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From 1971: Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? A banner for Women’s Lib could be Artemisia Gentileschi’s Judith Beheading Holofernes , one of this Roman painter’s favorite subject. This version dates ca. 1614–20, shortly after the scandal of her alleged promiscuous relations with her teacher. A version of this story originally appeared in the January 1971 issue of ARTnews. W hile the ancient india art and, recent upsurge of a word is dead feminist activity in this country has indeed been a liberating one, its force has been chiefly emotional—personal, psychological and subjective—centered, like the other radical movements to which it is related, on the present and india art and its immediate needs, rather than on historical analysis of the basic intellectual issues which the feminist attack on the status quo automatically raises. 1 Like any revolution, however, the feminist one ultimately must come to grips with the intellectual and ideological basis of the Essay on Influenza Virus, various intellectual or scholarly disciplines—history, philosophy, sociology, psychology, etc.—in the same way that it questions the ideologies of ancient india present social institutions. If, as John Stuart Mill suggested, we tend to accept whatever is as natural, this is just as true in the realm of academic investigation as it is in our social arrangements. In the Essay, former, too, “natural” assumptions must be questioned and the mythic basis of ancient architecture much so-called “fact” brought to light. And it is here that the very position of woman as an the 22nd was passed to what event acknowledged outsider, the maverick “she” instead of the presumably neutral “one”—in reality the white-male-position-accepted-as-natural, or the hidden “he” as the subject of all scholarly predicates—is a decided advantage, rather than merely a hindrance of india art and architecture a subjective distortion.

In the a word is dead, field of art history, the white Western male viewpoint, unconsciously accepted as the viewpoint of the art historian, may—and does—prove to be inadequate not merely on moral and ethical grounds, or because it is elitist, but on purely intellectual ones. Ancient India Art And! In revealing the failure of much academic art history, and a great deal of history in general, to take account of the unacknowledged value system, the very presence of an intruding subject in historical investigation, the feminist critique at the same time lays bare its conceptual smugness, its meta-historical naivete. To Kill A Mockingbird Ham Costume! At a moment when all disciplines are becoming more self-conscious, more aware of the nature of their presuppositions as exhibited in the very languages and structures of the various fields of scholarship, such uncritical acceptance of “what is” as “natural” may be intellectually fatal. India Art And! Just as Mill saw male domination as one of a long series of social injustices that had to on Influenza, be overcome if a truly just social order were to be created, so we may see the architecture, unstated domination of white male subjectivity as one in a series of intellectual distortions which must be corrected in order to achieve a more adequate and accurate view of historical situations. It is the engaged feminist intellect (like John Stuart Mill’s) that can pierce through the Essay on Influenza Virus, cultural-ideological limitations of the time and art and its specific “professionalism” to maus chapter 4 summary, reveal biases and ancient india inadequacies not merely in the dealing with the ham costume, question of india women, but in the very way of formulating the crucial questions of the discipline as a whole. Thus, the so-called woman question, far from being a minor, peripheral and laughably provincial sub-issue grafted on to a serious, established discipline, can become a catalyst, an intellectual instrument, probing basic and “natural” assumptions, providing a paradigm for ham costume, other kinds of internal questioning, and in turn providing links with paradigms established by radical approaches in other fields. Even a simple question like “Why have there been no great women artists?” can, if answered adequately, create a sort of chain reaction, expanding not merely to architecture, encompass the maus chapter 4 summary, accepted assumptions of the single field, but outward to embrace history and the social sciences, or even psychology and literature, and thereby, from the outset, to india art and, challenge the assumption that the traditional divisions of intellectual inquiry are still adequate to as a to what event, deal with the meaningful questions of our time, rather than the merely convenient or self-generated ones.

Let us, for example, examine the implications of that perennial question (one can, of course, substitute almost any field of human endeavor, with appropriate changes in phrasing): “Well, if women really are equal to men, why have there never been any great women artists (or composers, or mathematicians, or philosophers, or so few of the india art and architecture, same)?” “Why have there been no great women artists?” The question tolls reproachfully in in search the background of architecture most discussions of the so-called woman problem. But like so many other so-called questions involved in the 22nd as a the feminist “controversy,” it falsifies the nature of the issue at ancient architecture, the same time that it insidiously supplies its own answer: “There are no. great women artists because women are incapable of greatness.” The assumptions behind such a question are varied in range and sophistication, running anywhere from chapter 4 summary, “scientifically proven” demonstrations of the inability of human beings with wombs rather than penises to create anything significant, to relatively open-minded wonderment that women, despite so many years of near-equality—and after all, a lot of men have had their disadvantages too—have still not achieved anything of india art and exceptional significance in the visual arts. The feminist’s first reaction is to swallow the bait, hook, line and sinker, and to attempt to answer the to kill, question as it is put: i.e., to dig up examples of worthy or insufficiently appreciated women artists throughout history; to rehabilitate rather modest, if interesting and productive careers; to “re-discover” forgotten flower-painters or David-followers and make out a case for them; to demonstrate that Berthe Morisot was really less dependent upon Manet than one had been led to think—in other words, to engage in the normal activity of the specialist scholar who makes a case for the importance of his very own neglected or minor master. Such attempts, whether undertaken from a feminist point of view, like the ambitious article on women artists which appeared in the 1858 Westminster Review , 2 or more recent scholarly studies on such artists as Angelica Kauffmann and india art and architecture Artemisia Gentileschi, 3 are certainly worth the effort, both in in search adding to our knowledge of women’s achievement and of art history generally. India Architecture! But they do nothing to question the assumptions lying behind the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” On the contrary, by attempting to answer it, they tacitly reinforce its negative implications.

The Swiss-born Angelica Kauffman, most of whose prolific career was spent in Italy, combines allegory with portraiture in Angelica Hesitating between Music and Painting , 1791. Another attempt to answer the question involves shifting the ground slightly and maus 4 summary asserting, as some contemporary feminists do, that there is a different kind of india art and “greatness” for a word is dead, women’s art than for ancient india art and architecture, men’s, thereby postulating the existence of a distinctive and recognizable feminine style, different both in a word is dead its formal and its expressive qualities and based on the special character of women’s situation and experience. This, on the surface of it, seems reasonable enough: in general, women’s experience and situation in society, and hence as artists, is different from men’s, and certainly the art produced by a group of consciously united and purposefully articulate women intent on bodying forth a group consciousness of feminine experience might indeed be stylistically identifiable as feminist, if not feminine, art. Ancient India Architecture! Unfortunately, though this remains within the realm of of the Civil War: Viewpoints of Robert E. Lee and Abraham possibility it has so far not occurred. While the members of the Danube School, the followers of Caravaggio, the painters gathered around Gauguin at Pont-Aven, the Blue Rider, or the Cubists may be recognized by certain clearly defined stylistic or expressive qualities, no such common qualities of “femininity” would seem to link the ancient art and, styles of women artists generally, any more than such qualities can be said to link women writers, a case brilliantly argued, against the most devastating, and mutually contradictory, masculine critical cliches, by to what, Mary Ellmann in her Thinking about ancient architecture Women . 4 No subtle essence of femininity would seem to link the work of Artemesia Gentileschi, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, Angelica Kauffmann, Rosa Bonheur, Berthe Morisot, Suzanne Valadon , Kaethe Kollwitz, Barbara Hepworth, Georgia O’Keeffe, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Helen Frankenthaler, Bridget Riley, Lee Bontecou or Louise Nevelson, any more than that of Sappho, Marie de France, Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, George Sand, George Eliot, Virginia Woolf, Gertrude Stein, Anais Nin, Emily Dickinson, Sylvia Plath and Essay on Influenza Virus Susan Sontag.

In every instance, women artists and ancient india art and writers would seem to be closer to a word is dead, other artists and writers of their own period and india art and outlook than they are to each other. W omen artists are more inward-looking, more delicate and nuanced in their treatment of their medium, it may be asserted. On Influenza Virus! But which of the women artists cited above is ancient architecture more inward-turning than Redon, more subtle and nuanced in the handling of pigment than Corot? Is Fragonard more or less feminine than Mme. Vigee-Lebrun? Or is it not more a question of the whole Rococo style of The Two Sides of the Civil War: Viewpoints of Robert Lincoln 18th-century France being “feminine,” if judged in terms of a two-valued scale of “masculinity” vs. “femininity”? Certainly though, if daintiness, delicacy and india art and architecture preciousness are to be counted as earmarks of a feminine style, there is as a event nothing fragile about Rosa Bonheur’s Horse Fair , nor dainty and introverted about Helen Frankenthaler’s giant canvases. Ancient India Art And! If women have turned to scenes of domestiC life, or of children, so did Jan Steen, Chardin and the Impressionists—Renoir and Monet as well as Morisot and Cassatt. To Kill A Mockingbird Ham Costume! In any case, the mere choice of a certain realm of ancient subject matter, or the restriction to certain subjects, is not to Essay, be equated with a style, much less with some sort of quintessentially feminine style. The problem lies not so much with the feminists’ concept of what femininity is, but rather with their misconception—shared with the public at india art and architecture, large—of what art is: with the naive idea that art is the on Influenza Virus, direct, personal expression of individual emotional experience, a translation of personal life into visual terms.

Art is almost never that, great art never is. The making of art involves a self-consistent language of form, more or less dependent upon, or free from, given temporally-defined conventions, schemata or systems of notation, which have to be learned or worked out, either through teaching, apprenticeship or a long period of individual experimentation. The language of art is, more materially, embodied in paint and line on canvas or paper, in stone or clay or plastic or metal—it is neither a sob-story nor a confidential whisper. The fact of the matter is that there have been no supremely great women artists, as far as we know, although there have been many interesting and very good ones who remain insufficiently investigated or appreciated; nor have there been any great Lithuanian jazz pianists, nor Eskimo tennis players, no matter how much we might wish there had been. That this should be the case is regrettable, but no amount of manipulating the india, historical or critical evidence will alter the situation; nor will accusations of male-chauvinist distortion of history. The fact, dear sisters, is that there are no women equivalents for Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix or Cezanne, Picasso or Matisse, or even, in very recent times, for de Kooning or Warhol, any more than there are Black American equivalents for the same. If there actually were large numbers of “hidden” great women artists, or if there really should be different standards for women’s art as opposed to men’s—and one can’t have it both ways—then what are the feminists fighting for? If women have in fact achieved the same status as men in the arts, then the status quo is fine as it is. Judith Leyster’s The Jolly Toper was called a Frans Hal until the discovery of her typical signature, “J,” and the date 1629, in upper right center. But in actuality, as we all know, things as they are and as they have been, in the arts as in Sides Civil War: Viewpoints E. Lee Lincoln a hundred other areas, are stultifying, oppressive and ancient discouraging to all those, women among them, who did not have the good fortune to be born white, preferably middle class and, above all, male. The fault, dear brothers, lies not in our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles or our empty internal spaces, but in a word is dead our institutions and our education—education understood to include everything that happens to us from the moment we enter this world of meaningful symbols, signs and signals.

The miracle is, in fact, that given the overwhelming odds against women, or blacks, that so many of both have managed to achieve so much sheer excellence, in those bailiwicks of white masculine prerogative like science, politics or the arts. It is when one really starts thinking about the implications of “Why have there been no great women artists?” that one begins to realize to what extent our consciousness of how things are in the world has been conditioned—and often falsified—by the way the most important questions are posed. We tend to take it for granted that there really is an East Asian Problem, a Poverty Problem, a Black Problem—and a Woman Problem. But first we must ask ourselves who is formulating these “questions,” and then, what purposes such formulations may serve. (We may, of course, refresh our memories with the connotations of the Nazi’s “Jewish Problem.”) Indeed, in ancient architecture our time of instant communication, “problems” are rapidly formulated to chapter, rationalize the bad conscience of those with power: thus the problem posed by ancient art and, Americans in a word is dead Vietnam and india art and Cambodia is to kill referred to by Americans as “the East Asian Problem,” whereas East Asians may view it, more realistically, as “the American Problem”; the so-called Poverty Problem might more directly be viewed as the “Wealth Problem” by denizens of urban ghettos or rural wastelands; the india art and, same irony twists the in search, White Problem into its opposite: a Black Problem; and the same inverse logic turns up in the formulation of our own present state of affairs as the ancient architecture, “Woman Problem.” Now the “Woman Problem,” like all human problems, so-called (and the a word is dead, very idea of ancient art and calling anything to do with human beings a “problem” is, of course, a fairly recent one) is not amenable to “solution” at all, since what human problems involve is re-interpretation of the nature of the situation, or a radical alteration of stance or program on the part of the “problems” themselves . Thus women and maus 4 summary their situation in the arts, as in other realms of endeavor, are not a “problem” to be viewed through the eyes of the india, dominant male power elite. Instead, women must conceive of themselves as potentially, if not actually, equal subjects, and must be willing to look the facts of their situation full in the face, without self-pity, or cop-outs; at the same time they must view their situation with that high degree of emotional and intellectual commitment necessary to a word is dead, create a world in which equal achievement will be not only ancient india art and architecture, made possible but actively encouraged by social institutions.

It is maus 4 summary certainly not realistic to ancient, hope that a majority of men, in the arts, or in a word is dead any other field, will soon see the light and find that it is in their own self-interest to grant complete equality to women, as some feminists optimistically assert, or to art and, maintain that men themselves will soon realize that they are diminished by denying themselves access to traditionally “feminine” realms and emotional reactions. After all, there are few areas that are really “denied” to men, if the Virus, level of operations demanded be transcendent, responsible or rewarding enough: men who have a need for “feminine” involvement with babies or children gain status as pediatricians or child psychologists, with a nurse (female) to do the more routine work; those who feel the india art and, urge for a word is dead, kitchen creativity may gain fame as master chefs; and, of course, men who yearn to fulfill themselves through what are often termed “feminine” artistic interests can find themselves as painters or sculptors, rather than as volunteer museum aides or part time ceramists, as their female counterparts so often end up doing; as far as scholarship is concerned, how many men would be willing to change their jobs as teachers and researchers for those of unpaid, part-time research assistants and typists as well as full-time nannies and india architecture domestic workers? Those who have privileges inevitably hold on a word is dead to them, and hold tight, no matter how marginal the advantage involved, until compelled to bow to superior power of one sort or another. Thus the question of women’s equality—in art as in ancient any other realm—devolves not upon the relative benevolence or ill-will of on Influenza Virus individual men, nor the self-confidence or abjectness of individual women, but rather on ancient india architecture the very nature of our institutional structures themselves and in search of eldorado the view of reality which they impose on the human beings who are part of them. Ancient Art And Architecture! As John Stuart Mill pointed out more than a century ago: “Everything which is usual appears natural.

The subjection of women to men being a universal custom, any departure from it quite naturally appears unnatural.” 5 Most men, despite lip-service to equality, are reluctant to give up this “natural” order of a word is dead things in which their advantages are so great; for women, the india architecture, case is further complicated by the fact that, as Mill astutely pointed out, unlike other oppressed groups or castes, men demand of her not only submission but unqualified affection as well; thus women are often weakened by the internalized demands of the male-dominated society itself, as well as by a plethora of material goods and a word is dead comforts: the ancient art and architecture, middle-class woman has a great deal more to a word is dead, lose than her chains. At Thomas Eakins’ life-class at art and, the Pennsylvania Academy around 1855, a cow, instead of a nude man, served as a model for a word is dead, the women students. COURTESY PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMY OF THE FINE ARTS/CHARLES BREGLER’S THOMAS EAKINS COLLECTION, PURCHASED WITH THE PARTIAL SUPPORT OF THE PEW MEMORIAL TRUST. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is simply the top tenth of an iceberg of misinterpretation and misconception; beneath lies a vast dark bulk of shaky idees recues about the nature of ancient india art and its situational concomitants, about the nature of human abilities in to kill a mockingbird ham costume general and of human excellence in particular, and india art and architecture the role that the social order plays in all of this. While the “woman problem” as such may be a pseudo-issue, the misconceptions involved in the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” points to major areas of intellectual obfuscation beyond the specific political and chapter ideological issues involved in the subjection of ancient india architecture women. Basic to amendment as a to what, the question are many naive, distorted, uncritical assumptions about the making of art in general, as well as the making of architecture great art. These assumptions, conscious or unconscious, link together such unlikely superstars as Michelangelo and van Gogh, Raphael and Jackson Pollock under the rubric of “Great”—an honorific attested to Essay on Influenza Virus, by the number of art and scholarly monographs devoted to the artist in question—and the Great Artist is, of course, conceived of as one who has “Genius”; Genius, in a word is dead turn, is thought of as an atemporal and mysterious power somehow embedded in the person of the ancient india architecture, Great Artist. In Search! 6 Such ideas are related to unquestioned, often unconscious, meta-historical premises that make Hippolyte Taine’s race-milieu-moment formulation of the dimensions of ancient india art and historical thought seem a model of Essay Virus sophistication.

But these assumptions are intrinsic to a great deal of art-historical writing. India Art And! It is a word is dead no accident that the crucial question of the conditions generally productive of great art has so rarely been investigated, or that attempts to investigate such general problems have, until fairly recently, been dismissed as unscholarly, too broad, or the province of some other discipline, like sociology. To encourage a dispassionate, impersonal, sociological and institutionally-oriented approach would reveal the entire romantic, elitist, individual-glorifying and monograph-producing substructure upon which the profession of art history is architecture based, and which has only recently been called in to question by a group of in search younger dissidents. Underlying the ancient india, question about woman as artist, then, we find the myth of the Great Artist—subject of Civil War: of Robert a hundred monographs, unique, godlike—bearing within his person since birth a mysterious essence, rather like the india architecture, golden nugget in Mrs. Grass’s chicken soup, called Genius or Talent, which, like murder, must always out, no matter how unlikely or unpromising the circumstances. The magical aura surrounding the representational arts and their creators has, of course, given birth to myths since the earliest times. Interestingly enough, the same magical abilities attributed by Pliny to the Greek sculptor Lysippos in Sides of the of Robert and Abraham Lincoln antiquity—the mysterious inner call in early youth, the lack of any teacher but Nature herself—is repeated as late as the 19th century by Max Buchon in his biography of Courbet. The supernatural powers of the artist as imitator, his control of strong, possibly dangerous powers, have functioned historically to set him off from india art and, others as a godlike creator, one who creates Being out of nothing. The fairy tale of the Boy Wonder, discovered by a mockingbird, an older artist or discerning patron, usually in the guise of a lowly shepherd boy, has been a stock-in-trade of artistic mythology ever since Vasari immortalized the young Giotto, discovered by the great Cimabue while the india art and, lad was guarding his flocks, drawing sheep on a stone; Cimabue, overcome with admiration by Virus, the realism of the drawing, immediately invited the humble youth to india art and architecture, be his pupil. 7 Through some mysterious coincidence, later artists including Beccafumi, Andrea Sansovino, Andrea del Castagno, Mantegna, Zurbaran and Goya were all discovered in similar pastoral circumstances. Even when the young Great Artist was not fortunate enough to come equipped with a flock of sheep, his talent always seems to have manifested itself very early, and was passed to what independent of india art and architecture any external encouragement: Filippo Lippi and Poussin, Courbet and Monet are all reported to have drawn caricatures in the margins of their schoolbooks instead of studying the required subjects—we never, of course, hear about the youths who neglected their studies and scribbled in the margins of their notebooks without ever becoming anything more elevated than department-store clerks or shoe salesmen.

The great Michelangelo himself, according to his biographer and pupil, Vasari, did more drawing than studying as a child. So pronounced was his talent, reports Vasari, that when his master, Ghirlandaio, absented himself momentarily from his work in Santa Maria Novella, and the young art student took the opportunity to to kill, draw “the scaffolding, trestles, pots of paint, brushes and ancient india art and the apprentices at to kill a mockingbird, their tasks” in this brief absence, he did it so skillfully that upon his return the master exclaimed: “This boy knows more than I do.” Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun’s immense following at art and, the French court was largely due to the patronage of Marie-Antoinette, whom she has been credited with making sympathetic to posterity through her portraits of the a mockingbird ham costume, queen. Marie-Antoinette de Lorraine-Habsbourg, Queen of France, and her children , 1781. As is so often the case, such stories, which probably have some truth in them, tend both to reflect and perpetuate the attitudes they subsume.

Despite any basis in fact of these myths about the early manifestations of Genius, the india architecture, tenor of the tales is misleading. It is no doubt true, for example, that the young Picasso passed all the examinations for entrance to the Barcelona, and later to the Madrid, Academy of of the Civil War: Viewpoints of Robert E. Lee Lincoln Art at the age of 15 in but a single day, a feat of such difficulty that most candidates required a month of ancient india preparation. But one would like to find out more about similar precocious qualifiers for art academies who then went on to achieve nothing but mediocrity or failure—in whom, of course, art historians are uninterested—or to study in greater detail the role played by The Two Sides Civil Viewpoints E. Lee and Abraham Lincoln, Picasso’s art-professor father in the pictorial precocity of his son. What if Picasso had been born a girl? Would Senor Ruiz have paid as much attention or stimulated as much ambition for achievement in a little Pablita? What is stressed in all these stories is the apparently miraculous, non-determined and a-social nature of artistic achievement; this semi-religious conception of the artist’s role is elevated to hagiography in the 19th-century, when both art historians, critics and, not least, some of the artists themselves tended to elevate the ancient, making of art into a substitute religion, the last bulwark of Higher Values in a materialistic world. The artist, in the 19th-century Saints’ Legend, struggles against the most determined parental and as a reaction event social opposition, suffering the slings and arrows of ancient architecture social opprobrium like any Christian martyr, and ultimately succeeds against all odds—generally, alas, after his death—because from deep within himself radiates that mysterious, holy effulgence: Genius. Here we have the mad van Gogh, spinning out sunflowers despite epileptic seizures and near-starvation; Cezanne, braving paternal rejection and public scorn in order to revolutionize painting; Gauguin throwing away respectability and financial security with a single existential gesture to pursue his Calling in the tropics, or Toulouse-Lautrec, dwarfed, crippled and alchoholic [ sic ], sacrificing his aristocratic birthright in favor of the squalid surroundings that provided him with inspiration, etc. Now no serious contemporary art historian takes such obvious fairy tales at their face value.

Yet it is this sort of mythology about artistic achievement and its concomitants which forms the unconscious or unquestioned assumptions of scholars, no matter how many crumbs are thrown to social influences, ideas of the times, economic crises and so on. Behind the most sophisticated investigations of great artists—more specifically, the art-historical monograph, which accepts the notion of the to kill, Great Artist as primary, and art and architecture the social and institutional structures within which he lived and worked as mere secondary “influences” or “background”—lurks the golden-nugget theory of genius and the free-enterprise conception of individual achievement. On this basis, women’s lack of maus major achievement in art may be formulated as a syllogism: If women had the golden nugget of artistic genius then it would reveal itself. But it has never revealed itself. India Architecture! Q.E.D. Women do not have the golden nugget of artistic genius. If Giotto, the obscure shepherd boy, and van Gogh with his fits could make it, why not women? Berthe Morisot was a close friend of Manet and later married his brother. Eugene Manet on the Isle of Wight , 1875. Yet as soon as one leaves behind the a word is dead, world of fairy-tale and self-fulfilling prophecy and, instead, casts a dispassionate eye on the actual situations in india art and which important art production has existed, in the total range of on Influenza its social and institutional structures throughout history, one finds that the very questions which are fruitful or relevant for the historian to ask shape up rather differently. One would like to ask, for ancient india, instance, from what social classes artists were most likely to come at different periods of art history, from what castes and sub-group.

What proportion of painters and sculptors, or more specifically, of major painters and sculptors, came from families in which their fathers or other close relatives were painters and sculptors or engaged in related professions? As Nikolaus Pevsner points out in in search of eldorado his discussion of the French Academy in the 17th and 18th centuries, the transmission of the artistic profession from father to son was considered a matter of course (as it was with the Coypels, the Coustous, the Van Loos, etc); indeed, sons of academicians were exempted from the india art and architecture, customary fees for a word is dead, lessons. 8 Despite the noteworthy and dramatically satisfying cases of the great father-rejecting revoltes of the 19th century, one might be forced to admit that a large proportion of architecture artists, great and not-so-great, in the days when it was normal for sons to follow in their fathers’ footsteps, had artist fathers. Ham Costume! In the india art and architecture, rank of major artists, the names of Holbein and Durer, Raphael and Bernini, immediately spring to mind; even in our own times, one can cite the names of Picasso, Calder, Giacometti and Wyeth as members of artist-families. As far as the of eldorado, relationship of artistic occupation and social class is concerned, an interesting paradigm for the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” might well be provided by trying to answer the question: “Why have there been no great artists from the aristocracy?” One can scarcely think, before the ancient india art and architecture, anti-traditional 19th century at least, of any artist who sprang from the ranks of any more elevated class than the upper bourgeoisie; even in Essay the 19th century, Degas came from the lower nobility—more like the art and architecture, haute bourgeoisie, in Virus fact—and only Toulouse-Lautrec, metamorphosed into the ranks of the marginal by accidental deformity, could be said to have come from the loftier reaches of the upper classes. While the aristocracy has always provided the lion’s share of the patronage and the audience for art—as, indeed, the ancient art and architecture, aristocracy of wealth does even in our more democratic days—it has contributed little beyond amateurish efforts to the creation of art itself, despite the fact that aristocrats (like many women) have had more than their share of educational advantages, plenty of leisure and, indeed, like women, were often encouraged to maus 4 summary, dabble in the arts and even develop into respectable amateurs, like Napoleon III’s cousin, the Princess Mathilde, who exhibited at the official Salons, or Queen Victoria, who, with Prince Albert, studied art with no less a figure than Landseer himself. Could, it be that the little golden nugget—Genius—is missing from the aristocratic make-up in the same way that it is from the feminine psyche? Or rather, is it not, that the kinds of demands and india art and expectations placed before both aristocrats and women—the amount of time necessarily devoted to social functions, the a word is dead, very kinds of india art and architecture activities demanded—simply made total devotion to professional art production out of the question, indeed unthinkable, both for upper-class males and for women generally, rather than its being a question of genius and of eldorado talent? When the right questions are asked about the conditions for producing art, of which the production of great art is a sub-topic, there will no doubt have to ancient architecture, be some discussion of the situational concomitants of intelligence and talent generally, not merely of artistic genius.

Piaget and others have stressed in their genetic epistemology that in the development of reason and in The Two of the Civil War: E. Lee and Abraham the unfolding of ancient imagination in of eldorado young children, intelligence—or, by implication, what we choose to call genius—is a dynamic activity rather than a static essence, and an activity of india art and architecture a subject in a situation . As further investigations in the field of child development imply, these abilities, or this intelligence, are built up minutely, step by step, from infancy onward, and the patterns of adaptation-accommodation may be established so early within the subject-in-an-environment that they may indeed appear to Virus, be innate to the unsophisticated observer. Such investigations imply that, even aside from meta-historical reasons, scholars will have to abandon the ancient india art and architecture, notion, consciously articulated or not, of individual genius as innate, and as primary to the creation of War: Viewpoints and Abraham Lincoln art. 9. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” has led us to the conclusion, so far, that art is not a free, autonomous activity of a super-endowed individual, “influenced” by previous artists, and, more vaguely and superficially, by “social forces,” but rather, that the total situation of ancient architecture art making, both in a word is dead terms of the development of the india architecture, art maker and in the nature and quality of the work of art itself, occur in a social situation, are integral elements of The Two Sides of the War: E. Lee this social structure, and are mediated and determined by specific and definable social institutions, be they art academies, systems of ancient india art and architecture patronage, mythologies of the divine creator, artist as he-man or social outcast. The Question of the Nude.

We can now approach our question from a more reasonable standpoint, since it seems probable that the a word is dead, answer to why there have been no great women artists lies not in the nature of individual genius or the lack of it, but in the nature of given social institutions and what they forbid or encourage in ancient india art and architecture various classes or groups of individuals. Let us first examine such a simple, but critical, issue as availability of the nude model to aspiring women artists, in maus chapter the period extending from the Renaissance until near the end of the 19th century, a period in which careful and prolonged study of the nude model was essential to ancient india architecture, the training of every young artist, to the production of any work with pretentions to grandeur, and to the very essence of amendment reaction to what event History Painting, generally accepted as the highest category of art: indeed, it was argued by defenders of traditional painting in the 19th century that there could be no great painting with clothed figures, since costume inevitably destroyed both the temporal universality and the classical idealization required by great art. Ancient Art And! Needless to say, central to the training programs of the academies since their inception late in the 16th and early in the 17th centuries, was life drawing from the nude, generally male, model. In addition, groups of artists and a word is dead their pupils often met privately for life drawing sessions from the ancient, nude model in their studios. In Search Of Eldorado! In general, it might be added, while individual artists and private academies employed the ancient art and architecture, female model extensively, the female nude was forbidden in almost all public art schools as late as 1850 and after—a state of affairs which Pevsner rightly designates as “hardly believable.” 10 Far more believable, unfortunately, was the complete unavailability to the aspiring woman artist of any nude models at Essay, all, male or female. As late as 1893, “lady” students were not admitted to life drawing at the Royal Academy in London, and even when they were, after that date, the model had to be “partially draped.” 11. A brief survey of representations of life-drawing sessions reveals: an all male clientele drawing from the female nude in Rembrandt’s studio; men working from male nudes in 18th-century representations of academic instruction in The Hague and Vienna; men working from the seated male nude in Bailly’s charming painting of the ancient art and, interior of Houdon’s studio at the beginning of the 19th century; Mathieu Cochereau’s scrupulously veristic Interior of David’s Studio , exhibited in the Salon of 1814, reveals a group of young men diligently drawing or painting from a male nude model, whose discarded shoes may be seen before the models’ stand.

The very plethora of surviving “Academies”—detailed, painstaking studies from the nude studio model—in the youthful oeuvre of artists down through the time of Seurat and a word is dead well into the 20th century, attests to the central importance of this branch of study in the pedagogy and development of the talented beginner. The formal academic program itself normally proceeded, as a matter of course, from copying from drawings and engravings, to ancient art and architecture, drawing from casts of famous works of sculpture, to drawing from the living model. Essay On Influenza! To be deprived of this ultimate stage of training meant, in effect, to be deprived of the possibility of creating major art works, unless one were a very ingenious lady indeed, or simply, as most of the women aspiring to be painters ultimately did, to restrict oneself to ancient art and architecture, the “minor” fields of portraiture, genre, landscape or still-life. The Two Sides Of Robert And Abraham Lincoln! It is rather as though a medical student were denied the opportunity to dissect or even examine the ancient, naked human body. In Zoffany’s painting of the life-class at Essay Virus, the Royal Academy, 1772, all the members are present except for Angelica Kauffmann, who for reasons of propriety has a stand-in—her portrait on the wall. There exist, to my knowledge, no representations of artists drawing from the nude model which include women in any role but that of the nude model itself, an interesting commentary on rules of propriety: i.e., it is all right for a (“low,” of course) woman to reveal herself naked-as-an-object for a group of men, but forbidden to a woman to participate in the active study and recording of naked-man-as-an-object, or even of ancient india architecture a fellow woman. An amusing example of this taboo on confronting a dressed lady with a naked man is embodied in a group portrait of the members of the Royal Academy in London in 1772, represented by Zoffany as gathered in the life room before two nude male models: all the in search, distinguished members are present with but one noteworthy exception—the single female member, the renowned Angelica Kauffmann, who, for ancient, propriety’s sake, is merely present in effigy, in the form of a portrait hanging on the wall.

A slightly earlier drawing of a word is dead Ladies in the Studio by ancient art and, the Polish artist Daniel Chodowiecki, shows the ladies portraying a modestly dressed member of their sex. In a lithograph dating from the relatively liberated epoch following the French Revolution, the lithographer Marlet has represented some women sketchers in a group of students working from the chapter, male model, but the model himself has been chastely provided with what appears to be a pair of bathing trunks, a garment hardly conducive to a sense of classical elevation: no doubt such license was considered daring in its day, and the young ladies in question suspected of doubtful morals, but even this liberated state of affairs seems to have lasted only a short while. In an English stereoscopic color view of the interior of ancient art and a studio of about 1865, the standing, bearded male model is so heavily draped that not an iota of his anatomy escapes from the discreet toga, save for 4 summary, a single bare shoulder and arm: even so, he obviously had the grace to avert his eyes in the presence of the crinoline-clad young sketchers. The women in the Women’s Modeling Class at the Pennsylvania Academy were evidently not allowed even this modest privilege. A photograph by Thomas Eakins of about 1885 reveals these students modeling from a cow (bull? ox? the nether regions are obscure in the photograph), a naked cow to be sure, perhaps a daring liberty when one considers that even piano legs might be concealed beneath pantalettes during this era (the idea of introducing a bovine model into the artist’s studio stems from Courbet, who brought a bull into his short-lived studio academy in the 1860s). Only at the very end of the 19th century, in the relatively liberated and open atmosphere of Repin’s studio and circle in Russia, do we find representations of women art students working uninhibitedly from the nude—the female model, to be sure—in the company of men.

Even in this case, it must be noted that certain photographs represent a private sketch group meeting in ancient india art and one of the women artists’ homes; in the other, the Essay Virus, model is draped; and the large group portrait, a co-operative effort by two men and two women students of Repin’s, is an imaginary gathering together of all of the Russian realist’s pupils, past and present, rather than a realistic studio view. I have gone into the question of the availability of the nude model, a single aspect of the ancient, automatic, institutionally-maintained discrimination against women, in the 22nd event such detail simply to demonstrate both the universality of the discrimination against women and its consequences, as well as the institutional rather than individual nature of but one facet of the necessary preparation for achieving mere proficiency, much less greatness, in the realm of architecture art during a long stretch of time. One could equally well examine other dimensions of the situation, such as the apprenticeship system, the academic educational pattern which, in France especially, was almost the only key to success and which had a regular progression and set competitions, crowned by the Prix de Rome which enabled the young winner to of the Civil War: Viewpoints, work in the French Academy in art and architecture that city—unthinkable for Essay on Influenza, women, of course—and for which women were unable to compete until the end of the 19th century, by which time, in ancient india architecture fact, the whole academic system had lost its importance anyway. It seems clear, to take France in the 19th century as an example, a country which probably had a larger proportion of women artists than any other—that is to say, in terms of in search their percentage in the total number of artists exhibiting in. the Salon—that “women were not accepted as professional painters.” 12 In the middle of the century, there were only a third as many women as men artists, but even this mildly encouraging statistic is deceptive when we discover that out of this relatively meager number, none had attended that major stepping stone to artistic success, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, only 7 percent had received any official commission or had held any official office—and these might include the most menial sort of work—only 7 percent had ever received any Salon medal, and none had ever received the Legion of Honor. 13 Deprived of encouragements, educational facilities and ancient india architecture rewards, it is almost incredible that a certain percentage of women did persevere and seek a profession in a mockingbird ham costume the arts. It also becomes apparent why women were able to compete on far more equal terms with men—and even become innovators—in literature. Ancient Art And! While art-making traditionally has demanded the maus chapter 4 summary, learning of specific techniques and skills, in a certain sequence, in an institutional setting outside the home, as well as becoming familiar with a specific vocabulary of iconography and motifs, the same is by no means true for the poet or novelist. Art And! Anyone, even a women, has to learn the language, can learn to read and write, and can commit personal experiences to paper in the privacy of one’s room.

Naturally this oversimplifies the real difficulties and complexities involved in maus chapter 4 summary creating good or great literature, whether by man or woman, but it still gives a clue as to the possibility of the existence of ancient india art and architecture Emily Bronte or an Emily Dickinson, and the lack of their counterparts, at least until quite recently, in the visual arts. Of course we have not gone into the “fringe” requirements for major artists, which would have been, for the most part, both psychically and socially closed to women, even if hypothetically they could have achieved the requisite grandeur in the performance of their craft: in a mockingbird the Renaissance and after, the ancient india, great artist, aside from participating in to kill a mockingbird ham costume the affairs of an academy, might well be intimate. with members of humanist circles with whom he could exchange ideas, establish suitable relationships with patrons, travel widely and freely, perhaps politic and intrigue; nor have we mentioned the sheer organizational acumen and ability involved in ancient architecture running a major studio-factory, like that of Rubens. To Kill A Mockingbird! An enormous amount of self-confidence and ancient india art and architecture worldly knowledgeability, as well as a natural sense of well-earned dominance and power, was needed by the great chef d’ecole , both in the running of the production end of painting, and in the control and instruction of the numerous students and assistants. In contrast to the single-mindedness and chapter 4 summary commitment demanded of a chef d’ecole , we might set the image of the “lady painter” established by 19th-century etiquette books and reinforced by india art and architecture, the literature of the times. It is precisely the insistence upon a modest, proficient, self-demeaning level of of eldorado amateurism as a “suitable accomplishment” for the well-brought up young woman, who naturally would want to direct her major attention to india, the welfare of others—family and husband—that militated, and to kill still militates, against any real accomplishment on the part of architecture women. It is this emphasis which transforms serious commitment to frivolous self-indulgence, busy work or occupational therapy, and today, more than ever, in suburban bastions of the in search of eldorado, feminine mystique, tends to distort the whole notion of ancient architecture what art is and the 22nd was passed reaction what kind of social role it plays. In Mrs. Ellis’ widely read The Family Monitor and Domestic Guide , published before the ancient architecture, middle of the 19th century, a book of advice popular both in Essay on Influenza Virus the United States and in England, women were warned against the snare of trying too hard to excel in any one thing: It must not be supposed that the writer is one who would advocate, as essential to woman, any very extraordinary degree of intellectual attainment, especially if confined to art and, one particular branch of study. “I should like to to kill a mockingbird, excel in something” is a frequent and, to some extent, laudable expression; but in what does it originate, and to ancient art and architecture, what does it tend? To be able to do a great many things tolerably well, is of infinitely more value to a woman, than to be able to excel in any one.

By the the 22nd amendment was passed to what event, former, she may render herself generally useful: by ancient india art and architecture, the latter, she may dazzle for an hour. By being apt, and amendment was passed reaction to what tolerably well skilled in everything, she may fall into any situation in life with dignity and ease—by devoting her time to excellence in one, she may remain incapable of every other. So far as cleverness, learning, and knowledge are conducive to india art and architecture, woman’s moral excellence, they are therefore desirable, and no further. All that would occupy her mind to the exclusion of a word is dead better things, all that would involve her in the mazes of flattery and india art and admiration, all that would tend to of eldorado, draw away her thoughts from others and ancient architecture fix them on herself, ought to be avoided as an evil to a word is dead, her, however brilliant or attractive it may be in itself. India Art And! 14. Lest we are tempted to laugh, we may refresh ourselves with more recent samples of exactly the maus, same message cited in Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique , or in india art and the pages of recent issues of Essay Virus popular women’s magazines. This advice has a familiar ring, of course: propped up by a bit of Freudianism and some tag-lines from the social sciences about the well-rounded personality, preparation for woman’s chief career, marriage, and the unfemininity of deep involvement with work rather than sex, it is still the mainstay of the art and architecture, Feminine Mystique. Such an outlook helps guard man from Essay Virus, unwanted competition in his “serious” professional activities and assures him of “well-rounded” assistance on art and architecture the home front, so that he may have sex and family in addition to the fulfillment of his own specialized talent and Essay on Influenza Virus excellence at the same time. As far as painting specifically is india art and concerned, Mrs. Ellis finds that it has one immediate advantage for the young lady over its rival branch of artistic activity, music—it is quiet and disturbs no one (this negative virtue, of a word is dead course, would not be true of sculpture, but accomplishment with the hammer and chisel simply never occurs as a suitable accomplishment for the weaker sex); in ancient art and architecture addition, says Mrs. Ellis, “it [drawing] is an employment which beguiles the mind of many cares…Drawing is, of was passed reaction all other occupations, the one most calculated to keep the mind from brooding upon self, and to maintain.

that general cheerfulness which is a part of social and domestic duty…It can also,” she adds, “be laid down and resumed, as circumstance or inclination may direct, and that without any serious loss.” 15 Again, lest we feel that we have made a great deal of progress in this area in the past 100 years, I might bring up the remark of ancient india art and architecture a bright young doctor who, when the conversation turned to his wife and her friends “dabbling” in the arts, snorted: “Well, at least it keeps them out of the 22nd was passed as a reaction event trouble!” Now as in the 19th century, amateurism and lack of real commitment as well as snobbery and emphasis on chic on the part of women in their artistic “hobbies,” feeds the contempt of the successful, professionally committed man who is engaged in “real” work and can, with a certain justice, point to his wife’s lack of india architecture seriousness in her artistic activities. For such men, the “real” work of amendment was passed as a reaction women is only that which directly or indirectly serves the family; any other commitment falls under the rubric of diversion, selfishness, egomania or, at the unspoken extreme, castration. The circle is a vicious one, in which philistinism and frivolity mutually re-enforce each other. In literature, as in life, even if the woman’s commitment to art was a serious one, she was expected to drop her career and give up this commitment at the behest of love and ancient india marriage: this lesson is, today as in the 19th century, still inculcated in young girls, directly or indirectly, from the moment they are born. Even the determined and Essay Virus successful heroine of Mrs. Craik’s mid-19th-century novel about feminine artistic success, Olive , a young woman who lives alone, strives for fame and independence and actually supports herself through her art—such unfeminine behavior is at least partly excused by ancient india art and architecture, the fact that she is a cripple and a word is dead automatically considers that marriage is denied to her—even Olive ultimately succumbs to ancient india art and architecture, the blandishments of love and marriage. On Influenza! To paraphrase the india architecture, words of in search of eldorado Patricia Thomson in The Victorian Heroine , Mrs. Craik, having shot her bolt in the course of her novel, is ancient india architecture content, finally, to let her heroine, whose ultimate greatness the reader has never been able to doubt, sink gently into matrimony. “Of Olive, Mrs.

Craik comments imperturbably that her husband’s influence is to deprive the Scottish Academy of ‘no one knew how many grand pictures.’ ” 16 Then as now, despite men’s greater “tolerance,” the choice for women seems always to be marriage or a career, i.e., solitude as the price of success or sex and companionship at Viewpoints of Robert E. Lee and Abraham Lincoln, the price of professional renunciation. That achievement in the arts, as in any field of endeavor, demands struggle and sacrifice, no one would deny; that this has certainly been true after the india art and, middle of the 19th century, when the traditional institutions of artistic support and on Influenza patronage no longer fulfilled their customary obligations, is undeniable: one has only to think of ancient art and architecture Delacroix, Courbet, Degas, van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec as examples of great artists who gave up the distractions and obligations of family life, at least in part, so that they could pursue their artistic careers more singlemindedly. Yet none of them was automatically denied the pleasures of sex or companionship on account of to kill a mockingbird ham costume this choice. Nor did they ever conceive that they had sacrificed their manhood or their sexual role on account of their singleness and singlemindedness in order to achieve professional fulfillment. But if the artist in question happens to be a woman, 1,000 years of guilt, self-doubt and objecthood have been added to the undeniable difficulties of ancient being an artist in the modern world. The unconscious aura of titillation that arises from a visual representation of an The Two War: of Robert E. Lee aspiring woman artist in the mid-19th century, Emily Mary Osborne’s heartfelt painting, Nameless and Friendless , 1857, a canvas representing a poor but lovely and respectable young girl at a London art dealer, nervously awaiting the verdict of the india, pompous proprietor about the worth of her canvases while two ogling “art lovers” look on, is really not too different in maus chapter its underlying assumptions from an overtly salacious work like Bompard’s Debut of the Model . The theme in both is india architecture innocence, delicious feminine innocence, exposed to the world. It is the charming vulnerability of the young woman artist, like that of the hesitating model, which is really the subject of Miss Osborne’s painting, not the value of the young woman’s work or her pride in of eldorado it: the issue here is, as usual, sexual rather than serious. Always a model but never an artist might well have served as the motto of the seriously aspiring young woman in the arts of the 19th century. The monumental figures of The Church and The Synagogue from the South Portal of the Cathedral of Strasbourg, ca. 1225, are attributed to Sabina von Steinbach, daughter of the master-sculptor of the cathedral, who died before the ancient india architecture, completion of the work.

But what of the small band of heroic women, who, throughout the ages, despite obstacles, have achieved pre-eminence, if not the pinnacles of a mockingbird grandeur of a Michelangelo, a Rembrandt or a Picasso? Are there any qualities that may be said to india art and, have characterized them as a group and as individuals? While we cannot go into such an investigation in depth in this article, we can point to of eldorado, a few striking characteristics of women artists generally: they all, almost without exception, were either the daughters of india architecture artist fathers, or, generally later, in the 19th and 20th centuries, had a close personal connection with a stronger or more dominant male artistic personality. Neither of these characteristics is, of course, unusual for men artists, either, as we have indicated above in the case of artist fathers and to what sons: it is simply true almost without exception for their feminine counterparts, at least until quite recently. From the legendary sculptor, Sabina von Steinbach, in the 13th century, who, according to india art and, local tradition, was responsible for South Portal groups on the Cathedral of Strasbourg, down to Rosa Bonheur, the most renowned animal painter of the 19th century, and including such eminent women artists as Marietta Robusti, daughter of to kill a mockingbird Tintoretto, Lavinia Fontana, Artemisia Gentileschi, Elizabeth Cheron, Mme. Ancient! Vigee-Lebrun and Angelica Kauffmann—all, without exception, were the daughters of artists; in the 19th century, Berthe Morisot was closely associated with Manet, later marrying his brother, and Mary Cassatt based a good deal of her work on the style of her close friend Degas. Precisely the a word is dead, same breaking of traditional bonds and discarding of time-honored practices that permitted men artists to strike out in directions quite different from those of their fathers in the second half of the 19th century enabled women, with additional difficulties, to be sure, to strike out on their own as well.

Many of ancient india art and our more recent women artists, like Suzanne Valadon, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Kaethe Kollwitz or Louise Nevelson, have come from non-artistic backgrounds, although many contemporary and near-contemporary women artists have married fellow artists. It would be interesting to investigate the role of benign, if not outright encouraging, fathers in the formation of women professionals: both Kaethe Kollwitz and The Two Sides of the War: Viewpoints of Robert E. Lee Barbara Hepworth, for example, recall. the influence of unusually sympathetic and ancient india supportive fathers on their artistic pursuits. In the absence of any thoroughgoing investigation, one can only gather impressionistic data about the presence or absence of rebellion against parental authority in women artists, and whether there may be more or less rebellion on the part of women artists than is true in the case of men or vice versa. One thing however is clear: for a woman to opt for The Two of the Civil Viewpoints E. Lee and Abraham, a career at all, much less for a career in art, has required a certain amount of unconventionality, both in the past and at present; whether or not the woman artist rebels against ancient india art and or finds strength in the attitude of her family, she must in any case have a good strong streak of chapter rebellion in ancient india architecture her to make her way in the world of art at all, rather than submitting to 4 summary, the socially approved role of wife and mother, the only role to which every social institution consigns her automatically. It is only by adopting, however covertly, the “masculine” attributes of singlemindedness, concentration, tenaciousness and absorption in india art and ideas and craftsmanship for their own sake, that women have succeeded, and a word is dead continue to succeed, in the world of art. It is instructive to examine in greater detail one of the most successful and accomplished women painters of all time, Rosa Bonheur (1822-1899), whose work, despite the ancient india art and, ravages wrought upon its estimation by changes of taste and a certain admitted lack of variety, still stands as an impressive achievement to anyone interested in the art of the 19th century and in the history of taste generally.

Rosa Bonheur is a woman artist in whom, partly because of the magnitude of her reputation, all the various conflicts, all the internal and chapter external contradictions and struggles typical of ancient her sex and a word is dead profession, stand out in sharp relief. Like Constant Troyon, Bonheur aimed at art and architecture, an epical, “heroic” interpretation of in search animals which became extremely popular. India Art And Architecture! The Horse Fair , ca. Of Eldorado! 1852–55. The success of india Rosa Bonheur firmly establishes the role of institutions, and institutional change, as a necessary, if not a sufficient cause of achievement in art. We might say that Bonheur picked a fortunate time to become an artist if she was, at The Two Sides of the Civil Viewpoints of Robert and Abraham Lincoln, the same time, to have the disadvantage of being a woman: she came into her own in the middle of the 19th century, a time in which the struggle between traditional History Painting as opposed to the less pretentious and more free-wheeling genre painting, landscape and still-life was won by the latter group hands down. A major change in the social and ancient india art and institutional support for a word is dead, art itself was well under way: with the rise of the bourgeoisie and the fall of the cultivated aristocracy, smaller paintings, generally of every-day subjects, rather than grandiose mythological or religious scenes were much in demand. To cite the Whites: “Three hundred provincial museums there might be, government commissions for public works there might be, but the art and, only possible paid destinations for t he rising flood of canvases were the homes of the bourgeoisie. History painting had not and never would rest comfortably in the middle-class parlor. ‘Lesser’ forms of image art—genre, landscape, still-life—did.” 17 In mid-century France, as in 17th-century Holland, there was a tendency for artists to to kill a mockingbird ham costume, attempt to achieve some sort of security in ancient art and architecture a shaky market situation by specializing, by making a career out of a specific subject: animal painting was a very popular field, as the Whites point out, and maus Rosa Bonheur was no doubt its most accomplished and successful practitioner, followed in popularity only by the Barbizon painter Troyon (who at one time was so pressed for his paintings of cows that he hired another artist to ancient india art and, brush in the backgrounds). Rosa Bonheur’s rise to Virus, fame accompanied that of the Barbizon landscapists, supported by india architecture, those canny dealers, the Durand-Ruels, who later moved on to the Impressionists. The.

Durand-Ruels were among the chapter 4 summary, first dealers to tap the expanding market in movable decoration for the middle classes, to use the Whites’ terminology. Rosa Bonheur’s naturalism and ability to capture the ancient art and architecture, individuality—even the “soul”—of each of her animal subjects coincided with bourgeois taste at the time. The same combination, of qualities, with a much stronger dose of sentimentality and The Two Sides Civil Viewpoints E. Lee and Abraham pathetic fallacy to be sure, likewise assured the success of her animalier contemporary, Landseer, in England. Daughter of an ancient art and architecture impoverished drawing master, Rosa Bonheur quite naturally showed her interest in art early; at the same time, she exhibited an independence of spirit and liberty of manner which immediately earned her the label of tomboy. According to her own later accounts, her “masculine protest” established itself early; to what extent any show of persistence, stubbornness and vigor would be counted as “masculine” in the first half of the 19th century is conjectural. Rosa Bonheur’s attitude towards her father is somewhat ambiguous: while realizing that he had been influential in directing her towards her life’s work, there is no doubt that she resented his thoughtless treatment of her beloved mother, and in her reminiscences, she half affectionately makes fun of his bizarre form of social idealism. Raimond Bonheur had been an active member of the short-lived Saint-Simonian community, established in the third decade of the 19th century by “Le Pere” Enfantin at Menilmontant. Although in her later years Rosa Bonheur might have made fun of some of the more far-fetched eccentricities of the members of the community, and maus disapproved of the additional strain which her father’s apostolate placed on her overburdened mother, it is obvious that the india art and architecture, Saint-Simonian ideal of equality for women—they disapproved of marriage, their trousered feminine costume was a token of emancipation, and their spiritual leader, Le Pere Enfantin, made extraordinary efforts to find a Woman Messiah to share his reign—made a strong impression on a word is dead her as a child, and may well have influenced her future course of india behavior. “Why shouldn’t I be proud to be a woman?” she exclaimed to an interviewer. “My father, that enthusiastic apostle of humanity, many times reiterated to me that woman’s mission was to elevate the human race, that she was the Messiah of as a to what future centuries. It is to his doctrines that I owe the great, noble ambition I have conceived for the sex which I proudly affirm to be mine, and whose independence I will support to my dying day…” 18 When she was hardly more than a child, he instilled in india architecture her the ambition to surpass Mme.

Vigee-Lebrun certainly the Sides E. Lee Lincoln, most eminent model she could be expected to india art and architecture, follow, and he gave her early efforts every possible encouragement. At the same time, the spectacle of her uncomplaining mother’s slow decline from sheer overwork and poverty might have been an even more realistic influence on The Two Viewpoints and Abraham Lincoln her decision to control her own destiny and never to become the slave of a husband and children. What is particularly interesting from the modern feminist viewpoint is Rosa Bonheur’s ability to combine the ancient, most vigorous and unapologetic masculine protest with unabashedly self-contradictory assertions of “basic” femininity. In those refreshingly straightforward pre-Freudian days, Rosa Bonheur could explain to her biographer that she had never wanted to maus, marry for fear of ancient india art and losing her independence—too many young girls let themselves be led to the altar like lambs to the sacrifice, she maintained. Yet at the same time that she rejected marriage for herself and implied an inevitable loss of selfhood for on Influenza Virus, any woman who engaged in it, she, unlike the Saint-Simonians, considered marriage “a sacrament indispensable to the organization of society.” While remaining cool to offers of marriage, she joined in a seemingly cloudless, lifelong and apparently Platonic union with a fellow woman artist, Nathalie Micas, who evidently provided her with the companionship and emotional warmth which she needed. Ancient India Architecture! Obviously the presence of this sympathetic friend did not seem to demand the same sacrifice of genuine commitment to her profession which marriage would have entailed: in any case, the on Influenza, advantages of such an arrangement for women who wished to avoid the distraction of children in the days before reliable contraception are obvious. Yet at the same time that she frankly rejected the conventional feminine role of her times, Rosa Bonheur still was drawn into what Betty Friedan has called the “frilly blouse syndrome,” that innocuous version of the ancient art and architecture, feminine protest which even today compels successful women psychiatrists or professors to amendment as a to what, adopt some ultra-feminine item of clothing or insist on proving their prowess as pie-bakers.

19 Despite the india, fact that she had early cropped her hair and adopted men’s clothes as her habitual attire, following the example of George Sand, whose rural Romanticism exerted a powerful influence over her imagination, to her biographer she insisted, and no doubt sincerely believed, that she did so only because of the specific demands of a word is dead her profession. Indignantly denying rumors to the effect that she had run about the streets of Paris dressed as a boy in her youth, she proudly provided her biographer with a daguerreotype of ancient india art and architecture herself at 16 years, dressed in perfectly conventional feminine fashion, except for her shorn head, which she excused as a practical measure taken after the death of her mother; “who would have taken care of my curls?” she demanded. 20. As far as the question of masculine dress was concerned, she was quick to reject her interlocutor’s suggestion that her trousers were a symbol of emancipation. “I strongly blame women who renounce their customary attire in a mockingbird the desire to make themselves pass for architecture, men,” she affirmed. “If I had found that trousers suited my sex, I would have completely gotten rid of my skirts, but this is not the. case, nor have I ever advised my sisters of the palette to wear men’s clothes in the ordinary course of ham costume life.

If, then, you see me dressed as I am, it is not at all with the aim of ancient art and architecture making myself interesting, as all too many women have tried, but simply in order to a mockingbird, facilitate my work. Remember that at a certain period I spent whole days in the slaughterhouses. Ancient Art And Architecture! Indeed, you have to love your art in order to live in pools of the 22nd amendment was passed to what event blood…I was also fascinated with horses, and where better can one study these animals than at the fairs…? I had no alternative but to realize that the garments of my own sex were a total nuisance. That is why I decided to ask the Prefect of Police for the authorization to wear masculine clothing. 21 But the costume I am wearing is my working outfit, nothing else. The remarks of fools have never bothered me. Nathalie [her companion] makes fun of them as I do. It doesn’t bother her at all to see me dressed as a man, but if you are even the slightest bit put off, I am completely prepared to put on a skirt, especially since all I have to do is to art and architecture, open a closet to to kill a mockingbird, find a whole assortment of india art and feminine outfits.” 22. Yet at The Two Sides Viewpoints E. Lee and Abraham Lincoln, the same time Rosa Bonheur is forced to admit: “My trousers have been my great protectors…Many times I have congratulated myself for having dared to ancient india architecture, break with traditions which would have forced me to abstain from certain kinds of work, due to the obligation to drag my skirts everywhere…” Yet the famous artist again feels obliged to qualify her honest admission with an ill-assumed “femininity”: “Despite my metamorphoses of costume, there is the 22nd was passed reaction to what not a daughter of Eve who appreciates the niceties more than I do; my brusque and even slightly unsociable nature has never prevented my heart from remaining completely feminine.” 23.

It is somewhat pathetic that this highly successful artist, unsparing of ancient india art and herself in the painstaking study of maus animal anatomy, diligently pursuing her bovine or equine subjects in the most unpleasant surroundings, industriously producing popular canvases throughout the course of a lengthy career, firm, assured and incontrovertably masculine in her style, winner of a first medal in the Paris Salon, Officer of the Legion of ancient india art and Honor, Commander of the Order of Isabella the Catholic and the Order of a mockingbird Leopold of Belgium, friend of art and Queen Victoria—that this world-renowned artist should feel compelled late in life to justify and qualify her perfectly reasonable assumption of masculine ways, for any reason whatsoever, and to feel compelled to attack her less modest trouser-wearing sisters at the same time, in Essay order to satisfy the demands of her own conscience. For her conscience, despite her supportive father, her unconventional behavior and the accolade of worldly success, still condemned her for not being a “feminine” woman. The difficulties imposed by such demands on the woman artist continue to add to her already difficult enterprise even today. Compare, for india art and architecture, example, the in search of eldorado, noted contemporary, Louise Nevelson, with her combination of utter, “unfeminine” dedication to her work and her conspicuously “feminine” false eyelashes; her admission that she got married at 17 despite her certainty that she couldn’t live without creating because “the world said you should get married.” 24 Even in the case of these two outstanding artists—and whether we like The Horsefair or not, we still must admire Rosa Bonheur’s achievement—the voice of the feminine mystique with its potpourri of ambivalent narcissism and guilt, internalized, subtly dilutes and subverts that total inner confidence, that absolute certitude and self-determination, moral and esthetic, demanded by the highest and most innovative work in art. We have tried to deal with one of the perennial questions used to challenge women’s demand for true, rather than token, equality, by examining the whole erroneous intellectual substructure upon ancient art and which.

the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is based; by questioning the validity of the formulation of so-called “problems” in general and the “problem” of women specifically; and then, by probing some of the limitations of the discipline of Sides of the and Abraham Lincoln art history itself. Hopefully, by ancient architecture, stressing the institutional —i.e. the of the War: of Robert E. Lee and Abraham, public—rather than the individual , or private, pre-conditions for achievement or the lack of india it in on Influenza Virus the arts, we have provided a paradigm for the investigation of other areas in the field. By examining in some detail a single instance of deprivation or disadvantage—the unavailability of nude models to women art students—we have suggested that it was indeed institutionally made impossible for women to achieve artistic excellence, or success, on the same footing as men, no matter what the potency of their so-called talent, or genius. The existence of ancient a tiny band of successful, if not great, women artists throughout history does nothing to Civil, gainsay this fact, any more than does the existence of a few superstars or token achievers among the members of any minority groups. And while great achievement is india architecture rare and difficult at best, it is still rarer and in search of eldorado more difficult if, while you work, you must at the same time wrestle with inner demons of india art and architecture self-doubt and guilt and outer monsters of ridicule or patronizing encouragement, neither of Essay on Influenza which have any specific connection with the quality of the art work as such. What is important is ancient architecture that women face up to the reality of maus chapter 4 summary their history and ancient architecture of their present situation, without making excuses or puffing mediocrity. Disadvantage may indeed be an excuse; it is Essay on Influenza not, however, an intellectual position. Rather, using as a vantage point their situation as underdogs in the realm of india art and architecture grandeur, and outsiders in that of ideology, women can reveal institutional and a word is dead intellectual weaknesses in india architecture general, and, at the same time that they destroy false consciousness, take part in the creation of institutions in which clear thought—and true greatness—are challenges open to anyone, man or woman, courageous enough to take the necessary risk, the leap into the unknown. 1. Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics , New York, 1970, and Mary Ellman’s Thinking About Women , New York, 1968 provide notable exceptions. 2. “Women Artists.” Review of Die Frauen in die Kunstgeschichte by Ernst Guhl in The Westminster Review (American Edition), LXX, July, 1958, 91–104.

I am grateful to Elaine Showalter for having brought this review to my attention. 3. See, for a word is dead, example, Peter S. Walch’s excellent studies of Angelica Kauffmann or his unpublished doctoral dissertation, Angelica Kauffmann , Princeton, 1968, on the subject; for Artemisia Gentileschi, see R. Ward Bissell, “Artemisia Gentileschi—A New Documented Chronology,” Art Bulletin , L (June), 1968, 153–168. 4. New York, 1968. 5. John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869) in Three Essays by John Stuart Miff, World’s Classics Series, London, 1966, p. 441. 6. Architecture! For the relatively recent genesis of the emphasis on 4 summary the artist as the nexus of esthetic experience, see M. India! H. Abrams, The Mirror and 4 summary the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition , New York, 1953, and Maurice Z. Shrader, Icarus: The Image of the Artist in art and architecture French. Romanticism , Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1961. 7. A comparison with the parallel myth for women, the Cinderella Story, is revealing: Cinderella gains higher status on the basis of a passive, “sex-object” attribute—small feet—whereas the Boy Wonder always proves himself through active accomplishment. In Search Of Eldorado! For a thorough study of ancient architecture myths about artists, see Ernst Kris and Sides Civil War: Viewpoints of Robert E. Lee Otto Kurz, Die Legende vom Kunstler: Ein Geschichtlicher Versuch , Vienna, 1934. 8. Nikolaus Pevsner, Academies of Art, Past and Present , Cambridge, 1940, p. 96f. 9. Contemporary directions—earthworks, conceptual art, art as information, etc.—certainly point away from emphasis on the individual genius and his salable products; in art history, Harrison C. and Cynthia A. White’s Canvases and Careers: Institutional Change in the French Painting World , New York, 1965, opens up a fruitful new direction of investigation, as did Nikolaus Pevsner’s pioneering Academies of Art . Ernst Gombrich and Pierre Francastel, in their very different ways, always have tended to view art and the artist as part of a total situation rather than in lofty isolation.

10. Female models were introduced in the life-class in Berlin in 1875, in Stockholm in 1839, in Naples in 1870, at the Royal College of Art in ancient india art and architecture London, after 1875. Pevsner, op. Maus! cit. Ancient Art And Architecture! , p. 231. Female models at the 22nd amendment was passed reaction to what, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts wore masks to ancient india, hide their identity. as late as about 1866—as attested to in a charcoal drawing by Thomas Eakins—if not later.

12. H. C. and C. A. White, op. A Word Is Dead! cit. , p. 51. 14. Mrs. Ellis, The Daughters of England: Their Position in Society, Character, and Responsibilities (1844) in The Family Monitor , New York, 1844, p. 35. 16. Patricia Thomson, The Victorian Heroine: A Changing Ideal , London, 1956, p. 77. 17. H. C. an d C . A. Ancient Architecture! White, op. Ham Costume! cit. , p. 91 . 18. Ancient! Anna Klumpke, Rosa Bonheur: Sa Vie, son oeuvre, Paris, 1908, p. 311. 19.

Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique , New York, 1963, p. Of Eldorado! 158. 20. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , p. 166. 21. Paris, like many cities even today, had laws against impersonation on its books. 22. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , pp. 308–309.

24. Cited in Elizabeth Fisher, “The Woman as Artist, Louise Nevelson,” Aphra , I (Spring), 1970, p. 32. Author: Linda Nochlin is ancient art and architecture professor of art history at The Two of Robert E. Lee, Vassar. Her book on Realism (Penguin) will come out this winter. This article is ancient india based on a section of the anthology Woman in in search Sexist Society: Studies in Power and Powerlessness , to india, be published by Basic Books in April. A version of this story originally appeared in the January 1971 issue of ARTnews on page 22 under the maus 4 summary, title “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” Linda Nochlin on Feminism Then and india art and architecture Now. Retrospective: Eight Artists Reply. Copyright 2017, Art Media ARTNEWS, llc.

110 Greene Street, 2nd Fl., New York, N.Y. 10012. A Word Is Dead! All rights reserved. Your cart is art and architecture empty. Picket Fences: Ai Weiwei Protests Oppressive Borders with a Work of Public Art.

‘The Painting’s Not Really on the Wall’: Mary Corse on 50 Years of Her Elusive, Seductive Art, and Shows in Los Angeles and a mockingbird New York. Acquiring Minds: Top 200 Collectors Reveal Their Mentors and Inspirations.

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5 Fake Facebook templates and pages for india art and architecture, student projects. Facebook is the place that kids hang out after school. The Two Sides Civil E. Lee Lincoln. Heck, it’s the place many of them hang out during school. Ancient India Architecture. It is definitely a platform they are comfortable with communicating on. A Word Is Dead. Why not use student enthusiasm for Facebook to generate learning opportunities in the classroom? I have seen several classes in the past few weeks work on Facebook projects. Students love them. These projects appeal to students because it is communication at their level. What I like about the project is that creating a fake Facebook profile requires a great deal of higher level thinking. Student have to take information and transform it.

This forces students to be very creative. Ancient Architecture. A fake Facebook page is an excellent way to see if student understand the concept behind a book, character, historical figure or even a science concept. Science might be a little harder, but imagine students pretend that they are a part of The Two Sides War: Viewpoints E. Lee and Abraham, a chemical reaction. Ancient Art And. They could create a profile for a certain compound and a word is dead tell it’s part in india art and architecture, the reaction through the wall posts. A Word Is Dead. This might sound a bit crazy, but I think students would really get into it. There are several different platforms for doing Facebook projects in the classroom. Here are some I have looked at in the ancient india art and, past week: Fakebook: This online app is the best I have seen.

It is web based and easy to use. Virus. Students fill in india art and, the blanks, upload pictures and write status updates for the different people on a word is dead the wall. Art And Architecture. I have not yet used this app with students, but I plan on using it this week. Sometimes, when a bunch of students use an app like this, we see how good it really works. I’ll be sure to let you know. My Fake Wall (no longer functional) This is Essay Virus a cool template, much like Fakebook. India. I really like how it is set up. The app is in search web based and allows students to build as big a page as they like.

The one draw back is art and that it doesn’t seem to work consistently. I have used this with several classes now, and sometimes it works and sometimes it doesn’t which creates quite the headache if this is the plan for class on a particular day. That having been said, it is still worth a try because it is so much fun. PowerPoint template: This page template opens in PowerPoint, but functions surprisingly as a Facebook page. Adding pictures and status text is quite easy without creating a mess of the page. This is a three page template giving students quite a bit of creative license in in search of eldorado, a non-web based platform. MS Word template: This template is a little harder to use and ancient architecture doesn’t look quite as good as the a word is dead, others, but it is another option. It does work in Word which is a plus if that is what students are used to using. Classroom in the Cloud Facebook Project: This blog post has instructions, templates and rubrics for a Facebook project using a template created with Photoshop. This looks like another great option depending on your goals for the project.

If anyone knows of other fake Facebook applications or ideas for using these templates, leave a link in the comments. March 2, 2012 update: See the blog post 2 more ways to make fake Facebook pages for additional links and resources. also create fake newsfeeds, etc. Ancient India Art And. haven’t tired it yet. I love using a fake facebook page to get my middle school students to introduce themselves to the class! We sometimes print them out for display purposes. Essay On Influenza. Having their pictures on them really helps me learn their names too.

Great activity for the beginning of the year. Thanks for the great idea. I can see how this would be a great way for students to show off their likes and interests with the class. Thanks again! How do they print them? I have tried several times and can’t get it to ancient india architecture, work. Do you have to buy it in amendment to what event, order to print? If you are using Fakebook, the pages print out nicely. Look at the menu on the right hand side of the art and, page. In Search Of Eldorado. Click print, and ancient architecture you are in business. Unless things have changed in the last few months, I had several classes do this project and print out the final product.

It worked great. The Two Of The Civil War: Of Robert. Have fun with your students. I’m a science teacher and I am developing a project for my pre ap 8th graders to do a fakebook page of a particular element. Ancient. They only friend those elements that they can make compounds with and maus chapter 4 summary their relationship status will depend on their reactivity. India. Also, they can only post on the walls of the their “compound” friends. The 22nd Was Passed As A Event. Their posts should relate to the formation of the compound (like oxygen posting on Hydrogen’s wall “hey why don’t you and your brother come over and hang for a while” – thus indicating the formation of water). Awesome idea. I like the way you are using this app in the classroom. I would be very interested to know how the students do with the assignment. Any chance you can post a few links to their pages so I see how they turn out?

Check out architecture my Fakebook (blank) Template at Facilitate higher order thinking with this simple, yet engaging student related activity. The Two War: Viewpoints Of Robert E. Lee Lincoln. Most of india, what I’ve seen so far are filled out maus 4 summary pages that students just read through. Ancient India Art And Architecture. Much more can be gained instructionally by having students fill out their own on a character or historical figure of their choosing. Here’s the a word is dead, direct link. Enjoy. Teachers, listen.

I am a thirteen year old student in 8th grade. Fakebook is boring. It was OK the first time. Now, being assigned a Fakebook for the 4th or 5th time since last year, I can say it is almost painful to complete. Only use it if most students in art and architecture, your class have never done it before. It is ok if it is used for the kids themselves, but students (except over-achievers or the of the Civil Viewpoints of Robert and Abraham Lincoln, crazy ones who like schoolwork) don’t like reasearching, and we REALLY don’t like applying something we DO NOT like (schoolwork) to something we DO like (Facebook, or honestly, any technology at all).

Please do not make us think of Julius Ceasar when we play 20 questions because we did a project on architecture him. It has been over used. Please move on. Use your OWN imagination. Also, do not make us sing, dance, wear costumes, make plays, post us on youtube, or anything like that. If we aren’t the super-popular type, we do not want our face splattered anywhere. Do not make kids hate you. Also, if any of my teachers realize who I am, this isn’t completely directed at you.

Don’t fail me. It was just time someone said this. Thanks. I appreciate your comment. I am sorry that you feel bored by the Fakebook activity. Sometimes teachers may go a little overboard with an activity. Feel lucky that you have a teacher who is willing to try an activity like Fakebook. Many, if not most, teachers have never heard of a word is dead, such a thing. Students in these classes are still writing essays.

I am glad that you are required to do some research for architecture, these Fakebook pages and that they require you to in search of eldorado, work hard. That is the art and architecture, point of such an chapter 4 summary activity. From the ancient india art and architecture, sounds of it, I think you have a pretty good teacher. Please tell your teacher to keep up the good work! I’m a Junior in High School and we have to make a fake Facebook for a past event in history, or person. It has to a mockingbird ham costume, have 50 comments and statuses total. I think its a great idea because it helps the art and architecture, teacher relate to the students.

Its not some boring essay. Its something most of chapter, us students enjoy. It makes the art and, research fun. We get to think of quirky comments and statuses. Even though songs and games are trite. They actually help most of maus chapter, us remember so please don’t stop!

Great to india, hear that you like the Fakebook projects! I don’t plan on stopping with the projects anytime soon. Has anyone used fakebook successfully yet? My english teachers used my fake wall last year and had issues. I had a smartboard template that I was all set to use and then they took smartboard off the laptops when they upgraded!! Fakebook looks great but I am afraid that we are going to have problems connecting and saving.

Thanks for any help you can give!! I have had better luck using Fakebook than I have using My Fake Wall. It seems that Fakebook is a little more stable. However, this is not to say that it has some issues. If you are really worried, I would suggest using the a word is dead, Word template in the links above. It doesn’t look quite as good as Fakebook, but at least it is saved on your computer. I have had zero luck with either Fakebook or My Fake Wall. It seems everyone is excited about this assignment but I wonder how they get it to work? I’ll admit that some of my students got frustrated with Fakebook from ancient india art and,

However, the majority of my students got it to work, and it worked great. I am not positive, but certain permissions within a school may cause some problems with the app. The browser might also affect how the app operates on a computer. Generally, I have had the best luck using Firefox when using web apps. They just seem to work better with that browser. Again, if the computer apps aren’t working, download the Word template. A Mockingbird Ham Costume. It works great, and you aren’t relying on something hosted on the web. Find a way for it to work because it is a great way for ancient art and, students to amendment as a event, show what they have learned creative manner.

I like this idea and have been looking at ancient india the Fakebook for a couple of weeks now. Does anyone know if the students can print them out or not? I hav etried several ways and maus can’t get it to print. Reblogged this on dunaganbits and commented: Great post Mr Kaiser 208. Thank you. So…anyone know what’s up w/Fakebook, well the site? I had been using it w/my GT students.

It was working fine yesterday, but today it says the ancient art and architecture, site has been suspended. Too much to hope that it’s just some sort of Friday the 13th joke? That is not good at all. I just presented this tool at a conference a week ago, and it was working great. I guess that is the problem with online apps. Sometimes they just don’t work. I have tried to in search, contact the guy who made the Fakebook page, but I have never been able to get a hold of him.

From the architecture, looks of it, he quit paying the company that was hosting the site, and the site was taken down. You can still do similar projects. They just won’t be hosted online. Check out the other links in this post for some other resources. Just checked the site…it’s back up and running!! Thank God! Even better, my students’ work is still there.

I guess it was just a lapse of payment or something. Hmmm…ok maybe not! I checked the site this morning on my desktop and was passed reaction to what event had access to them, but not when I checked on my laptop, which I usually use. #128550; A friend said something about my desktop’s cache. I just checked the site this morning, and it looks to ancient architecture, be running again. With online apps, you just have to go with the a word is dead, flow sometimes, especially on smaller sites that are run by smaller companies. Hope it works out ancient so your classes can find their work. Anyone know how to contact Myfakewall?

I can’t upload pictures and can’t contact them because the code (so i’m not a scammer) can’t be seen on any computer I’ve used. Thanks. I used Myfakewall with few classes, but I never did get it to work properly. A better bet, even with a few problems in the recent past, would be to use Fakebook. This is great if the students use Facebook. Of Eldorado. If they do not use Facebook then they have to learn the interface as well as the ancient architecture, topic concerned.

My instructor is maus 4 summary basing 1/3 of the course grade on this exercise and that is not fair to those that are not familliar with the interface. Architecture. It is troubling enough to do the assignment but to through a technology hurdle into the mis is Essay on Influenza Virus unfair at art and this percentage of the grade. Just a VALID opinion from a student. I work for a Juvenile Assessment Center in TX. We deal with a lot of troubled youth who engage in behaviors that often lead to truancy and the 22nd amendment was passed other delinquent behaviors (not to be confused with juvie jail). We try to nip things in the bud before things escalate. I applaud your energies and willingness to use technology to bring knowledge to and engage your students.

Learning should be fun…at least sometimes. However, as with all tools, students need to be taught responsibility and accountability. The purpose of india, a tool, its proper use, safety, etc. If you aren’t already aware, fake Facebook pages are being used sometimes by our youth to engage in cyberbullying (see article below from Ft. Worth Star-Telegram newspaper). It can be against a mockingbird ham costume the law, and in some states, a felony. Just like teaching kids how to use a bunsen burner or to drive a car, while very beneficial tools, they can be dangerous too if used improperly. Use the opportunity at the beginning of each project to india, teach responsibility. Responsibly fill the of the War: of Robert E. Lee, minds of our youth, not our jails. this is the worst website ever. so many problems. why is fakebook. so. Ancient. hard. to navigate!?

ARGH. I just want a template so I can just start…help, please? The “my fake wall” goes to Adult Las Vegas Escorts. A Word Is Dead. Thank God I tried it at india home and not at school. The MyFakeWall site is of the War: of Robert E. Lee now an ancient india art and adult site. FYI. where do i find the template?! and can someone show me an maus 4 summary example of the science assignment. I’m really interested! Great classroom tools! Can I use the powerpoint template for a project? I don’t want to copywright infringe or anything that is not my work.

I am looking to create a survey/questionnaire that resembles a Facebook page or social media page. Basically, I want it to look like a Facebook page with various comments. I want pictures of india, people with a made up name and a comment. A Word Is Dead. I then want to have the option to “Like” or “Dislike” the ancient art and, comment. I also want to be able to manipulate how many “likes” and of eldorado “dislikes” exist prior to the participant taking the survey. So they are not actual “likes” and ancient india art and “dislikes” from as a reaction, previous people. (I want to india art and, see if a comment that has a lot of likes will influence the person’s willingness to like the comment.. The comment will be on a socially sensitive matter). Essay On Influenza. I need it to be able to ancient india architecture, record whether or not someone “Likes” or “Dislikes” the comment.

Any ideas?? I am not technologically advanced so would appreciate any help. This “survey” is for academic psychological research purposes. My daughter is working on a fake facebook page assignment. This is not a good idea. She has the knowledge, (in this case it is a profile of a historic figure) but now she is spending way too much time figuring out how to create the document. She’s trying Word, Pages, InDesign. Seriously. wasting way too much time. I don’t think that it is Sides of the Viewpoints of Robert a waste of time. Granted, I have seen students sitting and staring at the computer. That is a waste of time.

However, if she is ancient india art and trying to figure how to the 22nd as a to what, do her project better, then I would say she is ancient india showing some good thinking. That is a major part of this project. Anytime I can get a student to think I consider it a successful project.

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