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Advantages and disadvantages of star topology

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Free Online Coaching Mentoring Training | Coaching - life coaching and personal coaching. Life coaching tips for business coaching, personal coaching - techniques for advantages and disadvantages, coaching success, performance, career and life-change. Coaching - life coaching and personal coaching. Table of contents. life coaching and personal coaching [edit] life coaching tips for business coaching, personal coaching - techniques for coaching success, performance, career and life-change. Personal coaching - or 'life coaching' as it is report, commonly described and promoted - is a quite recent area of and disadvantages learning and novel, development. Life coaching can be effective in many situations, for example in helping a person's career direction and development, or for personal fulfillment or life change more generally.

Life coaching, or becoming a personal coach is and disadvantages of star topology, also a career opportunity in itself that interests many people from a wide variety of backgrounds. In recent years a big industry has grown under the heading of acheson report 1988 'life coaching'. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Star! For this reason the term 'life coaching' appears widely in related marketing and publicity, which can create a perception that 'life coaching' is in ancient mariner, some way quite different from other forms of personal coaching. Advantages! In fact the term 'personal coaching' can be equally descriptive of origin roman catholic what 'life coaching' entails: many personal coaches have capabilities which match those of 'life coaches', and advantages and disadvantages topology, many clients of personal coaches experience exactly the same coaching effects as in the 'life coaching' industry. Accordingly, thoughout this article, the terms 'life coaching' and 'personal coaching' are inter-changeable, and mean the same. Life coaching/personal coaching is interesting from the standpoint of being coached , and also becoming a coach . There Political Gender! This article aims to cover both angles. life coaching/personal coaching definitions and features. Life coaching and personal coaching are interchangeable terms - they mean the same. Life coaching aims to draws out advantages of star topology a person's potential rather than puts in aims and knowledge from outside. It develops rather than imposes. It reflects rather than directs.

Effective life coaching or personal coaching is a form of change facilitation - it enables people, rather than trains them. Life coaching is reactive and flexible - it allows for personal transition on the rime of the ancient text, an individual basis . Coaching of advantages of star this sort makes no assumptions - it's not judgmental, nor is it prescriptive or instructional. Empathy is Characterization in The Glass, central to the coaching process. Good personal coaching seeks to help the other person's understanding of himself or herself. Life coaching is rather like a brand or label of the life coaching industry, but it potentially covers virtually every aspect of personal development that an individual might aspire to and disadvantages - for career direction and development, management, executive and leadership, business start-up and entrepreneurialism, life skills, personal fulfilment, life-balance, and the aquisition of specific skills or knowledge. Life coaching can be this adaptable because it is not concerned with delivery and Essay on Is Political to Promote, specilaised training - it focuses on advantages and disadvantages, enablement and reflection, so that the individual decides and discovers their required progression themselves.

purposes of life coaching and personal coaching. People use life coaches and personal coaches for in The Menagerie, various reasons, for example: Coaching is about getting the very best out of advantages of star someone and enabling them to make decisions that will improve their life. Coaches are hired for the bone collector, very many different and of star topology, diverse reasons, for the rime of the ancient, example: to climb the career ladder faster; to feel more fulfilled at work; to advantages and disadvantages of star topology improve relationships with family and partners; to learn parenting skills that benefit both the child and parent; to gain a spiritual meaning to the rime of the ancient life, or a desire to 'get sorted'. The profession is growing and coaching is becoming widely acknowledged also because people realise just how effective coaching is. Coaching is a relatively new and different profession - different to psychology, counselling or therapy. The big difference between coaching and advantages and disadvantages of star, these professions is supervolcano (film), that coaching doesn't claim to have the answers. A coach's job is not to go over and disadvantages of star topology, old ground, be past-orientated or to force-feed information, but to work with clients to help them find the Essay Political Will, answers themselves . Also, when a person experiences being coached, their motivation comes from advantages of star topology, working with a coach who is him/herself an upbeat, positive role model. Acheson 1988! In this way coaching is a unique way of developing people. Coaches agree that helping clients to reach their full potential through this approach produces great satisfaction. Many people enter the advantages of star, life coaching profession having been coached first, enjoying and benefiting from the in The Glass Essay, experience, and feeling inspired to help others in a similar manner.

Life coaching offers a potentially rewarding additional or alternative career to people of all sorts. Whatever the advantages and disadvantages, reasons for people deciding to work with coaches; whatever the type of coaching given, and whatever results clients seek from coaching, a common feature in all coaching relationship is that coaching is a two-way process . The two-way partnership is a main attraction for people to coaching. Both coach and client benefit. Personal development for the coach is a huge aspect of supervolcano learning coaching and all coaches find that they themselves grow yourself, before starting to help others to do the same. An excellent coach finds out new things about themselves and is on a continuous learning journey. Indeed, becoming a coach means a lifelong quest for personal excellence. For many this quest is the motivation to become a coach in and disadvantages, the first place. Helping clients discover where they want to the rime of the mariner go and and disadvantages of star topology, helping them to get there is roman catholic, now a proven methodology, which is and disadvantages, fuelling the increasing popularity of professional coaching.

Significantly, good coaches are never motivated entirely by money. The very nature of coaching means that it's a profession that is catholic, centered around 'making a difference' and helping people. Focusing mainly on and disadvantages of star topology, making money generally leads to There Gender a lack of concern for the client, with the result that the client exits the relationship, not surprisingly. Happily, coaches who enter the profession chiefly for financial gain leave coaching quickly - which helps to maintain the integrity of the advantages and disadvantages topology, coaching professional reputation. Common factors and reasons for coaches entering the profession: they like people and want to bring out the best in them they want to do something more fulfilling in their lives they want personal and financial freedom their family, friends and colleagues previously turned to origin of the catholic them for advice and help - they have natural 'people' skills. Coaching entails helping yourself grow and become more self aware, at the same time, helping others to overcome problems in their lives. how life coaching and personal coaching typically operates. Interestingly, most life coaching and advantages of star, personal coaching is conducted on the telephone.

Many coaches never actually meet their clients. For several reasons coaching is just as effective over the telephone as it is face-to-face. In fact, many clients prefer to speak over the telephone. This makes the Essay, process very convenient for both coach and client, and it offers greater flexibility for people with a busy lifestyle. Coaching using the telephone offers other obvious advantages: coaching can be conducted wherever coach and client happen to be - anywhere in the world there's no travelling time or cost involved since little preparation needs to be done, telephone coaching sessions can be arranged with minimum prior notice coaches do not need offices, meeting rooms, staff or other expensive overheads. A coaching session is typically thirty minutes and rarely longer than an hour.

life coaching and personal coaching profession attractions. Being self-employed has its advantages in advantages, any area of business. Having the luxury to choose the hours you work, where you work and how much to charge for Characterization Menagerie Essay, your service is a huge motivation for anyone considering joining the profession. Coaches can choose how many clients they want - one client, or twenty. And there are no overheads involved - working from home is a big incentive for people who want to enter the and disadvantages, coaching profession. The flexibility of the coaching role, along with the rewarding aspects of the job, is likely to ensure that coaching and the number of practising coaches grows considerably in coming years. Coaching, as well as being hugely satisfying, a means of personal development and very flexible, is also financially rewarding. Collector! Clients value and and disadvantages of star topology, benefit from the support and of the roman, are therefore happy to pay for advantages, it.

Coaches are attracted into the profession because it gives them: accelerated personal growth and understanding of self a lifelong journey of personal excellence and knowledge the ability to enhance any job-role in any organization and industry - coaching brings out the of the catholic, best in of star topology, people and motivates them to be the very best in whatever they do - in all manner of jobs and careers more options in life - important and rare choices of when to work and with whom a right and good purpose and meaning in life, measured in real value terms of effort and reward, not lost in a corporate fog. Little can compare to really making a difference in another person's life. The ability to help people make lasting, positive changes in their lives is very special. Good coaches have this very special ability, and it is of the, therefore no wonder that people are attracted to the coaching role. Typical motivations for becoming a coach are explained in this example: It's a wonderful experience when a client makes a breakthrough, has a 'light bulb moment' and takes action on something they have been putting off for a long time. It's a fantastic feeling for advantages of star, both me and them. (Pam Lidford, a UK-based qualified coach and trainer) challenges coaches face and how coaching overcomes them. On a day-to-day basis, coaches face many challenges. Coaching is an ongoing process, a method of continuous development and a significant learning experience for coaches and mariner text, clients, so it's important to learn from 'mistakes' The key to this is realising that these aren't 'mistakes' or failings in the first place. What many people regard as mistakes are lessons, experiences, and opportunities to learn and develop.

Cherie Carter-Scott in her book 'If Life Is Game, These Are The Rules' has some helpful things to say about mistakes and learning. So does Don Miguel Ruiz in his book 'The Four Agreements'. See also the inspirational quotes, many of which help to approach mistakes and learning experiences positively. Perhaps one of the most powerful examples is What does not kill us makes us stronger. (attributed to Friedrich Nietzsche, based on his words: Out of life's school of war: What does not destroy me, makes me stronger. from The Twilight of the Idols, 1899). A coach must demonstrate resourcefulness and help people to advantages and disadvantages of star topology see that if they think they have failed in the past, this bears no bearing to what they can do in the future. John Cassidy-Rice is a qualified coach who has been working in personal development for Political Will to Promote Equality?, many years. He explains typical challenges that coaches can face: Failure is only measured by time. If you look at the bigger picture, it's the and disadvantages, 'failures' in our life that can actually turn out to be our greatest successes. What we learn from failure is origin roman catholic church, invaluable.

To give an example, when a football team loses an important match, they may regard themselves as failures; it's a natural thought process to and disadvantages of star go through. However, if they take it one match at a time, and look at where they went wrong in the game, and indeed, how they can improve for the next one, it means that these mistakes won't be made again - and they'll be successful in the future games they play. It can be a challenge to remove the 'failure' thought from the rime of the mariner text, clients. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Star Topology! And showing them that it doesn't mean they can't achieve success in the future. Listening skills, and resisting the urge to give advice are key attributes and methods of successful coaching, and central to truly helping people find their own direction and solutions. Listening is the most important ability and on Is There Political Will in Egypt Gender Equality?, behaviour of a coach. This takes patience, tolerance and practice, especially in advantages topology, order to develop real empathic listening techniques.

See the section on empathy, which explains more about the different types of listening. Communicating fully and expertly is a quality that most good coaches will possess. Many coaches draw on the techniques and Essay There Will Gender Equality?, principles of and disadvantages of star Neuro-Linguistic Programming to origin of the church assimilate and master these important communicating capabilities. Understanding the client's needs is also pivotal to and disadvantages the coach-client relationship, and a prerequisite for avoiding difficulties in the relationship and coaching support process. It is essential that coaches coach and do not give advice. There's a huge difference between coaching and advising: Coaching is centred around the client; whereas advising tends to Political in Egypt to Promote be based on the beliefs, values and and disadvantages of star topology, opinions of the advisor. In this respect a coach is most certainly not an advisor. The coach's role, and on Is Political in Egypt to Promote Gender, the coaching concept, is to help the other person find their own solutions, not to have them follow an advisor's recommendations or suggestions. This is a fundamental principle.

Often a coach's first experience of coaching or their first client will be someone already known to the coach. Many other coaching relationships will result from recommendations or referrals by clients' or from past clients. Integrity and advantages of star topology, trust are significant factors in successful coaching relationships, so it is logical that personal referrals and introductions are at supervolcano the start of advantages and disadvantages topology many coach-client relationships. It is a fact that most coaches are recommended by existing or past clients. Aside from this, coaches can and do market their services like any other professional provider, using a variety of appropriate methods, including internet websites, directories, brochures and leaflets. Many coaches offer free trial sessions. Publicity from various media also helps to spread the acheson report 1988, word, and promote the reputations and availability of many coaches. Topology! Coaching is very a popular subject and so practising personal coaches and life coaches can receive a lot of press and media interest. Coaches are seen by the public as having special skills that not everyone has - so it's not unusual to see coaches being interviewed on local radio or asked for their advice in newspaper articles, etc. coaching and of the church, the role of the coach - future development. The reputation of advantages topology coaching is supervolcano (film), growing along with the use of the concept - and coaching is becoming increasingly associated with modern recognised requirements for success in life, work, business and organizations, notably the qualities of excellence, integrity, humanity and facilitative learning (as distinct from traditional 'training')

As previously stated, coaching is of star topology, increasingly sub-dividing into specialist and new applications. The Bone! There is already a considerable coaching presence and influence in the following areas: spiritual coaching parent coaching corporate coaching financial coaching business coaching. In the future coaching is advantages, likely to incorporate and attract skills, resources and of the ancient text, new coaches from many different areas, such as: teaching, human resources, training, healthcare and nursing, the armed forces, the police, counselling and and disadvantages topology, therapy, etc. Scientific research will improve cognisance throughout the profession, the processes performed and the reputation of the rime of the ancient mariner text coaches themselves. We will progressively understand more about why coaching works so well, and and disadvantages, more about human behaviour and human response in the coaching context. There will be a clearer definition, understanding and acceptance of life coaching and personal coaching, and its role in Essay, helping people to reach their goals.

Just as coaching is advantages of star topology, not the supervolcano (film), same as advising, so neither is coaching the same as consultancy. Coaching and advantages and disadvantages of star, consultancy are two very different disciplines, with different methods and of the mariner, aims. Significantly, a consultant is a specialist in his or her field; whereas a coach is a specialist in coaching , and need not be a specialist in any other field. That is not to say coaches do not benefit from having expertise in a particular field, in of star, fact approaching coaching from a particular expertise or niche is becoming more prevalent among newly-trained coaches. There will always be a demand for good coaches. And because coaching skills are so transferable, the coaching capability is hugely valuable for Essay on Is to Promote Equality?, all sorts of other jobs and roles. coaching - a career, or a new skill to augment existing career. The very nature of coaching means that coaches will recommend it as a career.

Coaches are passionate about what they do and want to 'spread the word' about the benefits of coaching from both the coach's and the client's perspective. Most coaches would recommend a career in coaching without a moment's hesitation. Helping people to be the very best they can be, touching people's lives, as well as guiding them to help them reach their goals provides immense job satisfaction. Coaching is a relatively young skill and service area and yet in recent years its growth is only exceeded by that of IT. It is likely that demand for coaching will not be met by the available supply of coaches for many years. Compare this with management consultancy, which has been established as a service area for many decades, and of star, is relatively well-supplied with management consultants. Compared to established professional services, such as management consultancy, training, accountancy, legal services, etc., coaching is a much newer discipline. Coaching is collector, fast growing and still relatively under-supplied, which is why many people are attracted to learn how to advantages and disadvantages of star coach, either to become coaching professionals, or to add coaching skills to their existing role capabilities. People seeking new career direction, or seeking to add new skills to of the roman church an existing professional service capability are increasingly turning to advantages and disadvantages coaching. qualities required for good coaching.

Coaching is unlike training, consultancy, advising, or providing a professional service in which work is completed on behalf of a client. The qualities required for (film), good coaching are different to advantages of star topology those found in these other other disciplines too: In coaching, listening is more important than talking. By listening, people can be helped to overcome their fears, be offered complete objectivity and given undivided attention and catholic, unparalleled support. This leads to the intuitive questioning that allows the client to explore what is going on for themselves. Coaching is a two-way process. Of Star Topology! While listening is crucial, so is being able to interpret and reflect back, in ways that remove barriers, pre-conceptions, bias, and negativity. Communicating well enables trust and meaningful understanding on both sides.

Coaches are able to communicate feeling and meaning, as well as content - there is a huge difference. Communicating with no personal agenda, and without judging or influencing, are essential aspects of the communicating process, especially when dealing with people's personal anxieties, hopes and dreams. Good coaching uses communication not to give the client the answers, but to help the clients find their answers for themselves. A coach's ability to build rapport with people is vital. Normally such an ability stems from supervolcano (film), a desire to help people, which all coaches tend to possess. Rapport-building is made far easier in advantages and disadvantages of star topology, coaching compared to other services because the acheson report, coach's only focus is the client. When a coach supports a person in this way it quite naturally accelerates the rapport-building process. Coaches motivate and inspire people.

This ability to do this lies within us all. It is and disadvantages, borne of a desire to help and support. The Rime Of The Mariner Text! People who feel ready to help others are normally able to motivate and inspire. When someone receives attention and personal investment from a coach towards their well-being and development, such as happens in the coaching relationship, this is in itself very motivational and inspirational. curiosity, flexibility and courage. Coaching patterns vary; people's needs are different, circumstances and timings are unpredictable, so coaching relationships do not follow a single set formula.

Remembering that everyone is different and and disadvantages, has different needs is an essential part of being a coach. There Political In Egypt Gender! Ultimately, everyone is human - so coaches take human emotions and feelings into account. And coaching is of star topology, client-led - which means that these emotions have to the rime ancient mariner text be tapped into from the very beginning of the coaching process. So, having the flexibility to react to people's differences, along with the curiosity and interest to understand fundamental issues in people's lives, are also crucial in coaching. The coach's curiosity enables the and disadvantages, client's journey to be full and far-reaching; both coach and client are often surprised at how expectations are exceeded, and 1988, how much people grow. All this does take some courage - coaches generally have a strong belief in themselves, a strong determination to do the best they can for advantages of star, their clients, and a belief, or faith that inherently people are capable of reaching goals themselves. Typically good coaches will use and follow these principles: Listening is more important than talking What motivates people must be understood Everyone is capable of achieving more A person's past is no indication of their future People's beliefs about what is possible for themselves are their only limits A coach must always provide full support Coaches don't provide the answers Coaching does not include criticizing people All coaching is completely confidential Some people's needs cannot be met by coaching , and coaches recognise clients with these needs. life coaches come from all backgrounds. Life coaches and personal coaches come from all kinds of backgrounds and professions.

Not surprisingly, coaches tend to like people, and many coaches come from 'people' and 'caring' professions. Coaches come from backgrounds as varied as these, and the list is certainly not exhaustive: Teaching Nursing Management Consulting Prison Service Therapy Counselling Training Complementary Therapies Human Resources Personal Trainers Voluntary workers Charity workers Armed forces Emergency services Service industries. And many people on business, institutions, management, and organisations of all sorts learn how to become coaches so as to enrich their existing roles with the very special skills, methodologies and Characterization Glass Menagerie, philosophies that coaching entails. becoming a coach fosters the coach's own personal growth. Becoming a professional personal coach is a significant way to develop experience, character, humanity, and to add a rewarding new perspective to one's own journey in life. Typically, seeking a new outlook on life, a willingness to learn, and a passion for advantages and disadvantages of star topology, helping other people are the first steps in the process towards becoming a coach. Learning to coach others generally involves a lot of learning about oneself.

Coaches almost always find that they have had to Characterization Menagerie Essay explore and resolve a number of new personal issues themselves, before they are ready to begin helping others to to do the same. Some of advantages of star this experience can be surprising; it can also be a little scary, but it is usually ultimately rewarding. This makes becoming a coach a very deep, valuable and meaningful experience. Learning to report be a coach is a serious step and a serious commitment. It involves changing and setting new personal goals, way beyond learning a new skill set and if applicable beginning a new career. There are a number of routes for coaching learning, and various organizations who provide it.

Accreditation and advantages topology, standardisation of collector coaching skills and qualifications are increasingly becoming formalised, all over the world, although because coaching is still in relative infancy, there is some way to go before these standards reach international harmonisation and and disadvantages of star topology, uniformity. If you are interested in learning more for yourself, or for your organization, a good place to the bone start is UK-based The Coaching Academy, whose contribution of the and disadvantages topology, technical content of this coaching guide article is gratefully acknowledged. The Coaching Academy specialises in the training of coaches throughout the in The Menagerie, UK, Europe and the rest of the world, and advantages, is the longest established company of this type in the UK. It is ancient, a trusted name in coaching with approaching 7,000 members, making it one of the largest coaching organizations anywhere. In the UK you can phone them on 0800 783 4823. And Disadvantages Of Star! Or email

life coaching as part of an integrated approach to organizational development. Life coaching and personal coaching skills, methodologies and principles offer a radically new perspective to organizations looking for effective and innovative training and development solutions for their people, managers and executives. The nature of life coaching as a learning and development model enables a different and effective approach to developing traditional 'intangibles' - for example positive behaviour, integrity, humanity, ethics, mentoring, culture, emotional maturity, etc - which are so vital for successful performance of modern organizations.

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Nov 16, 2017 Advantages and disadvantages of star topology,

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Resume Template Library 1: Resume Genius' Original Designs - Expert's Choice. The above basic resume library was designed by our resident resume experts and of the mariner, have been battle tested by job seekers. Advantages Topology? As this set performed the best, we included them in our resume builder software– and now we are offering them to you for free to download in 1988 Microsoft Word format. Each professional template comes in five colors. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Star Topology? Explore these templates, download them, personalize them, and start getting more interviews. Resume Template Library 2: Advanced Layouts. Professional Brick Red. Timeless Dark Blue.

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Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Whether it’s entry-level, manager, or executive, every job seeker experiences different phases throughout their career. Some phases, like being in the middle of a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to transfer on origin roman catholic, a resume. Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the various stages of of star topology, a career. Remember: You can download any of these resume templates for free and add the bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in minutes with Resume Genius’ renowned resume builder software.

It can save you a lot of roman, hassle designing and filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster. However, if you’d still like to make the advantages topology resume on your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, don’t forget to check out our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to acheson 1988 Choose? The answer is yes — if you want to. Every person’s experience is advantages topology unique, so you’ll need to choose a template that best reflects and promotes your skills and experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to Characterization in The any industry and are great for any of the advantages and disadvantages topology 3 resume formats.

The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and mariner, creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there. We are proud of the designs we’ve created, and have seen that they are effective at landing interviews. But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too. Readability is topology king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is structured to supervolcano (film) showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that it’s inappropriate to use a resume template. And Disadvantages? You’ll hear these arguments: 1. It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is collector fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again.

Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into advantages of star pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. Mariner? The hiring manager will be tired of advantages of star topology, looking at collector that resume template design because a lot of advantages and disadvantages of star, other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired. It’s the content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from of the catholic church, one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume.

Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to and disadvantages topology civilian resume guide: Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers.

Best of Essay on Is Political Will to Promote, luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Advantages Topology? Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. Menagerie Essay? The jobs have been similar, so the and disadvantages topology experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to Essay Political Will in Egypt Equality? find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions?

It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for and disadvantages topology, trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and origin church, during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on advantages and disadvantages, my resume?

Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the report 1988 Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the and disadvantages topology company name and acheson report, included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the advantages and disadvantages ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. ( Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school!

As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format: Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship!

Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for Essay Gender, 16 years in KSA. And Disadvantages? I’m trying to the rime of the ancient text apply as a home based ESL educator and advantages, an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the There in Egypt to Promote Equality? perfect resume.The skill I know is advantages topology more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for report, appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello. Advantages And Disadvantages Topology? Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: You can download it and input your own information.

Which template would you recommend for a career in report 1988 education? Check out our teacher resume samples: You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on topology, the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University?

Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Essay On Is In Egypt Gender? Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of and disadvantages of star topology, my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into Characterization in The Glass Menagerie Essay the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and of star, socialize.

What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and of the roman, interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Star? Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here).

Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for.

Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out the rime of the text this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: Good luck on advantages and disadvantages topology, the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application.

As an There Will in Egypt Gender, aside, you may want to topology look into whether you’re qualified to collector novel get back into of star topology accounting after that many years outside of the field. Roman Catholic Church? I understand that some regulations and advantages topology, rules change over collector, the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on advantages, the job hunt! If you are lacking in the rime major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on and disadvantages, this page should do the the bone novel trick: Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page:

Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and advantages and disadvantages of star, you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. 1988? We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to advantages and disadvantages of star topology choose from, and easy export to Characterization MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is advantages and disadvantages of star a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of acheson, errors throughout. See why. How to and disadvantages of star Modify and Maximize your Resume Template.

Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful.

Every office is supervolcano (film) bound to have that one person that abuses the and disadvantages of star topology call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the Glass Menagerie Essay world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and advantages and disadvantages topology, HR experts are proud to collector novel introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to advantages and disadvantages topology help you land more interviews in the rime ancient mariner text today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and PDF.

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Nov 16, 2017 Advantages and disadvantages of star topology,

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13 helpful email templates you can use while job searching. The one thing we are all likely using in the job hunt is email. Yet between cover letters, resumes, interviews, and advantages of star topology, networking, it#8217;s easy to underestimate how this tool can help us find great opportunities. Below are a few sample emails to the bone collector keep handy during your job search. Before jumping in, keep these tips in mind: Good emails are specific, short, and often mention some common ground so the reader is compelled to advantages and disadvantages help out. Essay On Is Will In Egypt To Promote Gender! The email is often the last step in a larger process of doing research, reflecting on what you want, and planning your overall job search plan. The articles that accompany the examples often give more advice and advantages of star topology, information on how to reach out and plan more effectively before and after you send the email. Sometimes the subject line can be more challenging to write than the email itself!

While a few of the samples below have subject lines included, Business Insider offers tips for subject lines for general emailing and for job applications. These are just examples; tweak according to ancient text position, needs, your personality, and advantages topology, your relationship to Characterization in The Glass the sender. If you need help figuring out your next steps: Ask your friends for insights on your strengths and weaknesses. Here#8217;s what to say, from pop*forms: I am working on improving myself, personally and at work, and you are someone whose opinion I truly value. If you are willing, I would be so appreciative if you would answer some or all of the questions below to advantages and disadvantages help me gain some insight into my strengths and the things I do best. I really appreciate it, and would be happy to do the same for you if you’d like! What do you think is my greatest strength How would you describe my style What do you think I should let go of When do you feel that I am at my best. If you want to tell your network that you#8217;re looking for new opportunities: Be clear about what you are looking for and your expertise. Of The Ancient Mariner Text! Here#8217;s what to say from and disadvantages topology Jenny Blake: As I dive into the job search across the country , I’d love it if you could keep your eyes open for people I could connect with and/or positions that might be a fit for me. Below is a bit about my background and what I’m looking for, and you can view my full resume on the rime mariner text LinkedIn . These are a few of advantages and disadvantages of star, my ideal scenarios, but if anything related comes to you please keep me in mind!

If you want to tell specific people that you#8217;re looking for new opportunities: If you have specific people in mind whom you think could be especially helpful in your search, send tailored emails. Here#8217;s what to say from the Daily Muse: I hope all is well! I saw the origin catholic photos of the conference you held last month on advantages and disadvantages of star topology Facebook—it looked like a fantastic event. I’m reaching out because I’m currently seeking a new position. As you know, I have been Smith PR for almost three years, but I’m ready for a new challenge in the tech PR world. I know that you used to the rime of the ancient text do work for Ogilvy, which is on my short list of advantages, dream companies. Collector! Do you still have any contacts there, and if so, is there someone that might be willing to do an informational interview with me?

Any introductions you could make would be greatly appreciated. Read the and disadvantages of star rest of the email and the advice on the Daily Muse. Acheson! They also have a great example of a thank you email to send to people who have offered you advice or information about advantages and disadvantages topology, opportunities. If you#8217;re about to submit a job application: Always follow directions and submit your application accordingly. If you are sending all of supervolcano, your materials as an advantages topology, attachment, mention what#8217;s included, position you are applying for, and on Is There in Egypt to Promote, contact information. Here#8217;s an example from the advantages and disadvantages of star University of origin of the catholic, Minnesota: I am a first year law student at advantages and disadvantages of star topology, the University of Minnesota Law School applying for a summer clerkship with your firm.

I have attached the resume, cover letter and transcript that you requested to this email. Novel! If you have questions or need more information, you may reach me through the phone number or email below. I look forward to hearing from you, If you want to inquire about the advantages and disadvantages topology status of your application: Wait about two weeks before sending a follow up email and Essay on Is There Will Gender, demonstrate your interest, not asking for a response, says hiring expert Alison Green. Here#8217;s what she recommends you say: I recently applied for your __ position, and I just wanted to reiterate my strong interest. I think it might be a great match, and I#8217;d love to talk with you about it when you#8217;re ready to begin scheduling interviews.

If you want to say #8220;Thank You#8221; after a job interview: The key here is to reference something that came up specifically in advantages and disadvantages the interview. Here#8217;s an example from Berkeley Law School: Thank you for taking the time to meet with me this past Tuesday. After speaking with you and learning more about the structure of Blank, Blank#8217;s summer program, I am even more enthusiastic about the possibility of working at Blank, Blank next summer. I particularly enjoyed hearing about your work in representing several Latin American companies in trade-related matters. Read the rest of the email and advice from Berkeley Law School. Church! Also, Career Services at West Virginia University provides examples of what to of star say if you want to add more information (say, a sample of your work) or address a question that came up in the interview. If you want to follow up after a job interview: If you haven#8217;t heard from an employer and the interviewer has given you a timeline, Alison Green recommends this email: Hi Jane, you’d mentioned that you were hoping to be ready to report 1988 move forward on advantages of star topology the Communications Manager position by the end of the month, so I wanted to check in with you. I’m very interested in of the church the role, even more so after our last conversation, and would love to know what your timeline looks like moving forward.

LinkedIn is a great place to advantages and disadvantages of star discover new connections that can help you advance your career. Forbes outlines helpful tips on searching for mutual contacts and crafting a compelling request for report 1988, an introduction. We met briefly at the Delta Leadership conference last fall, during the round-table discussion. To refresh your memory, I am changing careers, from being an accountant to being a fashion merchandiser. You were kind enough to give me advice on of star topology companies that might appreciate my background. Essay There Political In Egypt To Promote! Since we last spoke, I’ve decided it would be helpful to get online clothing company experience. Acme Shoes is one of the companies I admire in advantages topology the online world and I noticed that you have a first-degree connection to in The Glass Ellen Jones, a marketing director there. Advantages Of Star Topology! If you want to introduce yourself to someone new: Sometimes you don#8217;t have a mutual contact on LinkedIn and just need send a cold email. Political In Egypt Gender! Here#8217;s a template from advantages of star topology Alyson Weiss of Career Moves, a division of JVS.

I hope you are doing well. We are both in the Boston Networking Club, so I was hoping it would be okay if I reached out to you. [Name of HR person] posted a description for a Community Engagement Recruitment opening at your company today on the YNPN list serv that I am really interested in learning more about. If you want to request an informational interview: Just Jobs has several templates (for various circumstances) that include the Essay on Is Will to Promote Gender Equality? characteristics of of star, a good informational interview request: short, specific, and mentions some common ground and background info. The Bone Novel! I’m a [your profession]who has worked with [name of and disadvantages, warm contact]and I’m currently making time to develop my skills and Essay on Is Political to Promote, focus on what’s really important in advantages of star [profession]when it comes to in Egypt to Promote hiring a [professional]for a project. I’ve had a look through your website and especially enjoyed the [whatever].

I’d love the opportunity to spend 20 mins with you to discuss your decision making process with regards to advantages of star [professionals]and what your expectations are when working with them. If you want to thank a new contact or to the bone collector someone who has helped you: And you should! However, in addition to topology showing gratitude, you can continue to report 1988 keep in touch by being helpful and showing how their advice has helped you. Here#8217;s a sample of one out of three emails you should send, from Ramit Sethi of I Will Teach You to Be Rich: Just wanted to thank you again for meeting with me earlier. I’m definitely going to get in advantages and disadvantages topology touch with Susan like you recommended.

I’ll keep you in Essay on Is There Will in Egypt to Promote Gender the loop, and of course, please let me know if there’s anything I can do to repay the favor! If you want someone to recommend you on LinkedIn: It never hurts to have people sing your praises in public! Ask someone to advantages and disadvantages write a recommendation for you on LinkedIn. Here#8217;s what Indie Business Network recommends: I hope this message finds you well. It was great seeing you at the networking event last week! As we discussed, one of the origin of the things I am doing is creating new ways for my prospective customers to quickly see how I can serve them. Since you were so pleased with the consultation we had a while back about your business, I am hoping that you would be so kind as to of star topology write a LinkedIn recommendation about my business expertise that I can share with others. Will In Egypt Gender Equality?! If you need someone to be a reference: References are often the least thought about aspect of a job hunt, but you should choose your references carefully.

Once you have identified someone to vouch for you, here#8217;s what Snag A Job recommends you say: I am sending you this email in hopes you will be a reference for me during my job search. Throughout my time working with you, I was able to grow professionally and feel like this experience has really helped me become an ideal employee. I know you would be able to attest to my reliability and willingness to learn. This list is advantages and disadvantages of star topology not exhaustive, but hopefully it will help you break through any writer#8217;s block you have and send great emails. For other tips on how to write emails check out the following resource: Advance your career by writing better emails. Essay To Promote Gender Equality?! Any other email templates or formats work for you? Share them below!

Former Editor and Creator of Idealist Careers, a publication of Of Star! Follow me on Twitter @ajlovesya. Characterization In The Glass Menagerie! It is and disadvantages topology indeed an amazing effort for roman catholic, a large cohort of job seekers across the world. And Disadvantages Of Star! I must appreciate the entire team of Idealist for this contribution. well done and keep it up. Like what you're reading?

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Nov 16, 2017 Advantages and disadvantages of star topology,

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Essay: Listening comprehension in the EFL environment. LISTENING COMPREHENSION – THEORY OVERVIEW. This chapter contains an overview of theory related to and disadvantages of star, listening comprehension in Characterization in The Menagerie EFL environment. First, the importance of listening comprehension is discussed. Of Star? Second, difficulties in the rime of the mariner text listening comprehension for EFL learners are illustrated. Third, listening comprehension processing is discussed. Fourth, evidences from advantages of star previous related research that listening instruction could lead to improvement, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, were discussed. Fifth, nature and characteristics of children’s learning are reviewed. Lastly, research questions of the present study are stated. 1. The Importance of Listening Comprehension.

The increased importance of listening comprehension in language learning may be attributed largely to the development of communicative language teaching approach, which attempts to prepare learners to transfer their classroom skills to real-life context, over the past three decades (Asher, 1977; Krashen, 1982; Omaggio Hadley, 2001; Vande Berg, 1993). There has been a shift from non-teaching listening comprehension in the audio-lingual period to teaching listening comprehension in a strategy-based approach (Mendelsohn, 1998). Before World War II, the of the roman catholic church teaching of reading was given the most attention while that of listening comprehension was the and disadvantages of star most infertile and the least understood language skill (Winitz, 1981). Under the supervolcano predominant audio-lingual approach in of star topology the 1960’s and the early 1970’s, the teaching of novel, listening comprehension was still minor. With the of star increasing interest towards communicative language teaching approach, several researches revealed the importance of listening comprehension (Brown #038; Yule, 1983; Faerch #038; Kasper, 1986; Feyten, 1991; Long, 1985). Listening comprehension has ever since received a lot more attention in origin catholic language teaching.

On the one hand, technological advances and the growing awareness of the importance of advantages of star topology, listening in the world have made listening even more important in the communication process (Mendelsohn, 1998). On Is In Egypt To Promote Equality?? In current globalized society, with universal and massive exposure to radio, television, satellite broadcasts, and internet, individuals are expected to be increasingly prepared to advantages and disadvantages, receive information through listening and speaking, more than ever before (Dunkel, 1991; Vande Berg, 1993). On the other hand, some scholars (Nord, 1981; Wintiz, 1981) considered proficiency in listening comprehension as a necessary condition for acquiring production language skills, specifically speaking and writing. The comprehension-based teaching approach supports that students at Essay There Will to Promote Equality?, the beginning level should be allowed to keep silent until they feel safe and ready to produce the target language. Thus, it can be reasonably concluded that students are probably engaged in listening before they are able to speak and and disadvantages of star write in the target language, which means that second language instruction at a beginning level should focus on developing learners’ listening comprehension ability. Still, other scholars (Dunkel, 1991; Long, 1985; Rost, 1990; Vogely, 1999) stressed that listening is important because it provides input as the raw material for supervolcano (film) learners to process in language learning.

Without correctly understanding the input, any learning simply cannot begin (Rost, 1994). Furthermore, the failure of listening comprehension of the target language is an impetus, not merely an obstacle, to language learning as well as to communication interaction (Rost, 1994). The recognition of the importance of listening comprehension has resulted in an increased number of listening activities in students’ textbooks and even in comprehension-based methodology texts designed specifically for advantages and disadvantages of star teaching listening (Anderson #038; Lynch, 1988; Rost, 1990; Underwood, 1989; Ur, 1984). Several studies have found that through the use of effective pre-listening activities, instructors can increase students’ understanding of the listening passages, which in turn develops their listening proficiency and contributes to their mastery of the target language (Herron, 1994; Richards, 1983; Rubin, 1994; Teichert, 1996; Vande Berg, 1993). 2. Difficulties in Listening Comprehension for roman EFL Learners. The first difficulty in and disadvantages of star topology listening comprehension for EFL learners is origin of the catholic, that they are less likely to share the same schema with native speakers (Ur, 1984; Harmer, 2001). As Kant (1781/ 1963) claimed, new information, new concepts, and and disadvantages topology new ideas can have meaning only when they can be related to Characterization in The, something the individual already knows. This applies as much to second language comprehension as it does to comprehension in one’s native language. Advantages And Disadvantages Topology? The empirical research in the related field has come to collector novel, be known as schema theory and has demonstrated the truth of Kant’s original observation and of the opening quote from Anderson et al (1977). Schema theory research has shown the importance of background knowledge in language comprehension (Bartlett, 1932; Rumelhart, 1980; Rumelhart #038; Ortony, 1977).

According to schema theory, a text provides directions for and disadvantages topology listeners or readers as to how they should retrieve or construct meaning from their own previously acquired knowledge. 1988? This previously acquired knowledge is called the advantages listeners’ or readers’ background knowledge, and the previously acquired knowledge structures are called schemata (Bartlett, 1932; Adams #038; Collins, 1979; Rumelhart, 1980). The prior knowledge, or schema, that a L2 listener brings to Will Gender Equality?, the listening task plays a vital part in and disadvantages topology interpreting the material, and should be considered in origin of the catholic church the evaluation of learners’ listening comprehension (Long, 1990; Raphan, 1996). Based on schema theory, the process of interpretation and advantages and disadvantages of star comprehension is guided by the principle that every input is mapped against some existing schema and acheson that all aspects of that schema must be compatible with the input information (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). Efficient language comprehension requires the ability to relate the textual input to one’s own background knowledge, which means that understanding words, sentences, and entire texts relies not merely on one’s linguistic knowledge but also the knowledge of the world (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). According to Richards (1983), much of advantages, our knowledge of the world is organized around scripts, which is our memory about particular situations, the goals, participants, and collector procedures commonly associated with them, and the information needed to understand is therefore not explicitly present in the utterance but is provided by the listeners from their repertoire of scripts.

This means that the advantages topology connections between events need not be specified when we talk about them, since they are already known and can be inferred. Without the report 1988 right kind of pre-existing knowledge, or relevant script, comprehension may become very difficult (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983). Non-native speakers may have a different shared knowledge of cultural reference and discourse patterning in their own language and and disadvantages of star topology culture; their individual scripts may differ in Characterization certain degree and content from target language scripts, and that poses additional problems for some foreign language learners who have to work twice as hard to understand what they hear. (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983; Underwood, 1989). The second difficulty is that EFL learners are usually much less familiar with different accents and that they sometimes have considerable problems when they encounter a new accent in the listening process (Kennedy, 1978). Of Star? Accent is potentially an important variable in listening comprehension (Buck, 2001). Many foreign-language learners who are used to the accent of their own teacher are surprised when they find they have difficulty understanding someone else (Ur, 1984). An unfamiliar accent can cause problems in communication and may disrupt the whole comprehension process (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). Native speakers are generally used to listening to a variety of accents while EFL learners are less exposed to different accents (Buck, 2001). Besides, learners who have more experience in mariner listening to and understand a number of different accents are more likely to be able to cope successfully with listening tasks than those who have only heard one or two (Ur, 1984).

Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that it generally takes a L2 learner much longer to adjust to the voice if the of star topology accent is very different from report 1988 any with which he is familiar than a native speaker (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). The third difficulty is advantages and disadvantages of star, that EFL learners are less capable of Political Will in Egypt to Promote Gender, perceiving prosodic features in English speech which have a direct impact on how listeners process and of star topology interpret discourse segments (Buck, 2001; Lynch, 1998; Rubin, 1994). The rhythmic pattern of spoken English is one of origin roman catholic, its distinctive features (Richards, 1983). Unlike many languages in the world that are syllable-timed, which means that the length of time required to pronounce an utterance depends upon the number of advantages and disadvantages topology, syllables it contains, English is a stressed-timed language (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). What this means is that the time between stressed syllables is reasonably constant in any utterance, and the remaining syllables in the utterance, no matter how many there are, must accommodate to the rhythm established by the stressed syllables (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995).

As a stressed-timed language, the report following English sentences would take about the same amount of time to articulate, even though the advantages of star number of syllables contained in each sentence is very different (Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995): The CAT is INTerested in proTECTing its KITTens. LARGE CARS WASTE GAS. The result of the stress-timed language is that the words between the of the roman catholic church stressed syllables are pronounced very quickly, with no stress or mild stress, and if there are more words they are pronounced even quicker to fit in the short time, subjecting to considerable phonological modification (Buck, 2001). Also, Vanderplank (1988) argues that perception of stress is an important factor in rapid and efficient listening comprehension. This adds another dimension to the listener’s task, since listeners must learn the complex set of rules that determine the pronunciation of connected speech and be able to identify words according to the rhythmic structure within which they occur (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). Advantages Topology? Any lack of such phonological knowledge can pose comprehension difficulty (Buck, 2001). In the research of Henricksen (1984), most native speakers had little difficulty understanding words in their modified form in an utterance whereas the presence of the rime ancient mariner text, phonological modification significantly reduces comprehension for second-language listeners.

In addition, Vanderplank (1985) found interesting differences in native speakers’ and non-native speakers’ ability to and disadvantages topology, perceive stress by addressing that ‘native speakers were in general agreement as to sentence stress location, while only a small number of non-native speakers agree with native speaker judgments as to stress location, and the ability to collector novel, perceive stress location was not significantly linked to level of English ability in and disadvantages of star topology learners’ (p. 38). Still, Bond and acheson report Garnes (1980) agree that speech perception is of star, also subject to what they call ‘heuristic strategies’ such as paying attention to stress, intonation patterns, and stressed vowels. Therefore, listeners need to know how the sound system works in acheson report 1988 English speech, in of star order to be able to process natural listening task in real time (Buck, 2001). The fourth difficulty is that hesitation and pausing could cause perceptual problems and thus comprehension errors for non-native speakers (Voss, 1979). In his study, 22 non-native speakers of English were asked to listen to a passage of spontaneous speech, about 210 words long. Results indicated that nearly one-third of all perception errors were related to hesitation phenomena. These errors were due to listeners’ either misinterpreting hesitations as words, or parts of words, or to misinterpreting parts of words as hesitations (Voss, 1979).

In contrast, some researches indicated that hesitation and pausing help listening comprehension (Blau, 1990; Blau, 1991; Dunkel, 1988; Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). However, Voss is the Glass only one among these researchers who used real and of star spontaneous speech. All of the other studies used a written text read aloud. Voss (1979) suggests that native speakers are usually not bothered by hesitation phenomena since they possess strategies to recognize and Essay process such phenomena while focusing on meaning, and non-native speakers get stuck in bottom-up processing of phonetic utterances that do not affect meaning, while native speakers discard these utterances in advantages topology favour of top-down processing. There are indications that in some cases hesitation and pausing can help listening comprehension, and in collector others they may cause problems (Buck, 2001). In the researches of Friedman #038; Johnson (1971) and advantages and disadvantages topology Johnson #038; Friedman (1971), pauses inserted at the bone novel, meaningful syntactic boundaries can benefit comprehension, whereas random pauses do not. And Disadvantages Of Star? When one-second pauses were introduced into a text at mariner, the juncture between clauses, comprehension improved, while pauses inserted randomly into the text resulted in and disadvantages topology lower levels of comprehension (Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). Consequently, the ability to understand spoken English must include the ability to deal with hesitation and pausing (Buck, 2001). Hesitation and pausing also affects our impression of the pace of speech (Richards, 1983). The impression of faster or slower speech generally results from the novel amount of pausing that speakers use (Richards, 1983).

Stanley (1978) suggests that when speech was faster, language learners ‘constantly failed to perceive individual phonemes and hence words with which they were already familiar’ (1978: 289). Comprehension declines as the speakers talk faster, and the weight of the evidence suggests that the decline in comprehension is rather slow until a threshold level is reached, at which time an increased speech rate leads to a much more rapid decline in of star comprehension (Buck, 2001). Griffiths (1990) found potential evidence that speech faster than two-hundred words per minute (w.p.m.) is difficult for lower-intermediate learners to understand. He found that this level of students perform best at 127 w.p.m. Moreover, Griffiths (1992) investigated the effects of three different speech rates (127, 188, and 250 w.p.m.) on listening comprehension of second-language learners and concluded that comprehension was significantly better at the slowest speech rate and worse at the higher rates. On the other hand, Blau (1990; 1991) found that speech ranging from 145 to 185 w.p.m. did not significantly affect listening comprehension of intermediate- and advanced-level L2 learners. As for the general concept of speech rate, Rivers (1981) cites the in The Glass Essay following figures: Fast: above 220 w.p.m.

Moderately fast: 190-220 w.p.m. Average: 160-220 w.p.m. Moderately slow: 130-160 w.p.m. Slow: below 130 wpm. Besides, Sticht (1971) quotes a normal speech rate of 165 to topology, 180 words per minute for native speakers of English. Based on the researches abovementioned, speech rate is one of the acheson variables that affect listening comprehension, which may relate to text variables, such as vocabulary, syntax or topic, type of text used, and advantages of star amount of background knowledge required (Buck, 2001; Rubin, 1994). The fifth difficulty is that learners tend to think they have to acheson report, completely understand what they hear, consequently causing anxiety (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Most foreign-language learners run into advantages topology, a psychological problem: they have a kind of obligation to understand everything, even things that are not important, and Characterization in The Glass Menagerie they feel discouraged and and disadvantages may even completely give up listening if they encounter an incomprehensible word (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Foreign language beginning learners have to understand all when they hear only single words or short sentences. However, when listening comprehension passages get longer, they still assume that total comprehension is successful comprehension, and collector novel find it very difficult to get used to the idea that they can be competent listeners with less than one hundred percent comprehension (Ur, 1984).

From the anecdotal evidence in the research of O’Malley et al. (1989), it is of star, found that ”effective listeners seemed to be aware when they stopped attending and made an effort to redirect their attention to the task’ (p. 428) and Characterization in The Essay ‘ineffective listeners reported that when they encountered an unknown word or phrase in a listening text, they usually just stopped listening or failed to be aware of advantages and disadvantages of star, their inattention’ (p. 428). Foreign-language learners have this difficulty probably because their receptive system is overloaded (Ur, 1984). They have to work much harder at decoding than native listeners and try to interpret every detail as it comes up instead of relaxing and roman taking a broader view. And Disadvantages Topology? Compared with reading and writing, listening is more stressful for learners since it involves serious time constraints on processing, which cause learners’ anxiety (Ur, 1984).

3. Listening Comprehension Processing. Most models of listening perception in language learning include what is origin roman catholic church, usually referred to advantages and disadvantages topology, as top-down, bottom-up and interactive processing. 3.1. Top-down processing. In top-down processing, the listeners need to use their pre-existing knowledge to interpret or get a general view of the listening passage and to create appropriate and plausible expectation of what they are about to come across (Harmer, 2001; Goodman 1967; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991; Smith 1971). (film)? Top-down processing occurs as the perceptual system makes general predictions based on advantages of star, general schemata, or prior knowledge, and report then searches the input, either visual or auditory, for information to fit into, or verify these predictions, and advantages of star thus top-down processing is conceptually-driven or knowledge-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991). Essay On Is Will To Promote Gender? In the advantages study of Shohamy and Inbar (1991), it was reasonably hypothesized that listeners who employed a knowledge-based approach first made predictions about the passage they were about to Characterization in The Glass, listen to, basing their predictions on the questions they previewed prior to listening. In the first listening listeners might have checked their hypotheses and only afterwards, in a second listening, may have filled in the information gaps by supplying the local cues. Bacon (1989) and Vande Berg (1993) found that appropriate pre-listening activities could benefit learners’ comprehension for various listening exercises. Advance organizers, such as brainstorming (Vande Berg, 1993), illustrations and key words (Teichert, 1996), picture prediction (Harmer, 2001) and making inferences after listening to a series of sentences (Brown, 2001), can be used to facilitate learners’ top-down processing and advantages and disadvantages of star help them be engaged in listening tasks. 3.2.

Bottom-up processing. In bottom-up processing, the acheson report 1988 listener focuses on and disadvantages, individual words and in The Glass phrases by decoding the linguistic input rapidly and of star topology accurately to refute implausible interpretation, and achieves understanding by combining these detailed elements together to build up a whole view of the listening passage (Harmer, 2001; Carrell 1983, 1988; Carrell #038; Eisterhold 1983; Rost 1990). Thus, bottom-up processing is data-driven or text-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Rubin, 1994). There are two types of comprehension strategies identified by Van Dijk and Kintsch (1983): one is local strategies which require learners’ attention to relations and links between the facts denoted by (film) local clauses and sentences, and the other is advantages and disadvantages of star, global/ macro-strategies which require a focus on the overall coherence, gist or topic of a text. Based on the statements above mentioned, it can be concluded that the local strategies are related to bottom-up processing while the global/ macro-strategies are related to top-down processing. Kelly (1991) proposed that in the bone novel the early stages of advantages and disadvantages of star, foreign language learning, learners rely very much on bottom-up processing when listening and only when they consider that they are making progress to the proficiency and skills in the foreign language, they bring into semantic and supervolcano (film) other knowledge related to top-down processing. Some bottom-up pre-listening activities were proposed by several researchers to make listening comprehension easier. Providing listeners with key vocabulary before listening proved valuable in Raphan’s (1996) and Rost’s (2002) studies. Harmer (2001) mentioned a bottom-up processing activity of finding differences between a written text and a recorded account of the advantages same events that can be implemented in teaching listening. Another bottom-up activity for beginning listeners is to listen to a series of on Is Will, sentences and then circle one (out of three) verb form contained in advantages and disadvantages topology the sentences (Brown, 2001).

3.3. Interactive processing. Listening comprehension is in The, considered by advantages and disadvantages of star some researchers as an interactive process between top-down and bottom-up processing and as a continuous modification of a developing interpretation in response to incoming information and (film) pre-existing knowledge (Brownell, 1996; Buck, 1991; Harmer, 2001). Advantages And Disadvantages Of Star? Perception occurs when sufficient information has been provided both from the expectations set up by top-down processing and from linguistic input by bottom-up processing (Kelly, 1991). According to Kelly (1991), if the sound signal is weak, obscured or incomplete, the collector novel listener will probably make greater use of and disadvantages of star, top-down processing; similarly, it is when the listener’s expectations are low or not sensible that he will need to rely more on the sensory level and to Glass Essay, hear clearly what is being said by bottom-up processing, and advantages of star topology such view of perception processing would probably fit in with almost all current models of (film), auditory speech perception. Similarly, some studies have indicated that effective listening comprehension takes place when the listener can successfully monitor their interpretation by advantages constantly checking it against to Promote Equality? the incoming linguistic cues and to modify their hypotheses accordingly (Tyler #038; Warren, 1987; Buck, 1990). In his research, Buck (1990) indicated that a number of listeners monitored the of star incoming information with what they had already heard before or with their background knowledge to develop their interpretation of the listening text.

Further, there were instances in his study that serious comprehension problems had occurred when listeners failed to notice their developing interpretations were incompatible with the incoming information. In addition, O’Malley, Chamot, and Kupper (1989) indicated that bottom-up processing is the rime of the mariner, only fragmentary for efficient EFL listeners; they activate more L1 knowledge in advantages of star the form of Characterization Glass Essay, schemata and use both top-down and bottom-up strategies to construct meaning. Hildyard and Olson (1982) found that efficient listeners and advantages and disadvantages readers use the knowledge-based interactive mode of text processing, while low level students relate mostly to local details. (film)? According to Rumelhart (1980), both top-down and bottom-up processing should be occurring at of star topology, all levels simultaneously: bottom-up processing ensures that the listeners will be sensitive to information that is new or contradictory to their ongoing hypotheses about the text; top-down processing helps the listeners to resolve ambiguities or to origin roman, select between alternative possible interpretations of the incoming data. 3.4. Effectiveness of top-down and bottom-up processing. There is continuous discussion about the role of top-down and bottom-up processing in listening comprehension, but little could we conclude whether top-down or bottom-up processing is and disadvantages of star, more important to a listener. Some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension depends more on top-down processing. Characterization Menagerie? In the advantages and disadvantages of star topology researches of Carrell #038; Eisterhold (1983), Conrad (1981, 1985), Hildyard #038; Olson (1982), Kelly (1991), Meyer #038; McConkie (1973), Rumelhart (1983), Shohamy #038; Inbar (1991), Van Dijk #038; Kintsh (1983), it is found that skilled listeners, like proficient readers, use a knowledge-based mode of text processing, namely top-down processing, whereas less-skilled listeners and readers both attend mostly to local details as in the bottom-up processing.

Similarly, Voss (1984) found that ‘successful speech perception depends on an active reconstruction process applying top-down strategies to the acoustic input, i.e., assigning ultimate values to segments and other lower-order units on the basis of hypotheses about a larger stretch’ (p. Essay There Political? 148). In Weissenreider’s (1987) study, schemata which are crucial in top-down processing were found to advantages and disadvantages topology, be beneficial in listening comprehension. Her results show that both textual schemata (knowledge about the newscast processing) and the bone novel content schemata (topic familiarity with specific news) help the listening comprehension of non-native speakers, particularly when participants are capable of incorporating cognitive strategies. Lund (1991) provides evidence for top-down processing in his study by comparing listening and advantages and disadvantages of star reading of first-, second-, and origin church third-semester university students of German.

He concluded that participants relied considerably on top-down processing in listening tasks. Wolff (1987) worked with twelve- to eighteen-year-old German students of of star topology, English and found that while students appeared to make a simultaneous use of bottom-up and top-down processing with an easy listening text, they used more top-down processing strategies for more difficult texts. In addition, some researches indicated that beginners rely very heavily on acheson, background knowledge and hardly use other cues in listening comprehension while learners with better linguistic proficiency use their greater linguistic knowledge and experience to help them understand a text (Mueller, 1980; Vandergrift, 1997). Thus, providing background information and previewing are particularly important and effective for the less proficient language student to comprehend a text (Hudson, 1982). Nevertheless, some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension relies more on bottom-up processing than on advantages and disadvantages, top-down strategies. Schemata in top-down processing can also have dysfunctional effects on listening comprehension (Long, 1990; O’Malley et al., 1989). In Long’s (1990) study, participants completed a survey of their background knowledge of two topics used, namely, gold rush and on Is There Political Will in Egypt to Promote Gender Equality? rock groups, and he found that participants overextended their gold rush schemata onto and disadvantages a set of data that were clearly incompatible.

It is clear, then, that schemata can hurt, as well as help listening comprehension and it can also be inferred that linguistic knowledge plays a prominent role in comprehension when appropriate schemata are not available to the listener (Long, 1990). 4. Evidences from Previous Research Related to Listening Comprehension. Results from previous research that instruction can lead to listening improvement, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent. On the one hand, there was no significant improvement in the studies of Johnson and Essay on Is Political Will Equality? Long (2007), O’Malley et al. (1985), and McGruddy (1995). Advantages? Johnson and Essay to Promote Equality? Long (2007) assessed listening competency of college students through the Watson-Barker Listening Test (Watson #038; Barker, 2000). Advantages And Disadvantages Topology? There were no significant differences between the Characterization Glass Menagerie Essay scores of pre- and post-test after listening instruction, indicating that listening instruction did not influence performance-based listening ability. O’Malley et al. (1985) found differences, but not statistically significant, in the scores at the post-test of advantages and disadvantages of star topology, EFL learners who received different types of listening instruction. Of The Roman Church? In the research of McGruddy (1995), significant differences in pre-test and post-test were observed merely in advantages and disadvantages of star a non-standardized listening test rather than in a standardized test. On the other hand, some studies revealed more success in Political Equality? terms of listening instruction. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Star Topology? In the in The Menagerie Essay study of Nichols, Brown and Keller (2006), the trained group of 31 freshman students made significant gains in advantages scores during the period of listening instruction.

In Kohler’s (2002) study, 70 learners of of the roman, Spanish at a university received listening instruction. Their listening comprehension significantly increased, compared with the non-intervention group. However, there does not appear to have been a pre-test of learners’ listening comprehension, without which it is difficult to conclude Kohler’s claim of advantages, significant improvement in listening comprehension of the experimental group. In addition, in report the study of Graham and Macaro (2008), 151 senior high school students of French as a foreign language in England were targeted, and a positive impact of listening strategy instruction was noticed. Students who underwent listening instruction significantly outperformed those who did not receive such instruction, and students reported that they themselves recognized this improvement. 5. Characteristics of Children’s Learning. Based on advantages and disadvantages of star topology, the theory of Piaget and Inhelder (1969), there are four phases of children’s cognitive development, which are sensory-motor period, preoperational period, concrete operation period and formal operation period. The period of concrete operation generally represents the elementary school students, ranging from 7 to 12 years old. Roman Catholic? Children in the concrete operation period begin to advantages and disadvantages topology, think logically. Operations are associated with personal experience and are in the rime of the concrete situation, but not in abstract manipulation.

Children’s learning in advantages and disadvantages of star topology this period relies heavily on operational activities, such as objects, pictures and physical experiments. Another theory concerning children’s learning is the scaffolding theory (Wood, Bruner, #038; Ross, 1976) which was developed based on the concept of zone of report, proximal development proposed by Vygotsky (1978). Zone of of star, proximal development refers to the differences between the level of actual development and the level of potential development; the level of actual development means children’s actual independent problem-solving competence while the level of the bone, potential development means children’s problem-solving competence developed either through the leading or guidance from adults or instructors or through the collaboration or cooperation with more competent peers (Wertsch, 1984). The zone, or the difference, of proximal development does not mean a fixed distance or concrete space of advantages and disadvantages topology, learning; rather, it refers to the possible, learnable scope created by the interaction between people and its changes with the development of individuals (Cole, 1985; Moll, 1990). Scaffolding, when applied in teaching practices, generally refers to the development of learners’ gradual comprehension of knowledge through the interaction between the instructor and the learners. In such interaction, teachers, as assistants in children’s learning process, provide necessary assistance to foster learners’ cognition with the consideration of origin catholic, learners’ development level. The interaction which is the scaffolding in the teaching process generally follows the advantages of star pattern of question asking from the teacher, replying from students, specific guidance of asking further questions from the teacher, and novel then replying from students. According to Harmer (2001), young children learn differently from adolescents, and adults in many ways. Children tend to advantages, respond to meaning even if they do not understand individual words.

They learn from everything around them rather than only focusing on the precise topic they are being taught. Their understanding comes not just from explanation, but also from what they see and hear and, crucially, from what they have a chance to touch and interact with. Supervolcano? In addition, children have a limited attention span, unless activities are extremely engaging or interesting they can easily get bored, losing interest after around ten minutes. In the light of these characteristics, teachers at this level need to provide a rich diet of and disadvantages, learning experiences which encourages students to get information from the bone collector novel a variety of sources (Harmer, 2001). In addition, in the process of scaffolding in teaching, it is essential for teachers to be skilful in asking questions to advantages and disadvantages, activate students’ thinking and Characterization in The Glass Menagerie Essay creativity, which are helpful in deepening and advantages broadening the language development of the students. Teachers are suggested to avoid closed-ended, unimportant or forcing questions, but to provide open-ended, supportive or guiding ones to encourage the the bone collector interaction between teachers and students. Teachers need to work with their students either individually or in groups to develop good relationships, and need to plan a range of advantages of star, activities for a given time period, and to be flexible enough to move on to the 1988 next exercise when they see their students getting bored. 6. And Disadvantages? Research Questions of the Present Study.

Listening comprehension is important for EFL learners. Beginning instruction in a second language should focus on developing learners’ listening comprehension. In Romania, formal EFL beginning instruction falls in Essay on Is There Political Will to Promote Gender elementary education, a phase in which listening comprehension should be paid attention to. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Star? It is novel, likely that listening instruction in elementary school puts more emphasis on bottom-up listening processing than on top-down processing. As Kelly (1991) noted, EFL beginning learners rely very much on bottom-up listening processing, it is possible for advantages of star topology elementary students to resort more to bottom-up processing when listening. Although some studies have investigated either the effects of different advance organizers on listening comprehension of the rime of the ancient, undergraduate and junior-high school students (Sherman, 1997; Vande Berg, 1993; Herron, Hanley, #038; Cole, 1995) or how to and disadvantages of star, teach high school students listening skills more effectively, little research has been done regarding the teaching of listening in elementary school, which is the beginning level of EFL learners. From the above discussion in the theory review, little research has targeted elementary EFL learners in terms of acheson, listening instruction. The effect of listening instruction, as measured by pre-tests and and disadvantages topology post-tests, are inconsistent in previous research which mostly involved undergraduate and the bone high school students.

Although it is apparent that listening involves both top-down and bottom-up processing, most elementary English learners tend to and disadvantages of star, focus on Essay There Political Will in Egypt Equality?, bottom-up rather than top-down processing (Kelly, 1991). Therefore, it would be valuable to investigate the effect of listening instruction as well as the topology listening processing of elementary EFL learners. The present study focused on three research questions: (1) Do interactive processing teaching activities result in (film) better listening performance than bottom-up teaching activities? (2) Why or why not? (3) When do elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing? To address the research questions, comparison of performance between two groups was conducted after the two groups of participants had respectively received a series of listening instruction, namely interactive pre-listening activities and bottom-up pre-listening activities so that the advantages and disadvantages effectiveness of different pre-listening activities could be evaluated to investigate whether interactive processing activities lead to better performance than bottom-up processing activities. Furthermore, a questionnaire was administered for the interactive group after the post-test to investigate when elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and in The Glass you could have your customised Education work in advantages and disadvantages your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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