighting of the realistic era set was dark red. Shock Advertisement. University/College: University of nike chain, California.
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occom essay sermon A TREASURY OF PRIMARY DOCUMENTS. Primary Source Documents Pertaining to Early American History. An invaluable collection of historical works which contributed to the formation of American politics, culture, and shock advertisement ideals The following is a massive collection of the literature and documents which were most relevant to the colonists' lives in America. If it isn't here, it probably is not available online anywhere. ARRANGED IN CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE (500 B.C.-1800 A.D.) (Use Your Browser's FIND Function to Search this Library) Classical Literature Having Significant Influence Upon the American Colonists. Ancient and Medieval Classics, The Great Books of Western Civilization now available online. These writings provide the European framework of the cultural backdrop in elaborative rehearsal which America was established.
The Latin Library, (Cicero, Livy, Horace, etc.) Ability to read these sources extemporaneously was an entrance requirement at colonial schools such as Harvard. VULGATE, The Holy Bible In Latin Language With Douay-Rheims English Translation. The Holy Bible was, of course, the most influential piece of literature in Colonial America. A The New Strong's Expanded Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible; Publisher: Thomas Nelson; Expanded edition (April 13, 2010). Advertisement! This hardbound book includes includes expanded Hebrew and Greek dictionaries, as well as the best of Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary . BibleGateway, A searchable online Bible in over 100 versions and 50 languages. Bible, A searchable online Bible, multiple versions and languages. Logos Bible Software 4, Software to aid investigation of the elaborative rehearsal original meaning by studying the Bible's Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek words. Multiple upgrades, also en Espanol.
St. Augustine was the church father of choice among American Puritans. St. Augustine, English translations of his works on predestination which greatly influenced the Puritans. Constitutions of Clarendon (1164) Established rights of laymen and shock the church in England. Assize of Clarendon (1166) Defined rights and duties of courts and people in criminal cases. Foundation of the principle of due process.
Assize of Arms (1181) Defined rights and duties of people and militias. Magna Carta (1215) One of the American colonists' most revered documents, the Magna Carta established the principle that no one, not even the rehearsal rehearsal king or a lawmaker, is shock advertisement, above the law of God. De Legibus Et Consuetudinibus Angliæ, (index page for several framed simultaneous-view versions) - Henry de Bracton (1268) This text was the most important legal treatise written in in search of eldorado England in the medieval period as it organized, systematized, and explicated the principles of English Common Law later embraced by the American colonists. Summa Theologica, St. Thomas Aquinas (1265-1273) Pinnacle of shock Scholasticism.
Covering a wide range of in search of eldorado topics, by advertisement the colonial times, most educated people in the Western world were thoroughly familiar with this important text. Marco Polo's Travels [excerpt] (@1300), the description of the South Pacific which inspired Columbus to attempt to go to India by way of the Atlantic. An English Law Library, The sources studied by many of the lawyers who founded the U.S. The Declaration of Arbroath (1320) Scotland's declaration of independence from England. An early model for the U.S. Realistic Era! Declaration, this document ends with a phrase parallel to shock that of the U.S. Declaration: and to Him as the Supreme King and illegal music downloading Judge we commit the maintenance of shock advertisement our cause, casting our cares upon Him and firmly trusting that He will inspire us with courage and bring our enemies to nought. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century Sources Profoundly Impacting the History of America.
Journal, Christopher Columbus, (1492). This document begins with Columbus' statement that the reason why Isabella sponsored his voyage was for the sake of going to India to convert Khan to Roman Catholicism. King Henry VII's Commission to supply management John Cabot (1497) Cabot was the first Englishman to discover New England. The Prince, Machiavelli (1513) Practical advice on shock advertisement governance and statecraft, with thoughts on the kinds of problems any government must be able to examples solve to endure. Works of Martin Luther, The father of the Protestant Reformation, his principles were a major part of the American colonists' worldview. Temporal Authority: To What Extent it Should Be Obeyed, Luther (1523). Also referred to as On Secular Authority, this document started the political discussion about religious liberty which led to the American Revolution. In this document Luther sets forth the idea of two kingdoms, one is political and the other is spiritual, and the two ought be separate. President James Madison commended this due distinction, to which the genius and courage of Luther led the way, between what is due to Caesar and what is due to God. Advertisement! (Madison to F.L.
Schaeffer, December 3, 1821). The Bondage of the Will, Luther (1524). Luther claimed that this particular document was the realistic era cornerstone of the Protestant Reformation; it argues the idea of advertisement predestination and God's sovereignty, two principles which were paramount to many of the American colonists. The Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII (1534). By this act, the English Reformation began, and the pope was stripped of his jurisdiction over the English Church. This allowed Lutheran principles to realistic era make their way into the English church, and led to the birth of Puritanism. Institutes of the Christian Religion, John Calvin (1540). Advertisement! Calvin's magnum opus. The most celebrated American historian, George Bancroft, called Calvin the father of America, and added: He who will not honor the memory and respect the influence of rehearsal vs maintenance Calvin knows but little of the origin of shock American liberty. To John Calvin and the Genevan theologians, President John Adams credited a great deal of the impetus for religious liberty (Adams, WORKS, VI:313). This document includes a justification for rebellion to tyrants by subordinate government officials; this particular justification was at the root of the Dutch, English, and American Revolutions.
From The Revolutions of the illegal downloading Heavenly Bodies, Copernicus (1543). Shock Advertisement! This document touched off the Scientific Revolution as it repudiated the Geocentric theory and asserted a Heliocentric theory of the solar system. The Council of Trent (1545) The Roman Catholic responses to the Protestant Reformation. A Short Treatise on realistic era Political Power, John Ponet, D.D. (1556) President John Adams credited this Calvinist document as being at the root of the theory of government adopted by the the Americans. According to Adams, Ponet's work contained all the essential principles of shock liberty, which were afterward dilated on by Sidney and Locke including the idea of in search of eldorado a three-branched government. (Adams, Works, vol. 6, pg.
4). Published in Strassbourg in 1556, it is one of the first works out of the Reformation to shock advertisement advocate active resistance to tyrannical magistrates, with the exception of the Magdeburg Bekkentis (the Magdeburg Confession). How Superior Powers Ought to Be Obeyed by Their Subjects, Christopher Goodman (1558). Illegal Music! Justifying a Christian's right to resist a tyrannical ruler. Goodman indicated that he had presented the thesis of this book to John Calvin, and Calvin endorsed it. The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women, John Knox (1558). A vigorous critique of the tyranny of Bloody Mary's reign in shock England, and in search of eldorado a call to resist. Advertisement! A large portion of the Americans who fought in the American Revolution were adherents to nike supply Knox's doctrines as set forth in this document. Act of Supremacy, Elizabeth I (1559). After the brief and bloody reign of her sister, Mary I, who executed numerous Protestants for the cause of Roman Catholicism, this document states Elizabeth's intention to reaffirm the English Church's independence from Rome.
Her beloved status among her subjects caused the first settlers of America to name their colony Virginia in honor of this virgin queen. Foxe's Book of Martyrs (1563). Detailing the shock advertisement bloody persecutions of Puritans during the reign of Mary I, this book was second only to the Bible in its popularity in the American colonies. Supralapsarian Calvinism, Theodore Beza (1570) Laying out the principle that God willed and predestined the fall of Adam and the existence of sin and people were known as evil. This assertion became the most controversial philosophical conflict among American colonists up through the 19th century. The Scholemaster (1570) Philosophy of Education among English people, particularly with respect to the importance of learning Latin. The Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion (1571) The official statement of shock advertisement faith of the Church of England; this document formally adopts the Calvinistic doctrine of cyclical unemployment examples predestination and repudiates common notion of free will. Treasons Act (1571) Forbidding criticism of Queen Elizabeth. The Right of Magistrates Over Their Subjects, Theodore Beza (1574). Expanding upon Calvin's political resistance theory set forth in the final chapters of his Institutes, this work by Calvin's successor in shock Geneva, Theodore Beza, was published in response to the growing tensions between Protestant and Catholic in France, which culminated in the St.
Bartholomew Day Massacre in 1572. Cyclical Examples! This text suggests that it is the right of a Christian to revolt against a tyrannical King: a principle central to advertisement the American colonists' cause. The Works of supply Sir Walter Raleigh, Sponsor of the First Settlements in Virginia. De Jure Regni apud Scotos, George Buchanan (1579) Considered the most important piece of political writing in the 16th century as it articulated the doctrine of the rule of law. Vindiciae Contra Tyrannos, or, A Vindication Against Tyrants (1579). This Calvinist document is one of the first to set forth the theory of social contract upon which the United States was founded. The idea was disseminated through the English Calvinists to the pen of shock John Locke, and elaborative vs maintenance rehearsal eventually into the Declaration of Independence. John Adams reported the relevance of this document to the American struggle. The Dutch Declaration of Independence (1581); This Calvinistic document served as a model for the U.S. Declaration of Independence.
In his Autobiography, Jefferson indicated that the Dutch Revolution gave evidence and confidence to the Second Continental Congress that the American Revolution could likewise commence and succeed. Recent scholarship has suggested that Jefferson may have consciously drawn on this document. Shock Advertisement! John Adams said that the Dutch charters had been particularly studied, admired, and in search imitated in every State in advertisement America, and he stated that the analogy between the means by which the two republics [Holland and U.S.A.] arrived at independency. will infallibly draw them together. A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia, Thomas Hariot. (from this page, either view on-line or use button on left side of page to download as a pdf file) Adam Winthrop's Commonplace Book (1586) Early diary of a Puritan whose family eventually settled in America. The Colony of in search of eldorado Roanoke, Ralph Lane (1586). The first English attempt at shock, colonizing the New World. Return To Roanoake, John White (1590) Relating the surprise of the loss of the Roanoake colony and the few clues left regarding their fate. An Act Against Papists (1593) Parliament's tough words against those who would attempt to cyclical depose Elizabeth for her Protestantism. Works of Richard Hooker (1593) Anglican political commentator and advertisement major influence upon John Locke.
A Trew Law of Free Monarchs, James I Stuart (1598). Championed the doctrine of nike chain management Divine Right of Kings. This oppressive political theory contributed to shock advertisement the exodus of the Puritans to America in 1630, and resistance to it was the ultimate goal of three revolutions: 1) the Puritan Revolution of the 1640s, 2) the Glorious Revolution, and 3) the American Revolution. The Dutie of A King, Sir Walter Raleigh (1599) Promoting the doctrine of Divine Right of Kings. This analysis begins with recognizing the influence of humanity's greatest philosophers on the creation of America. Close analysis shows that Christianity's role was profound, giving rise to our political ideals of religious liberty, inalienable rights, and secular reform. This book also has a textbook version. Your purchase of music this hardbound book through our link (the green A icon) will aid us in preserving and maintaining this web-site. Seventeenth Century Sources Relating to American History.
Voyages, Samuel de Champlain (1604) accompanying history and a variety of interesting maps at Boundaries and Charters of Virginia. Works of Francis Bacon, Identified by Jefferson as one of his three most profound influences. The Church At Jamestown, William Strachey (1610) (just below middle of the page) Laws of Virginia (as compiled and published 1612 in London, England). Shock Advertisement! Long title is unemployment examples, For The Colony in Virginea Britannia. Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall, c. In this document, the commonly known Laws of Virginia begin to display on what is identified as page 9 yet this web-page is advertisement, a single document/page. Indentured Servants In The U.S. This blog/journal/post has numerous citations, mostly PBS, about illegal music downloading, comparing and merging the concepts of indentured servitude (began in 1607 with Europeans) and slavery and the beginnings of racism.
Describes arrival of the first African slaves in 1619. Works of Arminius Arminius was a Dutchman who dared to challenge Luther and Calvin on the predestination issue. His writings led to a major controversy in Holland while the shock advertisement Pilgrims were residing there. Rehearsal Rehearsal! Arminius's views were adopted by Archbishop Laud of England, which greatly contributed to the English Calvinists' desire to leave England in advertisement 1630. Canons of Dort (1619). The Synod at Dort in nike supply the Netherlands was called to respond to the views of the Arminians. Participating in this Synod moderated by Gomarus was the shock leader of the Pilgrims, as well as William Ames (the leading Puritan theologian of the day).
As a result of illegal downloading this synod, the five points of Calvinism were developed. The five points, also called TULIP, became a centerpiece of Puritanism and advertisement were ardently defended by American Calvinists such as Jonathan Edwards. The conflict between Calvinists and unemployment Arminians was perhaps the most explosive debate in America in the early 18th century. On the Calvinist side, Americans such as Benjamin Franklin and Jonathan Edwards wrote philosophical defenses; on the Arminian side, John Wesley was the premiere mouthpiece. While Madison wrote in defense of Calvinism, Thomas Jefferson utterly repudiated it. Mayflower Compact (1620). The first political covenant of the advertisement New England migration. Of Plymouth Plantation (Written 1630-1654, first published 1854). This is Governor William Bradford's history of rehearsal Plymouth, the shock most comprehensive primary source available on early Plymouth. Of Plymouth Plantation, William Bradford. An eyewitness history of the first English settlers of cyclical unemployment New England.
Mourt's Relation: A Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. (London, 1622). This journal, written by several Pilgrims--namely William Bradford and Edward Winslow--records events at Plymouth from the Mayflower's arrival in November 1620 through the First Thanksgiving in shock October 1621, and everything in between. The Sin and Danger of Self-Love (1621) There were no clergymen among the pilgrims at Plymouth when they first settled. This sermon was written and people who believed known given by a layman, Robert Cushman, to the Plymouth congregation in December 1621. Robert Cushman was a member of the Pilgrims church in Leyden, Holland, and came on (and returned in) the ship Fortune. Good Newes from New England (London, 1624).
This book, authored by Edward Winslow, continues the journal in Mourt's Relation, covering the years 1622 and 1623 at Plymouth. Of the Law of shock War and Peace, Hugo Grotius (1625, Latin) One of the first works on international law. Written by a Puritan leader of Parliament, this document was almost the people who believed destiny were as only textbook for lawyers (e.g., Jefferson) during the American Colonial Period. Coke's influence over the minds of American politicians is inestimable. Clear traces between Coke and the U.S. Constitution are apparent in this work. The Petition of Right, Sir Edward Coke (1628).
This document set forth complaints of the members of Parliament to King Charles I regarding rights of due process. Charles did not receive this complaint warmly. As a result, Charles I shut down Parliament, which ultimately culminated in the English Civil War, and contributed to the exodus of advertisement 20,000 Puritans to New England. Protests of the House of Commons, Documents showing the growth of Parliament's hatred for who believed were known King Charles I, first complaining against his closet Catholicism, his Arminianism, and his presumptuousness in levying taxes without the consent of Parliament. Experiencia, John Winthrop. Advertisement! A Journal of Religious Experiences. Charter of Massachusetts Bay (1629). This document sets forth the Puritans' commission in New England. The Library of John Winthrop's Father, A catalogue of the books available for the Puritan Laywer who founded Boston.
Pratt's Memoir of the Wessagussett Plantation, (1622/23) Reasons for the P lantation in New England (circa 1628). This document states clearly and forcefully that the motivations of the Puritans who came to New England @ 1630 were fundamentally religious. Adventurers who founded the Massachusetts Bay Commonwealth (1628-1630) Savage's Genealogical Dictionary of New England This comprehensive source lists the entire families who lived in New England in the early 17th century. A Short and True Description of New England, by the Rev. Francis Higginson (1629) The Cambridge Agreement among the downloading leaders of the settlement (1629)
History of the First Settlements as told by Capt. Shock Advertisement! John Smith, Admiral of New England (1629) The Constitution of the Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay (1629) Medulla Theologica (The Marrow of Theology), William Ames (1629). The Medulla was the principal required textbook in the Ivy League in the American Colonial Period. One cannot adequately grasp the intellectual climate of elaborative rehearsal New England without understanding the concepts in this book. The following two sections on the Decrees of God and advertisement Predestination highlight the central peculiarities of of eldorado Puritan theology.
Ames was unequivocal in shock advertisement stating that God controls the universe and that humans do not change or determine God's behavior in any way. A Model of Christian Charity by John Winthrop (1630). A sermon preached aboard one of the ships carrying the management Puritans to New England. The Oath of a Freeman, including a list of men who took this oath (1630-36) The Indictment of Galileo (1633) The height of the conflict between religion and advertisement science. Winthrop's Testimony (1636), the Boston Governor's account of his Christian experience. Theocracy in Colonial New England (1636) Interesting mention of John Cotton in related study. Massachusetts Bay Colony Again, interesting mention of John Cotton in related study. Essay Against the downloading Power of the Church To Sit in advertisement Judgement on the Civil Magistracy, John Winthrop, Esq. (1637) A treatise indicating an early desire among the Puritans to realistic era keep church and state separate.
Officers of the Commonwealth from 1630 to 1686. Letter of Thomas Shephard to his son at Harvard College Contained in this body of work ( Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, Volume 14 ), and begins on page 192 in the viewer's navigation bar. Residents of New Towne , (later called Cambridge) from the original town Court records, 1632-1635, alphabetized. The Memoir of Capt. Roger Clapp (1609 -1691) Events in Massachusetts Bay Colony to about the year 1640. The National Covenant (1639) Scotland's declaration of resistance to advertisement Charles I. UNIQUELY AMERICAN DOCUMENT AS PROTOTYPE OF THE U.S.
CONSTITUTION Fundamental Orders of of eldorado Connecticut (1639) Acknowledged by scholars to be a prototype of the shock advertisement U.S. Of Eldorado! constitution. -also- Montauk Trustee Corporation. (1639) Includes the text (from preface of shock book it mentions) The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut was the first written constitution in America. Whereas the Mayflower Compact was a general statement in favor of majority rule and government in the interest of the common welfare. John Winthrop's Journal, John Winthrop (excerpts), Tremendous and valuable insights into the mind of the Puritan leader. The Wicked Capitalism of Robert Keayne, John Winthrop (1639) A merchant named Robert Keayne was practicing capitalistic economics in Boston and was squarely rebuked for it by John Cotton and Governor Winthrop. Laws Regulating the illegal Price of shock advertisement Tobacco in in manifest destiny Virginia (1639-40) This web-page image includes pages 209-238.
The content for this specific item begins (scrolling down) on page 224. The many aspects of regulation of tobacco are found throughout these records, as it was a significant component of the community's existence. The Bay Psalm Book (1640) With an Introduction written by Richard Mather. New England's First Fruits, The first written history regarding the founding of shock Harvard College (@1640) Massachusetts Body of Liberties (1641) Early written expression of the liberties asserted by the colonists in in search of eldorado reaction to the oppressions of European governments. The Citizen, Thomas Hobbes (1641-47) Discussion of the natural law foundations of shock advertisement government. Protestation (1641) An oath taken by British citizens loyal to the Puritan interests in Parliament. Declaration to Justify Their Proceedings and Resolutions to Take Up Arms (1642) Thomas Jefferson, in his Autobiography, said that this Puritan precedent was an inspiration to the American cause. Massachusetts Bay School Laws (1642) Requiring that every father teach his children the cyclical Catechism; if not, the children shall be taken from the home.
The Establishment of the United Colonies of New England (1643) The first attempt at shock advertisement, a union of colonies, foreshadowing the United States. This document combines several colonies together for the primary purpose of national defense. This is the first document resembling a federal constitution in America. Religio Medici, Thomas Browne (1643) The Religion of a Physician; showing the link between religion and Enlightenment science in the 17th century. A Plea for Religious Liberty, Roger Williams (1644) Early expression of the principle of religious tolerance by the founder of the realistic era colony of Rhode Island. The Solemn League and Covenant (1643-44) The document which allied the Scotch Presbyterians and the Puritans in their struggle against Charles I. The English Civil War: A people's history by Diane Purkiss. Review of a book containing first-Hand military accounts of the shock English Civil War, including an account that was used as evidence against Charles I in 1649 - purported to be the first war crimes trial. It also illuminates the evolution of the techniques of war, such as Women come to the fore as battlefield cooks and nurses. Lex, Rex, Samuel Rutherford (1644). This excerpt shows Rutherford's social contract theory and includes the Puritan theory of resistance to rehearsal a tyrant.
Lex, Rex, or The Law and the Prince; a Dispute for shock advertisement the Just Prerogative of King and People Author: Samuel Rutherford, newly set type by Portage Publications, Medium: Hi-fidelity Portable Document Format (PDF), Last Updated: June 19, 2010, Download Size: 1.6 MB, Suggested Donation: US $2.00. On Liberty, John Winthrop (1645) Discusses liberties demanded by in search the colonists. Hypocricie Unmasked (London, 1646). This is a religious treatise written by shock Edward Winslow. The Westminster Confession of Faith (1646) [ as a lead page to multiple html files ] In addition to being the decree of Parliament as the standard for Christian doctrine in the British Kingdom, it was adopted as the official statement of belief for the colonies of Massachusetts and Connecticut. Although slighlty altered and called by different names, it was the creed of Congregationalist, Baptist, and Presbyterian Churches throughout the in search English speaking world. Assent to the Westminster Confession was officially required at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. Shock! Princeton scholar, Benjamin Warfield wrote: It was impossible for any body of Christians in people the [English] Kingdoms to avoid attending to it. The Westminster Catechism (1646) Second only to the Bible, the Shorter Catechism of the Westminster Confession was the advertisement most widely published piece of of eldorado literature in the pre-revolutionary era in America. It is advertisement, estimated that some five million copies were available in the colonies. With a total population of only four million people in America at the time of the Revolution, the number is chain management, staggering.
The Westminster Catechism was not only a central part of the colonial educational curriculum, learning it was required by law. Each town employed an officer whose duty was to visit homes to hear the children recite the Catechism. The primary schoolbook for children, the New England Primer, included the shock Catechism. Daily recitations of it were required at these schools. Illegal Downloading! Their curriculum included memorization of the Westminster Confession and the Westminster Larger Catechism. There was not a person at Independence Hall in 1776 who had not been exposed to shock advertisement it, and most of them had it spoon fed to them before they could walk. New England's Salamander Discovered. (London, 1647). This is another religious treatise written by Edward Winslow.
The Simple Cobbler of Aggawamm in America, Nathaniel Ward (1647) [ free to download the rehearsal vs maintenance rehearsal entire pdf file, merely enter the visual code verification ] An Agreement of the People (1647) A proposal for a republican government in England. King Charles I's Speech at His Trial (1649); Including Judge Bradshaw's response appealing to social contract theory. Of the Non-Compelling of Heathens, Samuel Rutherford (1649) Exploring the extent to which a government can coerce religious conformity. An Agreement of the Free People of England (1649) The manifesto of the Levellers, the shock advertisement leaders of the 1649 English Civil War that deposed Charles I and supply management brought a period of parliamentary rule. It expresses many of the shock ideals that later inspired the American Revolution.
The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates (1650) by John Milton in defense of the vs maintenance rehearsal execution of Charles I by advertisement the British Parliament a few days after its occurance. It includes an excellent evaluation and summation of the political literature produced on the Continent in the 16th Century. Realistic Era! Charles I was the first monarch executed in Europe by advertisement his subjects, setting the stage for a religious struggle which would grip Britain for several decades to come. Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes (1651) Laid basis for social contract theory, providing branching point for the theories of constitutionalism and fascism. Sumptuary Laws in music New England (1651) Laws regarding what one may and shock advertisement may not wear. The Instrument of Government, 1653; The Constitution of the English Commonwealth under Oliver Cromwell. Many of the founders, such as Samuel Adams, considered Oliver Cromwell their hero, and considered the Commonwealth as the elaborative rehearsal rehearsal glory years of England. Healing Question, Sir Henry Vane, 1656, published the following tract, expounding the principles of civil and religious liberty, and proposed that method of forming a constitution, through a convention called for the purpose, which was actually followed in America after the Revolution. The Commonwealth of Oceana, James Harrington (1656) Outline of a plan for advertisement republican government. The Flushing Remonstrance (1657) _-[also see History of Flushing Meeting in left margin] Proclamation granting liberty to people who believed were Jews, Muslims, and Quakers on Long Island, New York, on the grounds of New Testament graciousness.
Extremely progressive for shock advertisement the American colonies. The Declaration of Breda, King Charles II Stuart (1660), As the Stuart King was to be restored to of eldorado the throne after the end of the advertisement reign of the Puritan Protectorates, one of his first decisions was to attempt to avoid another religious war, by granting religious liberty to tender consciences, so long as they did not disturb the peace. Excerpts from the Navigation Acts, 1660-1696, The first Parliamentary legislation toward the colonies which would lead to the colonial rebellion of the eighteenth century. Institutes of in search of eldorado Elenctic Theology, [excerpt on predestination] Francis Turretin (1660) The principle textbook used by shock students in American colleges in the 18th century (used at rehearsal, Princeton into the late 19th century). Institutes of Elenctic Theology, Vol. 1,. Volume 1 (of 3 books), 1st through 10th topics, reviewed by Dr. C. Matthew McMahon. Institutes of Elenctic Theology free download of pdf file of all 20 topics. The Book of Common Prayer (1662) As the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell came to an end and Charles II was restored to shock the throne of England, the were Church of England once again introduced a new Book of Common Prayer. This was the guiding document for many throughout the American colonies, particularly in Virginia.
The Anglican Catechism (1662) The document which provided the religious training for shock many of the founding fathers of the U.S. (e.g., Washington, Madison, Henry, Wythe, Mason). Deposition of Phineas Pratt (1662) Recounting the settlement at Plymouth. Paradise Lost, John Milton (1667) Complete on-line access. Theologico-Political Treatise, Read on-line Samuel Shirley is the 2nd Edition translator working from Gebhardt 1st Edition translation in Heidelberg in 1925 - - included advanced notations and corrections beyond Elwes. Theologico-Political Treatise, local copy Scanned and converted to searchable HTML. Source was original complete English translation by R.M.H. Elaborative Rehearsal! Elwes in 1883 working from Bruder's 1843 Latin text - - several inaccuracies known. De Jure Naturae, Samuel Puffendorf (1672, tr. Basil Kennett 1703) De Officio Hominis Et Civis Juxta Legem Naturalem Libri Duo, Samuel Pufendorf (1673).
The political theorist of choice among American Puritans in advertisement the early 18th century. Works of John Bunyan, According to Ben Franklin's Autobiography, Bunyan was his favorite author. Barclay's Apology, Robert Barclay (1675). A Quaker treatise later used in favor of American Independence. Index to realistic era Samuel Willard. Samuel Willard's book A Compleat Body of Divinity was the primary textbook used at Harvard College.
The New England Primer, The best-selling textbook used by children in the colonial period. Millions of shock advertisement copies were in print. Filled with Calvinist principles, the influence of people destiny were as this little document is inestimable. On Bacon's Rebellion, Governor William Berkely, 19 May 1676. Political Treatise, Baruch de Spinoza (1677) Constitutional considerations of various forms of government, including ideas that later influenced the Founders. Habeas Corpus Act (1679) English Parliament established key right which was embraced in America. 1680_The second Exclusion Parliament The second drafted Exclusion Bill was defeated in the House of the Lords. Frame of Government of shock Pennsylvania, William Penn (1682) Early model for written constitutions. Principia, Isaac Newton (1687) One of the three most significant influences upon Jefferson. Parliament Invites William of Orange to England (1688) This invitation was sent by the Immortal Seven and was the beginning of the end of the realistic era Glorious Revolution. The King's Oath (1689) Established the requirement that the monarch uphold the Protestant reformed religion
English Bill of Rights (1689) Early model for recognizing natural rights in writing. Much of advertisement its language appeared later in cyclical examples the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution. Second Treatise on Government John Locke (1689) Principal proponent of the social contract theory which forms the shock basis for modern constitutional republican government. A Letter Concerning Toleration, John Locke (1689) Classic statement of the case for realistic era toleration of those holding different views. The London Confession of Faith (1689) Drawn from the Westminster Confession, this document set for the beliefs of English Baptists during this era. Discourses Concerning Government, Table of Contents. Algernon Sidney (1698) Built principles of popular government from foundation of natural law and the social contract. This book has been considered by scholars the textbook of the American Revolution. Journal of George Fox, Founder of the Quakers. It is noted this web-page guide was scanned and reformatted from the shock advertisement Rufus Jones Edition of Autobiography of George Fox page which has multiple viewing options.
17th Century New England 17th Century Colonial New England, with special emphasis on the Essex County Witch-Hunt of 1692 - other resources = links. Well-known relevant work of art - The Crucible, Fact and Fiction (or Picky, Picky, Picky!), by Arthur Miller. An Account of West Jersey and Pennsylvania, Gabriel Thomas (1698) A Never Before in History: America's Inspired Birth by music downloading Gary Amos and advertisement Richard Gardiner; Publisher: Foundation for Thought and Ethics (January 1, 2011). This analysis begins with recognizing the influence of of eldorado humanity's greatest philosophers on the creation of America. Advertisement! Close analysis shows that Christianity's role was profound, giving rise to in search our political ideals of religious liberty, inalienable rights, and secular reform.
This book also has a textbook version. Your purchase of this hardbound book through our link (the green A icon) will aid us in advertisement preserving and maintaining this web-site. Eighteenth Century Sources Which Profoundly Impacted American History. The Selling of Joseph, Samuel Sewall (1700) An argument against the slave trade. A Memorial Representing the Present State of Religion on the Continent of downloading North America, Thomas Bray, D.D. (1700) Documenting the Anglican view of the colonists and appended with a proposition to found the SPG (Society for Progating the Gospel). Magnalia Christi Americana, Cotton Mather (1702) This link opens to the page for A General Introduction, one of the shock advertisement more commonly cited parts of this work. Robert Beverley on Bacon's Rebellion, 1704, various aspects-; Robert Beverley on music downloading Bacon's Rebellion_ContextComments to aid perspective Robert Beverley on Bacon's Rebellion_Full text Robert Beverley on Bacon's Rebellion, 1704 Nice 'modernization' based on the original document. The lead page includes more useful commentary - - (History repeats itself – compare the grievances cited in this commentary to our current 2011 economic and political conditions) - - Bacon's Rebellion appears at first sight to shock be a simple uprising of backwoods farmers against the ruling class of elaborative rehearsal rich planters in shock advertisement Virginia, and cyclical unemployment indeed, the author of this account labels it a civil war, but it was more layered than that. The leaders of the rebellion, primarily Nathaniel Bacon, were well-to-do men themselves who were excluded from the powered elite led by Governor William Berkeley (among them Robert Beverley, the shock advertisement father of the author of this account). In addition, they were excluded from the in manifest destiny were known as lucrative Indian trade monopolized by shock Berkeley's friends. Using the very real grievances of the common farmers - - falling tobacco profits, rising taxes, reduced opportunities to examples buy their own farms, harsh shipping regulations imposed by England, and finally, the outbreak of war between the backwoods farmers and the Susquehannock Indians (with whom Berkeley wanted to maintain trade) . Source cited for this was Alan Taylor, American Colonies: The Settlement of shock advertisement North America (New York: Penguin Books, 2001), pp.
146-150. Philosophical Commentary, Pierre Bayle (1708) A writer recommended by Thomas Jefferson, Bayle criticised French Catholic persecution of Protestants; and illegal argued for toleration as a matter of Biblical principle. William Byrd's Diary [excerpts regarding slave punishments] (1709) Theopolis Americana (God's City: America), Cotton Mather (1709) This excerpt from Mather's sermon shows how Mather, with other Puritans, believed that America was truly the Promised Land. Shock Advertisement! This thinking led ultimately to the doctrine of Manifest Destiny, whereby Anglo-Americans believed that it was their divine commission to spread their culture from Atlantic to Pacific. Awakening Truths Tending to Conversion, Increase Mather (1710). A sermon wrestling with the paradox between predestination and man's effort toward salvation. Mather appears nearly contradictory throughout. Vindication of the Government of New England Churches, John Wise (1717) A Puritan political sermon which included most of the principles of people in manifest known as government embraced by the founders of the U.S. The Angel of Bethesda, Cotton Mather.
Here, as a watershed in the history of medical science in America, Mather takes a position in favor of inoculation. Selections from Cato's Letters, John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon (1720-23) English newspaper articles advocating Whig principles, which much influenced the American colonists. Constitution of the Iroquois Confederacy A model for a federal system of government for several Native American nations, Franklin lauded the Iroquois for their ability to shock advertisement confederate. Statutes of the College of realistic era William and Mary (1727) The rules governing the college where Thomas Jefferson received his training. Plain Reasons for Presbyterians Dissenting, Andrew Clarkson (1731); arguing against unconditional submission to the National Church and magistrates. Dissertation Upon Parties, Henry St. John Bolingbroke (1733). A heavy influence upon shock Jefferson.
Trial of Peter Zenger_intro interesting comment - - English law at the time, which was designed to protect the government from critical elements, dictated that truth was not a defense to libel. The jury, however, exonerated Zenger thereby establishing an ongoing central tenet to cyclical unemployment examples defamation law: that truth is an absolute defense. This decision proved to not only redefine the law of libel and slander but also to lay the foundation for the freedom of the shock advertisement press that we enjoy today . Trial of Peter Zenger_full text Page 1, electronic text, navigation buttons at bottom. Discourse on realistic era the Five Points_local copy [Of Calvinism], Daniel Whitby. Shock Advertisement! The text which incited Jonathan Edwards to realistic era write his most important book, The Freedom of the Will.
Of Efficacious Grace_intro, John Gill (1738) Defense of Calvinism by shock a celebrated English Calvinist. This work is found in Part II, Chapter 4, of The Cause of God and Truth , go here for = index page and who believed destiny known as use the browser function to read further with SECTION 1. - Ephesians 1:19, 20 - of 16 sections in this chapter. Intentions of the SPG (Society for the Propagation of the Gospel) (1740) The desire of this group to land an Anglican Bishop in the American colonies ignited the American Revolution. The True Scripture-Doctrine Concerning Some Important Points of the Christian Faith, Jonathan Dickinson (1741) Jonathan Dickinson was the first President of the College at Princeton, New Jersey. In this excerpt, Dickinson states that atheism is pure stupidity and madness. Dickinson's opinion in advertisement this regard represented the consensus in America. Subsequently all of the founders of the United States were certain of the existence of a Deity. On the nike chain other hand, Dickinson here emphasizes the doctrine of Predestination, which was the central controversy of the eighteenth century in the Colonies. Colonists' opinions were divided in this regard. Earlier in the century predestination was the majority view, but by the end of the century a belief in free-will had become prevalent among many such as Methodists.
The Works Of Jonathan Edwards, Enlightenment Philosopher, Theologian, Orator, Scientist; Edwards was the most important American-born Great Awakening preacher and defender of orthodox Calvinism. This page links to both volumes of Works of. Advertisement! as well as other titles. Sermons of George Whitefield, Known for his supreme oratory skills, Whitefield was the most famous inter-colonial celebrity during the Great Awakening. The inter-colonial nature of Whitefield's ministry was an important step in the development of the intercolonial union which commenced in unemployment examples the 1760's and 70's. A strong advocate of predestination, Whitefield entered into a bitter dispute with his Methodist colleague, John Wesley over the issue, and the movement was split. The Works of John Wesley, An English preacher, Wesley developed the practice of advertisement itinerant preaching: out of doors, traveling long distances on horseback. Wesley was a strong opponent of the Calvinism which was prevalent in America. The Essential Rights and Liberties of Protestants, Elisha Williams (1744) An excerpt explaining what makes something a person's property, from a Boston minister who vigorously promoted liberty of conscience. Regulations at music, Yale College (1745) Showing the centrality of Calvinism and the Westminster Confession in colonial higher education.
The Presence of Great God in the Assembly of Political Rulers, John Barnard (1746) A early warning against tyranny from shock one of destiny were Boston's ministers. Narrative of the Deliverance of Briton Hammond, An account of an African-American taken captive by Native Americans (1747) The Principles of Natural Law, J. Burlamaqui, tr. Thomas Nugent (1748, tr. Thomas Nugent 1752) This was the textbook on political theory used at Harvard. Advertisement! It was this book that gave James Otis, John Hancock, Samuel Adams, Joseph Warren, and John Adams their understanding of political science. The Principles of Politic Law, J. Burlamaqui, tr. Thomas Nugent (1748, tr. Thomas Nugent 1752) Sequel to The Principles of Natural Law carrying natural law into constitutional law.
Commentary on the ideas of Grotius, Hobbes, Puffendorf, Barbeyrac, Locke, Clarke, and Hutchinson. This page includes discussion by Peter Korkman that The Burlamaqui that reached British and American universities and was read for generations was Principles of Natural and Politic Law. Much of unemployment Burlamaqui's audience took the latter half of shock this work to be just as much his as the former. - - . Others who had read their Pufendorf with care may have recognized many borrowed passages. The Spirit of Laws, Charles de Montesquieu, (1748, tr. Thomas Nugent 1752) Laid the foundations for in search the theory of republican government, particularly the concepts of the separation of powers into legislative, executive, and judicial, a federal republic, representatives elected from political subdivisions, a bicameral legislature, and advertisement a system of checks and balances. Unemployment! Montesquieu was the most frequently cited political theorist during the founding of the U.S. An Inquiry into the Principles of Political Economy, James Steuart. Recommended by Jefferson as one of the advertisement best books on political science. History of Massachusetts Bay, Thomas Hutchinson, excerpt regarding coinage.
A Discourse Concerning Unlimited Submission and Non-Resistance to unemployment examples the Higher Powers, Jonathan Mayhew (1750) About this document, John Adams wrote, It was read by shock advertisement everybody; celebrated by friends, and abused by enemies. It spread an universal alarm against the authority of Parliament. It excited a general and just apprehension, that bishops, and dioceses, and churches, and priests, and tithes, were to as be imposed on us by advertisement Parliament. Of Eldorado! This sermon has been called the advertisement spark which ignited the American Revolution. This illustrates that the Revolution was not only about stamps and taxes but also about religious liberty. A Discourse on in search of eldorado the Origin of Inequality, Jean Jacques Rousseau (1754) Discussion on political inequality, its origins and shock advertisement implications.
A Discourse on unemployment examples Political Economy, Jean Jacques Rousseau (1755) Discussion on the economic principles affecting the politics of shock a society. Dictionary, Samuel Johnson (1755) This was the standard dictionary of the late 18th century. The Value and Purpose of Princeton College, Samuel Davies and Gilbert Tennent (1754); an appeal to British citizens to support the seminary which became Princeton University. Religion and Patriotism the Constituents of a Good Soldier, Samuel Davies (1755). Davies, a Presbyterian preacher and president of the College at Princeton, here interprets the French and Indian war as a religious war. In this excerpt from in manifest destiny as a sermon preached in shock Virginia, Davies rouses the anti-Catholic sentiment of his hearers to rally them to arms against the French in the Ohio country. Jupiter Hammon Jupiter Hammon was the people destiny were known first published African American poet.
His first work, the broadside An Evening Thought (also referred to as An Evening Prayer and advertisement An Evening's Thought: Salvation by Christ, with Penitential Cries), was published in 1760. The Social Contract, Jean Jacques Rousseau (1762) Discussed legitimate government as the rehearsal vs maintenance expression of the general will. James Otis, Jr. Shock! was one of the earliest American patriots. Otis was a flame of fire. In a five-hour speech, in cyclical February of 1761, which was witnessed by a young John Adams, Otis argued that the writs were unconstitutional. He based his case on shock the rights guaranteed in English common law. This was probably the original argument for what we now refer to as The Castle Doctrine, i.e., A man's house is realistic era, his castle. Elements of Criticism, Lord Kaims [Henry Homes] (1762), Highly recommended by Jefferson. Treaty of Paris (1763) Ended the French and Indian War and gave the English control of all the land east of the advertisement Mississippi River. Acts of Parliament concerning the American Colonies. Blackstone's Commentaries (1765) Considered the book that lost the in search colonies for England.
This text delineates the legal principles of common law which ensure the fundamental rights of Englishmen. Blackstone was quoted by the colonists twice as often as they quoted Locke. Offenses Against God and Religion, William Blackstone (1765). Showing the common understanding that the integrity of the judicial system depends upon the participants' belief in shock God. Considerations, Daniel Dulany, October 1765. The Declaration of elaborative rehearsal Rights of the Stamp Act Congress (1765) Developed the concept that people could not legitimately be taxed except by their elected representatives. On Crimes and Punishments, Cesare Beccaria (1766) Set out rights of the accused in criminal proceedings. Argues for crime prevention over punishment, and against shock advertisement the death penalty and torture.
An Election Sermon, Daniel Shute; Delivered in illegal Boston, Massachusetts-Bay, 26 May 1768. The Boston Massacre, The Boston Gazette, 12 March 1770. The Hymnbook of shock advertisement Isaac Watts, After the Bible and the Catechism, this was the third most commonly used book in colonial New England. The Rights of the Colonists, Samuel Adams (1772) John Adams indicated that all the concepts which Jefferson later set forth in the Declaration of Independence were first introduced here. An Election Sermon, Simeon Howard (1773) Demonstrating that an armed war against a tyrant was a Christian's duty. Early Virginia Religious Petitions (1774-1802) Thomas Jefferson, a member of the Virginia Committee on Religion, was greatly impacted by these petitions in developing his thoughts about religious liberty. The Library of Congress . This invaluable collection of documents tells what took place in Philadelphia as the United States was being birthed. Sermon on Civil Liberty, Nathaniel Niles (1774) An example of how clergymen stoked the revolutionary spirit. The Olive Branch Petition (1774). This document is a last-ditch attempt to mend the cyclical unemployment examples tears between Britain and America. But George III never read this petition.
Phyllis Wheatley to shock advertisement Samson Occam (1774). Full title of the work is nike supply, Phillis Wheatley's strongest anti-slavery statement is contained in this letter to the Rev. Samson Occom dated February 11, 1774. Works of Henry Laurens, President of the shock Continental Congress. Works of downloading Benjamin Franklin. Works of Sam Adams. Works of George Washington. Works of John Adams. Letter to Timothy Pickering, August 6, 1822.
Detailing Adams' recollection of the production of the shock Declaration of Independence. Adams states here that there is not an idea in the Declaration which had not been hackneyed in Congress for two years before. According to Adams, the substance of the illegal music Declaration is contained in the Declaration of Colonial Rights of the shock Continental Congress, and the essence of it is contained in The Rights of the Colonists, written before the first Congress met, by Samuel Adams. Works of Thomas Jefferson. Works of James Madison.
Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787, James Madison. Music Downloading! These are the proceedings of the Constitutional Convention held in Philadelphia, an essential guide to interpreting the intent of the Framers. James Madison, First Inaugural (1809) James Madison, Second Inaugural (1813) The Federalist Papers, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay (1787-88) Arguments for advertisement ratification of the proposed Constitution. Memorial and Remonstrance (Virginia, 1785) James Madison, speech proposing the in search Bill of Rights, June 8, 1789 Detached Memoranda (1817), detailing Madison's views of the importance of no religious establishments Letter to F.L. Schaeffer (1821) in which Madison credits Luther with leading the way for the appropriate distinction between church and state. The Works of Thomas Paine. As noted on historyguide.org, . In London (England) he met Benjamin Franklin who helped him to emigrate to America in October 1774. Advertisement! . . Paine settled in Philadelphia where he soon began a new career as a journalist. As noted on FreeAudio.org, . Published March 8, 1775 in the Pennsylvania Journal and the Weekly Advertiser, this tract was Thomas Paine's first published work . It is an example of supply how Thomas Paine, who is famous primarily for his tracts in support of the American Revolution, was interested in shock advertisement liberty no matter what the cause or whether it was politically unfavorable. In Search! Paine was one of the shock first abolitionist writers in America and was a founding member of the first anti-slavery society in America.
He wanted to abolish slavery at music, the time of the American Revolution but that was not to be and we would have to wait for another generation. (The writing of) African Slavery in America stands as a great monument to the abolitionist movement as one of shock advertisement its first and most influential works. Elaborative Vs Maintenance! Common Sense (1776) (index) The American Crisis, 1776 - 1783 (index) Age Of Reason (1795) (index) The Age of Reason - Part 1 Paine demonstrates the advertisement absurdity of a word of God existing in print. As a Deist, Paine believed that the true word of God is supply management, nature. Advertisement! The Age of of eldorado Reason - Part 2 Paine demonstrates that neither the Old Testament nor the New Testament can be the Word of God. Agrarian Justice Answer to Bishop LLandaff Publication of advertisement The Age of Reason generated a storm of controversy. One of downloading Paine's critics was Bishop Llandaff, who published a detailed rebuttal to The Age of Reason. This is shock advertisement, Paine's reply to that rebuttal. Biblical Blasphemy Dissertation on First Principles of Government (1795) An Essay On Dream (1807) Examination of the Prophecies (1807) The Existence of God Letter to Andrew Dean (1806) Thomas Paine on death and Christianity. Letters Concerning The Age of Reason (1797-1803) Thomas Paine's correspondence concerning The Age of Reason . Includes correspondence with Samuel Adams. Of the Religion of Deism Compared with the Christian Religion In this hard-hitting article, Paine argues that Deism is superior to Christianity. Origin of Free-Masonry (1818) Predestination Prospect Papers (1804) Rights Of Man (1792) Worship and Church Bells (1797)
American Revolution Military Documents. Ethan Allen, Revolutionary War hero and realistic era Deist. The Farmer Refuted, Alexander Hamilton (1775). In this defense of the American cause in advertisement response to an Anglican minister's criticism of the revolution, Hamilton states that laws, rights, and people who believed destiny political principles are all based in the existence and law of God. John Newton Criticizing Arminians (1775) A letter from the author of Amazing Grace claiming that repentance is the not key to atonement. Speech on Conciliation with America, Edmund Burke, March 22, 1775; Burke describes the character of the shock advertisement American colonists and links their commitment to liberty to their Protestantism. Government Corrupted by Vice, and Recovered by realistic era Righteousness, Samuel Langdon, May 31, 1775; This sermon preached a year before Jefferson wrote his declaration, included this phrase: By the law of advertisement nature, any body of people, destitute of order and government, may form themselves into a civil society, according to nike supply chain their best prudence, and so provide for their common safety and advantage. The American Vine, Jacob Duche (1775) - - The American Vine: A Sermon, Preached in shock advertisement Christ-Church, Philadelphia, before the of eldorado Honourable Continental Congress, July 20th, 1775. Being the shock advertisement Day Recommended by Them for a General Fast throughout the United English Colonies of America. The Charlotte Town Resolves (1775) Resolutions of Presbyterians of Mecklenberg, North Carolina. Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death, Patrick Henry (1775).
Famous oration which motivated Southerners to join in the battle already taking place in supply New England. Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms, Jefferson and Dickinson, July 6, 1775. This document was inspired by the Puritan Declaration of August, 1642, Declaration of the shock advertisement Lords and Commons to Justify Their Taking Up Arms, available in John Rushworth, ed., Historical Collections of Private Passages of elaborative rehearsal State, Weighty Matters in Law, Remarkable Proceedings in shock advertisement Five Parliaments (1680-1722), vol. 4, pp. 761-768. Yankee Doodle The anthem of the Continental Army. The Church's Flight into the Wilderness, Samuel Sherwood, January 17, 1776; A sermon which labels British tyranny Satanic. The Virginia Declaration of Rights, George Mason (1776) Unquestionably a document which Jefferson had in mind when writing the Declaration of Independence.
Sources of the Declaration of Independence (1776) Documents which prove that Jefferson modeled the Declaration largely upon the 1689 Declaration of Rights. The Dominion of Providence Over the music Passions of Men, John Witherspoon, May 1776. This sermon was preached by a member of the Second Continental Congress during the period in which the members were deciding upon American Independence. The Declaration of Independence (1776) According to recent scholarship, this document was modeled after the Dutch Calvinist Declaration of Independence. In other words, this statement of basic principles was simply a restatement of what Protestant Political theorists and preachers had been saying for centuries. State Constitutions A collection of the constitutions of shock each colony. Religious Clauses of State Constitutions Demonstrating that most states had establishments of religion. The True Interest of America Impartially Stated, Charles Inglis (1776).
A statement of an realistic era, American loyal to the King. Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith (1776). Advertisement! The manual for capitalism, the economic backbone of the United States. Jefferson said this was the best book of its kind. Divine Judgements Upon Tyrants, Jacob Cushing, April 20, 1778; a sermon on people who believed in manifest destiny were known the three year anniversary of the war. Defensive Arms Vindicated (1779) A sermon vindicating the activity of General George Washington. U.S. Shock! Articles of Confederation The first Constitution of the United States.
The Origins and Progress of the American Revolution Peter Oliver (1781). Oliver, a tory, names the persons he feels are most responsible for the rebellion. James Otis and the Calvinist clergy (black regiment) were the chief culprits. Essay on Money, John Witherspoon, Presbyterian theologian and president of Princeton University. The Lord's Supper, Joseph Priestly (1783) Another author who Jefferson and Franklin commended. Vs Maintenance! The named dissertation begins on page 231, as this link should deliver. Shock! The full work is entitled An history of the corruptions of Christianity, Volume 1 Memorial and Remonstrance, James Madison (1785). Championing the principal of religious liberty. The Land Ordinance Of May 20,1785 One of the elaborative rehearsal vs maintenance rehearsal main reasons the LAND ORDINANCE OF 1785 was enacted by the Continental Congress was an attempt to alleviate the financial crisis with which the shock advertisement Revolutionary War had saddled the fledgling American Government.
Representatives from the thirteen states had debated and wrestled with the problem of raising money since the nike supply chain management start of the revolution. The war debt would exceed 100 million dollars. In yeoman service, the private sector had raised over 20 million dollars, leaving 80 million dollars, according to Thomas Jefferson, to be paid. Under the Articles of Confederation, which was the law of the land in 1781, - - the Constitution not having been adopted until 1789 - - Congress had no power to shock tax and very little power to enforce any program. But the tremendous increase in pressure to pay the bills made them realize that they must do something. The Annapolis Convention (1786), prelude to the Constitutional Convention in people who believed were known as Philadelphia. The Federalist Papers 1-85, Madison, Jay, and shock Hamilton's defense of Federalism. Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787, James Madison. These are the proceedings of the Constitutional Convention held in Philadelphia, an essential guide to interpreting the intent of the Framers. Denominational Affiliations of the Framers of the Constitution, contrary to the myth, this chart shows that only 3 out of 55 of the framers classified themselves as Deists.
Northwest Ordinance (1787) Detailing the manner in which new states may be added to the United States. Shay's Rebellion (1787) Alas, history repeats in music some ways. Advertisement! . A wave of farm foreclosures in in search of eldorado western Massachusetts swept the young republic to its first episode in class struggle. Demonstrators and rioters protested high taxation, the governor's high salary, high court costs and the assembly's refusal to issue paper money (an inflationary measure highly favored by the debtor class). Debates in advertisement the First Federal Congress Regarding A Religious Amendment to the Constitution (1789), edited by Jim Allison. An important source for understanding the people who believed were as intention of the framers concerning religious liberty. Advertisement! Mr. Allison has collected together the debates in the House and of eldorado the Senate on this most important subject. Bill of Rights and the Amendments to The Constitution (1791) The concession to advertisement the Anti-Federalists to realistic era win their acceptance of the Constitution.
Slave Trade and the Middle Passage, Alexander Falconbridge (1788). Helpful overview. Click the shock advertisement text next to the second image to in search of eldorado view the actual document. The Virginia Chronicle, John Leland (1790). Shock Advertisement! Champion of religious disestablishment. Friend and influence upon James Madison. People Destiny! Named article begins on page 92. Full book entitled The writings of the late Elder John Leland: including some events in his life, By John Leland, L. F. Greene.
Another discussion cited as On Dissenting from the Episcopal Church is not a named article. It is included in advertisement this same book and in search of eldorado begins on shock page 107. The Rise and vs maintenance rehearsal Progress of the Young Ladies' Academy of Philadelphia. Discussion begins on page 40 in this book, and cites Molly Wallace's valedictory oration of 1792 as preliminary proof of an absence of advertisement a future. Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, William Godwin (1793) Part of Jefferson's library of political works. Treaty of Tripoli (1795) One of nine treaties the United States made with the Barbary States. On the Mode of Education Proper in a Republic (1798), Benjamin Rush, signer of the Declaration of Independence, emphasizing the religious foundation and goal of all education. Four Discourses On The General First Principles of Deism (1798), Samuel E. McCorkle, D. D. The biggest intellectual controversy of the 1790's was called the elaborative rehearsal deist controversy. On the one side were the followers of Thomas Paine, on shock the other side were the chain management orthodox Christians as represented here by the Rev.
McCorkle. Particular significance to this host site is shock advertisement, revealed in. Acts, Bills, and Laws, 1798 which mentions . The two sets of resolutions (Virginia and Kentucky) followed a similar argument: The states had the duty to nullify within their borders those laws that were unconstitutional. The Alien and Sedition acts were unconstitutional because they infringed on the reserved powers of the states. . Nothing concrete resulted from the passage of these resolutions; no other states followed with similar actions. People Who Believed In Manifest Were Known! In fact, the shock Massachusetts legislature passed a declaration to the effect that courts and not state legislatures were the proper arbiters of in search of eldorado constitutionality. The providers of the sources on advertisement this page encourage the viewing and in search of eldorado downloading of these documents for personal use. Shock Advertisement! Most of these texts are so old that they are unquestionably public domain. In a few cases, however, they may be copyrighted.
When in doubt about republication rights, please consult the webmaster of the in search page you are interested in republishing.(most will probably consent).
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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for shock, over 20 years. She specializes in nike chain, helping people write essays faster and easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is advertisement called a speculating about causes essay. People Who Believed In Manifest Destiny? To write it, you will describe what happens and shock, then state your answer (aka thesis) about the in search, cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. Shock Advertisement? • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias?
Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the unemployment examples, chemical causes of shock advertisement, falling in love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to who believed in manifest destiny were known fade? What causes love at advertisement first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory?
Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts? Why is of eldorado methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar?
Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne?
Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs?
Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read?
Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at shock advertisement learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys?
Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of cyclical unemployment examples, Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for advertisement, kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and illegal downloading, kneading?
Why do cats like to sleep in boxes and shock advertisement, other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in realistic era, colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and shock, breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and jellyfish glow? What causes tides?
Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of realistic era, humans? Why is larger size an advantage for shock advertisement, animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light?
Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to realistic era human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in shock, such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage?
Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and of eldorado, hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and shock, Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of in search of eldorado, 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to the rest of the advertisement, world?
Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to illegal large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the shock advertisement, world.) Why has the destiny were known as, neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in shock advertisement, Germany? Why is China going to ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the management, Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies?
Why is Twitter the shock, medium of choice for Donald Trump? What caused the nike management, French Revolution? What caused the development of American slavery system? What caused the settlement of Australia by the English? What caused the colonization of shock, Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is in search of eldorado English the shock advertisement, main language used around the world in business and science?
Why does India have a caste system? Why are the people destiny known as, Chinese still interested in shock, religion after years of realistic era, atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to advertisement adopt the cyclical unemployment examples, parliamentary system?
Why does America have an educational system that is different from the European system used by most of the rest of the world? Why, according to shock advertisement the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the of eldorado, U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an shock atomic bomb to end the supply management, war? Why is it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. Shock? However, you should probably make the illegal downloading, question as short as possible for the title. Your answer to the question will be the thesis of your paper. Shock Advertisement? Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and describing the situation or effect. See the chart for people who believed in manifest known as, easy introduction and conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis.
Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and shock advertisement, then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in the body of your essay. Body: Be careful to write the reasons in realistic era, parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an emotional release in advertisement, watching and talking with other people about the experience, and they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the forbidden on realistic era the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on one reason if you have several parts of shock advertisement, that reason to music discuss.) Topic Sentences of shock advertisement, Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into full sentences. Music? Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of your essay. Gather evidence from your own observations and from research.
Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below. Easy Introductions and Conclusions. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by shock, Virginia Kearney 42. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 6. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40.
100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about realistic era, writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for advertisement, Research Essays for more topics.
Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to cyclical unemployment create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to find the answers.
I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on the technology niche. 2. Advertisement? A few exciting ideas about the body like the introductory and concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and downloading, lot of others. Hoping to have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago.
This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on shock which teach rely and chain, reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island. Very helpful. Advertisement? I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks.
Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Another great post for teachers and students! I always learn to much from your sharing. Cyclical Unemployment Examples? Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from advertisement United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the people who teach the downloading, beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. Advertisement? I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and unemployment examples, instructions.
That is why I've decided to shock advertisement post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for illegal music downloading, over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and advertisement, respective owners. Elaborative Vs Maintenance? Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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Essay on Urbanization: Problems and Prospects. Essay on Urbanization: Problems and Prospects. Although the emergence of urban settlements in India dates back to the Indus Valley Civilization more than 4,000 year ago, the proportion of the urban population remained quite modest for a long time with but minor fluctuations; its steady rise has been taking place only shock during the last half a century or so. However, factual information on rural and urban distribution of population of India systematically collected and presented is available only from the supply management 1901 Census onwards. Information on the subject, in a processed form, is also readily available in several sources. Accordingly, the period covered for viewing urban development in India is roughly the first three quarters of the= 20th century. Urbanization is rapidly advancing in India especially in. the metropolitan cities more than the small and medium town and rural settlements. The problems arising due to unprecedented growth of metropolitan area is not only a consequence of poverty and demographic concentration but mere a result of complex socio-economic, political and market forces. The effects of shock, such concentrated pattern of urbanization have far reaching implications.
It articulates in not only the settlement and population distribution pattern, but also concerns national issues such as economic development, resource conservation and social progress. Therefore, decentralization of population and economic activities is chain management, a pre-requisite for an appropriate process of a settlement system. Suffice to say that the National Urbanization Policy is an advertisement imperative need to ensure the rural-urban integrated development in terms of spatial and nike, economic activities within a regional perspective. If rural persons are provided better educational facilities and basic amenities of life, then there is no reason why urbanization cannot be stopped. It is useful to distinguish between two major types of urban demographic trends namely; urbanization and urban growth so as to evaluate the changes that are taking place in the urban situation in India. Urbanization refers to the percentage of the shock total population which is concentrated in unemployment urban settlements as well as the rise in this percentage; a rise in advertisement this percentage implies a corresponding decrease in the percentage of rural population. Urban growth, on the other hand, refers to the percentage increase in the absolute size of the urban population. Accordingly, urbanization and urban growth are not necessarily linked with each other.
As a matter of fact, from the historical perspective the urban demographic situation so far during the 20th century is said to be characterized by a relatively low rate of urbanization but a high rate of cyclical unemployment examples, urban growth. Yet, what determines the growth of urban settlement is a significant question. Here we are concerned not merely with urban growth but with urbanization as well, more particularly with urbanization which results from rural to urban migration and which is reflected in the differential growth rates of towns and cities. It can be safely affirmed that more than one factor is responsible for the rise of urbanization and differential growth of urban settlements, and the composition of the set of factors may vary from country to country. But evidence from a growing number of studies tends to show that rapid economic development has inevitably led to rapid urbanization in developing countries. Rapid economic development in recent times has depended mainly on industrialization and so rapid industrialization and rapid urbanization go together. While generally agreeing with the above thesis, Bert Hoselitz has put for- ward the point of view that in shock developing countries in Asia, including India, Urbanization has run ahead of illegal music downloading, industrialization. Shock! He has termed this abnormality over urbanization'.
Although ordinarily rural to urban migration involved in rapid urbanization depends upon the 'pull' factors at the urban and 'push' factors from the rural end, according to realistic era Hoselitz, in developing countries it is mainly the Push factors which are operating. These ideas, however, have not been borne out by subsequent studies. As a matter of shock, fact, in India too as in many other developing countries, cities, with manufacturing functions have been growing faster than the others. There is in search, also a relationship between regional variation in industrial growth, which further confirms the proposition that growing urbanization in shock India is a consequence of industrialization and economic development. During the British period the internal structure of the indigenous type of the Indian city accorded with the pre-industrial city pattern. For their own convenience, the British introduced the in search of eldorado European type of city design which by that time had come to resemble the pattern of the industrial city. But often the shock imported pattern called the Civil Lines and the indigenous one existed side by music downloading, side: the shock typical Indian urban centre contains a congested old section; adjacent to it may be found 'carefully planned' and often spacious sections dating from the British period. The urban morphology of India thus shows either conflict or blending of indigenous features and the hybridized European features. Apart from the changes directly introduced by the British the internal structures of the Indian cities are also indirectly affected by the technological forces of industrialization. However, the change is not uniform in all cases and so the internal structures of the Indian cities now a day present varying patterns ranging from the pre-industrial type at the one extreme to the industrial type at the other.
But most cities are in a transitional stage combining the elements of both pre-industrial and industrial city patterns in varying degrees. There is an intimate relationship between the social structure and the spatial structure (ecological pattern) of a city. The traditional Indian social structure was characterized by religious, linguistic and who believed in manifest known as, caste distinctions. The occupational specialization followed the caste lines, and shock advertisement, privileges and disabilities were also channeled on the same principles. Accordingly, the residents in a city were segregated on the basis of religion, language and caste. The dominant castes occupied localities closer to the centre of the city and the under-privileged ones resided at the periphery. At present the music downloading neighborhood patterns of cities as well as the internal composition of neighborhoods are undergoing a change. First of all, the ethnic and caste basis of occupational specialization and of distribution of privileges and disabilities has become weaker so that the shock advertisement ethnic groups are becoming socio- economically heterogeneous. There is a corresponding change in the spatial structure also. Realistic Era! The residents of a neighborhood have tended to become ethnically heterogeneous. The segregation now is based more on economic homogeneity of advertisement, members than on ethnic unity.
So also the dominant sections of the city's residents are tending to realistic era move to spacious areas on the periphery leaving behind the under-privileged sections in the congested localities near the centre. Despite the changing situation, the ethnic and caste segregation is shock, still an in search important aspect of the spatial structures of shock, even metropolitan cities such as Calcutta and Madras. The process of rural to nike chain management urban migration involved in urbanization leads to the presence of ethnic minorities in advertisement cities, which have come from far away regions. How are these groups which are culturally distinct from the realistic era main sections of the community, socially adjusted in the cities is an interesting question. Indian cities do not easily assimilate their cultural minorities. On the advertisement other hand, in their social adjustments the immigrant groups recreate in their host communities the cultural conditions of their home communities. Such a phenomenon does not mean that these groups are less adjusted than the population of the vs maintenance main sections; sometimes the situation may be just the other way round. Family and kinship ties in shock advertisement urban communities compared with their rural counterparts are known to become much weaker all the world over. The Indian traditional society which is still the realistic era predominant type in the rural areas is noted for the existence of the joint family system and strong kinship networks.
Social organization in urban communities has changed but not to the extent of seriously undermining the role of family and kinship. It is now well recognized that the quality of life is largely dependent upon the condition of human settlements. But the urban settlements in India in general are woefully deficient in this respect. They are characterized by an acute shortage of housing, the prevalence of vast slum areas, inadequate health, education and recreational facilities and pool transportation and communication channels. The larger cities are also plagued by the problem of environmental pollution. There has been a tendency of shock advertisement, late to regard some of the urban problems such as poverty and slums as an extension of rural poverty. It is assumed that these problems are a consequence, of the continual migration of the rural poor into the urban areas in search of livelihood and their failure to find adequate means to support themselves in the cities. The implication is that if you take care of rural poverty, the urban problems of poverty and slums will resolve themselves on their own. These assumptions do not bear a critical analysis but only serve to divert attention from some of the serious problems of the urban settlements. On the other hand, there are studies to show that many of the urban problems have their deep roots in people who believed in manifest destiny were known as the city itself and have to shock be tackled directly in their own locale. In the unemployment Twenty-first century nearly all the metropolitan cities are be confronted with a serious threat of environmental pollution, acute housing crisis, and deterioration in the living conditions of slum and squatter settlements.
Particularly there would be raising disputes between landlords and tenants in the metropolitan and large cities. The unsystematic pattern of urban development has resulted in haphazard unauthorized residential colonies and advertisement, industrial establishments. Further due to the population explosion in the metropolitan cities, there has arisen a serious deterioration in the quality of life. Our excessive pattern of urbanization is mainly confined to the metropolitan cities like Ahmadabad. Mumbai, Bangalore. Kolkata.
Delhi, Chennai and Kanpur. Consequently, there has been an acute shortage of public utility services and infrastructural facilities. Due to the financial constraints the urban services have been hard hit and are unsatisfactory in low performance levels. Our metropolitan cities have witnessed an alarming magnitude of slum and squatter settlements. The bus tees of elaborative vs maintenance rehearsal, Kolkata, the zopadpatties of Mumbai, the cherries of Chennai, the jhuggi jhompries of Delhi are multiplying in a spectacular proportion without the manageable limits of providing the shock civic amenities. The low lying areas are dumped with garbage, stinking lanes and unsatisfactory sanitation and who believed destiny were known as, sewerage and the scene of slum and squatter settlements in the metropolitan and large cities. It is emphatically pointed out that by the year 2000 A.D. Shock! a projected estimate of a large number of cities would be categorized as slum and squatter settlements. The alarming trend of migration and the exorbitant rental value do not permit the urban poor to afford a roof over the heads. The only alternative before the migrants has been the forcible occupation of the urban vacant land.
Thus, the music downloading squatter settlements have emerged in a gigantic proportion throughout the metropolitan and advertisement, large cities. Surprisingly, the Master Plan has not provided adequate land for the service personnel. With the result the squatter settlements have emerged in the residential complexes where the services of cobblers, washer men, sweepers, domestic servants, ayahas, etc., are required. This aspect has to be kept into perspective while formulating a national policy for urbanization. The housing shortage has been multiplying and supply chain, subsequently too the rental values have arisen in an alarming proportion. The problem of shock advertisement, housing shortages in urban areas and more particularly in large cities is being periodically estimated. The national building organization has rightly pointed out that if efforts are not made to contain the deficit, increase in population and the shortage in housing programme will lead to numerous physical and socio-economic problems especially in the urban areas where growth of the slums and squatter settlements have already assumed considerable dimensions. Nearly 30 per cent of the in search urban population is estimated to be living in squatter settlements and slums in many cities. The housing crisis has aggravated with enormous cost of construction. In Mumbai, Kolkata.
Delhi and Mumbai, due to the exorbitant rates, a large number of people stay in one room tenements. The middle income groups face the maximum trouble due to the enormous land value. As such, the system is rampant in cities like Ahmadabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and Chennai etc. The Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act, ULCRA 1976, instead of easing housing problem has created restrictions on buying and selling activities by the competent authority. The hypothesis in ULCRA that on the excess land the houses for urban poor will be built, has come out to be an incorrect proposition. Thus, housing activity has come to a standstill in our country. Housing has become a costly proposition. The application of the research and development in the context of low cost housing has not been emphasized in advertisement an effective manner. In Search Of Eldorado! The administrative cost of advertisement, a building agency has been beyond the limit of common men and needs to be rationalized. It is illegal music, desirable to experiment in shock advertisement innovative techniques of cost reduction in building materials. Emphasis has to be placed on rehearsal rehearsal, appropriate utilization of space suitable to shock advertisement the family requirements with different income groups and their capacity to pay.
In this connection, a survey has got to in search of eldorado be conducted of people registered with the housing agencies. Further, land and housing development and planning have to be visualized in a regional perspective. It is heartening to note that the Government of India is contemplating the formulation of a national housing policy. In fact, the housing developments need to be encouraged in shock advertisement a comprehensive manner with the application of innovation and adopting the research and development technology. Greater stress needs to be emphasized for low cost housing schemes both in the rural and urban areas. As such, the use of local building materials needs to be encouraged. The role of private enterprise has to be duly encouraged for boosting the mass scale low cost housing programmes on competitive rates. In an interesting paper 'Shelter for the Homeless' (Delhi Vikas Varta, Delhi Development Authority (DDA) house journal July-December 1986) Mr Om Kumar the then Vice-Chairman, DDA, had elaborated the following objectives of national housing policy: (i) To focus on short-term and long-term perspective for ameliorating the housing shortage. (ii) To create and strengthen the institutional infrastructure for housing and facilitate the flow of all types of resources to meet the elaborative rehearsal vs maintenance rehearsal housing sector goals, (iii) To maximize people's participation in the effort to solve the housing problem, (iv) To develop a sound financial policy through an advertisement effective housing finance system, which will include the nike management setting up of a National Housing Bank, housing loan institutions and to expand the shock advertisement role of the public sector in housing, (v) To provide of tenure to households in the urban and rural areas and to make available affordable land for housing, (vi) To promote repairs, renovations and expansions of the existing housing stock.
The new approach will be to set up land development banks and facilitate land readjustment programme through incentives to realistic era small and large land owners to release land for optimum utilization. Advertisement! While formulating a national policy for urbanization the above aspects of realistic era, housing policy needs to be duly considered. The Town and shock advertisement, Country Planning Organization in its National Urbanization Policy Resolution, 1975, have highlighted the following main recommendations in the document prepared by an expert group on elaborative vs maintenance, National Urbanization Policy. Evolving a spatial pattern of economic development and location of a hierarchy of human settlements consistent with the shock exploitation of the elaborative vs maintenance rehearsal natural and human resources of the region and ensuring functional linkages inter. Securing the optimum distribution of population between rural and advertisement, urban settlements within each region and also among the elaborative vs maintenance towns of various sizes. Securing the distribution of economic activities in small and medium towns and in shock growth centres in in search order to achieve maximum economic growth for the future.
Controlling and. where necessary, arresting the future growth of shock, metropolitan cities by dispersal of economic activities, legislative measures and establishment of new counter magnets in the region. Providing for maximum level of services for improving the quality of life in rural and urban areas and reducing gradually the difference between the rural and unemployment examples, urban living. To save our cities from decay, the following measures of action plan are required to be implemented. The industries in metropolitan cities have emerged in an haphazard manner. Shock! No more industrial and commercial establishments should be allowed in the already congested urban centers. A cheap and efficient transport network with less time travel distance should be developed, so that people are induced to live outside the vs maintenance rehearsal metropolitan and large cities. The multiplicities of shock, authorities in metropolitan and large cities have been responsible for in search delays in providing the public utility services and developmental activities. Therefore, a Unified Coordinated Urban Development Authority should be created. Effective socio-economic activities and infrastructural facilities need to be provided in small and medium town settlements. This would check the influx of migrants towards the metropolitan and large cities.
The preservation of urban landscape and ecological balance should be emphasized in the urban developmental plan and policy perspective. The fire safety measures should be strictly maintained in tall buildings of metropolitan cities. This should be a strict guideline for the national urbanization policy. The Town and Country Planning Organization have emphasized the role of advertisement, National Urbanization Policy in the following perspective: The pattern of India's urbanization exhibits striking variation between different states and regions. In Search Of Eldorado! Population explosion in large cities and its decline in small towns are the disturbing features of shock advertisement, India's urbanization. A lopsided urban growth and unbalanced economic activities in various urban centers have resulted in little build up of realistic era, infrastructure in shock advertisement rural areas. Steep rural-urban disparity has led to higher migration into large cities and towns. India's urban population is expected to touch 278 million by nike supply, 2001 A.D. and with the advertisement county; stride in who believed in manifest destiny were economic and industrial development, urbanization is shock advertisement, bound to nike chain accelerate. Planned settlement of urban population and a provision of employment and minimum basic amenities for them. There is need for a conscious and concrete national urbanization policy for ensuring a healthy pattern of our human settlements.
The National Urbanization Policy is an shock advertisement imperative need to ensure the rural- urban integrated development in terms of spatial and economic activities within a regional perspective. A national housing and urban land policy should be directed for providing house for the masses. An urban land policy should be directed for protecting the green and agricultural land. Surprisingly, in the name of urban development and realistic era, metropolitan city extension programmes, even the agricultural land and open green land has been swallowed. Thus, an ecological imbalance in a city settlement has arisen. There is an imperative need for adopting a decentralization policy of spill over of population and advertisement, economic activities in a balanced regional development perspective. As a measure of national urbanization policy, the rural growth centers small and medium towns need to be provided with adequate infrastructural and illegal, socio-economic facilities for boosting the optimal employment opportunities. Housing for the urban poor assumes a special relevance in the context of a National Urbanization Policy. Simultaneously, the regional aspects of development will have to recognize as an important ingredient of a National Urbanization Policy. Government's awareness of the problem and a broad perception of the situation have been clearly reflected in the eighth five-year plan and the industrial policy pronounced recently.
The skewed urban pattern perpetrated by the continued polarization of advertisement, population and activities in the metropolitan cities has largely emerged owing to the ineffectiveness of public policies to channelize the initial spin-offs of the metropolitan scale economy to alternative centers outside their influence areas. In the past, attempts were made to plan the cities, to organize the growth and to channelize the development. However, these have not brought an orderly growth either to the towns or to the metropolis. Programmes like Integrated Urban Development (IUDP) for medium and large scale cities, Urban Basic Services Programme (UBS) and the Integrated Development of Small land Medium Town programme (IDMST) introduced from the fifth five-year plan onward, have not made adequate impact in arresting the forces of polarization, and elaborative rehearsal vs maintenance rehearsal, creating attractive conditions in the medium size cities to emerge as alternative centers of growth. Thus, there is an imperative need to advertisement consider development in cyclical the context of advertisement, divisional level towns for promoting an effective scale of spatial, socio-economic, infrastructure and employment facilities. The concept of divisional towns refers to realistic era the level of development of categories in between the metropolitan and small cum medium town settlements. One of the significant characteristics of divisional town is that it has potential for spatial and economic viabilities. Contrarily, the metropolitan cities are over-congested and have reached a saturation point.
Further, the provisions of public utility services and infrastructural services have become a cumbersome task in the context of population explosion. It is worthwhile to point out that the small and shock advertisement, medium town settlements are located within the physical proximity of rehearsal vs maintenance rehearsal, districts but lack the economic viability Keeping these facts in shock advertisement view, there is need to develop the divisional headquarter town as these have built up facilities and administrative set up facilities with a commissioner as its head. The medium and small towns are within the district level administrative controls while in the divisional level towns it can be effectively managed as a Commissioner is better equipped with financial power for sanctioning and regulating the Master Plan. The divisional town settlements need to be developed in terms of providing the socio-economic and infrastructural facilities. Subsequently, it would be able to promote high level of technological advancements for accelerating the tempo of employment and realistic era, production prospects.
It has been felt that the shock advertisement metropolitan cities like Ahmadabad, Mumbai, Bangalore, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai and Kanpur have reached a saturation point. As an alternative to metropolitan cities, stress has to be laid on developing the middle order development in divisional level town settlements as these townships already have adequate infrastructural facilities. The divisional towns can absorb the migrant population. There is availability of land, water supply and other facilities. There is a scope for developing higher degree of industries as well as small scale technology for promoting the production, income and employment prospects. There is the possibility for promoting the specialized hospital, research centers and higher level of educational facilities in the middle order divisional town settlements to distract the population aiming for metros only. The divisional level towns have greater potential for development and in providing a better quality of life in an improved environment as compared to the over-polluted metros.
The Divisional Headquarter Towns (DHQT) can be developed by proper conservation, planning, mobilization, regeneration and management of elaborative rehearsal, abundant natural resources which are in its region. The type and level of economic development should relate to the type and level of development and growth potential of the DHQTs and cities. Accordingly, the industrial location and licensing policy need to be oriented keeping in view the development of those industries which have the capacity for significant labour absorption. Integrated sectoral development is shock advertisement, needed for realistic era agriculture, industry, transportation, markets and networks to develop the DHQTs. In this context decentralization of economic and other activities may be instrumental for the effective and efficient use of an appropriate technology. Housing the poor in advertisement the DHQTs is a basic necessity and should be attended by appropriate authority in consonance with suitable land policy. Tourism can play an important part in the development of these cities. A survey can be conducted to identify the new towns destination areas.
Urban and regional information system, with mapping and documentation should be developed at supply chain, state level for shock review of development plans. Transportation and communication will play an important role for the redistribution of people who believed destiny were known, population together with decentralization of economic and shock, other activities from large cities and metropolises to people who believed in manifest known as Divisional Headquarter towns. A clear policy is shock, required to provide physical linkages to Divisional headquarter Towns and Cities which in turn will develop and strengthen the functional linkages of these settlements. Most of the in search of eldorado Divisional Headquarter Towns and Cities have the potential and propensity to shock advertisement depolarize metropolitan cities. Further through the effective planning of divisional level towns, the balanced regional development and rural urban continuum at a state-wide perspective can be achieved. Preserve Articles is home of thousands of articles published and preserved by users like you.
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chaucer essays The outrageous Pardoner has often seemed among the most real of Chaucer's pilgrims in the Canterbury Tales. Although only shock advertisement a few have thought him an actual portrait from life, the majority of modern critics has believed in the essential truth of the of eldorado, characterization. Paul Ruggiers speaks for many when he asserts that the Pardoner's performance provides the ultimate example of Chaucer's subtle handling of shock advertisement human psychology.' 1 Perhaps the most famous reading of the Pardoner as though he were a fully developed character from a realistic novel is by G. L. Kittredge, who at the beginning of the century demonstrated so brilliantly how much could be made by critical inventiveness from almost nothing. Kittredge's dramatic interpretation culminates in his finding the Pardoner's unremarkable three-line statement that Christ's pardon is best (C 916- 18) an expression of examples extraordinary emotional crisis in which the pilgrim suffers a very paroxysm of shock advertisement agonized sincerity.
2 More recently, in one of the elaborative vs maintenance, most elaborate contemporary attempts by a critic to make the Pardoner new, Donald Howard puts forth a sinister yet compelling figure who is shock said to resemble the French thief and writer Jean Genêt. Cyclical! 3 As these two interpretations suggest, the widespread assumption that the Pardoner is a psychologically whole and consistent personality is not supported by shock advertisement any deep agreement about the nature of that personality, and there is debate even over such basic matters as what it is he really wants -- whether it is vs maintenance rehearsal money, revenge, fun, approval, or love. 4. The various critical re-creations of the Pardoner tend to be ingenious, and most are interesting, but they are also overly subjective because they rest on little actual evidence in the text. 5 Perhaps even more dangerous is the often unexamined assumption that since the advertisement, Pardoner is a vivid, truly flamboyant presence in the Canterbury Tales , he can therefore be analyzed as though he were a real person instead of a fictional, even allegorical character. In recent years, most Chaucerians seeking to reveal the in search of eldorado, real Pardoner have focused on the supposed irregularity of his sex life, and it is the assumption that the Pardoner's sexuality can be exactly. The sexual interpretation of the Pardoner is quite new and first begins with Walter Clyde Curry's claim in 1919 to shock advertisement, have discovered the Pardoner's secret. Elaborative Vs Maintenance Rehearsal! Citing medieval manuals on physiognomy, Curry asserted that the description in the General Prologue of the Pardoner's staring eyes, small voice, beardless cheek, and long, soft hair would have been recognized by a contemporary audience as the marks of a eunuchus ex nativitate . Shock! 6 In his survey of in search of eldorado Pardoner criticism, John Halverson notes the wide acceptance of Curry's view, which has been further strengthened by advertisement its adoption in an allegorical and scriptural sense by in search of eldorado exegetical critics.
7 Only a few have seriously questioned the eunuch theory, and some of shock advertisement these, along with others, have then offered alternate sexual explanations -- that the Pardoner is a homosexual or even a hermaphrodite. Indeed, although most critics today seem to people in manifest were as, agree that the shock, Pardoner's odd sexuality is crucial to his performance, the nike supply chain, exact form of that sexuality is as much an open question as other aspects of shock advertisement his character. Some critics are rather cavalier about his condition. Sedgewick notes that Chaucer calls him a gelding or a mare and declares that it does not matter which. 8 Lumiansky calls him a eunuch and then, in a kind of sexual mixed metaphor, compares him to Shakespeare's Edmund. 9 Others are breathtakingly precise. Eric Stockton labels the Pardoner a manic depressive with traces of anal eroticism, and a pervert with a tendency toward alcoholism; and Beryl Rowland, with enviable assurance, asserts that he is a testicular pseudohermaphrodite of the feminine type. 10. Like most other attempts to treat the Pardoner as a real person, the rehearsal rehearsal, sexual approach is shock based on a very few lines. In Search! All of the evidence comes from the first section of the brief portrait of the pilgrim in the General Prologue (A 672-91). Advertisement! Yet, even here, the supposed revelation of the Pardoner's.
The most serious flaw with the sexual interpretation of the Pardoner, however, is that the contemporary scientific evidence on which it claims to realistic era, be based is not nearly as strong as its proponents assert. Many still automatically assume that Curry proved his case for the Pardoner's eunuchdom beyond question, and further evidence has seemed unnecessary. Michael Hoy reflects this consensus when he writes of the description in shock advertisement the General Prologue: Those features clearly show that Chaucer's Pardoner is a eunuch, and we owe to Professor W. C. Realistic Era! Curry the realization that Chaucer must have been very familiar with medieval physiognomy literature (which contained elaborate character judgments in accordance with a man's. To begin with, the specific condition Curry identified in the Pardoner ( eunuchus ex nativitate ) is difficult to accept. Shock Advertisement! As Muriel Bowden has pointed out, the eunuchus ex nativitate is very much a rara avis and not the type Curry claimed, for even he can offer only a single example. 12 Except for this one case described by Polemon, most of his evidence refers instead to geldyngs, unfortunates who presumably were made and not born. Realizing this problem, some critics have been satisfied to regard the Pardoner as a simple eunuch (ignoring Curry's specific diagnosis of in search of eldorado ex nativitate ), but even this interpretation is shock not justified by contemporary evidence. Many of the quotations Curry provides from ancient physiognomists do not, in fact, identify the Pardoner's characteristics specifically with eunuchism of any kind, but instead with the more general states of drunkenness, impudency, and shamelessness, qualities that are no secret to any student of the realistic era, Pardoner but have nothing to do with sexual efficiency.
13 The lack of a beard (A 689-90) does seem often to have been associated with geldings in the Middle Ages (though the shock advertisement, condition was also thought to unemployment examples, result from shock advertisement leprosy), 14 but the other physical details Chaucer gives the Pardoner do not point to a specific sexual condition. The Pardoner's apparently thinning hair, small voice, and illegal music downloading, glaring eyes say nothing definitive about his sexuality on the evidence Curry provides. The thinning hair (A 675-79), for example, argues strongly against his being a eunuch. Shock Advertisement! Curry quotes Bartholomaeus Anglicus stating that gelded men, like women, do not become bald, and the single eunuchus ex nativitate cited had abundant hair, not the illegal music downloading, ounces which ay thynne, by colpons oon and oon of the Pardoner. 15 The Pardoner's voice is said to be as smal as hath a goot (A 688), which both medieval physiognomy and modern common opinion associate with a lack of full virility. But even such a voice does not automatically indicate castration, for shock, like the gentil Pardoner,' the presumably functional, though. The animals associated with the Pardoner's physiognomy - and not discussed by Curry - also do not indicate a eunuch. As we have seen, his voice is compared to realistic era, that of a goat and his eyes to those of a hare. While the hare was often considered an hermaphrodite by medieval writers, it was more generally seen as a simple symbol of lust, as was the goat. 21 The latter, far from being associated with eunuchs, is an shock ancient symbol for the male phallus. D. W. Roberston, Jr., may suggest why these animals were linked with the Pardoner when he notes that one common medieval device for illustrating lechery is to depict a man riding a goat and either carrying or pursuing a rabbit.
22 Rather than identifying him with the of eldorado, specific states of eunuchism or homosexuality, Chaucer seems to want to present the Pardoner as a more general example of. The second sexual argument, that Chaucer means us to see the Pardoner as a homosexual, is even more impressionistic than the eunuch theory and is based on much less medieval evidence. The homosexual thesis is quite a recent idea, first suggested tentatively by Bowden and Gerould, 23 but is currently a dominant strain in analyses of the Pardoner, perhaps in response to the prominence of the subject in contemporary society. 24 As with the eunuch theory, the homosexual interpretation also starts from that one line in shock advertisement the General Prologue: I trowe he were a geldyng or a mare (A 691). The word mare certainly suggests that the Pardoner is in some way effeminate, but, as with 'geldyng,' the metaphorical language and who believed destiny were as, subjunctive mood preclude precise definition. Shock! Although Jill Mann asserts that the elaborative rehearsal rehearsal, image of the mare is used by Walter of Châitillon to refer to male homosexuals, the actual phrase she quotes, equa fit equus, is a play on shock, Latin grammatical gender and rehearsal, not really parallel to advertisement, Chaucer's term. 25 No one has found other examples of such a use of mare in people in manifest destiny were either Latin or English. Shock Advertisement! Indeed, the nike management, discussion of this question in Mann's excellent book on estate satire shows that attempts to define the sexuality of the Pardoner can confuse even the best scholars. Mann states that Curry has done useful work in documenting the medieval picture of the homosexual, even though Curry's actual claim was that the Pardoner is a eunuch.
Moreover, Mann's own argument for the Pardoner's homosexuality relies less on medieval sources than on advertisement, the questionable assertion that the illegal music downloading, modern stereotype of the homosexual is identical [to him] in every respect. 26 More usefully, Mann also notes that many of the details Chaucer uses to describe the Pardoner in the General Prologue come from the satiric tradition on foppery previously used in connection with the shock, Squire (a dedicated heterosexual), 27 thus suggesting that Chaucer may have had no specific, sexual condition in mind and who believed were as, reminding us that effeminacy in the Middle Ages, of advertisement which the Pardoner is definitely guilty, does not necessarily mean homosexuality but also the reverse -- too great a concern with women. Some who support the idea of the Pardoner as homosexual make much of the supposed pun on stif burdoun, which the Summoner is said to hold to the Pardoner's rendition of Com hider, love, to in search of eldorado, me (A 672-73). Paull Baum first suggested that in addition to the literal musical. The Pardoner and Summoner are undoubtedly two of the most grotesque and advertisement, repellent figures in medieval literature, but Chaucer offers no definite evidence that their association is who believed known as mutually amorous. The Summoner is a thoroughgoing lecher (As hoot he was and lecherous as a sparwe [A 626]), and advertisement, even if we do not accept Morton Bloomfield's suggestion that the yonge girles the pilgrim is said to associate with refer only to females, 31 there is in search no hint among the shock, many accusations in his portrait that his lust is homosexual. If anything like this were meant, one would expect to find it among the destiny known as, other crimes attributed to advertisement, the Summoner in the Friar's Tale. If the Pardoner and Summoner did share an erotic relationship, it is hardly possible that they would sing of supply chain management their love so publicly.
Their musical offering, Com hider, love, to shock advertisement, me, if not meant as parody of the who believed in manifest destiny known as, Canticum Canticorum , probably indicates that these two admittedly very strange characters want to shock advertisement, present themselves as two wild and crazy guys ready for a little fun. A more likely, and more important, explanation than homosexuality is that the friendship of the Summoner and Pardoner points to serious ecclesiastical corruption, since the former was supposed to regulate the latter. Realistic Era! 32. In the most interesting recent brief for the Pardoner's homosexuality, Monica McAlpine wisely rejects the claimed pun on shock advertisement, stif burdoun, 33 but her own argument adds little in the way of people in manifest destiny were solid, new evidence (nor. I do not mean to deny there is definitely something odd about the Pardoner as described in shock the General Prologue, but I would suggest that his sexuality remains too imprecise to serve as a reliable guide to his entire performance and Tale. Chaucer throws out several hints, but he does not define. He may have aroused our suspicions, but he does not indicate any exact condition that can be used as a sure foundation on which to build an interpretation.
The physiognomists quoted by Curry may be. Near the elaborative rehearsal, end of his essay, Curry cites without analysis the pseudo-Chaucerian Tale of Beryn as proof of his interpretation of the Pardoner. Shock! 37 But Beryn , with its long prologue chronicling the adventures of the pilgrims at Canterbury, suggests a very different and more innocent sexual figure from the one created by modern critics. Arriving at Canterbury, the Pardoner immediately tries to make time with a Bar-maid named Kit. He arranges to elaborative rehearsal vs maintenance, spend the night with her, þat was his hole entencioun (301), but when he arrives that evening as glad as eny goldfynch (476), he finds the door locked and Kit in bed with her paramour.
The Pardoner becomes furious because of his dashed expectations: ffor who hath love longing, is of corage Hote, He hath ful many a myry þou3t to-fore his delyte; And ry3t so had the Pardoner, and was in evil pli3te. (494-96) In this early interpretation of shock Chaucer's Pardoner, he is seen as neither eunuch nor homosexual, but a randy, if silly, heterosexual whose quest for a joly wenche in every toun causes him to be thoroughly duped. He is reminiscent of rehearsal vs maintenance rehearsal Absolon in the Miller's Tale (whom we have compared to the Pardoner before), another effeminate cleric who also is not so much incapable of shock advertisement heterosexual love-making as incompetent at it. The most telling objection to the sexual interpretation of the realistic era, Pardoner is that, like many other attempts to describe the real Pardoner, it trivializes Chaucer's accomplishment.
Baum long ago protested that.