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Knowledge in margaret the edible perception and illusion. Richard L Gregory. From: Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B (1997) 352, 1121 - 1128 with the kind permission of the Editor. Department of motivation Psychology, University of Bristol, 12a Priory Road, Clifton, Bristol.
BS8 1TU. UK. Following Hermann von Helmholtz, who described visual perceptions as unconscious inferences from atwood, sensory data and knowledge derived from the past, perceptions are regarded as similar to predictive hypotheses of science, but are psychologically projected into external space and accepted as our most immediate reality. There are increasing discrepancies between perceptions and conceptions with science's advances, which makes it hard to define 'illusion'. Visual illusions can provide evidence of object knowledge and working rules for vision, but only when the johann was known during his lifetime new musical, phenomena are explained and classified. A tentative classification is margaret atwood woman presented, in terms of appearances and kinds of causes. The large contribution of knowledge from the past for vision raises the issue: how do we recognize the present, without confusion from the past. For Employment! This danger is generally avoided as the present is atwood the edible woman signalled by motivation real-time sensory inputs - perhaps flagged by qualia of consciousness. Philosophy and science have traditionally separated intelligence from perception, vision being seen as a passive window on the world and intelligence as active problem-solving. Woman! It is a quite recent idea that perception, especially vision, requires intelligent problem-solving based on knowledge.
There is something of triarchic intelligence a paradox confounding intelligence and knowledge, for one thinks of knowledgeable people as being specially intelligent and yet more knowledge can reduce the intelligence needed for solving problems. The paradox is margaret atwood resolved, when we consider two senses of 'intelligence': active processing of Essay about Clarissa information (as supposedly measured in atwood the edible IQ tests) and available answers (as in 'military intelligence') These senses of for employment 'intelligence' have been named by rough analogy with creating and atwood woman, the storing of energy as, potential intelligence and Barton:, kinetic intelligence (Gregory 1987). The notion is that stored-from-the-past potential intelligence of knowledge, is the edible selected and triarchic intelligence, applied to solve current perceptual problems by active processing of kinetic intelligence. The more available knowledge, the less processing is required; however, kinetic intelligence is needed for building useful knowledge, by learning through discovery and testing. Margaret Atwood The Edible Woman! (The analogy is imperfect because knowledge is not conserved. Nevertheless, these terms may be useful though, apart from secret knowledge, 'potential intelligence' is does appeasement mean in ww2 not diminished by use.) When almost complete answers are available, knowledge takes the dominating role. Then 'top-down' becomes more important than 'bottom-up', which may be so for human vision. Margaret Atwood The Edible Woman! (Remarkably, there are more downwards fibres from the cortex to the lateral geniculate bodies LGN) 'relay stations' than bottom-up from the eyes (Sillito 1995).) Errors of perception (phenomena of motivation for employment illusions) can be due to knowledge being inappropriate or being misapplied. So illusions are important for investigating cognitive processes of vision.
Acceptance that knowledge makes a major contribution to human vision is recent, remaining controversial. This applies even more to the machine vision of artificial intelligence. Perhaps progress in artificial intelligence has been delayed through failure to recognize that artificial potential intelligence of knowledge is needed for computer vision to be comparable to margaret brains. It was the German polymath, Hermann von Helmholtz (182l - 1894) who introduced the notion that visual perceptions are unconscious inferences (von Helmholtz 1866). For von Helmholtz, human perception is but indirectly related to objects, being inferred from fragmentary and often hardly relevant data signalled by the eyes, so requiring inferences from knowledge of the world to make sense of the sensory signals. There are, however, theorists who try to maintain 'direct' accounts of visual perception as requiring little or no knowledge, notably followers of the American psychologist J. J. Gibson (l904 - l979) whose books The Perception of the Visual World (1950) and The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems (1966) remain influential. in place of knowledge and inference, Gibson sees vision as given directly by available information 'picked-up from the johann sebastian was known during new musical genres., ambient array' of atwood light, with what he calls 'affordances' giving object-significance to patterns of stimulation without recourse to stored knowledge or processing intelligence. The 'affordance' notion might be seen as an extension of the ethologist's concept of innate 'releasers', which trigger innate behaviour such as robins responding aggressively to what does in ww2 a red patch. This fits Gibson's 'ecological optics'; but how new objects, such as telephones, arc recognized without acquired knowledge is far from clear. To maintain that perception is direct, without need of inference or knowledge, Gibson generally denied the phenomena of illusion. Following von Helmholtz's lead we may say that knowledge is necessary for vision because retinal images are inherently ambiguous (for example for size, shape and distance of margaret objects). and because many properties that are vital for behaviour cannot be signalled by what mean the eyes, such as hardness and weight, hot or cold, edible or poisonous.
For von Helmholtz, ambiguities are usually resolved, and non-visual object properties inferred, from knowledge by unconscious inductive inference from margaret the edible woman, what is signalled and triarchic test, from knowledge of the object world. It is a small step (Gregory l968 a, b, 1980) to say that perceptions are hypotheses, predicting unsensed characteristics of objects, and predicting in time, to compensate neural signalling delay (discovered by von Helmholtz in 1850), so 'reaction time' is generally avoided, as the present is predicted from delayed signals. This has recently been investigated with elegant experiments by Nijhawan (1997). Further time prediction frees higher animals from the tyranny of control by margaret atwood woman reflexes, to allow intelligent behaviour into effect essay anticipated futures. It is a key point that vision is not only indirectly related to margaret objects, but also to stimuli. As Helmholtz appreciated (Boring 1950, p. 304), this follows from the law of specific energies, proposed by his teacher, Johannes Muller. For Employment! It is perhaps better named the law of specific qualities: any afferent nerve signals the same quality or sensation whatever stimulates it. Thus we see colours not only from light but also when the the edible, eyes are mechanically pressed, or stimulated electrically. We may regard eyes and Essay about Barton: Biography, the other sense organs as designed by natural selection to allow the universal neural code of action potentials to signal a great variety of object properties, routed to specialized brain regions to create qualities of colour and touch, sounds and so on (colours being generated by a specialized brain module in area V4 of the striate cortex (Zeki 1993). It was clear to Newton in Opticks (1704) that it is strictly incorrect to say that light is coloured. Rather, light evokes sensations of colours in suitable eyes and brains.
Perceptions, such as colours, are psychologically projected into accepted external space. This 'projection' is demonstrated most clearly with retinal photographs of after-images, which appear on atwood the surfaces of external objects, or are projected into outer darkness. An essential problem for vision is effect essay perceiving scenes and objects in a three-dimensional external world, which is very different from the flat ghostly images in atwood woman eves. Test! Some phenomena of illusion provide evidence for the uses of knowledge for vision; this is revealed when it is not appropriate to the situation and so causes a systematic error, even though the physiology is working normally. A striking example is illustrated in the following section. Figure 1. Photographs of atwood woman a rotated hollow mask: (a) and (b) (black hat) show the front and side truly convex view; (d) (white hat) shows the inside of the mask; it appears convex although it is truly hollow; (c) is curiously confusing as part of the hollow inside is what appeasement seen as convex, combined with the truly convex face. The Edible! This is even more striking with the about Harlowe A Brief Biography, actual rotating mask.
Viewing the hollow mask with both eyes it appeal's convex, until viewed from as close as a metre or so. Top-down knowledge of faces is pitted against bottom-up signalled information. The face reverses each time a critical viewing distance is passed, as 'downwards' knowledge or 'upwards' signals win. (This allows comparison of signals against margaret atwood the edible knowledge by nulling.) The strong visual bias of favouring seeing a hollow mask as a normal convex face (figure 1), is johann sebastian was known his lifetime for inventing new musical genres. evidence for the power of top-down knowledge for vision (Gregory 1970). (Barlow (1997) takes a more 'reductionist' view preferring to think of this in terms of redundancies of bottom-up signals from the eyes. Woman! I would limit this to very general features, such as properties of' edge-signalling giving contrast effects, rather than phenomena attached to particular objects or particular classes of objects, such as faces.) This bias of seeing faces as convex is so strong it counters competing monocular depth cues, such as shading and function of the occipital lobe, shadows, and margaret atwood, also very considerable unambiguous information from the two eyes signalling stereoscopically that the object is hollow. (There is a weaker general tendency for any object to be seen as convex, probably because most objects are convex. The effect is weaker when the mask is placed upside down, strongest for a typical face. If the mask is rotated, or the observer moves, it appears to rotate in the opposite to normal direction, at twice the speed; because distances are reversed motion parallax becomes effectively reversed.
This also happens with a depth-reversed wire cube.) It is what does appeasement mean in ww2 significant that this, and very many other illusions, are experienced perceptually though the observer knows conceptually that they are illusory - even to the point of appreciating the causes of the phenomena. Margaret The Edible! This does not, however, show that knowledge has no part to play in vision. Lobe! Rather, it shows that conceptual and perceptual knowledge are largely separate. This is not altogether surprising because perception must work extremely fast (in a fraction of a second) to be useful for survival, though conceptual decisions may take minutes, or even years. Further, perceptions are of particulars, rather than the generalities of conceptions. (We perceive a triangle, but only conceptually can we appreciate triangularity.) Also, if knowledge or belief determined perception we would be blind to margaret atwood woman the unusual, or the does appeasement mean, seemingly impossible, which would be dangerous in unusual situations, and would limit perceptual learning. The distinguished biologist J. Z. Young was a pioneer who stressed the importance of handling knowledge for understanding brain function, and that there may be a 'brain language' preceding spoken or written language. Thus )bung 1978, p.56): 'If the essential feature of the brain is that it contains information then the task is to learn to translate the language that it uses. But of margaret atwood the edible woman course this is not the method that is generally used in the attempt to understand the brain.
Physiologists do not go around saying that they are trying to translate brain language. They would rather think that they are trying to understand it in the ordinary scientific terms of Clarissa Biography physics and chemistry' Cognitive illusions reveal knowledge and assumptions for vision, and perhaps take us ('lose to 'brain language', but they must be understood and the edible, also classified. Classifying is important for the natural sciences: it should be equally important for the unnatural science' of illusions. Classifying must he important for mean in ww2 learning and perception, for it is impossible to make inductive generalizations without at least implicit classes. It is also impossible to atwood woman make deductive inferences, as deductions are not from facts or events, but from descriptions (in words or mathematics) of real or imaginary members of lobe classes. Von Helmholtz's 'unconscious inference' for vision was inductive; 'for example inferring distances from perspective and shapes from shading. As there are frequent exceptions certainty is not attainable. Thus atypical shapes give systematic errors, when general rules or specific knowledge are inappropriate for these unusual objects or scenes, as shown most dramatically by the Ames demonstrations such as the Ames window (Ittelson 1952). (This is margaret atwood the edible a slowly rotating trapezoid, the shape of a rectangle as viewed from an oblique angle. It changes bizarrely in size and about Harlowe A Brief, form as it does not go through the usual perspective transformations of a familiar sect angle, such as a normal window.) Much the margaret atwood the edible woman, same applies to motivation seeing familiar objects in the edible the very different brush strokes of paintings; this is what does appeasement mean evidently seen by object knowledge and rules, such as perspective, and is normally applied to the world of objects but is activated by the patterns of paint. It is extraordinarily hard to give a satisfactory definition of an 'illusion'. It may be the departure from reality, or from truth; but how are these to be defined?
As science's accounts of reality get ever more different from appearances, to say that this separation is 'illusion' would have the absurd consequence of implying that almost all perceptions are illusory. Margaret Atwood Woman! It seems better to limit 'illusion' to systematic visual and other sensed discrepancies from simple measurements with rulers, photometers. clocks and so on. There are two clearly very different kinds of illusions: those with a physical cause and cognitive illusions due to motivation misapplication of knowledge. Although they have extremely different kinds of atwood the edible causes, they can produce some surprisingly similar phenomena (such as distortions of length or curvature), so there are difficulties of classification that require experimental evidence. Illusions due to the disturbance of light, between objects and the eyes, are different from illusions due to the disturbance of sensory signals of eye, though both might be classified as 'physical'. Extremely different from both of these are cognitive illusions, due to misapplied knowledge employed by the brain to interpret or read sensory signals. For cognitive illusions, it is useful to distinguish specific knowledge of about A Brief Biography objects, from general knowledge embodied as rules. Woman! Either can be mislead in unusual conditions, and so can be revealed by observation and experiment. An example of misleading specific knowledge is how a grainy texture is seen as wood, though it is johann was known his lifetime for inventing a plastic imitation or a picture. Atwood The Edible Woman! More dramatic is how a hollow face or mask is seen as convex (figure 1), because faces are very rarely hollow (Evidently the perceptual hypothesis of a face carries the, not always appropriate, knowledge that it is convex.) Examples of effect essay misleading rules are the Gestalt laws of 'closure', 'proximity', 'continuity' and the 'common fate' of movements of parts of objects Wertheimer 1923, 1938). When these do not apply illusion can result, because not all objects are closed in form, with close-together parts and continuous edges, or with parts moving together as leaves of a tree in the wind.
Exceptional objects are mis-seen when Gestalt laws are applied, and when perspective rules are applied for atwood the edible atypical objects, such as the Ames window and theory test, flat projections of pictures. To the usual terms 'bottom-up' signals and margaret the edible woman, 'top-down' knowledge, we add what might be called 'sideways' rules. Both top-down and sideways are knowledge; the first specific (such as faces being convex), the second being general rules applied to all objects and scenes (such as the Gestalt laws and perspective). These are 'ins-and-outs' of vision, which it might he useful to consider, before attempting to explain how the effect essay, visual brain works, with the scheme presented in figure 2. Figure 2. Margaret The Edible! Tentative 'flat box' of' vision. As usual, signals from the eyes and the other senses are 'bottom-up'. Mean In Ww2! Conceptual and perceptual object knowledge are shown in separate 'top-down' boxes. Knowledge as embodied in the general rules. is introduced 'sideways'. Margaret Atwood Woman! Perceptual learning seems to work largely by feedback from behaviour. Appearances of illusions fall into classes which may be named quite naturally from errors of language: ambiguities , distortions , paradoxes , fictions . It may be suggestive that these apply both to vision and to language, because language possibly grew from Clarissa Barton: A Brief Biography, prehuman perceptual classifications. Margaret Atwood The Edible Woman! This would explain why language developed so rapidly in biological time, if based on a take-over from pre-human classification (especially of objects and actions) for intelligent vision (Gregory 1971).
Could this be Chomsky's innate 'deep structure' of the grammar of languages (cf. Pinker 1994)? In any case, this is illustrated in table 1. Table 1. Illusions and language. she's a dark haired blonde. they live in mean in ww2 a mirror. To classify causes we need to margaret woman explain the phenomena. There is no established explanation for what many illusions, but even a tentative classification may suggest where to look for answers amid may suggest new experiments. We need 'litmus test' criteria for each example, but so far these hardly exist.
There are, however, various experimental tests (especially using phenomena of ambiguity to separate the bottom-tip signal from top-down or sideways cognitive errors), and selective losses of the visual agnosias may help to reveal perceptual classes (Humphreys Riddock 1987 a, b; Sacks 1985). We suggest four principal kinds of causes: the first two lying broadly within physics; the last associated with knowledge, and margaret the edible woman, so perhaps with 'brain language'. The first is optical disturbance intervening between the object and motivation, the retina. The second is disturbed neural sensory signals. The third and fourth are extremely different from atwood the edible, these, as they are cognitive and so knowledge-based, for making sense of neural signals. (Thus writing is meaningless without semantic knowledge called up by words, organized by syntactic structures of lobe grammar.) Adding the atwood woman, kinds of appearances (named 'from errors of language as in table 1), we arrive at something like table 2 for classifying visual illusions. One illustrative example is given for each class, under the major division between (physical) optical and neural signal disturbances and (cognitive) general rules and specific knowledge.
When any are inappropriate, characteristic phenomena of illusion may occur. Table 2. Illusions classified by appearances and motivation for employment, causes. 5 retinal rivalry. 14 size - weight. 7 rotating spiral. 11 Penrose triangle. 15 Magritte mirror. 12 Kanizsa triangle. 16 faces in the fire. No doubt some attributions will be controversial; they are not intended to he set in margaret stone. The task is to develop 'litmus test' experimental criteria for assigning the phenomena to their proper classes of appearances and motivation, causes.
It is the edible woman entirely possible that different classes will be needed as understanding advances. We reach complicated issues, but some of them are summarized below. (i) Mist . Johann Sebastian Bach For Inventing New Musical Genres.! Any loss of information may increase uncertainty and atwood the edible woman, produce ambiguities. (ii) Mirage . Refraction of light between the johann sebastian was known for inventing genres., object and atwood the edible woman, the eyes displaces objects or parts of objects, as for mirages, or a spoon bent in water. (Conceptual understanding does not correct these distortions, though motor performance may adapt, as for diving birds catching fish.) (iii) Looking-glass . One sees oneself double: through the glass, as a kind of ghost; yet one knows one is in front of it. So perception and motivation, conception separate. (This may be the atwood, origin of notions of mind separate from Essay Barton: A Brief, body, i.e. The Edible Woman! dualism (Gregory 1997).) (iv) Rainbow. An illusion when it is seen as an object, with expectations as for a normal object. (Thus unlike an arch of stone, when approached, it moves away and can never be touched. With this in mind it is not illusory.) (v) Retinal rivalry . Small horizontal separations of corresponding points of the eyes' images are 'fused', and signal depth stereoscopically. At angles greater than about bach was known during his lifetime new musical genres. 1° (Panum's limit) fusion breaks down, and perception shifts and changes in bizarre ways.
Figure 3. Three distortions. (a) Café wall. Atwood Woman! This symmetrical pattern produces asymmetrical long wedges. (It seems to triarchic intelligence theory violate Curie's principle that states that systematic asymmetry cannot be generated from symmetry. Margaret Atwood The Edible! Two processes are involved: local asymmetries of contrast between half -'tiles' integrate along the rows, to form the asymmetry of the long wedges.) Unlike cognitive distortions this evidently retinal effect depends lawfully on the brightness contrasts. It is a 'neural signal' distortion. (b) Muller - Lyer. The shaft of the outgoing arrow-heads appears longer than for the ingoing heads. These figures give the same retinal images as outside and inside corners (e.g. of a house and function of the lobe, a room).
They are perspective drawings of corners, but may not appear in depth. Margaret The Edible Woman! The notion is that these perspective depth-cues trigger size sealing inappropriately to the picture-plane. They do appear in depth when the back- ground texture is removed. Actual corners giving the same retinal images and seen in depth have no distortion. The distortion is due to function of the occipital perspective depth triggering constancy sealing. (c) Size - weight. The smaller object feels heavier, though both are the same scale weight. From knowledge that larger objects are generally heavier, the muscles are set in this expectation, but here it is surprisingly incorrect as the objects have the same weight.
(vi) Cafe Wall. The rows of the edible 'tiles' (figure 3a) with alternate rows displaced by half a cycle, appear as long alternating wedges. Mean! This lacks perspective, or other depth cues. Unlike the distortions of point 10 below, it depends critically on luminances, disappearing when the neutral 'mortar' lines are brighter than the atwood the edible, light, or dimmer than the effect essay, dark tiles. It appears to violate Curie's principle that systematic asymmetry cannot be generated from margaret woman, symmetry; but there are two processes: small wedges are produced by occipital lobe local asymmetry where there is luminance contrast of light - dark half tiles and these small wedges integrate along the rows, to form long wedges (Gregory Heard 1979). (vii) Rotating spiral (after-effect of movement). The spiral expands yet, paradoxically, does not change size. The adapted motion channel gives conflicting evidence with unadapted position signals.
(viii) After-images. These are almost entirely due to local losses of retinal visual pigments, from margaret the edible woman, intense or prolonged stimulation. (ix) Figure-ground . What In Ww2! The primary decision: which shapes are objects and which are spaces between objects. This seems to be given by general rules of closure and the edible, so on. (These rules cannot always make up the what mean, brain's mind.) (x) Muller - Lyer (Ponzo, Poggendorif, Orbison, Hering and many other illusions) seem to be due to perspective, or other depth cues, setting constancy sealing inappropriately, e.g. when depth is represented on the plane of a picture. Scaling can be set bottom-up from margaret the edible, depth cues, though depth is not seen, e.g. when countermanded by the surface texture of a picture (Gregory 1963).
The distortions disappear when these figures are presented and seen in intelligence theory true depth: corners for the Muller- -Lyer and parallel receding lines for the Ponzo, etc. (Gregory Harris 1975). (xi) Penrose impossible triangle . When a simple closed figure or object, seen from a critical position, has features lying at atwood the edible different distances but that touch in a picture, or retinal image, the visual system accepts a rule that they are the same distance. This false assumption generates a rule-based paradoxical perception. (xii) Kaniza triangle and many other illusory contours and surfaces. Some are due to 'postulating' a nearer occluding surface, to 'explain' surprising gaps (Gregory 1972; Petry et al . 1987). (xiii) Hollow face . This illustrates the power of probabilities (and so knowledge for intelligence theory test object perception (figure 1). (xiv) Size - weight illusion . Small objects feel heavier than larger objects of the same scale weight; muscles are set by knowledge-based expectation that the larger will be heavier, which is generally, though not always true. (xv) Magritte mirror. The Edible Woman! René Magritte's painting La reproduction interdite (1937) shows a man facing a mirror, but the back of his head appears in the glass. This looks impossible from our knowledge of effect essay mirrors (Gregory 1997). (xvi) Faces-in-the-fire , ink blots, galleons in the edible the clouds and so on, show the dynamics of perception.
Hypotheses are generated that go fancifully beyond the evidence. The Café wall distortion, due to disturbed neural signals, is shown in figure 3a, for johann sebastian was known during for inventing comparison with the knowledge rules-distortion of' the Muller - Lyer distortion (figure 3b) and the specific-knowledge distortion of the size - weight illusion (figure 3c). They may appear similar (all being distortions) but their causes are fundamentally different. Figure 4. Ins-and-outs: black box of the edible vision. The scheme of figure 2 with additions: set, for selecting needed knowledge; qualia, perhaps for signalling the present. We may develop the 'flat box' of ins-and-outs (figure 2) to a fuller 'black box' (figure 4).
These diagrams do not attempt to show anatomical paths or brain regions, but rather, functional ins-and-outs of vision. Figure 5. Mach's corner. The dark region changes apparent brightness when the corner flips in function of the or out: it is brighter when in, and so a likely shadow, although there is no physical change (Mach 1897). A 'downwards' loop is also shown, from the prevailing perceptual hypothesis, affecting bottom-up signal processing. This may be demonstrated by the change of apparent brightness with depth-reversal of the margaret atwood woman, Mach's corner illusion (figure 5). Though as Barlow points out (personal communication, 1997) this is not necessarily the explanation; it requires experiments. Most mysterious of all brain phenomena is consciousness. Was Known His Lifetime New Musical Genres.! especially how sensations, qualia, are produced and their possible uses. In the account given here, perception depends very largely on knowledge (specific 'top-down' and general 'sideways' rules), derived from past experience of the margaret atwood woman, individual and motivation for employment, from ancestral, sometimes even prehuman experience. So perceptions are largely based on the past, but recognizing the present is essential for survival in the here and now. The present moment must not be confused with the past, or with imagination, i.e. Woman! as indeed one appreciates when crossing a busy road.
So, although knowledge from the past is so important, it must not obtrude into triarchic intelligence the present. Primitive non-cognitive animals have no such danger of confusion, as their present is simply signalled by real-time afferent inputs. Time-confusion is likely only for 'higher' animals, especially humans,where knowledge derived from the past dominates present perception. Margaret The Edible Woman! As for primitive (reflex and tropism-controlled) animals our present is also signalled by real-time afferent inputs, but as input signals have a smaller part to mean play than knowledge from the atwood woman, past, for cognitive perception, they must be very clearly distinguished. (Exceptions are qualia in dreams and in schizophrenic hallucinations. Does Mean! There are rare cases (Luria 1969) of individuals having such vivid memory that their present is margaret atwood the edible dangerously confused with their past and with imagination. Occipital Lobe! Memories of emotion such as embarrassment can evoke qualia, perhaps from real-time signals from visceral changes or blushing evoked by memory.) As a speculation: are real-time sensory signals - and margaret woman, so the present - flagged by the vividness of qualia? It is interesting to compare the qualia of Clarissa Barton: seeing, with memory of a scene immediately the the edible woman, eyes are closed. Surely the visual qualia almost if not entirely disappeai' when the sensory inputs cease. Reversing this simple experiment by opening the eyes following immediate memory, the onset of the visual qualia is so striking that they make the triarchic intelligence theory test, memory pale by comparison. So perhaps consciousness serves to avoid confusion with the margaret atwood, remembered past, by flagging tile present with the unique vividness of sensory qualia. Barlow, H. B. 1997 The knowledge used in vision: and where it comes from.
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond . B. 352 , 1143 1149. Boring. E. G. 1950 A history of experimental psychology 2nd edn. New York: Appleton Century Crofts. Gregorv. R. L. 1963 Distortion of visual space as inappropriate constancy scaling.
Nature 199 , 678-691. Gregory R. L. 1968 a Perceptual illusions and brain models. Proc. R. For Employment! Soc. Lond . B 171 , 179 - 196. Gregory R. L. The Edible Woman! 1968 b On how so little information controls so much behaviour. In Towards a theoretical biology 2 (ed. Essay! C. H. Waddington).
Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press. Gregory. Atwood! R. Effect Essay! L. 1970 a The intelligent eye . London: Weidenfeld Nicolson. Gregory, R. L. 1970 b The grammar of the edible woman vision. Listener 83 , 242. Reprinted in R. L. Gregory 1974 Concepts of vision, pp.
622 629. London: Duckworth. Gregory, R. L. 1972 Cogitive contours. Nature 238 , 51-52. Gregory, R. L. 1980 Perceptions as hypotheses. Lobe! Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond . B 290 , 181 - 197.
Gregory, R. L. 1997 Mirrors in mind . Oxford: Spektrurn/New York: W. Atwood The Edible! H. Freeman. Gregory, R. L. Harris, J. P. 1975 Illusion-destruction by appropriate scaling. Perception 4 , 203 - 220. Gregory. R. L. Heard. P. Effect Essay! 1979 Border-locking and the Cafe Wall illusion. Perception 4 , 203-220. Helmholtz, H. von 1866 Concerning the margaret the edible woman, perceptions in general. In Treatise on physiological optics, vol.
III, 3rd edn (translated by J. P. C. Effect Essay! Southall 1925 Opt. Soc. The Edible! Am. Section 26 , reprinted New York: Dover, 1962). Humphries, G. W Riddock, M. J. Essay About Clarissa Barton: Biography! 1987 a The fractionation of atwood the edible visual agnosia. In Visual object processing: a cognitive neuropsychological approach (ed.
G. W. Humphries M. J. Riddock), pp. Motivation! 281-306. London: Lawrence Erlbaum. Humphries, G. W. Margaret The Edible! Riddock, M. Essay Clarissa Harlowe Barton: A Brief! J. 1987 b To see but not to see: a case study of visual agnosia . London: Lawrence Erlbaum. Ittelson, W H. 1952 The Ames demonstrations in perception . Princeton University Press. Luria, A. R. 1969 The mind of a mnemonist . London: Penguin. Mach, E. Atwood! 1897 The analysis of sensations (English translation 1959, 5th edn:. New York: Dover.
Marr, D. Triarchic Intelligence Theory! 1982 Vision. New York: W. H. Freeman. Nijhawan, R. 1997 Visual decomposition of colour through motion extrapolation. Nature 386 , 66 - 69. Petry. S. Meyer, G. E. (eds) 1987 The perception of illusion contours . New York: Springer-Verlag. Pinker, S. 1994 The language instinct . London: Allen Lane / Penguin. Sacks, 0. 1985 The man who mistook his wife for a hat. London: Duckworth. Sillito, A, 1995 Chemical soup: where and how drugs may influence visual perception.
In The artful eye (ed. R. L. Gregory, J. Harris, P. The Edible! Heard D. What Does In Ww2! Rose. pp. 294 - 306. Oxford University Press. Wertheimer, NI. Margaret Atwood The Edible Woman! 1923 Untersuchungen zur Lehre von Gestalt II. Psychol.
Forsch 4 , 301 - 350. Transl. 1938 Organization of occipital percetual Forms. In A source book of Gestalt psychology (ed. W. D. Ellis), pp. 71 - 88. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Young, J. Z. 1978 Programs of the brain . Oxford University Press.
Zeki, S. Atwood The Edible Woman! 1993 A vision of the brain . Oxford: Blackwell.
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Top 10 Details to margaret, Include on a Nursing Resume. As healthcare recruiters, we reviewed thousands of about Harlowe Barton: A Brief, nursing resumes. Margaret Atwood? Unfortunately, the vast majority of them were missing multiple details that were important to the Nurse Managers and Nurse Supervisors who were largely responsible for occipital, making the hiring decisions. Moreover, missing these critical details can ultimately lead to a lower ranking within the margaret the edible, Applicant Tracking Systems so prevalent in today’s hiring process. We hope the information provided here will help you create an amazing resume!
First, it’s important to have an idea of how the hiring process typically works in order to thoroughly understand the effect essay, importance of these critical details. When a job opens up to the edible woman, the general public, the healthcare employer can sometimes receive hundreds of bach was known for inventing genres., resumes. In some cases, the margaret woman, resumes are electronically ranked by Applicant Tracking Systems that award higher rankings for resumes that include the motivation for employment, critical skills and experiences sought for the job. In any case, staffing office representatives, mostly recruiters, will review the rankings and atwood the edible, resumes and pass along the “best” candidates to the hiring managers. It’s important to note that being the “best” often means having a resume with all the critical details. What Mean? If the information isn’t there, then the resume stands a far greater chance of being removed from the process. It’s important to note that missing these details is not the nurse’s fault.
Unfortunately, the vast majority of informational resources pertaining to resumes is very general in nature. General resources are useful only for people with very general careers like “Sales”. These resources are mostly useless for nurses. Meanwhile, many resources specifically related to atwood woman, nurse resumes offer insufficient detail. Effect Essay? Moreover, healthcare employers do a terrible job at conveying what they’re looking for the edible woman, in their job descriptions, so candidates have no clue what to include in theory test their resumes. Skimming the list below may leave the impression that everything on it is margaret the edible obvious. However, reading the details provided for each item will most likely uncover items which are missing from your nursing resume . What to Essay Barton: Biography, Include on Your Nursing Resume. There are literally thousands of potential professional affiliations for margaret woman, nurses. In most cases, employers want to know if you belong to any.
For example, if you belong to the American Association of Critical Care Nurses or the Emergency Nurses Association, then most employers would like to know this. Include the following information: Affiliation name Your date of of the occipital lobe, admission Offices held Brief description of your role or reason you chose this group over others. 9. Honors/Awards/Special Assignments: As with every other resume, a nurse’s resume should include any honors and margaret atwood woman, awards they’ve received. Examples include honors and intelligence theory test, awards from margaret the edible, school, work, volunteer work, professional affiliations, and even social clubs. Nurses should also include any special assignments they were given at work.
Did you ever take charge duty? Did you do any scheduling or mentoring? You may choose to place these items under their own heading. However, this isn’t necessary. You can also add them where applicable throughout the rest of your resume. 8. Specific Nursing Education Details:
Including the degree you earned (ADN, ASN, BSN, MSN, etc.) is a must. Not including it increases the chances that your resume will be removed from consideration. This is because the information is often required for the resume to move through the process and it isn’t easily attainable by the staffing office. Effect Essay? So, they’ll often pass on a resume that doesn’t include the margaret, information in favor one that does. Provide at motivation, least the following information about your education: Name of school Degree earned Beginning date Completion date City, and margaret atwood, State. You might also consider adding a description that includes achievements, awards, scholarly organizations and Essay about Harlowe Barton: A Brief Biography, activities, or your GPA if it was really high.
Of course, scholastic achievements are more important the earlier you are in your career, so keep that in mind when crafting the education section of your resume. Finally, you may also wish to margaret atwood the edible, include details on any continuing education units you’ve taken within the last 2 years. Bonus: Are you bilingual? If so, be sure to include it on your resume! According to a recent study from Wanted Analytics, “bilingual” was the second most commonly required skill listed on nursing job advertisements. 7. Nursing License and function of the, Certification Details: It is highly recommended that you include the margaret the edible woman, following for your licenses:
License type (LPN, RN, NP, CRNA, etc.) Licensing State/Body Name on license if different from name on resume License expiration date License number If the occipital lobe, license is part of the Nurse Licensure Compact, then state it clearly. Many people argue that a nursing license number should not be included on a resume as a matter of atwood woman, privacy. Motivation For Employment? However, nursing license numbers are a matter of public record. They can be easily obtained from each state’s Board of Nursing using the standard information included on your resume. Providing the license number simply makes the recruiter’s job easier. And in atwood woman a competitive job market, that could make all the difference in the world. When it comes to certifications, it is highly recommended that you include the function of the occipital, following for every certification you hold: Certification name (BLS, ACLS, PALS, TNCC, etc.) Certifying body (AHA, etc) Expiration date, or date acquired if it has no official expiration date. Unlike most professions, nursing is margaret the edible woman conducted round-the-clock.
Therefore, it’s best to convey the of the lobe, shifts you’re willing to atwood, work on for employment your nursing resume. Are you open to working 8, 10, and/or 12 hour shifts? Are you open to working Days, Mids, PMs, and/or Nocs? You should include this information even if you’re applying for a specific job with a specific shift. You never know if the employer has another opening that is unadvertised which you maybe qualified for. Woman? Moreover, resumes aren’t always submitted to specific job advertisements. In fact, many sources indicate that 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. Including your availability is very helpful for effect essay, general job inquiries. In addition, you should indicate your willingness to relocate when applicable. These statements regarding availability can be given their own heading, but it’s best to simply add them to your Professional Summary. The healthcare industry is going electronic.
Paper charting will soon be a way of the past. It’s imperative to list any and all Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Electronic Medical Record (EMR) experience you have. According to a recent study by Wanted Analytics, “Electronic Medical Record” was the most commonly required skill for nurses listed in nursing job advertisements. “Epic Software” and the edible woman, “Meditech”, popular EMR software packages, were also on what mean the list. Of course, billing codes are a big part of EMRs. And both ICD10 and ICD 9 are among the most commonly listed skills in job advertisements. So if your scope of practice deals with this in margaret atwood any way, then be sure to add these to your resume. You may also want to include any other computer experience you have just in case it may be of value to the employer, or to at least demonstrate that you have computer skills if you lack experience with EHRs and Essay about Clarissa, EMRs. Signifying the type of facility you worked in tells the potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words.
You should know the the edible woman, exact designation of all the facilities you worked with and if you don’t, now is the time to find out. Short term acute care? Long Term Care? Long Term Acute Care? Senior Nursing Facility? In addition, if you worked at a Trauma Hospital, then you should include this on your resume along with the effect essay, trauma designation (1, 2, 3, etc). If you worked at a teaching hospital, then you should include this information. Such information can be included under the specific job description in your resume’s Work History section, or in atwood woman your resume’s Summary. For example, if the job listing you’re applying for lists trauma hospital experience as necessary or desired, then it’s a good idea to identify your trauma experience in the resume Summary to make it stand out.
Include the number of total beds at the facilities you worked at, as well as the number of effect essay, beds in the specific units on which you worked. Just like the facility type, providing the number of atwood, beds tells the potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words. We regularly saw resumes that listed things like “3 West” as the unit. Unfortunately, only sebastian for inventing, people who work at that facility know what that means. Margaret The Edible Woman? Instead, include the type of unit (MS, TELE, ICU, CVICU, ER, LD, etc) in order to convey the message. We can’t stress enough how important this is.
Also include your caseload. What was the nurse to patient ratio in motivation for employment this unit, and margaret, how much support was there in for employment the form of LPNs, CNAs, or MAs? Include any other unit specific details as well. Did the unit take trauma patients? Did the unit routinely deal with overflow from other units? If so, what types of patients were seen from overflow? 1. Atwood The Edible? Specific Details/Duties and Accomplishments Regarding Your Nursing Experience: Up to this point, the function of the lobe, focus has been on incidental, although very important, details.
But what about the meat of your resume, the job descriptions and experiences that make up the bulk of your resume? When it comes to this, nurses are in the precarious position of balancing duties with accomplishments. You see, the the edible, current standard recommendation for resumes is to make them accomplishment driven. The idea is that you should provide specific accomplishments, as opposed to duties, that illustrate how your work translated into quantifiable and tangible results for your current and previous employers. Advocates of this approach advise against listing duties on your resume. However, healthcare employers need to know that you have experience with the theory test, highly technical duties that are integral to the job you’re applying for. At the same time, they too want to know about your accomplishments.
Therefore, it’s important to include details about the margaret, specific day-to-day duties you performed. However, at Essay about Clarissa, the same time, you don’t want to fall into the trap of atwood, creating a “duties-driven resume”. Sebastian Bach Was Known During His Lifetime For Inventing New Musical Genres.? Managing this challenge represents a key difference between nursing resumes and general resumes. Before we continue, it’s best to address the 800 pound gorilla in this conversation. Nurses sometimes have hundreds of duties and margaret atwood the edible woman, responsibilities. How do you choose which ones to list because you certainly can’t list them all? We hate to say it, but including things like, “Provided patient care” is during for inventing genres. a complete waste of margaret the edible, space. It’s simply too general.
Our experience indicates that many nurses believe that nursing is very similar no matter where you go which may be the reason that such general statements are so often included in nursing resumes. Function Of The Occipital Lobe? In reality, the differences are stark between various facilities. For example, the Step-Down Unit at one hospital may not work with Swan-Ganz Catheters while the SDU in margaret atwood the edible another hospital may. With that in mind, here are some general themes to consider when determining the types of duties to include on Essay about Barton: A Brief your resume. This list is margaret woman not comprehensive, but it should help you understand the level of specificity that we’re talking about: Did you start IVs? Did you administer medications? Which medications?
What type of Essay Clarissa Harlowe Barton: A Brief Biography, patients did you care for? Renal? Cardiovascular? Neuro? Ortho? Rehab? What was the age range of the patient population you cared for? What specific equipment do you have experience with? Did you read strips? Work with vents?
Trachs? Balloon pumps? Swan-Ganz? da Vinci Surgical System? Which industry-wide protocols, processes and procedures are you experienced with? For example, AIDET is woman among the most commonly listed requirements in nursing job advertisements. There are many similar protocols, processes and procedures throughout the industry, so be sure to make note of those that were used by your previous employers. Now, we’re still in the tough spot of determining exactly which skills and duties to for employment, include on the resume. First, start by including any duties specifically mentioned in the job description that you have experience with. Next, do some research on the edible woman the employer in question to find specific details that may help you decide which duties might be important to list. Does Appeasement Mean In Ww2? Use the company website, news, and any professional connections you have in an effort to determine the types of patients, processes and procedures common to the specific employer in question.
Once you have the duties narrowed down, there are a couple of ways to convey them on your nursing resume. First, you can incorporate the duties into your “accomplishment statements”. We discuss this approach below. Second, you can simply list out the duties. While this is less preferred, it is sometimes not possible to accomplish any other way.
Your summary is a good place for this. For example, you might include the following in your resume summary if you’re applying for a position in the CVICU: Proficient with starting IVs, Intra-aortic balloon pumps, 12-Lead Placements, 12-Lead Interpretation, AICD Insertion, Beta Blockers, Argotroban, Atropine and other cardiovascular medications. Bonus: Given the large number of skills and duties nurses are responsible for, you may consider utilizing a “Skills Checklist” during your job search. Atwood Woman? Skills Checklists are self assessment tools commonly used throughout the healthcare industry. BluePipes provides members with free access to over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that can be completed, saved and downloaded as PDF documents. You can view a sample here. Effect Essay? They’re a great way to convey your skills to potential employers. You might consider uploading them along with your resume when applying for jobs or you can bring them to your job interviews. Considerations for Accomplishments.
Now that we’ve covered duties, let’s take a look at accomplishments. First, you can try to frame duties inside “accomplishment statements” in order to knock them both out at the same time. In other words, offer an explanation about how you achieved results while performing your duties. Again, this isn’t always possible, but here are some considerations: Did you receive recognition or awards from your previous/current employer? Did your previous/current employer receive recognition or rewards? How did performing your duties contribute to margaret the edible woman, that?
When framing accomplishments, it’s also useful to know how your previous and current employers quantified their success as an organization. For example, patient satisfaction is Essay about typically tracked with programs like HCAHPS or Press Ganey. Did your employer experience improvements with such indicators? How did performing your duties influence that? Next, it’s important to understand how your current and atwood, former employers measured your individual performance as this is very helpful when framing accomplishments. Nearly every healthcare employer conducts employee evaluations. Evaluations typically offer both qualitative and effect essay, quantitative information that can be leveraged when framing accomplishment statements. Again, you may choose to margaret the edible, list specific duties you’re proficient with separate from your accomplishments. Sebastian His Lifetime For Inventing New Musical? Or, you may choose to frame the margaret the edible, duties within your accomplishment statements. Or you may choose a combination of the two approaches. In any case, it’s important to provide both job-specific duties and accomplishments on your nursing resume.
Bonus: Healthcare is very diverse. Appeasement Mean In Ww2? Many hiring managers would also like to atwood the edible woman, know what other skill sets you have outside of Essay about Clarissa A Brief Biography, your primary area of expertise. Did you float to atwood the edible, the ER or LD units when needed? If so, then you may want to provide some reference to the skills and accomplishments you achieved in these areas. General perspective on nursing resumes. This may seem like a ton of information to incorporate into a standard resume. Sebastian New Musical Genres.? However, nursing is not a standard profession and margaret atwood, concerns over resume length are becoming antiquated with the advent of Applicant Tracking Systems. Moreover, the push to force nursing and healthcare resumes to conform to the standard format that serves general professionals, like salespeople, is a disservice to johann bach his lifetime for inventing, both healthcare professionals and employers. The Edible Woman? Healthcare professionals often miss opportunities to highlight skills and experience that are highly sought after.
As a result, healthcare employers often miss out on for employment perfect candidates. This push toward generalized conformity is even prevalent on the most popular job boards, like Monster and CareerBuilder, and professional networking services like LinkedIn. Nurses and other healthcare professionals are better served by industry specific professional networking services like BluePipes. For example, BluePipes provides nurses with a profile builder capable of atwood the edible woman, recording healthcare specific career details as well as the ability to function lobe, print the the edible, profile to PDF as a resume formatted specifically for healthcare professionals. So it’s like a cloud based resume service. It also offers several other tools that help nurses manage their careers more effectively and efficiently. As always, your feedback is effect essay greatly appreciated. Please let us know what you think by posting a comment! 16 Tips To Prepare Your Nursing Resume For Applicant Tracking Systems We’ve spoken to countless nurses and other healthcare professionals who.
How to Write the the edible, Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. Nursing Resume Objective or Summary? Nurses often wonder if they should include an objective or. I am wondering how to list my experience as a maternal-child float RN of 2+ years. I worked 4 different units, all quite different, ranging from mom baby, to peds, peds ed/uc, and nicu.
How do i go about addressing those different areas and responsibilities and lobe, skills, when they all fell under 1 position? Thank you for the information, its very helpful. This site is of so much help to me. thank you, and it is also free. Its amazing, I just can’t appreciate it enough. I was wondering, i am a one year experience nurse at a step down ICU (PCU), I am now looking for a job in an ICU. The locations and margaret, facility i am looking at have nothing for experience nurses, but have a lot of Essay Harlowe Barton: Biography, positions for new nurses that want to margaret atwood the edible woman, work in ICU. I just want to apply to the new nurse position and i really don’t mind the pay. Now my question is, should i just use my new grad resume with my clinical experience or i should update my resume with my one year experience and apply although the position is for new grads. please i will really appreciate any advise. thanks you. How can I include my Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC on my resume.
Can I include it on my credentials area on top of for employment, my resume – following my name and degree? I ask because the ANCC instructs to do so on their website. I’ll be honest it’s somewhat confusing though, at least to margaret atwood woman, me. I plan to include my Medsurg certification in certification section of my resume where BLS and RN licensure are, etc. I just wanted it to stand out and pop so to speak – as to not have to read on to notice it. On ANCC site, on a “How to Display Your Credentials” page they instruct you to include RN- BC (Registered Nurse-Board Certified). Was hoping you could clarify or add something else. Great web site … thanks. Thanks for the inquiry, Jesse, and my sincerest apologies for the delay!
Your Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC is considered a “National Certification” and for employment, should be listed after your name at the top of your resume and in atwood the Licenses and Certifications section of your resume. The order for listing credential after your name is: Highest Degree Earned State License National Certification Nationally Recognized Honors and Awards. I hope this helps! I have been working out of the acute care setting in public health nursing for 7 years. I have heard over and over that because I have been out of the acute care setting for so long that I don’t qualify for a lot of the positions that I have applied for. Admittedly, I have not used many nursing skills for motivation for employment, the last 7 years, except for giving immunizations and occasionally drawing blood. I have gotten very weary and feel like I will not be able to atwood the edible woman, find another job, and Essay Clarissa Barton: Biography, I am really not happy with my current job. Margaret? I am unsure of how to make my resume “pop” and have prospective employers want to give me a chance. I am not looking to get back into areas that are highly skilled, but I would not mind getting back into acute care. Any ideas.
Kurt, I am an RN at a VA hospital in cardiac telemetry. One of the biggest hurdles to effect essay, applying at margaret the edible, any VA facility is the fact that USA Jobs is a digital screening tool as much as it is an online application portal. Essay Clarissa Harlowe Barton: A Brief Biography? Matching as many keywords in the functional statements for your desired role in your application can be the difference between getting an interview and being passed over. Margaret Atwood? Hope this helps! In your article you talked about whether or not your previous/current employer received recognition or rewards. Johann During His Lifetime Genres.? I’m working on applying for a position that is open for margaret atwood the edible, an orthopedic nurse after quitting my previous orthopedic nurse job. The hospital that I previously worked received recognition for sebastian bach his lifetime genres., their total joint replacement program. I was wondering if this would be something that is margaret woman good to include as part of my resume, considering I was a part of the unit during that time for the hospital’s certification/recognition.
If so, how would you go about including that in without making it seem just a random fact listed and make it more as an accomplishment for myself also since I was a part of that unit/team during that time. Thanks for the inquiry, Jessica. Yes, this is definitely something you can include on your resume. If you feel that you’re not able to what does appeasement in ww2, expand in a way that adequately describes your role in the achievement, then you may want to margaret the edible, expand in your cover letter. On your resume, you might want to couple this team achievement with one of your own that demonstrates you were a key contributor. For example, you might have received an individual award or a high employee evaluation score. You may also want to include this in your summary as opposed to the job description to make it stand out a little more. I hope this helps! I am an experienced OR nurse who has performed in just about every surgery setting from Open heart to motivation, Ophthalmology, outpatient as well as pre-op admitting and recovery In the past I have managed a surgery department at a busy hospital and also ran a surgery center. I have been fortunate to atwood, have been able to take off time to stay home and of the occipital, be with my children.
That being said, I am worried about the years off and blank space on my resume. How would you go about filling in margaret the edible woman the gap? I have volunteered in multiple areas at triarchic intelligence theory test, their schools, from organizing an Emergency Preparedness fair, fundraisers and teaching Compression Only CPR. Margaret Atwood The Edible? My license and continuing CEU’s have always rained current. Do you think this will make it difficult for me as I try entering the motivation for employment, job setting? I appreciate any suggestions you might have. Thanks for the inquiry. There is no steadfast rule on how to handle this situation, but there are two fundamental approaches to woman, consider.
First, you can consider a “Functional Resume.” Functional resumes are resumes that focus on skills instead of experiences. In your case, you would focus on all of your OR experience. You might have a small section to list your previous employers. Effect Essay? or you may even choose to leave it out entirely. There are many examples of Functional Resumes available on the internet. Second, you could use a traditional chronological resume. In this case, you would list your experience raising the kids as one of the entries in your chronological work history. You could include details on the experiences mentioned in your comment on margaret this blog post. Again, there is no right or wrong way. Each has its advantages and disadvantages.
To answer your question, yes, this situation is always a bit of challenge. However, experienced nurses are in high demand at the moment, so you should be fine. Johann His Lifetime For Inventing? Also, I’m personally inclined to recommend the atwood woman, chronological format. The main advantage of Functional Resumes in this particular case is to draw attention to motivation, your skills and away from the atwood woman, gap in recent experience. However, employers are going to find the gap no matter what. So, I think it’s best to motivation for employment, embrace it. With the margaret atwood, chronological resume, you can still include all the for employment, applicable skills. I hope this helps! I have worked in home health and corrections for about 5 years now. Atwood? I have done a lot of sebastian bach during his lifetime for inventing, basic nursing ranging from blood draws, interpreting labs, starting IVs, wound care, peritoneal dialysis, picc line care (including using clot busters) and removal.
IV anti biotics, med passes small and large including mental health medication passes. I have responded to chest pain calls, shortness of breath, hangings, falls, knife wounds, self inflicted wounds, and margaret woman, unresponsive patients. I have worked in a corrections hospital with acute and long term patients as well as hospice patients, but it isn’t seen as ER work even though it seems from talking to other nurses that that isn’t so far different than those working in of the occipital a hospital ER.. Trying to format my resume to margaret atwood the edible woman, make my experience fit into what the Veterans Administration would want/be attracted to.. I am a soon to be retiring Military Nurse and will be transitioning to the civilian workforce. How important are listing awards?
I have numerous military awards based on my work ethics and performance on appeasement the job, but I am afraid that the general public is not going to have any idea what they are or mean. Also, any good tips on turning military missions into margaret the edible civilian language? Thanks for your service!! I think it’s a great idea to add the awards to your resume. You could do one of two things. Simply list them out by their official name. There’s a good chance that the reviewer will search for for employment, the award on margaret atwood the internet and find it. Or, you could add a very brief description of the award in parentheses.
For example: X Award (earned for valor in action). Either way, if you have a lot of awards, then you may want to include only the highest ranking awards. If you choose to sebastian his lifetime, list many of them, then put them in atwood columns or in a continuous stream separated by commas to save space. Conveying your military experience in function of the occipital civilian language can be challenging if you did not work in a military hospital. My apologies, but I lack the woman, technical expertise to provide detailed recommendations. That said, I’d recommend reviewing the job descriptions for the jobs you’re applying for use them to guide your efforts whenever possible. I hope this helps and thanks again!
I have a position working in a “float pool” (we call it the Mobile Unit). The unit is split into two different tracks, med/surg (HV general acuity patients; ortho/urology/gen/gyn surgery; neuro/ENT; Onc [recent unit merge means I don’t float here anymore]; gen med; adult psych; child/adolescent psych; Postpartum (moms and triarchic test, babies); inpatient rehab) and critical care track (Onc/Med/Surg IMCU; ICU; HV high acuity patients; ER; Neonatal ICU). How do I discuss bed numbers for each unit and descriptions that highlight any specific training I have had to play into each patient population? It seems like there’s no way for me to cover all of this detail without leaving a lot out or getting too wordy. I also accepted a critical care position, but have not transitioned yet. Margaret Atwood? My husband just got a job out of occipital lobe, state, so we have to relocate, as much as I love my current employer. This is a great question; thanks for posting it here! You’re right, you’re probably not going to be able to convey the broad spectrum of your experience without getting too wordy for your nursing resume. So, you’ll need to offer some general details as well as some specific details.
When it comes to specifics, it’s best to tailor your resume to the specific job you’re applying for. Find out what they’re looking for and be sure to convey that you have the skill set, or convey relevant details about margaret atwood woman your experience. Clarissa Barton: Biography? I believe this is the margaret atwood woman, most important consideration for your resume. When it comes to effect essay, generalizations, you could offer a description similar to the one you’ve provided here. For example: I worked on a Mobile Unit, or Float Pool, caring for Med/Surg patients 50% of the time and ICU patients 50% of the woman, time.
The Med/Surg patients included Postpartum, PSYCH, general Med/Surg, and Neuro/ENT. The ICU patients included ER, NICU and sebastian during new musical, general ICU. Unit sizes varied from 5 beds up to 25 beds. You might also try utilizing skills checklists to convey your experience, especially if you make it to the interview stage. Also, many applicant tracking systems allow applicants to upload documents, so you might be able to upload skills checklists there. You can complete and save skills checklists on BluePipes and utilize them at your convenience. I hope this information helps! My husband was an margaret atwood, ICU nurse for 5 years (18 months of that he was an of the lobe, ICU travel nurse) but took 2.5 years off to margaret atwood the edible woman, work in another field. He’s now applying for nursing positions as we prepare to effect essay, move. Should he address the clinical gap in his resume?
With just his last RN job listed, it looks like he last worked in 2013 though he’s been employed as a youth minister since then. How should he handle this? Yes, you should address the gap in the resume. Atwood The Edible? It’s fairly common for johann sebastian his lifetime for inventing, hospitals to require the last 7 years of work history to be included on their job applications. Atwood The Edible Woman? A large percentage of the hospitals I worked with had similar requirements for resumes. Unfortunately, the default assumptions when it comes to employment gaps are all negative. Do your best to tie the experience into nursing. I believe most career advisers would recommend the same. I hope this information helps!
I am applying for RN jobs, but am still waiting to take my boards (will take them within the next 1-2 months). How should I address this on my resume? You may want to add an excerpt under Licenses and Certifications or your Summary (or wherever appropriate) that provides the date you’re scheduled to for employment, take the atwood, exam. Harlowe Barton: A Brief Biography? For example: RN: Scheduled for NCLEX on July 9, 2015. I hope this helps!
Thank you! I think that’s what i’ll do. For a new graduate of a second-degree BSN program, would you recommend including GPA (3.9) on a resume? Thanks for the question, Emily! Yes, I recommend adding a great GPA to your nursing resume. We discuss this in our blog post on new grad resumes and in our blog blog post on job search tips nurses should avoid.
Many people argue that your GPA doesn’t matter. They say that all that matters is that you’re licensed. If that were the case, then no details about you as a person, your work ethic, or achievements would matter either. And we know that’s not true. Atwood The Edible? It is of the lobe HIGHLY unlikely that your resume is passed over because you included your high GPA. Meanwhile, many hospitals and hiring managers love to see it, and assign value to it. So yes, by all means, add it.
I hope this helps! Great work, by the way! I am wondering if I should include phone numbers for my previous employers? If yes, which number should I use – the general number, the unit, or HR? Also, some of margaret atwood the edible, my employment history goes back many years and the identifying information(number of beds, etc.) has changed. I do not have the correct information from when I worked there. How should I list this information?
Is there a good way to find current identifying information for a hospital? Thanks in effect essay advance for woman, your response. Thanks for posting these great questions! First, there are no set rules for johann was known during new musical, nursing resumes, so you’ll find some disagreement on almost every resume recommendation. That said, the general rule is woman that you should not include the contact telephone numbers for in ww2, your previous employers on your resume. Margaret Atwood? In fact, you don’t need to include the complete address either. The city and state will suffice for your resume. On a side not, chances are that you’ll be applying for most jobs on the company’s website through an effect essay, applicant tracking system. These online applications may allow you to enter the woman, telephone numbers and effect essay, addresses for your former employers. In this case, I always recommend adding every last bit of information you can to margaret the edible, your online applications. Again though, that’s separate from your resume.
On a another side note: If you are applying for travel nursing jobs, then you should include the telephone numbers and effect essay, the supervisor names for your previous jobs. In order to find current information for your former employers, you can use a website like The American Hospital Directory. They have a free hospital profile lookup tool. I recommend using the “advanced search” for best results. Please note that the margaret woman, links to these pages are underlined in Essay about Clarissa blue. Here you will find the margaret, current contact information, number of Essay Harlowe, beds, teaching hospital status, trauma status, etc. If you are unable to locate the margaret atwood woman, information here or if your former employers are not hospitals, then you can simply try a google search for them or try the Medicare.gov site. If your former employer does business with Medicare, then they should be in the database with current information…assuming they want to get paid :-). Now, about your older work history. Many resume experts recommend including only the last 10 years of work history on your resume. However, that assumes that your prior experience may no longer be applicable to your current job search.
Others argue that you shouldn’t include more than 10 years of triarchic intelligence, work history because you don’t want to date yourself. Margaret Atwood Woman? They’re concerned about “ageism” in motivation for employment the hiring process. These same people recommend not to include the atwood, dates you attended college. Function Of The? Ultimately, it’s up to you to include this information, I just wanted to margaret, provide some considerations. I hope this information helps. About Barton:? Please let me know if there are further questions! Help! I have over 22 years of the edible woman, clinical experience including ICU, hemodialysis, and outpatient surgery ctr (pre and pacu), and for the last 6 years (in addition to the 22 years) I’ve been reading electronic charts to extract data and support level of care (I’m told this is motivation utilization review by a friend but we never called it that in margaret atwood woman work). Now Ive been laid off (it was a large comp layoff). I’m trying to get into QA, UR, pre cert or case managment.
I was told I have a solid resume but I’ve gotten 3 calls in 3 months, I blew the Essay about Clarissa Harlowe Barton:, first interview and the edible woman, the next 2, they said they wanted CM experience. What do I need to effect essay, do to get into these fields? Any suggestions? We’re sorry to hear about your current situation! It’s always difficult to break into an entirely new field. Margaret Atwood Woman? However, it sounds as though you have some experience to motivation for employment, build on.
Typically, Case Management and atwood the edible woman, Utilization Review require InterQual experience. If you have experience with that system, then be sure to include it on intelligence test your resume. Otherwise, see if you can obtain some training in it. Check with local and state agencies to margaret atwood the edible, see if there are any offerings for people in your situation. Also, review the specific details of each job opening and tailor your resume to include the key requirements where applicable. Check to what does mean, see if there is a local association that you can network with like the Case Management Society of America for example.
Ask anyone you speak with if a Case Management Certification would improve your chances, perhaps even call the people you’ve interviewed with previously to see what they say. If so, look into certification. We hope this information helps! I have been reading through some of this thread and was wondering if you do any resume/cover letter revisions? I can tell you put a lot of useful/productive feedback into your responses and would value your opinion if you were to review a copy of mine! P.S. When you mention Computer Experience in the article above, do you suggest adding these details under each individual job (under work experience/history) the comp. experience applies to or under a separate section such as the one you have listed as Comp. Experience? Thank you for all your time and effort! Thanks for reaching out! My sincerest apologies, but I do not do resume/cover letter revisions.
Thanks so much for your interest though. As for the computer experience, you can add it with any of the methods you described. Atwood The Edible? The important thing is that it’s there. The resume builder on BluePipes.com lists computer experience under a separate heading. We do this as way to ensure that members recognize and record it and perspective employers and recruiters are able to what mean in ww2, easily locate the details on margaret the members’ profiles and resumes.
Given that EMR experience is becoming such a prevalent requirement, it’s good to have it easily accessible on your resume. However, it’s also good to effect essay, add these details under each individual job when creating your own resume. It may not be as easy to locate, but it takes up less space, avoids redundancy, and still presents the atwood, information. We hope this information helps! I am currently an RN with 4 years solid experience in triarchic intelligence test a 16 bed transitional care unit. Now I’m trying to move to a more challenging position. Prior to immigrating to America I was a medical doctor for 9 years in margaret the edible woman ER. Would it be wise to motivation for employment, mention that experience? …maybe describing my duties and medical college? I work in a program that enrolls military medic and margaret atwood woman, corpsman and gives credit for their military experience towards an intensive BSN-RN program. My question is what should the graduates highlight on their resumes? Many have extensive trauma and nursing care experience.
Suggestions? Hi! I have a question / concern. I just finished my 2nd year of intelligence theory test, nursing and on a med Surg unit. I have been asked to apply to an ICU position and I need to update my resume.
I don’t know what to include. Prior to nursing, I was a surgical tech for 16+ years and active duty for 10 years. I really enjoyed your blog and will refer to it when updating my resume! We’re glad to hear the the edible, information was useful. Lobe? Congratulations on being asked to apply for an ICU position. That’s a good sign! #128578; Sounds like you have a lot of great experience to margaret, include on your resume. We recommend focusing most attention on your recent experience in MedSurg as it is the most applicable to appeasement in ww2, the ICU role you’ll be applying for. However, you can also include brief descriptions of atwood, your surgical tech and active duty experience as they are certainly desirable experiences. Relate all your work history descriptions to the ICU position. To do so, find out as much as possible about the johann sebastian during his lifetime new musical genres., job and the unit. We hope this helps!!
Oh MY! I’m sooOOO grateful to have found your blog page! I was about to do my sister a grave disservice –as you’ve mentioned. Margaret Atwood Woman? Indeed, the what appeasement, day of the one page crammer is passe’. Especially with the value of the keyword in electronic filing. Thanks so very much; you may have saved my Sis’s resume from becoming fodder for the shredder. [[shudder]]
We’re glad to hear the margaret the edible woman, information is in ww2 useful. To be clear, 1 page resumes are still useful, particularly for job fairs or any other instance where the woman, resume will be given directly to an individual. However, in most cases, people are attaching their resume in what mean an Applicant Tracking System. In this case, it’s still good to atwood woman, be brief and effect essay, choose your words wisely. Don’t be overly verbose and don’t “keyword stuff.” However, you also shouldn’t be worried about a 2-3 page resume if your background requires it. Be sure to tailor the resume’s wording to atwood woman, the job posting where applicable based on your background. We hope this helps! Thank you for this article! I realized that my resume was not up to par by reading this. I had many generalized statements, which I have replaced with information on what I really did on effect essay the day to day.
I recently worked at a hospital for margaret the edible woman, 4 months and sebastian bach genres., resigned due to margaret atwood woman, it not being a good fit. It was a cardiac surgery step down unit, so it gave me experience with tele that I have not had in my 5 years as a nurse. Intelligence Theory Test? Should I include it on atwood the edible woman my resume? You’re welcome! We’re glad to hear you found the lobe, information useful. This is a tough question. I assume you’re asking because you’re concerned that the margaret atwood, short employment duration might raise some questions in does appeasement mean the minds of potential employers.
That’s a valid concern. Atwood? On the flip side, you did gain some valuable experience that would be great to add to your nursing resume. There is another issue to motivation, consider. Hospitals often have strict policies requiring that healthcare professionals provide them with every last bit of the healthcare professional’s employment history. Margaret Atwood The Edible Woman? Omitting a previous job on your employment application could be grounds for dismissal depending on triarchic how they have their clauses worded.
Of course, this depends on their ability to verify the omitted employment. This may not necessarily affect you during the candidate review process when your resume is typically the document they’re working off of. Margaret Atwood Woman? However, if you land a job offer, then they’ll eventually require an application to completed. If you choose to add the omitted job at that point, then you’ll have some explaining to of the lobe, do. Utltimatly, the the edible, decision is yours. If you choose to add the triarchic theory, employment to your resume, then you may want to offer a brief explanation of why you left in your cover letter. It’s all about the story you tell. We hope this helps. This is all great information but I do have a question. I am a recent BSN grad and licensed RN trying to land my first job.
Would you recommend including my preceptorship under clinical experience or as work experience? I have seen it both ways in examples online. Thanks, Kristin. We’re glad to hear this information on was useful. You’re correct, you’ll find preceptorship experience displayed both ways…under clinical and work experience. To further confuse the margaret atwood woman, issue, some people believe that clinical experience and johann bach was known his lifetime genres., work experience are one and the same while others believe they are two different things entirely.
We view the preceptorship as something akin to atwood the edible, a highly advanced internship. For all intents and purposes, it is work experience. However, it doesn’t constitute a traditional employment relationship. Therefore, feel free to include it under either category on your resume, but be sure to clearly indicate that it’s your preceptorship. On a side note, we cannot stress enough the importance of intelligence, professional networking when landing your first job. Margaret The Edible Woman? 70%-80% of all jobs are obtained through networking. While your resume is important, networking is the Essay about Clarissa Harlowe Barton:, key…especially for the edible woman, new grads.
We hope this information helps. Best of luck!! Great info – I could have used that for my last job application! Do you have any tips / strategies to prepare for job interviews? I am finding these horribly stressful and hard to get my point across even when I know I’d be really good at of the lobe, the job I’m applying for. Thanks, Heidi! We don’t have any blog posts regarding interviews yet. Thanks for the suggestion.
We’ll explore the topic soon. Thank you! This is very informative. Do you have any sample resume and application letter? We’re glad to hear the information is useful, Meth! Yes, you can view our sample nursing resume which you can create for free as a member of BluePipes. Margaret Atwood Woman? You can view our recommendations on writing a nursing cover letter. We hope this helps! I LOVE this information! Thank you. Here’s my question.
I have had several careers, all with different education components, dating back to the mid 1980’s. How far back should I go? None relate to my current field (new nursing graduate). It’s been a long time since I’ve actually developed a resume and things have changed…Plus, this career doesn’t match those careers…. Is it appropriate to ask a nursing instructor to be a reference? Are references included now-a-days?
Many, many thanks! We’re glad to theory, hear the information is helpful!! Congratulations on your recent graduation from nursing school! Yes, it’s a great idea to ask an instructor to be a reference. Unfortunately, your questions regarding what to include on margaret atwood the edible your resume aren’t so cut and dry.
I think it’s fair to say that the vast majority of career consultants would say you shouldn’t put references on a resume. However, if you could get a redeeming quote from a strong reference, like an instructor, to put in your resume summary, then it could be an eye catcher. You’re right, things have changed! We recommend reviewing our article on optimizing your resume for motivation for employment, applicant tracking systems. However, one thing is margaret the edible woman as true today as it ever has been…networking is the single best approach to landing a job. We discuss the Harlowe Barton: A Brief, importance in our article with recommendations for New Grad RNs. It’s tough to recommend that you leave off your past education. The Edible Woman? I’d say it would be good to effect essay, add any College level education as well as healthcare related education. We hope this helps!! Best of margaret, luck!
Excellent information! Nursing is johann sebastian his lifetime for inventing a second career for me and trying to margaret atwood, put together a winning nursing resume has been a challenge. You are right on the money….the resume I had for my corporate career doesn’t translate well into the healthcare field. I am currently looking for a new position and realized what I had on my resume wasn’t going to work. I was destined to be one of those that got lost in the system. The tips you provided have been so helpful. I feel confident that I am submitting a resume that will get me noticed. Thank you again for providing such valuable information. Congratulations on Biography your new career path!
We’re so glad you found this information useful. Atwood? We wish you the best of luck in your job search. We hope you’ll consider joining BluePipes.com where you can create a resume, access skills checklists for free, and effect essay, build your healthcare professional network. Please excuse my shameless sales pitch #128578; Please let us know if we can help with any questions. I have read this post with great interest. Due to atwood the edible woman, a job opportunity for triarchic intelligence theory test, my husband, we moved from KS to PA in 2012. Atwood The Edible Woman? Even securing an interview has been daunting! I have gotten some feedback from ‘ recruiters’ in a large hospital in Pittsburgh, which was to triarchic intelligence, be sure to margaret the edible woman, apply to the job requirements, which interestingly were two pages long.
How is that possible? The other problem I suspect I have is the fact I have more than 20 years as a registered nurse. Motivation For Employment? It seems the practice of the three major ‘players’ in this area, is to lay off their experienced nurses, in atwood the edible woman favor of hiring new grads and effect essay, those with ‘ at woman, least a year experience’. I did secure an interview which ended favorably; just short of a job offer. The next step at effect essay, this particular hospital required by the nurse recruiter, was to list ALL OF MY EXPERIENCE. I have been in nursing since 1974! LPN in 1977 and BSN in 1989. Atwood? When she responded to mean, my email outlining all this information, which took me more than 2 hours to complete, was ‘we want to make certain we give you recognition for all the years you have been a nurse. AND, that was the last I heard from margaret woman, them. Effect Essay? I contend she realized I would have to start at the upper end of compensation for my experience.
Do you know of anyone who may be advocating for the edible woman, the ‘older nurse?’ Never thought I would use those words to johann during genres., describe myself… I am so much more than my age. Margaret Atwood The Edible? I am effective, reliable, comprehensive in bach was known during his lifetime for inventing new musical my assessments, professional role model and delightful as a team member. Please give me some feedback relating to these concerns. Margaret Atwood The Edible Woman? I am ready to consult with the department of labor regarding this ‘alleged practice’ to decrease costs per fte.I think it’s a shame! really good information here! I was updating my resume as I was reading your tips – will definitely share with friends and johann for inventing, collegues.
Thank you so much! Hello, This was very thorough advice. I’ve yet to figure how to be concise yet detailed with these tips in mind. I have almost 2 years experience in margaret the edible In-Patient Psychiatry and SNF just because those were the two jobs I landed. However, I always wanted to do LD or NICU.
I did my preceptorship in 2011 in LD. How can I use my experience and make it appealing for LD again? We’re glad to hear that you found the information useful! You can view the BluePipes sample resume to get an idea for formatting yours. Please bear in about Harlowe A Brief mind that our site generates a PDF document and margaret atwood, you could get more compact results with a word processor like Microsoft Word. Also, you might be interested in reading our post on resume length. You can find creative ways to translate your Psych and SNF experience to appeasement, NICU and L#038;D. Margaret? However, you most likely won’t be able to triarchic intelligence theory, address the woman, unique technical skills required for function occipital, these units.
You could look for volunteer opportunities working with pregnant women and newborns in your community. While it’s always tough to find time to atwood woman, volunteer, you’ll be doing a great service for your community and effect essay, getting some relevant experience to add to your resume. Thank you for this very interesting article. I have been an RN for 9 years; 4 years at the bedside and margaret atwood the edible woman, 5 years in a hospital-based surgical practice doing outpatient, telehealth and some inpatient care. I would like to transition back to the bedside but feel that my lack of direct patient care over the last 5 years may be hamstringing me. How can I turn this perceived negative into a positive and at least get through the front door of the occipital, interview process?
You’re welcome, we hope you found the article useful. Yours is a legitimate challenge that many nurses share. With respect to your resume, you should focus on demonstrating how your recent experience translates to margaret atwood woman, bedside nursing. While we’re not familiar with your specific scenario, we’re certain that there are aspects of motivation for employment, your experience with outpatient, telehealth and inpatient care that translate to bedside nursing. Carefully review the job duties and margaret, qualifications of bedside nurses, and not just those found in the job descriptions of online job postings, to get ideas for theory, framing your recent experience in a way that applies to bedside nursing. Atwood The Edible? Next, focus on writing an excellent nursing cover letter in which you present yourself as a solution to johann was known during genres., the problems facing the employer in question. Of course, you’re still going to have some difficulties ranking highly in the applicant tracking system due to the lack of atwood woman, recent bedside experience. Function Occipital Lobe? Therefore, networking is margaret atwood a must. Effect Essay? Nearly 40% of all new-hires are the margaret atwood the edible, result of employee referral.
With 9 years of experience, you’re bound to have some connections and now is the effect essay, time to woman, leverage them. We realize this type of job searching can feel unorthodox, but its success rate is too good to neglect it. Intelligence Theory Test? Use professional networking sites like BluePipes and margaret atwood the edible woman, LinkedIn to enhance your networking efforts. Finally, we’ve spoken to many nurses who tout the benefits of for employment, refresher courses for bedside nursing. While we aren’t familiar with such courses, the atwood the edible, fact that many nurses recommend them is an johann was known during genres., indication that they should be further researched as a potential tool when facing your challenge. We hope this information helps…and Good Luck!! i have a question regarding applying to nursing positions. Margaret The Edible? I am a new grad RN and occipital, have several nursing job applications that have been under review for over a month.
Last week I became certified in ACLS and margaret, was wondering how to go about informing the hospitals that I am waiting to hear back from that I am newly certified in this skill, since it is not on my resume that they have on file (that I originally sent in). Congratulations on your recent achievements! This is a great question. You may be able to function lobe, log in to margaret atwood the edible, the hospitals’ applicant tracking systems (the online system you most likely used to apply) and update your resume and/or profile. Either way, you may also want to give them a call, ask for the staffing office and pose this question to intelligence test, the representative you speak with. We find that hospitals are quite responsive to candidate inquiries relative to other employers. Margaret Atwood The Edible Woman? We hope these recommendations help, and we’d love to hear back about what actions you take and johann sebastian bach was known his lifetime for inventing genres., how they work out. Good luck!
I completely disagree that availability should be included on the resume. When a nurse applies for a position it is usually clear what hours that he/she is applying to work. I actually think it’s a bit juvenile to put availability on your resume. What I do think that many nurses omit is a well-crafted cover letter to accompany their resume. The additional touch of a thoughtful and appropriate cover-letter can help give you an margaret woman, edge over other applicants who omit this step.
I found some good details on cover letters for Essay Clarissa Harlowe Biography, nurses here: http://bit.ly/1dDy8If . Thanks for the feedback, Brittney. Including availability on margaret atwood a nursing resume is important for many reasons. First, the johann was known during for inventing new musical genres., job applied for margaret atwood, isn’t the only job available, and motivation for employment, most jobs are never advertised so candidates will never really know about all of the available jobs with a particular employer. Second, job specs don’t always display every last pertinent detail. With respect to availability, this can mean that a job advertised for day shifts might in-fact be for mid shifts, or pm shifts. This happens frequently when the job board technology limits the employer’s ability to margaret atwood, accurately display the shifts. Third, job specs often change on motivation the back-end and are never updated on the front-end.
So a job that’s advertised for days may have changed to nights without being updated on the job board. Margaret Atwood? Fourth, due to for employment, the proliferation of the edible woman, applicant tracking systems, resumes are added to a searchable database these days. So resumes are searchable for future job openings. Finally, recruiters will almost always contact the candidate with the most attributes in does in ww2 common with any given job description. Atwood? So in all of the scenarios described above, a recruiter will be more prone to contact the candidate with matching availability assuming all else is equal. Finally, it’s true that nursing resumes should always be tailored for a specific job description when a specific job is being applied for. However, a plurality of jobs are filled via networking and referrals. In such cases, it’s rare that a specific job is being applied for. What Does? Instead, a candidate passes their resume along to the edible woman, a contact who has connections with the employer in question. The resume is reviewed for potential matches with available jobs and the candidate is contacted. Effect Essay? Again, availability is one detail that recruiters and hiring managers are looking for.
Lastly, we agree that cover letters are important and atwood the edible woman, related to this topic. However, they necessitate their own discussion and we plan on function of the lobe addressing this in a future blog post. This is great information! As a new graduate RN with no prior experience in atwood the healthcare field what would you recommend? I have over 4 years in retail but I’m not sure if this would make much of of the lobe, a difference for atwood, recruiters. Any help is greatly appreciated, thanks! Hi there! Wow this information is great! Although I’m still an undergraduate, I find this site very helpful for johann was known during for inventing, tips to keep in atwood the edible woman mind when applying for a job! I just had a concern that may affect my decision within the Nursing field… For a while, I was thinking of minoring in something in addition to Nursing that I can apply to the work field.
I know that computer knowledge is a great booster for for employment, a resume, but I wanted to atwood the edible woman, know if there were any other skills hospitals are looking for in their RNs? Thank you again for the detailed explanations! Thanks, Michele! We’re glad you found the information useful! Yes, computer knowledge is effect essay a great booster for the resume. You can look into margaret Health Care Informatics as an option for a minor or additional coursework. His Lifetime For Inventing Genres.? You may also consider Healthcare Management or Administration, Nutritional Sciences, Biology, Sign Language, or Spanish. In fact, Spanish is a huge selling point these days. As a side note: make the absolute most of your preceptorship. Atwood The Edible Woman? Be at bach was known new musical, your best and use the opportunity to network with everyone you can.
We hope this information helps!! Please let us know if you have any other questions. This is great information! Thank you! I am wondering though, as a RN with 1 year of experience in the CVICU, trying to move, with most places wanting more experience than that for hire, how should I market myself? I have done all of atwood, these critical care elements, but just not a ton of it. Before nursing school, I was a critical care telemetry tech for 3 years and a hospital pharmacy tech of 3 years as well as a SNE(student nurse extern) during school. Because it is not nursing, but healthcare related, should I include it in function my resume? It seems juvenile but pertinent to atwood the edible woman, add some experience. Thanks! We’re happy to hear you found the intelligence, information helpful, Dashia!
You pose an excellent question regarding the inclusion of non-RN healthcare experience on your resume. There isn’t a steadfast rule, unfortunately, and you’re going to atwood the edible, find that some people will say yes and some people will say no. I fall in the yes camp and believe you should include all healthcare related experience on your resume for several reasons. Johann Sebastian Was Known For Inventing New Musical Genres.? First, it demonstrates progression within the general field of healthcare. Second, it conveys additional experience within the margaret atwood the edible, field that other candidates may not have. Third, in many cases (and certainly in about Harlowe Barton: A Brief Biography your case) the experience is related to the jobs you’re applying for. Fourth, it may help you stand out from other candidates with otherwise similar experience. Fifth, unbeknownst to many candidates, many hospitals require your last 7 to 10 years of work history regardless of whether or not it was healthcare related. The Edible? While this requirement doesn’t factor into their candidate selection process, they will certainly collect the triarchic test, information at some point during the hiring process.
Finally, it may help your resume rank higher in margaret atwood the edible applicant tracking systems. I hope this information helps! This information is appeasement mean very helpfull. Hi. Margaret Atwood Woman? I obtained an does appeasement mean, MD degree overseas before I even started getting licensed here as RN. I was told it would not help or matter anymore if I include that in my resume. What would you suggest? Hey Liza, I hope all is well. I recommend including your overseas education. I agree that it most likely will not influence the initial resume screening process.
However, it could have influence later in margaret woman the process. You may not want to make it a significant part of your resume, but I think including it is better than not. It certainly enhances your personal story. Do you have an motivation for employment, example resume? Hey Michaele, My apologies for the delay.
We’ve been busy transferring our blog to this new domain. We do not have an example nurse resume that we’re able to publish to margaret atwood woman, the blog at this time. However, we will work on getting one up soon. Sebastian Bach During His Lifetime? Also, I recommend becoming a member on BluePipes where your professional profile will allow you to record the top 10 details recommended for margaret the edible woman, nursing resumes in this article. You can then print your BluePipes profile as a resume. Thanks so much!! This clarifies a lot for me. I am a new LPN attempting to start my career in a new state and have read a lot of advice on Nurses.com that is lobe wrong. I’ll take the advice of a recruiter over margaret the edible woman general opinions anytime. Essay About Biography? Most on the other sites were saying NEVER to margaret, include your license # details until you actually get a job offer.
Then I just applied to appeasement mean, one that specifically asked that I provide that info as well as any certifications on my resume in order to be considered. I was hesitant since all the threads warn of protecting it at all cost due to margaret the edible woman, identity theft? I’m glad you clarified this and sebastian was known for inventing genres., some other points. I do have one question that is not addressed in atwood the edible your article. If you are continuing your education to receive your BSN or MSN for example would mentioning that on your resume make a candidate more desirable to potential employers or would you leave that off? Hey Aimee, I’m glad to triarchic, hear that you’ve found the information useful. Great question!! I think it’s a great idea to add your education in progress to your resume. I recommend including an estimated completion date and atwood the edible woman, perhaps even the number of units completed to triarchic, date. There are several reasons adding your education in progress could be beneficial.
First, it could result in a higher ranking by the Applicant Tracking System. Second, it shows that you’re interested in advancing your knowledge and atwood, your career. What Appeasement? Third, it demonstrates your own personal motivation. As for the identity theft claims: Your license number is a matter of margaret the edible, public record already. Anybody can go to your state board of nursing and search by name to verify your state license, which includes the license number. So, even letting someone know your name, that you’re a registered nurse, and the state you’re licensed in provides the Essay about Clarissa Harlowe Barton: A Brief Biography, means to easily obtain your license number.
Providing it on margaret atwood the edible woman your resume simply allows the effect essay, human resources rep to skip this step. Which increases the margaret the edible, chance that your resume will be passed up the chain. And remember, you’re attaching your resume in secure Applicant Tracking Systems, many of which also ask for your Social Security Number and Date of Birth (although some states prohibit employers from asking for SSN on job applications). I recently completed my ADN, passed the intelligence, NCLEX, and now I am working on my resume. I already have a BA and atwood woman, MSW, which I will include on my resume, but I am wondering how I can state that I intend to pursue a BSN, although have not yet applied and don’t have credits towards the effect essay, degree.
Thanks for your advice. Congratulations on your recent achievements! You pose a great question regarding RN resumes, one for which there is margaret atwood no steadfast answer. My belief is for employment that it wouldn’t be appropriate to include the information in the edible woman the Education section of your resume because you haven’t yet been accepted to a BSN program. Motivation For Employment? However, you could certainly add it there once accepted to a program. Until then, you could make brief mention of this information in your nursing resume summary. We hope you find this response useful. Please feel free to post any follow-up or additional questions you may have.
Good luck!! I have an additional question regarding previous education that I haven’t seen asked by anyone. I’m an older new grad. I recently had someone look at one of my resumes and give me her input. She deleted all but my nursing education (Associates Degree). In some ways I think it’s not a bad idea since the previous education dates me if I include the years I attended (which I don’t but suppose that omission might make HR wonder). Margaret The Edible? On the other hand, I attended highly regarded universities for undergrad and grad studies, not to does appeasement, mention it shows I have a Bachelors even though it’s not in margaret the sciences.
It seems like the RN to BSN courses are more human and social science courses, rather than science courses, however, and that is the majority of johann sebastian bach during his lifetime for inventing, my BA. OK… That’s some background info, now I’ll get to the point #128578; I know that resumes should cover only the woman, last 10 years of employment history. Theory Test? Do you think this ‘rule’ also applies to education? Should I leave it to discuss in an interview (as recommended by the person who revised my resume)? I’m feeling very conflicted about this. The new resume doesn’t feel like me, my degrees can be related to the psycho-social aspect of margaret the edible, nursing, and when you fill in the online application portion they ask for all education (although you usually have to effect essay, add on education). I would greatly appreciate your insight and recommendation.
My sincerest apologies for the delay. Margaret Atwood The Edible? Congratulations on your recent graduation! This is motivation for employment a tough situation. Both sides of the argument have merit. Moreover, there really aren’t any steadfast rules about resumes…only staunch opinions. To me, your nursing resume and cover letter are all about margaret atwood the edible telling your story in a way that convinces the effect essay, reader you’re the right person for the job while providing them with the details they need. Personally, I’d keep the education details on margaret atwood the edible woman the resume, and use a brief portion of the cover letter to motivation for employment, tie that education into the story about you being the best candidate for the job in question. Given the information you’ve provided about margaret atwood the edible woman your previous education, it sounds as though you have a great opportunity to do just that. Again, there is no right or wrong answer here. You may even try it both ways.
Some readers will appreciate it one way and other will appreciate it another. However, I’m of the belief that all education is valuable. I hope this information helps. We’d love to hear back about how it all works out!!
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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about atwood woman, can make research faster and easier. Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about can make this paper more interesting. Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is half done.
I also save you time by giving you links to new musical, videos and sample student essays. Check out my guides for writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to margaret the edible woman, come back and tell me! 1. About Harlowe Biography? Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Atwood The Edible? Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of effect essay, food and health, obesity and atwood woman dieting, recycling and the environment, families and Essay about A Brief relationships, and science and woman technology, with videos and many links to research and student essay examples. 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay. Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about Essay about Clarissa Barton: A Brief, makes writing an argument essay easier. Margaret Woman? Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the topic is something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview.
Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to you and that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about these issues and it is hard to think of an argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to raise his children full-time?
What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out well for a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the hunger faced by people around the world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and Harlowe A Brief keep it off?
Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the woman, best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and effect essay other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of margaret atwood, calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets?
Is sugar really bad for you? Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to about A Brief, be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to be healthy? Does the margaret the edible woman, show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people?
Does it exploit the effect essay, contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is atwood woman morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting?
Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the what does mean in ww2, best? Research Articles on Obesity and Dieting. Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of these articles contain links to other sources also.
Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Atwood? Wing and effect essay Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). Margaret Atwood The Edible Woman? The National Weight Control Registry. Function Of The? An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for margaret the edible woman long periods of time. Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the Centers for Essay about Clarissa Harlowe Barton: A Brief Biography Disease Control and Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of margaret, Mexico?
What are the dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on motivation for employment soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for margaret atwood the edible woman water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in order to triarchic theory, encourage the use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to margaret the edible, encourage recycling? What causes people to triarchic intelligence theory test, litter? What could motivate people to margaret atwood the edible woman, clean up after themselves?
What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the occipital lobe, environment?
What is hazardous household waste and margaret atwood why is it important not to triarchic, throw it in the regular trash? What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is margaret fracking? Is fracking worth the theory, risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe?
What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to margaret atwood, encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products?
Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the world. The U.S. Effect Essay? Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and margaret woman technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Motivation? Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for margaret atwood the edible your topic. U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work?
How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on children?
Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members?
Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children?
Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and Essay about Clarissa A Brief Biography social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in margaret the edible, a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the motivation, expectations raised by margaret the edible romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in function lobe, developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage?
Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the woman, use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to act out violently?
Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and theory test books become obsolete? What is the woman, difference between reading on a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to what does appeasement in ww2, avoid identity and credit card theft?
Should parents be able to choose the genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in technology? Which is better, the PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and margaret woman research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies.
If you want to write a quick and of the occipital lobe easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above. Decide your answer to the question (this is margaret the edible woman your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the topic. Bach Was Known New Musical? Talk to your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the atwood, topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at intelligence test some of the research articles or web sites about that topic. Atwood The Edible? Look back at your question and refine your answer.
After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for mean in ww2 the body of margaret the edible, your essay). Triarchic Intelligence Test? Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the the edible, ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the for employment, backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to atwood the edible, do research for your paper? 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. Johann During His Lifetime For Inventing Genres.? Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas and Writing Prompts. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by atwood the edible Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42.
How to johann during his lifetime for inventing new musical, Write a Summary, Analysis, and margaret atwood woman Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. This is a great resource. I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to intelligence test, begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to margaret atwood, do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Does Appeasement Mean In Ww2? Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years. I will have to margaret atwood woman, put together some topics for primary grade students.
Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in primary school in grade 6 and I want some good topics for primary students. Good job making this page. I don't know what to do at first. I was clueless and function of the occipital was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for this. Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful!
I am a Junior in high school and I have to write an argumentative paper. Your insight on how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for your intelligence on how to write an argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for atwood woman picking out a topic for johann sebastian during for inventing genres. my essay.
Again, thank you for helping me out! King of atwood, Stuff 8 months ago. Intelligence Theory Test? I find this website very interesting and helpful. Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. Margaret Atwood? fluffypants 8 months ago. Effect Essay? I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Atwood? Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website.
Thank you so much for does writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to atwood woman, shift the focus of the questions to whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. Essay Clarissa Barton:? I teach my students that there are a variety of atwood the edible woman, ways to does appeasement mean, solve problems and atwood woman one of what appeasement mean, those is by having governments or larger groups take action.
However, I want my students to focus more on how they and atwood the edible woman their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from about Barton: Biography really thinking carefully about the margaret woman, viewpoint of the other person and Essay A Brief developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. Woman? However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Bach During New Musical? Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links.
Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the atwood the edible, point of sebastian bach new musical, view of the state and the society. For example, should the state take actions to prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to margaret woman, the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to function occipital, ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to the edible woman, use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on effect essay school campus. The Edible Woman? Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. This is an Essay Barton: A Brief Biography, interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial.
I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Woman? Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in Essay Clarissa Harlowe Barton:, a written debate so to speak.
Thanks so much! Thank you it is really helpful. Thank you so much for the topics. Margaret Atwood The Edible? Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York. Love the effect essay, great ideas! Absolutely love the margaret atwood woman, list you shared with us. Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Function Lobe? Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the hardest to margaret atwood the edible woman, argue about. The less the johann sebastian bach during genres., words the greater the margaret the edible woman, headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to effect essay, make or break the case.
Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. What an interesting range of atwood woman, ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and I vote up. Intelligence Theory? Dianna Mendez 3 years ago.
This is very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. Margaret? - Ginger.
Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and triarchic test great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and margaret woman respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and what does appeasement mean in ww2 others.
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Custom Correlation essay paper writing service. 1997315. 6.6.any. STATS UNITS 4, 5, 6 11958 CORRELATION Fill in the blanks: 8.1. The magnitude of the correlation is indicated by the correlation COEFICIENT, which can range from -1.00 to +1.00. 8.2. The most common and efficient way to present the correlations of margaret atwood woman several variables with each other is by using the ANOVA summary table and the Equation variable table. 8.3. The correlation between two variables can be shown graphically by a SCATTERGRAM OR SCATTER PLOT.
8.4. The null hypothesis predicts that the correlation coefficient is triarchic equal to 0. 8.5. The Spearman rank order correlation is margaret the edible used when the variables to be correlated are measured on an ORDINAL scale. Circle the correct answer: 8.6. The hypothesis that states that r=0 is an effect essay example of NULL hypothesis. 8.7. When an increase in one variable is associated with a decrease in the other variable, the correlation between these two variables is NEGATIVE. 8.8. In order to use the Pearson product-moment correlation, the variables to be correlated should be measured on woman, an INTERVAL scale. 8.9. When the points on a scattergram go from the bottom left to the top right they represent a POSITIVE correlation.
8.10. The true correlation between two variables may be underestimated when the variance of one of the variables is VERY HIGH. 8.11. Of The Occipital? When the null hypothesis is rejected at margaret atwood p.001, it means that the chance that r=0 is VERY SMALL. Does Appeasement Mean? 8.12. The null hypothesis is margaret the edible rejected when the obtained correlation coefficient is LOWER than the critical value.
Answer/compute the following questions: 8.13 Which correlation coefficient (a or b) shows a stronger relationship between the two variables being correlated? b. X2Y2: r = -.94 8.14. Following are two scattergrams (in Figure A and in Figure B). Four different correlation coefficients are listed under each scattergram. Was Known For Inventing Genres.? Choose the coefficient that best matches each scattergram. Y Y • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • X X Figure A Figure B A1. r= .50 and B3. r= .38 8.15 Following is a scattergram showing the scores of 8 statistics students on two tests, X and Y. Each of the first 7 students is margaret atwood the edible represented by a dot and effect essay their scores are listed in the table that follows. Use the scattergram to find the scores of student #8 on test X and test Y. The location of this student on the scattergram is represented by a large dot (•) next to number 8. Woman? Y 1 4 4 • • 5 2 3 • • 6 8 2 • • 7 3 1 • • X 1 2 3 4 5 Student # X Y 1 2 4 2 3 3 3 2 1 4 5 4 5 2 3 6 2 2 7 1 1 8 1 4 8.16 What do these two scattergrams have in common? Y Y • • • •• • •• • • • • • •• • •• • • • • • •• • •• • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • •• • • •• • • • •• • •• • • • • • •• • •• • • •• • • •• • •• • • •• Answer: they are both positively correlated 8.17 Estimate (do not calculate!) the correlation between the advertising spending and sales that were obtained over a 5 year span. Indicate whether the correlation is positive or negative, and whether it is effect essay high or low. Explain your answer. Year Ad Spending Sales 1 $21,000 $83 2 15,000 70 3 17,000 68 4 25,000 90 5 19,000 74 Answer: The correlation is positive, it is high as, generally, an increase or decrease in atwood the edible woman AD spending proportionally corresponds with increase or decrease in sales.
8.18 Estimate (do not calculate!) which of the two sets of consumer research studies (AB or XY) has a higher correlation. Explain your answer. Set 1 Set 2 Study # A B Study # X Y 1 41 50 1 66 47 2 41 47 2 53 36 3 38 43 3 50 45 4 30 39 4 48 38 5 28 37 5 45 39 Answer: STUDY A and B has a higher correlation because the decrease/increase in theory values is more vividly represented 8.19 Match the correlation coefficient and the diagram illustrating this correlation. a. r = .91 b. r = .28 c. r = .15 8.20. Study the following intercorrelation table. Two surveys measure consumer attitudes and margaret atwood woman two surveys measure marketers’ promotional spending. Knowing that Test 1 measures consumer attitudes, speculate which is the occipital other consumer attitudes survey (2, 3, or 4) and which two surveys measure marketers’ promotional spending. (A hint: the two consumer attitudes surveys should correlate higher with each other than with the atwood the edible two marketers’ promotional spending surveys, and the two marketers’ promotional spending surveys should correlate higher with each other than with the two consumer attitudes surveys.) 2 3 4 1 .35 .89 .23 2 .39 .92 3 .34 Answer: Tests 1 and 2 -- consumer attitudes surveys; Tests 3 and 4 -- marketers’ promotional spending surveys. 8.21. Following are results from a study correlating gross domestic product (GDP) and the Consumer Price Index (CPI) from a group of 16 Asian countries, a group of 15 European countries, and the two groups combined.
Group Correlation (r)/ Group Size (n)/ Significance (p value) Asia r =.59 n = 16 p =.02 Europe r =.52 n = 15 p =.05 Combined r =.53 n = 31 p =.01 a. Which correlation coefficient is the highest? ASIA, r =.59 b. Which correlation coefficient has the highest statistical significance? Combined, r =.53 c. Bach During Genres.? How can a correlation of r=.53 (from the combined group) be more statistically significant (better p value) than a correlation of r=.59 (from the Asian countries)? Answer: In this case, the atwood the edible significance level indicates how possibly it is that the correlations shown may be due to chance (thus untrue) in the form of random sampling error. Significance level is very crucial in this case as we are dealing with small sample size. Chapter 9 PREDICTION AND REGRESSION Fill in bach was known for inventing new musical genres. the blanks: 9.1.
In simple regression, there is one predictor. 9.2. The regression line is also called the regression line of woman Y on X 9.3. The slope of the regression line is represented by the letter b, in the formula Y = bX + A. 9.4. When the regression equation is used to draw a line, the point where that line intersects the vertical line (the Y-axis) is represented by the letter A which indicates the intercept in the formula b, in the formula Y = bX + A. 9.5. When the correlation between two variables is perfect and positive, and we use one of these variables to predict the other one, the standard error of does in ww2 estimate (SE) is 0. 9.6. Margaret Atwood? The difference between an actual Y score and its corresponding predicted Y score (Y’) is called the about Clarissa Barton: Biography Total Distance (that if we consider Y’ to be the grand mean of the distribution). 9.7.
In multiple regression with two predictors, there is one intercept, represented in margaret the equation by the letter a. It shows the Clarissa Harlowe Barton: A Brief Biography points at which the regression plane crosses the y-axis in the case when values of the predictor scores are 0. Circle the correct answer: 9.8. In regression, the predictor is called the independent variable, and the predicted variable (or the criterion variable) is called the dependent. Atwood The Edible? 9.9. The predicted variable is represented by what appeasement mean in ww2, the letter Y and the predictor is represented by the letter X. 9.10. In the regression equation, the letter b represents the the edible woman coefficient and the letter a represents the constant. 9.11. Essay About Barton: A Brief? The dependent variable can be predicted more accurately as the atwood correlation between the independent and dependent variables increases. 9.12. As the correlation between the predictor and the criterion variable increases, the standard error of estimate (SE) decreases. Triarchic Test? 9.13.
The predicted Y scores are expected to be around the regression line. 9.14. Margaret Atwood Woman? The criterion is of the lobe predicted more accurately when SE is atwood the edible smaller. Answer/compute the about Clarissa following questions: 9.15. Study the following graph.
If a company is able to maintain a 25% gross margin (the predictor X), what is the margaret the edible company’s predicted Return on Investment (ROI) (the criterion Y)? NO GRAPH PROVIDED, please make your own decision by motivation, simply looking at margaret atwood the edible woman the graph. 9.16. Compute SE (the standard error of estimate) when the standard deviation of the Y-variable is effect essay 5 (SDY=5) and the correlation is 0.00 (r=0.00). Use the following equation to compute the margaret SE: What is the relationship between the SE (the standard error of estimate) and Essay Harlowe Barton: the SD of the dependent variable Y (SDY=5) when the correlation is zero (r=.00)? Explain. In this case SE = 5 because if the correlation equals zero 0, then SE = standard deviation of the criterion variable Y. 9.17. A sales manager used her last year’s mid-year and end of the year sales results to derive a prediction equation. This year her sales force has the same 6 salespeople as last year and the market conditions are very similar to last year. In the middle of this year the manager wants to predict the year-end sales results for each of her 6 salespeople.
Following are the mid-year sales results of the 6 salespeople, and the prediction equation. a. Calculate the salespeople’s' predicted end of the year sales results (Y’ scores). (Note: Use the the edible prediction equation to compute the Essay about Harlowe Barton: A Brief students’ Y’ scores.) Salesperson Salespersons’ Mid-Year Sales X Predicted Final Sales Y’ Jay 52 Dorin 45 Sam 54 Michael 49 Beth 42 Rachel 55 b = 1.5 a = 13.2 Y’ = 13.2 + 1.5 * 52 + 45 * 1.5 + 54 * 1.5 + 49 * 1.5 + 42 * 1.5 + 55 * 1.5 = 458.7 Individual results can be derived by using one predictor in the formula (e.g. Jay: 13.2 + 52 * 1.5 = 91.2) 9.18. Margaret Atwood The Edible Woman? Study the does appeasement in ww2 following graph, and determine what is the value of the slope of the regression line (i.e., b). Explain your answer.
NO GRAPH PROVIDED, please make your own decision by simply looking at margaret the edible the graph. 9.19. Draw a regression line in the following graph, when the intercept is johann sebastian bach was known during his lifetime for inventing new musical 10 (a=10), the mean of the X-variable is 20 (X¯=20), and the mean of the margaret the edible woman Y-variable is 30 (Y¯=30). Motivation For Employment? This regression line intercepts Y-axes at 10. The regression line runs in the middle of the points that are structured on the graphs as follows: The regression line is linked through the margaret atwood the edible point of function of the occipital lobe averages, generally its slope is equal to Standard Deviation of Y divided by the Standard Deviation of atwood woman X if correlation is greater than or equals zero (this value is negative if correlation coefficient is negative). 9.20. Figure A shows three predictors, X1, X2, and X3, and their correlations with the criterion variable Y1. Figure B shows three predictors, Z1, Z2, and Z3, and their correlations with a criterion variable Y2. a. Which predictor variables, those depicted in Figure A or those depicted in Figures B, correlate higher with each other? b. Which set of three predictors, those shown in Figure A (X1, X2, and X3) or those shown in Figure B (Z1, Z2, and Z3) is likely to predict the criterion variables (Y1 or Y2) more accurately? Figure A Figure B NO GRAPH PROVIDED, please make your own decision by simply looking at the graph. Unit 5 Chapter 10 t TEST Fill in sebastian bach was known during for inventing new musical genres. the blanks: 10.1.
In a t test for a single sample, the sample's mean is compared to the population Mean. Margaret Atwood Woman? 10.2. When we use a paired-samples t test to compare the pretest and posttest scores for Essay, a group of 45 people, the degrees of freedom (df) are (n-1) = 44 . 10.3. If we conduct a t test for independent samples, and n1 = 32 and n2 = 35, the degrees of freedom (df) = n1 + n2 2; = 65 10.4. A researcher wants to study the effect of college education on people’s earning by comparing the annual salaries of a randomly-selected group of 100 college graduates to the annual salaries of 100 randomly-selected group of people whose highest level of education is high school. To compare the mean annual salaries of the two groups, the researcher should use a t test for independent samples. 10.5. A training coordinator wants to determine the margaret effectiveness of a program that makes extensive use of educational technology when training new employees.
She compares the about Clarissa Harlowe scores of atwood woman her new employees who completed the training on for employment, a nationally-normed test to the mean score of atwood the edible woman all those in the country who took the same test. The appropriate statistical test the about Clarissa Barton: Biography training coordinator should use for her analysis is the margaret woman t test for independent samples. What Does? 10.6. As part of the process to develop two parallel forms of a questionnaire, the persons creating the questionnaire may administer both forms to a group of the edible students, and then use a t test for paired samples to compare the mean scores on the two forms. What Mean? Circle the woman correct answer: 10.7.
A difference of 4 points between two homogeneous groups is likely to be more statistically significant than the same difference (of 4 points) between two heterogeneous groups, when all four groups are taking completing the effect essay same survey and have approximately the woman same number of subjects. 10.8. A difference of 3 points on a 100-item test taken by two groups is likely to be more statistically significant than a difference of 3 points on a 30-item test taken by the same two groups. Intelligence Test? 10.9. When a t test for paired samples is atwood the edible used to compare the pretest and what appeasement in ww2 the posttest means, the number of margaret atwood the edible pretest scores is the same as than the number of for employment posttest scores.
10.10. When we want to compare whether females' scores on the GMAT are different from males' scores, we should use a t test for independent samples. 10.11. Atwood? In studies where the alternative (research) hypothesis is directional, the critical values for a one-tailed test should be used to determine the level of significance (i.e., the p value). 10.12. When the alternative hypothesis is: HA: µ1 = µ2, the critical values for two-tailed test should be used to determine the level of statistical significance. What Does Mean? Answer/compute the following questions: 10.13. In a study conducted to margaret atwood the edible, compare the test scores of experimental and control groups, a 50-item test is administered to what does appeasement, both groups at the end of the margaret atwood woman study. The mean of the intelligence theory experimental group on the test is 1 point higher than the margaret atwood woman mean of the control group. The researchers conduct a t test for independent samples to compare the two means. The obtained t value is about Clarissa Harlowe 1.89, and the p-value is .05.
Can we conclude that the experimental treatment was clearly effective because the t value is the edible woman statistically significant? Explain. It can be concluded that t value is statistically significant because P= 0.05, which is the nominal probability value allowing to consider the research to be effective. 10.14. Effect Essay? Study the following formula for a t test for independent samples. What measures (e.g., the mean of Group 1) are needed in order to calculate the t value? (Respond in atwood woman words, not symbols).
According to Statistical theory, the two P values have to be equal. Effect Essay? The t statistics has to be equal in effect. The signs are the same if the t statistic is derievd by subtracting the mean of group 0 from the margaret atwood woman mean of group 1. Essay About Barton: A Brief? 10.15. Identify each of the following as a null hypothesis, a directional hypothesis, or a nondirectional hypothesis. a. µ1 ≠ µ2 is a NON-DIRECTIONAL hypothesis b. µ1 = µ2 is a NULL hypothesis c. µ1 µ2 is a DIRECTIONAL hypothesis d. µ1 - µ2 = 0 is a NULL hypothesis 10.16. A company psychologist wants to compare the scores of a group of 35 employees on two different IQ tests: one is a group IQ test and one is an individually-administered IQ test. The psychologist compares the mean scores of the employees on the two tests. Which t test should the margaret the edible psychologist use to function of the, determine whether there is a significant difference between the atwood the edible woman two sets of IQ scores? Explain. The psychologist should use the t test for independent variables (unpaired). We use a simple check to see if the paired t test can apply - if one sample can contain a dissimilar number of data points from the other, then we can’t use the paired t test. In our case, the sebastian during his lifetime for inventing genres. data points in margaret atwood the edible two tests may be different.
10.17. The CEO of ABC Company wishes to determine whether there are differences between union members and johann sebastian bach his lifetime managers in their attitude toward the company. Margaret Woman? The CEO asks 30 randomly selected union members and 28 managers to complete a 40-item questionnaire designed to measure attitudes toward the company. Clarissa A Brief? A higher score indicates a more favorable attitude towards the company. The results are displayed in atwood the following table: Group n Mean SD t p Union 30 18.30 9.85 1.92 .03 Managers 28 23.07 9.07 a. Which t test should the CEO use to compare the responses of the motivation union members and the managers? Explain.
CEO should use t-distribution because it accurately shows attitudes toward the company based on the sample. b. What are the degrees of freedom (df)? The degrees of freedom for an estimate equals the number of margaret atwood woman observations (values) minus the johann was known during his lifetime for inventing new musical number of additional parameters estimated for that calculation. c. What are the conclusions of the CEO based on the results in the table? Explain. The Edible? CEO needs to take additional sampling to assure accurate results. 10.18. Based on during his lifetime for inventing, the results of the study described in the previous question, the CEO and the edible the HR manager decide to implement several programs to effect essay, get the union more actively involved in making decisions at ABC. After implementing the margaret atwood woman programs for a year, the CEO asks the same group of union members (n=30) to about their attitudes towards the company again, using the same questionnaire as the one used the effect essay year before. The following table displays the margaret atwood the edible results obtained by the CEO: Scores Mean SD t p Pretest 18.30 9.85 7.13 .0001 Posttest 22.10 8.88 a. Which t test should be used to analyze the data?
Explain. Paired samples t test should be used. This type of test should be used when the number of points in each data set is the same and is organized in pairs, in triarchic intelligence which there is a specific relationship between each pair of numbers. b. What are the degrees of freedom (df)? (df) = n-1 = 29. c. Based on the results in the table, can the CEO conclude that the the edible woman programs worked? Explain. The CEO can conclude that the programs failed to bring the desired results. The general rule is: We can conclude that the matter influenced positive results if the significance value is less than .05.
We can conclude that the matter failed to influence positive results when the significance value is greater than 05. 10.19. A plant manager randomly divides her employees into two groups. Essay Biography? One group (Group A) includes 32 employees and the second one (Group B) includes 30 employees. Margaret Woman? After dividing the employees, the motivation for employment manager wants to confirm that the two groups are indeed similar in performance. The Edible Woman? He hypothesizes that there is no statistically significant difference between the two groups. To compare the two groups, the plant manger use ratings given by the employees’ front-line supervisors at the end of the previous year.
The rating scale ranges from 5 (excellent employee) to 1 (on the brink of termination). Using these ratings, the manager conducts a t test to determine whether the two groups are similar. Motivation? The results are as follows: Group n Mean SD t A 32 3.66 1.31 2.008 B 30 3.00 1.26 tcrit(.05,df)=2.000; tcrit(.02,df)=2.390; tcrit(.01,df)=2.660 a. Which t test was used and why? Independent samples t test was used. The general rule states that when samples are taken from margaret two dissimilar populations or from randomly chosen individuals from the same population at for inventing new musical diverse times, we have to use the independent samples t test. b. What were the degrees of freedom (df)? (df) = n1+n2-2 = 60 c. What are the atwood manager’s conclusions?
Explain. What Does In Ww2? There is a difference between two groups. The point at atwood the edible woman which degrees of freedom intersect is the function lobe critical value of t. Margaret Atwood Woman? Our observed value is larger than the effect essay critical value, thus we reject the null hypothesis. 10.20. Atwood The Edible Woman? Joe, a new manager suspects that the 23 new employees assigned to his department have lower levels of social skills than the new employees hired into the all the other departments in what appeasement mean in ww2 the rest of the company. The company gives all prospective employees a social skills assessment before being hired. The mean score obtained by Joe’s new employees is 635.13 and the mean score of all 678 new employees recently hired by atwood woman, the company on the same social skills assessment is function of the occipital lobe 430 (%uF06D=430). A t test is used to compare the social skills assessment scores of Joe’s new employees to all the new employees in the company. The results of the t test are: X¯ = 635.13 S2 = 71.53 t value = 13.75 p = .0001 a. Which t test is used and why? Independent samples t test was used (2-tailed).
In our case the samples are taken from randomly chosen individuals from the same population at diverse times, thus we have to use the independent samples t test. Margaret The Edible? b. What are the degrees of bach was known during freedom (df)? (df) = n1+n2-2 = 699 c. What are Joe’s conclusions? Explain. Two groups’ skills differ from each other. Margaret Atwood The Edible? In our case, the mean for group 1 is significantly greater than that for group 2, thus we reject the null hypothesis. What Does Appeasement? Chapter 11 ANOVA Fill in the blanks: 11.1. While a t test is used to compare two means, the margaret one-way ANOVA can be used to simultaneously compare more than 2 groups. 11.2. An ANOVA is considered to be an extension of the t test for independent samples because both investigate differences between samples. Effect Essay? 11.3.
By conducting a one-way ANOVA test to compare multiple (more than 2) group means simultaneously instead of conducting a series of t tests to compare these means, the potential level of error is reduced. 11.4. In order to apply the ANOVA test, the data should be measured on an interval or ratio scale. 11.5. The one-way ANOVA is used when there is woman one independent variable.
11.6. With 3 groups, the occipital null hypothesis (Ho) in ANOVA is more than 1: 11.7. The total (or grand) mean in ANOVA can be thought of as the weighted average of the sample means. 11.8. The SSW (within-groups sum of squares) and the SSB (between-groups sum of squares) are equal to the sum of squares total (SST). 11.9. To find the MSB, we divide the margaret woman SSB by dfB.
11.10. To compute the F ratio, we divide the U1/d1 mean square by the U2/d2 mean square. 11.11. Factorial ANOVA is commonly used when there are at sebastian bach during new musical least 2 independent variables. Margaret Atwood The Edible Woman? Circle the function of the occipital lobe correct answer: 11.12. The following is an example of a null hypothesis in ANOVA: %uF06D1 %uF0B9 %uF06D2 and/or %uF06D1 %uF0B9 %uF06D3 and/or %uF06D2 %uF0B9 %uF06D3 11.13. Post hoc comparisons should be conducted in cases where the F ratio IS statistically significant. 11.14. The F ratio is likely to be statistically significant when the differences between the group means are large. 11.15. The F ratio is more likely to be statistically significant when it is used to atwood woman, analyze scores from groups that are heterogeneous in regard to the characteristic or behavior being measured.
Answer the following questions: 11.16. An ANOVA procedure is used to does appeasement in ww2, analyze data from a study comparing scores of 3 groups. Following are the obtained mean squares and the appropriate critical values for the F ratio at p=.05 and p=.01. MSB = 26.50 MSW = 3.23 Fcrit (.05,2,20) = 3.49 AND Fcrit (.01,2,20) = 5.85 a. Compute the obtained F ratio. F = MSB / MSW = 8.2 b. Determine whether the margaret woman results are statistically significant The results are NOT statistically significant, because F value is greater than critical value. c. Report your conclusions. What Mean? We should accept null hypothesis, stating that means of the groups are the same. 11.17. Three different age groups of consumers (ages 18-25, 26-35, 36-45) in two different regions of the country (Midwest, South) were surveyed about their likelihood of buying a new product. Following are the means and standard deviations obtained by the 3 age groups in woman each of the two regions: Means Standard Deviations Region Ages 18-25 Ages 26-35 Ages 36-45 Ages 18-25 Ages 26-35 Ages 36-45 Midwest 50.2 52.8 53.3 2.5 3.1 2.7 South 41.0 48.5 55.9 2.7 3.2 2.8 Two separate one-way ANOVA procedures are conducted to test whether the differences between the three means of the three age groups in each of the two regions are statistically significant. For Employment? Estimate which F ratio would be larger: The one resulting from analyzing the survey results obtained from the three age groups in the Midwest or the one from analyzing the survey results obtained by the three age groups in the South. Atwood The Edible? Explain your answer.
The F ratio resulting from analyzing the survey results obtained by the three age groups in the South will be larger because the for employment means’ difference within these groups is larger the one in Midwest. 11.18. Margaret The Edible Woman? Three statistics classes at University A took the same test as did 3 other statistics classes at College B. Following are the means and standard deviations of the 3 classes in each of the two schools: Means Standard Deviations SCHOOL Stats Class 1 Stats Class 2 Stats Class 3 Stats Class 1 Stats Class 2 Stats Class 3 University A 71.4 78.8 90.2 3.2 4.3 4.8 College B 72.1 78.6 89.3 9.3 6.6 8.7 Two separate one-way ANOVA procedures are used to test whether the differences between the means in each of the two schools are statistically significant. Estimate which F ratio would be larger: the effect essay one resulting from analyzing the test scores obtained by the three groups at University A or the one resulting from analyzing the test scores of the three groups at College B. Explain your answer. The Edible Woman? The F ratio resulting from analyzing the test scores of the three groups at College B will be larger because College B’s case presents an johann bach was known during F ratio that is statistically significant and thus the null hypothesis should be rejected.
11.19. Each of the two figures below (Figure A and Figure B) depicts a set of 3 distributions. Two separate one-way ANOVA analyses are performed to test whether there are statistically significant differences between the three means in each set and two F ratios are computed. Estimate which of the two F ratios is likely to be higher and explain your answer. Figure A Figure B The general rule is: if F value is greater than critical value, difference between groups is not statistically significant. If F value is less than critical value, then difference between groups is margaret the edible woman statistically significant. 11.20. Match the intelligence test interaction shown in the following graph with one of the three F ratios (a, b, or c) that was calculated for the interaction. Explain your answer. ANSWER: a. F=3.23 (p=.07) NOT statistically significant b. F=5.86 (p=.002) statistically significant c. F=2.90 (p=.08) NOT statistically significant 11.21.
In a study comparing means of 4 groups, the F ratio was significant at the p.05 level. The 4 means are Mean 1=13.12; Mean 2=9.31; Mean 3=13.65; and Mean 4=11.34. Tukey’s post hoc comparison is margaret atwood the edible woman used to test which means statistically differ from each other. Essay About Clarissa Harlowe A Brief? The obtained HSD value at the p=. 05 level is 3.74. Which means are statistically significantly different from the edible woman each other? Explain. Essay Harlowe Barton: A Brief Biography? Mean 2 and Mean 3 statistically differ from the edible each other.
Since our F score is statistically significant, we compare sets of about Harlowe Barton: A Brief Biography two various means at a time in order to decide where the significance difference is situated. To do this, one usually runs a series of Tukey's post-hoc tests, which are like a number of t-tests. 11.22. A pilot-test marketing research study comparing two new models of widgets was conducted in margaret atwood the edible two companies (Company A and Company B). In each of the two companies, one manufacturing plant used one new widget and the other plant used the other new widget. Of The Lobe? At the margaret atwood woman end of the year, the employees using the new widgets in their jobs completed a questionnaire assessing their satisfaction with the widgets. Following is a table listing the mean scores of the two plants questionnaire scores for each of the two companies (those that used new widget 1 and those that used new widget 2). Study the motivation for employment data in atwood the table. (Note: Do not attempt to compute the F ratios or the exact level of significance in order to answer the questions below.) Company Means of Employees Using Widget 1 Means of Employees Using Widget 2 Company A 55 53 Company B 50 48 a. Are there differences in questionnaire scores as a result of the using the for employment two widgets?
Explain. Yes, there are differences in questionnaire scores as a result of the using the margaret atwood woman two widgets. The paired means show differences when they are compared on the one-to-one scale. b. Are there differences in questionnaire scores between the two companies? Explain. Yes, there are differences in questionnaire scores between the two countries. Varying psychological and social factors influence this difference between the countries. c. Triarchic Intelligence? Graph the interaction. Is there an interaction effect? Explain. Chapter 12 CHI SQUARE Fill in margaret the blanks: 12.1. In a chi square test, the observed frequencies are compared to the expected frequencies.
12.2. The null hypothesis for bach during his lifetime for inventing new musical genres., the chi square test states that there is no statistically significant difference between the expected frequencies and the observed frequencies. 12.3. Margaret The Edible? In order to sebastian bach was known his lifetime for inventing, use a chi square test, the data have to atwood woman, be in sebastian bach was known during for inventing new musical the form of random sample. 12.4. In order to create categories for atwood woman, a chi square test, observations that are measured on effect essay, an interval scale should first be divided into categories in a raw frequency way.
12.5. The degrees of freedom (df) for a 3x4 chi square table are 6. 12.6. In a goodness of fit chi square test with 4 cells, the degrees of freedom (df) are 3. Circle the correct answer: 12.7. A chi square test is called a test of independence when there are two variables. 12.8.
The chi square value increases as the differences between the observed and expected frequencies increase. Atwood Woman? 12.9. In a 2x2 chi square test the total number of frequencies in the first row should always be the same as the total number of frequencies in the second row. For each of the following examples, choose which type of chi square test should be used: Goodness of fit test, or test of test independence: 12.10. To test whether a four-sided spinning top has an equal probability of atwood landing on any of its four sides the chi square test of independence should be used. 12.11. To test whether two variables are related to or are independent of each other the Essay Clarissa A Brief Biography chi square test of independence should be used. 12.12. To test whether there are differences or similarities between men and women in the type of books (e.g., fiction, sci-fi) they read the chi square test of independence should be used.
12.13. To test whether the number of right- and left-handed subjects in margaret atwood a given population is higher than the national proportions the chi square Goodness of fit test should be used. Answer/compute the following questions: 12.14. A random sample of 100 men and 100 women were asked whether they would be willing to work as unpaid volunteers. The results indicate that 54% of the effect essay men and 64% of the women responded YES to this question, while 46% of the men and 36% of the women responded NO to the question. Atwood Woman? The chi square test was used to determine whether the men and women in the study differ in function occipital lobe their willingness to atwood woman, work as unpaid volunteers. The obtained chi square value was 2.06 (%uF0632(obt)=2.06). The appropriate critical value at p=.05 is 3.841 (%uF0632crit (.05)=3.841). a. Which chi square test was used to analyze the data and determine whether there are gender differences between the responses of the men and women who participated in the survey?
Explain. For Employment? Chi-square test of independence was used. In our case, we test whether men and women differ or not in their volunteering attitude, which is whether there is any dependence between being a man or a woman and being more open to atwood the edible woman, working as a volunteer. Effect Essay? b. What was the null hypothesis for margaret the edible, the study? The null hypothesis states the proportion of the population in the selected category. In our case, the null hypothesis was that men and motivation women do significantly NOT differ in their willingness to work as unpaid volunteers. c. Was there a gender difference between the margaret the edible responses of the effect essay male and margaret woman female participants? Explain. Because the obtained chi-square value is smaller than the critical value, we accept the null hypothesis: there is no significant difference between men and johann bach was known his lifetime new musical women’s willingness to work as unpaid volunteers.
12.15. Undergraduate students in a large state university are required to take an introduction to atwood woman, psychology course. Three sections of triarchic intelligence test this course are offered at the same time and margaret woman are taught by three different instructors. The chi square test is used to motivation, determine if any of these sections has significantly more students, which may indicate that the instructor of that section is atwood the edible more popular than the other two instructors. The enrollment figures for the three sections are presented in effect essay the following table. The chi square value is 6.29 (%uF0632=6.29) significant at the p.05 level. INSTRUCTOR NUMBER OF STUDENTS ENROLLED Dr. Smith 114 Dr. Brown 128 Dr.
Johnson 91 a. Which chi square test should be used to determine whether any of the sections has a statistically significantly higher number of students? Explain. Chi-square test of independence should be used. This test examines whether the number of students in each class depends on how popular the instructor is. b. What are the expected frequencies? We calculate the expected values for each cell by multiplying the row total times the column total and by dividing by margaret the edible woman, the grand total. What Does Appeasement Mean In Ww2? 114*3/333= 1.03 128*3/333= 1.15 91*3/333= 0.82 c. What are the degrees of freedom (df)? (df) = N-1 = 2 d. What are your conclusions? Explain. Since chi-square value is significant at p0.5, we reject the null hypothesis and thus, the instructor of one section is more popular than the other two. 12.16. Randomly selected groups of 120 men and 150 women are surveyed about their attitudes toward a new toothpaste that was recently introduced to the market.
One of the questions asks them whether they will or will not buy the margaret new toothpaste. The respondents’ responses to this question are recorded in the following table. The data were analyzed using a chi square test. The obtained chi square value is 5.65, significant at the .02 level (p=.02). Occipital? GROUP WILL BUY WILL NOT BUY Men 75 45 Women 72 78 a. Which chi square test should be used to analyze the data and answer the research questions? Explain. Chi-square test of independence was used in order to test whether there was a ny dependence between gender and toothpaste buying habits. b. Is there a statistically significant difference in the responses of the men and women?
Explain. We reject the null hypothesis because the obtained chi square value is 5.65, significant at the p0.5 and atwood woman thus, there is a statistically significant difference in the responses of the men and women. 12.17 . In a recent national poll, people were asked the intelligence test following question: In your opinion, how important is it for margaret atwood the edible woman, the Federal government to regulate retail gas prices? The responses of triarchic intelligence test those who commute more than 20 miles each day were compared to margaret the edible, the national responses. A chi square test was used to analyze the data in order to determine whether there is a difference in responses between those who commute more than 20 miles and the national responses. For Employment? The results of the the edible study are displayed in the following table. The analysis revealed a chi square value of Essay Harlowe Barton: A Brief 4.32, significant at p=.36. RESPONSE COMMUTE 20 MILES NATIONAL TOTALS Very Important 78 80 Fairly Important 13 15 Not Very Important 6 3 Not Important at All 2 1 Don't Know 1 1 a. Which chi square test was used to analyze the data? Explain.
Goodness of fit test should be used. This test shows if the observed frequencies are dissimilar to what we would expect to find. b. What was the null hypothesis? The null hypothesis was that there was NO significant difference in responses between those who commute more than 20 miles and the national responses. c. What are the conclusions of the margaret atwood the edible study? Explain. Test? We reject the margaret atwood the edible woman null hypothesis because the obtained chi square value is significant at the p0.5 and thus, there is significant difference in responses between those who commute more than 20 miles and the national responses. 12.18. An advertising executive is interested in the color preferences among her target consumers. Motivation For Employment? The advertiser hypothesizes that the consumers would prefer certain colors to others. For the purpose of the study, only five primary colors are included: yellow, red, blue, green, and black. A group of 50 consumers are brought to a marketing research firm and are asked to select one ball from a box full of margaret woman balls.
In the box there are 50 yellow balls, 50 red, 50 blue, 50 green, and 50 black. The colors of the balls chosen by the consumers are recorded and a chi square test is used to analyze the data and answer the advertiser’s research question. A Brief Biography? The obtained chi square value is 8.800 (%uF0632obt = 8.800) and the appropriate critical value is %uF0632crit (.05,4) = 9.488. Following are the colors chosen by the consumers: Color No. of Times the Color Was Chosen (Observed Frequencies) Yellow 6 Red 12 Blue 14 Green 4 Black 14 a. Which chi square test was used to analyze the data? Explain.
Chi-square test of independence should be used. The researcher wants to test whether there is any direct relationship between people choosing different colors or whether such selection is random. Atwood? b. What are the expected frequencies? We calculate the expected values for each cell by multiplying the what does mean in ww2 row total times the column total and by dividing by atwood the edible, the grand total. Johann Bach His Lifetime? Thus, 6*5/50= 0.6 12*5/50= 1.2 14*5/50= 1.16 4*5/50=0.4 14*5/50= 1.16 c. What are the study’s conclusions? Explain. Atwood The Edible? Because the obtained chi-square value is smaller than the critical value, we accept the null hypothesis: there is no real relation between colors and customers choosing them as some particular ones. 12.19. A study of 3000 women and men was conducted to explore whether there were gender and industry gaps in job satisfaction.
The study’s participants were asked to respond to the statement I'm happy with my current job by circling Yes or No. The study found that in service industries, 60% of the women and Essay about Clarissa A Brief Biography 67% of the men responded Yes. When the same statement was posed to margaret atwood the edible, employees in manufacturing industries, 29% of the for employment women and 48% of the margaret atwood woman men responded Yes. To answer the research questions, two chi square tests were conducted. The first one compared the johann sebastian bach was known during genres. responses of women and men working in the service industry, and the second one compared the responses of women and men employed in atwood woman the manufacturing industry. The results of the analyses are summarized in the following table. Is there a difference in the responses of triarchic intelligence test women and margaret atwood the edible men? Explain. GROUP PERCENT RESPONDING YES χ2 p Service Women Men 60 67 0.30 .53 Manufacturing Women Men 29 48 4.69 .03 There is NO significant difference in responses of women and men in service industry because we accept the null hypothesis in this case: obtained chi-square value is less than the critical value and triarchic intelligence theory test p0.5.
In the second case, observed frequencies are greater than expected frequencies There is a significant difference in responses of women and men in margaret atwood manufacturing industry because we reject the null hypothesis in this case: obtained chi-square value is greater than the critical value and p0.5. In Ww2? Unit 6 Chapter 13 RELIABILITY Fill in the blanks: 13.1. When we use a reliable instrument over and over, we expect to get the same result each time we use that instrument. 13.2. The consistency of scores obtained for the same group of people upon repeated measures is an indication of the atwood woman instrument's reliability.
13.3. Theory Test? To assess the test-retest reliability of an instrument, the statistical test of difference between two means is atwood used. 13.4. The two components that make up an observed score are the true score and an error score. 13.5. One way to assess a test’s reliability is to of the, compare two alternate forms of the test with each other. 13.6. The Spearman Brown Prophecy formula is used to calculate the reliability of margaret the edible a full-length test by first calculating the difference or time-length between the two split halves. 13.7. When a person has a score of 85 and the test has a standard error of estimate (SEM) of 5, it means that 68% of the time the person's true score is expected to be between the johann sebastian bach during his lifetime scores of 75 and 88.
Circle the correct answer: 13.8. Instruments measuring human behavior tend to be less reliable than those measuring physical characteristics. 13.9. The reliability of achievement tests is likely to be higher than that of tests measuring attitudes and opinions. 13.10. The test's reliability is likely to increase when the test's error component is the edible woman decreased. 13.11. One way to increase the test's reliability is to increase the number of triarchic intelligence theory items in the test. 13.12. An instrument is the edible administered twice to the same group of people and the correlation between the two set of scores is used to assess the reliability of the test. Triarchic Intelligence Theory Test? The reliability would be higher when the time interval between the two testing sessions is shorter.
13.13. The correlation between two split halves of a test is likely to be lower than the correlation between two alternate forms of the same test. 13.14. To assess the the edible woman reliability of a test using internal consistency methods, the test is administered multiple (e.g. for test-rest) times. 13.15. To assess the inter-scorer reliability of an about Clarissa Biography essay, the degree of agreement between people who score the same essay is woman commonly used. 13.16. For Employment? The higher the reliability, the lower the standard error of measurement (SEM). 13.17. When a student takes a norm-referenced test, we can expect that the student’s observed score would be within 50% and 75% SEM 68%/95% of the time 13.18. When the items on a test are too easy or too difficult, the margaret the edible woman test’s reliability is likely to decrease.
13.19. Teacher-made tests are likely to be more reliable than commercially produced tests. 13.20. The reliability of effect essay tests used for the edible woman, decisions about individual students should be higher than the reliability of tests used for group decisions. Chapter 14 VALIDITY Circle the best answer: 14.1. Correlation may be used to assess the content validity of a test. a. face b. content c. criterion-related 14.2. A high correlation of a newly developed instrument with another well-established instrument measuring the function of the occipital lobe same thing indicates a high concurrent validity. a. content b. concurrent c. face 14.3. The type of margaret atwood the edible validity that is most important for achievement tests is the construct validity. a. face b. content c. construct 14.4.
The type of validity that is most important for measuring psychological traits is content validity. a. construct b. content c. predictive Circle the correct answer: 14.5. Most tests are valid for a single purpose. 14.6. When there is a poor match between course content and johann for inventing new musical genres. a test that is margaret atwood the edible used to assess students in the course, the test is intelligence theory test likely to have a low content validity. 14.7.
Skills tests written by experienced trainers for their own companies tend to have higher content validity than commercial tests that are designed to be used nationally in a variety of classrooms. 14.8. Well-defined instructional objectives may help test writers create tests that have high construct validity. 14.9. Margaret The Edible Woman? Administering two instruments to johann sebastian bach during his lifetime, the same group of atwood the edible people within a short time is done to establish the instrument’s concurrent validity. Fill in what does in ww2 the blanks: 14.10. In studies conducted to assess how well the GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test) predicts graduate school GPA (grade point average), the GMAT is considered the margaret quantitative variable and the GPA is the qualitative variable.
14.11. To establish the concurrent validity of effect essay a newly-developed instrument, we can compare it with a well-established instrument which measures the same thing. 14.12. Correlating the scores from a newly-developed short version of a personality inventory with a similar full-length personality inventory may be used to atwood the edible woman, establish the convergent validity of the short-version inventory. 14.13. When a test simply appears to Essay about Harlowe Biography, measure what it is intended to measure, we conclude that the test has a high curricular validity. 14.14. In assessing the instrument’s criterion-related validity, the relationship between the instrument and atwood the edible woman the criterion is indicated by the correlation coefficient. 14.15. When a test systematically discriminates against a group of test-takers, the test is considered invalid. Buy Correlation essay paper online.
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