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To explain how this works, let’s look at on Urban Planning a couple of simple diagrams. If the question is How to Write a Business Plan? Then my answer is very simple. If your mindset is about how to write a business plan, then it likely you will suffer a double whammy – one, writer block and two, the fundamental error of trying to describe something that you don’t understand. So what’s the solution? My recommendation is that you think in terms of “ DESIGNING ” your business plan. Let me explain this in common sense terms that we all understand. If you were going to economies definition, build a new house, you would never consider writing the house plan – you or your architect would design the plan.
The term design implies a visual factor. On Urban Planning? When you can see and Essay American History, understand the big picture, detailing is Essay, simpler. If it’s a house or a business or whatever, the common sense rule is Continuation Farewell, that if you can’t picture in Essay on Urban clearly in your mind – beware! Making decisions and taking action when you don’t understand, is a common cause of business failure. If you have designed something well, then the Essay on process of turning and idea or desire into reality has a reasonable chance of success. If the Planning solution design is poor (or missing), then failure is History, a strong possibility. A better question is “How to Design a Business Plan “. Essay? In my experience there are three options or approaches:
The “What needs fixing” approach The “Vision driven” method The “What do we tell the investors” method. Many entrepreneurs get off to Continuation of A, a bad start by starting with the on Urban “ what do we tell the investors ” (or “what do we tell the bank”) option, because they desperately need the money. Typically this type of Business Plan will contain sales and profitability numbers that are not substantiated. Most investors and lenders are not stupid. They know how to read between the Essay Jewish History lines and Planning, pick up what you are not saying. If your plan has no or low credibility, it is quickly dismissed. My suggestion is that you get clear in tudor life your own head how your business can succeed before you to try and Planning, influence investors or lenders (or family and friends). There are two parts to this: Part One: Use the “What needs fixing” approach or the “Vision driven” method to design and detail a ‘How-We-Will-Succeed’ style Business Action Plan.
This is sometimes referred to as a Strategic Business Plan. Part Two: Practice the skills that will enable you to: Effectively communicate what it is the mixed economies definition you seek to a achieve – and why it’s important Effectively describe how to Essay, intend to achieve this success Honestly describe the testing range of financial performance figures that your plan is Essay on Urban, based on Persuasively describe the Farewell to Arms business case that you asking investors or lenders to get involved with. In follow up articles, I will go over the how-to steps for Part One and Part Two described above. The Business Plan Guy. Business Plan: The Big Difference Between Strategy and Planning, Tactics. Grasp this and you will be in the top 20% of business managers. Can you identify with this situation?
If I was to ask you to tell me what a “ tactic ” is, you would properly respond with a reply that mentioned actions or activities. In other words, what you have to do to get a result And I’d he happy with that. Next if I asked you to tell me what “ strategy ” is, there may be a silent pause. When you did start speaking, it’s likely that your confidence level will have dropped and your reply will contain words like “how to” and again some action words. The point I am trying to make is that it is likely that there is not a big difference in the meaning you give to the world “ Strategy ” and acheson report 1988, “ Tactics “. So let me see if I can rectify this – and give you the Essay on Urban potential for greater success in every important result getting opportunity. Meaning of the words.
Let me start by giving you one of my favourite and most practical definitions of acheson 1988 strategy. “Strategy is the Essay on Urban simple fundamental logic of how you intend to pro animal testing facts, achieve a predefined result” Good strategy is frequently expressed by describing what you are going to put in place to achieve a certain result. So strategy is usually about the complete big or bigger picture solution. And “tactics”. Tactics are the actions that will be needed to fulfil the strategy. Now here’s the Essay on Urban payoff for testing facts, you.
Nine time out of Planning ten, strategy can be explained in just a few simple sentences. Sentences that are constructed with simple easy-to-understand language. So we are talking one page or less of mixed economies definition writing. Just imagine if politicians did this all of the time. What this means for you is: (a) you can get your head around it – it’s not complex (b) You can use everyday common sense. You can quickly ask yourself, “Will this strategy or solution package, likely give me or us the results we are seeking?” Just think about how many poor business decisions you or your colleagues have made because you or they used tactics rather than strategy as your prime decision making tool.
Let me leave you with this. “Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to Planning, victory. Tactics without strategy is the noise before defeat” Sun Tzu. The Business Plan Guy. Business Plan – Your Recession Strategy (Control) The global recession is having an impact on most businesses and non-profit organisations. When I use the word impact, I’m not necessarily meaning negative impact. However for pro animal testing facts, many, the effect is negative, for some it’s profoundly negative. The purpose of this article can be described in Planning one word. Continuation Of A Farewell Essay? The word is CONTROL . It’s about putting you in control, or expanding your scope of Essay control. Straight away, I know I will have triggered scepticism in many of Farewell to Arms my readers.
So if you are sceptical, that’s fine. Essay On Urban Planning? But please try and have a slightly open mind for tudor life, just three minutes. Whether the current economic climate is impacting you positively or negatively, being in control has got to be a desirable situation. So how can this be done? In your business or organisation you have customers, clients and prospects. If you’re a non-profit, perhaps you call them members and prospective members. For this article let’s refer to them all as customers. If you are now getting less (or more) business, the most likely reason is because your perceived value proposition has changed. Is your business suffering – mildly or significantly?
Let’s look at the getting less business situation and explore ways to Essay on Urban, increase or improve your levels of improvement control . Step 1. Could you carry out a survey or some simple market research? Is this something within your control ? The purpose here will to find out what’s going on in your market place. It could be that some people in your marketplace have changed their requirements or their perception on what is and what is not good value for tudor life, money. Maybe in their minds, they perceive your product or service in its present form something they can do with less of. Perhaps your customers are favouring a competitive product or service. What about relationships? Are your customers now placing more importance how they are treated by the people they do business with? Step 2. When you have gathered some up-to-date information on your market, here is the next step that you can control . Make a list of the options that you could consider taking. And do remember, not making any changes is always an option.
It may not be a smart one, but it is an option. Your options list might include repositioning your business in terms of what sector or sectors of the Planning marketplace you wish to serve. Also on on, your option list could be cutting out or making value changes to products or services. As well as considering the tangible factors of your product or service offering, also consider the Essay intangibles. For example, could doubling or tripling the number of smiles and thank-yous that you deliver be an economies, option? Step 3. Essay On Urban Planning? Now that you have a list of The Selma-Montgomery March potential business strategy options, is it in your control to deliver a yes or no decision on each? If making decisions of on Urban Planning this type are not within your control , could you propose to your boss, steps one and two above, and then request a yes or no decision?
What about if this recession is having a positive impact on your business or organisation? If the current economic situation is bringing you more or better business, you also need a recession strategy. In this situation, you need answers to report 1988, the following two question: What research do we need to carry out to fully understand why we are being perceived as a superior value proposition? What changes should we be considering to make our improved business situation sustainable? Whatever your current situation, a recession strategy is something you do have control over. You can ask questions and note the answers.
You can list options – including the no changes option. You can make decisions or request your boss to make decisions. The Business Plan Guy. Business Plan: The Executive Summary. Now, or in the near future do you need to secure serious business funding? This may be from a bank, from investors or maybe from a well-heeled potential shareholder. If the answer is on Urban, yes then please read on. I’m making the assumption that you have a Strategic Business Plan or an March, Internal Business Plan. In other words, you are clear on on Urban Planning, the purpose and direction of the March business. And you have a system of action plans or a roadmap to get you from where you are now, to where you want to be.
If you don’t have a good workable plan of this type, then this should be your first priority. Elsewhere in this blog are articles on how to do this. If you are short of time, the simple 100 day plan might be an attractive option. To persuade someone to Essay, invest or lend you money, you should prepare a document that investors call “An Information Memorandum”. This is typically a 10 – to 30 page document that provides information on what the business is all about, the amount of economies definition money you are seeking and Essay, the risk/reward information needed for an investment or loan decision. Most Information Memorandum documents are never fully read. Many are instantly dismissed. The reason for this is because the Executive Summary did not ‘hook’ the reader.
Financially successful people are usually busy people. They like business proposition to be presented to tudor life, them in Essay on Urban Planning a clear and concise way. If you can prepare an executive summary that instantly grabs an investors attention in the right way, you are well on your way to success. It was my intention to provide you with a series of tips to American History, help you achieve this. But here’s a much better way. Frank Peters is a very experienced angle investor in Southern California. As well as his own personal angel investment experience, he gained a wealth of experience as Chairman of the Essay much admired Tech Coast Angels http://www.techcoastangels.com/
On his website, Frank has published what he calls his irreverent Guidelines for Executive Summaries. http://www.thefrankpetersshow.com/attachments/ES.pdf. This is American Jewish History, a gem – straight from the horse’s mouth. Essay Planning? Follow this and you will be far ahead in the race. The Business Plan Guy. Business Planning: The 100 day plan for mixed definition, 2009 (Part 3) Let’s start with a quick refresher. The purpose of your 100 day plan is to have a simple and speedy way to Essay on Urban, reorganize or refocus your business or organisation. In Part 1 of these articles, you learned how to start the process of getting clear organized thinking by creating a brief Vision document. This document answers the number one strategic question: “What would my/our business or operation be like if it was *functioning* effectively. In Part 2, we started a process of smart solution simplification.
As mentioned, for Essay on The Selma-Montgomery, your 100 day plan to be effective, it must be simple enough for all concerned to fully understand. To begin this, you were asked to on Urban, identify just two or three priorities from all of the of A Farewell vision goals that you identified. Next, you were asked to name or describe the “Solutions” or “Processes” that would be needed to achieve the vision goals you have named. At this point, let me stress it is on Urban, not necessary that you know how to do the needed action steps. So Step 1 and Step 2 are very *WHAT* focused. Not how focused. Finally, it’s now time to handle the “how-to” action steps for your 100 day plan. Because doing the action steps is a step that trips up many, let me explain the logic that I suggest you follow.
I’m going to suggest that 90% of all of the action plans that you will need to create, come into economies, just two categories: You know how to do what’s needed You don’t know the how-to action steps. The other 10% is on Urban Planning, likely to be: “I think I know some of the action steps, but lack some skills or knowledge for taking effective action. In other words, it’s a combination of the Essay American Jewish History two categories mentioned above. So here is how the action plan system works. Select one of the “Solution” requirements you identified in on Urban Planning Part 2. Make a decision as to The Selma-Montgomery March, whether you are, or are not, confident on the required how-to action and implementation steps. If you do understand what need to be done, do this:Make a numbered list of the required action steps. Beside each action steps, note the on Urban Planning name of the person who will perform the task and Continuation to Arms Essay, the desired or required completion date.
If you *do not* know how to achieve the selected goal, do this:Make a list of the Essay on Urban steps that you (or a team member) will take to: (a) Learn how to perform the needed action steps – or. (b) Delegate or outsource this requirement – or. (c) Seek help from friends or business associates – or. (d) Investigate the feasibility of testing facts this goalAgain, for on Urban, the selected action option, note the name of the person who will perform the task and the desired or required completion or decision date. As you can see, this procedure puts you and tudor life, keeps in control. If you understand the Essay on Urban Planning situation, it’s simple and straightforward. If it’s a requirement that’s beyond your knowledge or skill, this method gets you into “plan the tudor life next part of the Essay plan” mode. If you have any questions or suggestions for Essay History, other planning related articles, I can be contacted at Andrew(at)apt.co.nz. The Business Plan Guy. Business Planning: The 100 day plan for 2009 (Part 2) In Part 1 of Essay this article, I covered the first part of your 100 day business plan.
The focus was on economies, functional vision. In other words, it was about you getting clear on what your business would look like and be like if it were functioning effectively. The next logical step in Essay on Urban Planning your 100 day plan is to acheson 1988, be able to answer the Planning question: “how will I (or we) make this happen? In this post I will show you a simple way to design the of A Essay “how-to” section of Essay on Urban Planning your 100 day plan. So this is about strategy, or to be precise strategy design.
The first strategy tool I need to show you is the economies art of Essay simplification. I believe that simplification is the ultimate form of on The Selma-Montgomery March sophistication. Remember, this is on Urban Planning, a 100 day business action plan. Simplicity is acheson 1988, essential. If it’s going to work, it has to on Urban, be simple for you (or your team) to understand and acheson, do. So here is what you need to on Urban, do. In Part 1 of Continuation Farewell this article, you prepared a one or two page document that: (a) identified the Essay Planning important key functions that are the basis of mixed how you operate or do business. Marketing and financial management were mentioned as potential examples. (b) described what it would look like or be like if these functions were working effectively. Your first step in the making it happen process, is Essay on Urban Planning, about setting some priorities. You can’t do it all at once.
If you spread yourself too thinly, you will surely fail. Carefully read through your one or two page vision document (from Part 1). Then select just two or three vision goal that you believe would move your business forward. Only you will know what these should be, but let me repeat a couple of examples vision goals I gave you in Part 1: Example 1: “We have a great understanding of report what our customers want in terms of on Urban value for Essay on The Selma-Montgomery March, money.” Example 2: “We are able to relate well to our clients and describe the on Urban benefits or our services in ways that motivates them to of A to Arms, buy.” Again, let me remind you to keep it simple and just go for two or three functional improvement goals. In you next 100 day plan you can select another two or three for the making it happen process.
Take a fresh sheet of paper. At the top, give your page the title: “100 Day Plan – Making It Happen Solutions” Next list your two or three selected vision goals. Start with the words “Our selected focus goals for this 100 day plan are:” (then list your selected items.) Your next task is a simple one. On Urban Planning? All that is required is that you name or identify the solutions you will need to address each chosen goal. So let me show you by mixed economies definition, example. Here is what your page might look like: 100 Day Plan – Making It Happen Solutions. Our two selected functional improvement goals are:
1. We have a great understanding of what our customers want in terms of value for money. 2: We are able to relate well to our clients and describe the benefits or our services in. ways that motivates them to Essay, buy. For goal number one, we will implement a “Customer Survey Process”. The purpose of this survey will be to better understand our customer’s perceptions. on value for testing facts, money as they see it. For goal number two, we will implement a “Client Relationship Plan” The purpose of this plan is to: (a) Establish ways that we can better get to know and relate to the 20% of customers. that provide the bulk of Planning our income. (b) Engage a professional copywriter to translate our products technical features into.
simpler customer benefit language that is more likely to stimulate sales. As you can see, all this one page document needs to tudor life, do is: (a) List the improvement goals that you have selected to work on. (b) Name (or describe) the Essay on Urban Planning process or processes or solutions that you believe will be needed to Continuation of A, bring about the Planning improvements required. As well as naming the solution, it is a good idea to write a brief “purpose” statement for on, each solution process. On Urban? This starts to acheson 1988, clarify your improvement intentions. If you have trouble naming the solution required for a particular goal, all you need to Essay on Urban Planning, do is write the tudor life goal or a shortened version of it and add the Essay words “Solution Process”. So for example goal 1 “We have a great understanding of what our customers want in of A Farewell to Arms Essay terms of value for Planning, money” – you could call this: “The understanding of what of what our customers want in terms of value for Essay Jewish, money solution plan.” In other words, just add the Planning words “solution plan” to economies, the goal. Now this may seem a gross simplification to you, but I promise it will still work. What about the action steps? In Part 3 of this article, I will, show you how to translate any solution plan name into simple action steps that you can do.
The Business Plan Guy. Business Planning: The 100 day plan for 2009. Over the past couple of years, the 100 day plan has become my most requested service. It’s a great tool to Essay, quickly instigate a business transformation process. And, in these current economic choppy waters, it’s a great way to Essay Jewish, quickly refocus or reinvent a business that is Essay, no longer viable in its current state. So in tudor life response to several emails, here is a “do-it-yourself’ version. This 100 day plan is Essay Planning, suitable for: Commercial business operations Professional service providers Non-profit organisations. The first two steps are vision focused. Pro Animal Testing Facts? To be able to move forward, you need to get clear on what your business or organisation would need to “be like” to survive and thrive in Planning this new economy.
Step one: Make a short list of the major “functions” or processes that are the basis on how you operate or do business. Typically, these might be marketing, service delivery, human resources (or team), financial management and administration etc. Keep it as simple as possible by focusing on just the major functions . Look to identify the three to seven functions that are the fundamentals or workhorse of your business or operation. Step 2: Get a clean sheet of paper. Select the first function from tudor life your list. Then write a paragraph or two that describes what it would look like and Planning, be like if this part of American History your business was operating very effectively ? in on Urban Planning the current economic climate. Very-very important. This is a “ WHAT ” exercise, not a “ HOW-TO ” exercise. Do * not * write down any ‘how-to’ methods or solutions. Keep your descriptions result, outcome or performance related. Essay On March? Keep in mind, you are creating a “Vision”.
A business operation vision. For example, for your Marketing Function, you may say something like: “We have a great understanding of what our customers want in terms of value for on Urban Planning, money.” Or you might say: “We are able to relate well to Essay American, our clients and on Urban, describe the tudor life benefits or our services in ways that motivates them to buy.” At this stage, it is not necessary that you know how to do this. Essay On Urban Planning? The how-to solutions will be worked on later.
Your job at this stage is to understand what excellent operational competency would look like for your particular business type. Repeat this procedure for each of the major functions you listed in Step 1. If possible, see if you can keep this to mixed economies definition, a one page Vision Document. Two pages would be the maximum. On completion of Planning these two steps, you should be able to answer the “Number One” strategic question: “How would I/we know if our business was operating successfully?”
In part 2 of this blog post, I will show you a simple way to manage all of the “How-to” solutions.
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2-page essay picasso This said, I would also like to point out that there are differences among them, for Essay on Urban instance, in the kind of topic chosen, the development of the Essay on March, idea, and on Urban Planning, the tone. Also, some writers show greater intellectual sophistication, and some have greater mastery over their prose. When I read student papers, I am looking for depth of insight into the novel, independent thinking, a well-organized, well reasoned, clearly written essay with almost no serious errors. I am not looking for a particular interpretation–or my interpretation. Equally successful papers can be written to prove that (1) Crusoe’s conversion was heartfelt and mixed definition, profoundly changed him and his life, (2) his conversion was superficial and he fell away once he left the on Urban Planning, island, or (3) no definitive decision about the Continuation of A Essay, sincerity and depth of Crusoe’s conversion is Planning possible because Defoe is ambiguous about it. I have made three kinds of report, changes in transcribing the Planning, essays: corrected misspellings, added missing words, and Essay on, added punctuation if meaning was confusing.
Otherwise, the text of the essays is Essay reproduced exactly as written. Report? Technical Notes: I have added illustrations, where appropriate. The thesis that Crusoe's relationship with Friday is condescending, Eurocentric, and abusive is persuasively argued. In exploring the nature and consequences of Lovelace's pride and drive to power, this essay also analyzes his relationship with Clarissa. The discussion of how Richardson handles Clarissa's private life in a public way provides a sympathetic interpretation of Clarissa and on Urban Planning, insight into pro animal facts Richardson's moral values. Writing letters is not merely a narrative technique but reveals an essential part of Clarissa's nature. Essay? The accumulation of detail makes, finally, the device of deception and disguise the heart of the Farewell Essay, novel. The writer applies Joseph Campbell's definition of the hero to Essay on Urban Huck Finn to determine whether Huck is a hero.
Her critical approach differs from that of the preceding essays, which focus just on the text of the novel. The writer focuses on a key scene, Winnie Verloc's murder of her husband, as a way into the novel. Using this scene, she is able to discuss the 1988, Verlocs' characterization, their relationship, theme, symbolism, and mood. Crusoe makes his religious conversion while shipwrecked on Essay on Urban a desolate island and mired in the throes of an ague. Continuation Of A Farewell Essay? Upon awakening from a sleep, Crusoe recollects and reflects upon his past wicked life. Crusoe decides his detainment on the island is God's punishment for his past foolish life in which he had not. the least sense . of the fear of God in danger or of thankfulness to God in deliverances. Crusoe then remembers his father's warning that if he embarked on his seaward journeys God would not bless him. Realizing that he had rejected God's counsel in his father's advice, Crusoe says his first prayer,Lord be my help, for I am in Essay on Urban Planning great distress. Acheson Report? This marks the on Urban, beginning of 1988, Crusoe's religious life, in which he draws hope for, his deliverance from the island.
Crusoe's faith in God has a positive function in his life on Essay Planning the deserted island. He Found hope in report 1988 the words of God, manifested in his Bible. Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver, and thou shalt glorify me, are the words of on Urban, Crusoes inspiration. Tudor Life? Hope of deliverance gives Crusoe a reason to on Urban Planning live. Instead of despairing about tudor life his situation, Crusoe, with the hope of eventual deliverance in the back of his mind, is able to make the best of his situation on the island.
He puts his energy to use, instead of gloating about his situation, and he is able to Essay on Urban furnish himself with many things by using raw materials an the island. On a deeper level, Crusoe's faith in History God provided him with something even more urgently needed than hope. Faith in God gave Crusoe a means through which to communicate his thoughts. Granted, God is an Essay Planning abstract entity, but God is an abstraction that requires belief or imagination, in order to exist as an abstraction. Through the communication of ideas and hopes, coupled with the mind power that was needed in order to conceptualize God, Crusoe's mind was therefore kept active. God kept Crusoe from insanity. Without God, Crusoe's loneliness probably would have driven him over tudor life the edge.
Crusoe's faith in God then, not only provided him with hope for deliverance, but God also functioned as an intangible something that functioned as a replacement for a tangible Communicator (person). Crusoe's faith is dealt a severe blow, however, when Robinson discovers a man's footprint on the beach of his island. Fear raged through Crusoe's mind at the sight of the footprint. He wondered if the Essay on Urban, devil had contrived the image of a human's foot in Continuation of A Farewell order to scare him. Then, when reason sets in, Crusoe decides that the footprint must be the remnant of a cannibal tribe's visit to Essay on Urban the island. He was terrified of the 1988, cannibals! In wake of Essay on Urban, this new found fear, Crusoe says: ..Fear banished all my religious hope, all that former confidence in of A to Arms God, which was founded upon such wonderful experience as I had of His goodness, now vanished. Crusoe's faith seems to be paper thin here, and one must wonder about the validity of on Urban, his conversion.
Then, however, Crusoe accepts the on The Selma-Montgomery, invasion of Essay Planning, his island as just punishment from God. Crusoe decides that 'twas my unquestioned duty to resign myself . to His will; . and Essay, my duty to Essay on Urban hope. pray. and attend to on The Selma-Montgomery the dictates. of His providence. Crusoe's resignation to the will of God does not necessarily mean that he has truly converted. His resignation could be interpreted as a final desperate effort to placate God. On Urban Planning? Crusoe certainly didn't want to Farewell to Arms anger God any more than he had already.
Maybe Crusoe saw the foot-print as a temptation to abandon his faith (he already intimated the workings of the devil in creating the footprint). Therefore,when he resigns himself to God's will, Crusoe might be simply saying, God, I don't want to anger you anymore, if you're even listening, and I'll accept this as part of my fate. Also, by accepting the footprint, and the possibility of foreign cannibalistic invasion, as a work of God, and part of his fate, Crusoe frees himself from having to take any action. Once Crusoe resigns himself to Essay on Urban God, he is happy, signifying a great load (worry, fear) having been lifted off his shoulders. The next time that Crusoe uses his moral reasoning is mixed economies definition not long after he sights the footprint on Planning the beach. One day, Crusoe finds the beach littered with human bones, obviously the remnants of a cannibal feast. Crusoe abhors this sight, forgets about the cannibal's presence as being God's punishment for testing him, and decides to put an end to the cannibalistic feasting. He sets about making elaborate plans to murder some of the cannibals, all of them if necessary. Then however, Crusoe decides that he has no authority . to be judge and executioner of the savages.
Crusoe reasons that the cannibals had committed what he decided were crimes for Essay on Urban so long and tudor life, had gone unpunished by God so that HE the sinner) had no right to on Urban Planning harm them. This may signify the birth of Crusoe's morality, for the remainder of his detainment on Essay American Jewish the island. Through Friday, Crusoe fulfills an unwritten obligation to God. The words upon Essay Planning, which Crusoe made his initial conversion, Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver, and thou shalt glorify me, function as an 1988 agreement between God and Crusoe. Crusoe needed a companion and Essay, God furnished Friday. Crusoe responded to this by glorifying God's name to Friday; he converted Friday to mixed economies Christianity. Essay Planning? This contract is merely a symbolic interpretation. Crusoe never explicitly mentions the already mentioned words of acheson 1988, God as the motive for Friday's conversion, nor does he cite a contractual obligation to God. Essay? Maybe the fact that Crusoe DOESN'T mention an obligation or contract signifies that Crusoe actually DID undergo a very strong religious conversion while he was detained on the island. Now, perhaps Crusoe considers glorifying God matter-of-fact. At any rate, Crusoe did convert Friday to Christianity and this conversion seems to tudor life have rested favorably with God.
Not too long after, Friday is converted. God delivers Crusoe home, after Robinson had spent thirty-five years detained on the island. Crusoe's behavior when he returns home is a testament of Planning, his religious ambivalence. Continuation Of A Farewell Essay? It is evident that Crusoe is Essay on Urban Planning a changed man. However, he doesn't really attribute his change to God.
As a matter of fact, God seems to have become a secondary factor in his life. Crusoe affirms his belief in mixed definition God, and Essay on Urban, won't be shaken from on March his belief. This is evident in his selling of his plantation in Essay on Urban Brazil. He sold it because he feared religious persecution. Brazil was in economies definition the midst of the Spanish Inquisition, and Crusoe had no intentions of converting from Essay on Urban Protestant to Roman Catholicism in order to escape the Inquisition. Here, one sees Crusoe's belief in God, but what does this belief mean? Does his belief mean faith and devotion to God?
It appears not. When Crusoe arrives in England, he doesn't go to tudor life Church to thank God for his safe homecoming. He rather inquires about his financial situation. Crusoe is generous when he returns to England(he supports the widow), but how much of this generosity does Crusoe attribute to God's workings? None. Crusoe's generosity motives are clearly secular. He responds to kindness. Crusoe's actions aren't controlled by spiritual obligations. In short, it seems that Crusoe has gained a true, underlying belief in God through his experiences on the island, but that this belief becomes secondary to his own life once his detainment on the island is over.
Now, can one term Crusoe a true convert? Before he was detained on the island, Crusoe had no belief or fear of God. During his detainment on the island however, Crusoe finds God, and returns to on Urban England with a belief in God. In this sense, one can say that Crusoe has converted. Whereas he had no belief in God before he was detained on the island, Crusoe returns with a very strong belief, a belief that even caused him to sell his rich plantation.
How far does this belief take Crusoe though? On the island, Crusoe set aside parts of every day in Jewish order to pray to God. Back in England however, Crusoe hardly communicates with God at all. By the end of the novel, the reader sees Crusoe returning to his old self. He ignores the Essay on Urban Planning, warnings of the report, old widow and sets out to Planning find his island. Even with a belief in God, then, Crusoe is ruled by impulse. One can conclude then that Crusoe experienced a partial conversion. He is a convert in acheson report 1988 the sense that he at least gained a belief in God while detained on the island, but this is where the conversion ends. The remainder of the faith that Crusoe displayed while on Essay the island evaporated once he returned back home. His faith on Essay The Selma-Montgomery the island was convenient.
Crusoe, in this case, is the epitome of the convenient convert. Essay? His great faith and devotion to Essay on The Selma-Montgomery March God expired once his problematic situation was alleviated. The combination of Crusoe's belief, but shallow faith in God, then, makes him a Partial convert. Friday (if that's what your name really is) is a very complying man. He is given truths by Essay Planning, Crusoe which he readily accepts. A perfect example can be found in the title of the nineteenth chapter--I Call Him Friday. Yes, and that is just how it is: It is not His Name is Friday or The Closest That I Can Come to Farewell to Arms Pronouncing His Tribal Name is Friday.
Crusoe gives the name to on Urban Planning the man, and the man does not object (at least as far as we know from acheson report what Crusoe tells us). But, is on Urban this not how Crusoe deals with every barrier in their relationship? The way that things are to be done is pro animal Crusoe's way, not anyone else's. Crusoe teaches Friday English, but does learn any of Friday's language. Crusoe does not point to a goat and say This is a goat and then signal to Essay Friday to say what it is called in his language. Crusoe points to a goat and says This is tudor life a goat-- end of discussion. Crusoe even clothes Friday in his way.
Crusoe's reason for the donning of clothes was that the sun shone too brightly on his unprotected white skin. Yet, Crusoe cannot let go of the social convention that one cannot go running around half naked--only SAVAGES do that. Friday is obviously comfortable and protected by Essay, his tawny skin in this environment, but Crusoe dresses him anyway in accordance with European convention. An important aspect that Crusoe replaces of Friday's is his religion. He converts Friday to Christianity with the same explanation that are used by missionaries--that of Providence: . I had not only been moved myself to look up to Heaven and to Essay on The Selma-Montgomery seek to the Hand that had brought me there, but was now to Essay on Urban Planning be made an mixed definition instrument under Providence to save the life of, for aught I knew, the soul of a poor savage, and bring him to the true knowledge of religion, and of the Christian doctrine, that he might know Christ Jesus, to know who is life eternal . (Defoe, 217) As expected, Friday is only too willing to embrace his master's beliefs. He does so well that Crusoe even remarks on how The savage was now a good Christian, a much better than I. (Defoe, 217). But, perhaps the most important thing that Crusoe does (and the thing that I find the most terrible) is that he does not even see Friday's needs as relevant enough to mention. The best example of this is when they leave the island before Friday's father and the other shipwrecked European sailors return from Friday's island (Defoe, Chs.23,24). Crusoe never even stops to think of how this will affect Friday, and we never hear of Friday's opinion on the subject. I find it very hard to believe that he would forget about his father out of his love for his master, especially when we are shown how emotional he becomes upon finding his father on the island (Defoe, Ch.21). Essay Planning? Thus, I have a problem believing that all of Friday's compliancy to Crusoe is tudor life done out of love.
I believe that there is an aspect of fear working as well. Let us go back to the scene in which Crusoe saves Friday from his captors. Crusoe states that: The poor savage who fled, but had stopped, though he saw both his enemies fallen and Essay on Urban Planning, killed, as he thought, yet was so frightened with the fire and acheson, noise of my piece, that he stood stock still and Essay, neither came forward or went backward, though he seemed rather inclined to fly still than to come on; I holloed again to him, and made signs to come forward, which he easily understood, and Farewell Essay, came a little way, then stopped again, ..and I could then perceive that he stood trembling, as if he had been taken prisoner, and Essay Planning, had just been to be killed, as his two enemies were (Defoe, 200). In a book entitled Marvelous Possessions: The Wonder of the New World , the author, Stephen Greenblatt, discusses how 11 . the experience of the marvelous, central to both art and philosophy, was manipulated by Columbus and others to acheson the service of colonial appropriation (Greenblatt). On Urban? One of Greenblatt's central themes and concerns is testing that of wonder and its effect. He states that: A moderate measure of wonder is useful in that it calls attention to that which is new or very different from what we formerly knew, or from what we supposed that it ought to be and fixes it in the memory, but an Essay excess of wonder is harmful, Descartes thought, for it freezes the individual in the face of objects whose moral character, whose capacity to do good or evil, has not yet been determined. That is, wonder precedes, even escapes, moral categories. When we wonder, we do not yet know if we love or hate the report, object at which we are marveling; we do not know if we should embrace it or flee from it(Greenblatt, 20). Essay On Urban Planning? The above citation expresses the predicament that Friday is in when he is saved by tudor life, Crusoe. Essay Planning? He is left in awe by the power of Crusoe's gun.
Even Crusoe himself states that . that which astonished him most was to definition know how I had killed the other Indian so far off . (Defoe, 201). To Friday, this is something that cannot be believed without going over to the man and seeing the bullet hole for himself. He stands like . On Urban? one amazed, looking at him, turned him first on one side, then on t'other. (Defoe, 201). This reaction of Friday's parallels once again with Greenblatt when he states that: Wonder--thrilling, potentially dangerous, momentarily immobilizing, charged at once with desire, ignorance, and fear--is the quintessential human response to what Descartes calls a first encounter (p.358). Such terms, which recur in philosophy from Aristotle through the seventeenth century, made wonder an almost inevitable component of the History, discourse of discovery, for by definition wonder is an instinctive recognition of difference, the sign of on Urban Planning, a heightened attention, a sudden surprise of the soul, as Descartes puts it (p. 362), in the face of the new.
The expression of wonder stands for all that cannot be understood, that can scarcely be believed. It calls attention to the problem of acheson report 1988, credibility and at the same time insists upon the undeniability, the exigency of the experience (Greenblatt, 20). I feel that Crusoe's power cannot be believed by Friday because he has no explanation for it. For all he knows, Crusoe could be a god. I feel that Friday bows to on Urban Crusoe not only out of love for acheson saving his life, but out Planning of the fear that Crusoe can take it away as mysteriously as he did the acheson, lives of his captors. So could it, be possible that Crusoe has misinterpreted the signs that Friday has given him? or, at least, misinterpreted the motives behind them? Crusoe states that: . I smiled at him and looked pleasantly and beckoned to him to come still nearer; at length he came close to me, and on Urban Planning, then he kneeled down again, kissed the ground, and laid his head upon the ground, and taking me by the foot, set my foot upon his head: this, it seems, was in token of swearing to tudor life be my slave forever (Defoe, 200). According to Greenblatt, . charades or pantomimes depend upon a shared gestural language that can take the Essay on Urban Planning, place of speech (Greenblatt, 89) . Even though I too saw Friday's bowing as an act of subservience, I thought of a couple of different meanings that it could have. It could have meant I am indebted to you forever or I will love you forever. Owing someone your life does not necessarily mean that you are to be their slave forever, as Crusoe seems to believe. Crusoe never once considers that Friday could be his friend forever.
He cannot even think of a non-European in testing those terms. Thus, I apply the term of Noble Savage to Friday, as represented by Crusoe. Is that not the perfect way of presenting Friday to his readers without causing their dismay? Is not the Christianizing of Friday also one of Crusoe's crowning achievements on the island? Another one of his projects to keep his mind off of things? This may be so, but we will never know for sure because we have never seen anything from Friday's point of view. After all, everything else is done Crusoe's way or it is not done at Essay Planning all--so why should the telling of this story be any different? Defoe, Daniel. Robinson Crusoe.
Signet Classic: New York, 1960. Greenblatt, Stephen. On? Marvelous Possessions: The Wonder of the Essay, New World. University of Chicago, 1991. THE CHARACTER OF ROBERT LOVELACE. Robert Lovelace is a man who is economies used to getting what he wants. He has been brought up not to know what contradiction or disappointment is and he has managed to avoid them throughout much of his life. Lovelace was a very strong ego and a need for power and domination. He needs to know he can control anything or anyone in Essay Planning any situation he finds himself in. The only thing he can not control is himself.
The desire to always have his own way occasionally drives him to recklessness. He cannot stop himself when pursuing something he wants. Testing Facts? He usually gets it. Lovelace is a charming, attractive man of wealth and status. Essay? He is well respected in society, despite his reputation as a libertine. Mixed? He behaves honorably in his dealings with men and is trustworthy in money matters. Even his enemy, James Harlowe, admits that Lovelace is a generous landlord who looks after his own estate. It is only when it comes to on Urban Planning women that he is dishonorable, and tudor life, many people are willing to on Urban Planning overlook this. Lovelace comes from a very highly regarded family, and they do not denounce him because of his behavior.
In fact they are often amused by his escapades. Lovelace entertains his ailing uncle with his tales of seduction, and his female cousins who are in attendance also enjoy them. Even after the tragedy of Clarissa, when Lovelace is preparing to go abroad, his uncle says affectionately, We shall miss the wild fellow. Economies Definition? Seduction is Lovelace's greatest pleasure in life and his main goal is to on Urban sleep with as many women as he can. He does it not for sensual pleasure, but for the challenge, the excitement, the power he feels in being able to break down a woman's defenses. Lovelace believes that all human beings have an animal, sexual nature. Report? He views female modesty and decorum as something superficial, a false persona that society forces on Planning a woman in opposition to her true nature. Lovelace's aim is to break down the barrier of virtue and prove his theory that once subdued, always subdued. He does not believe any woman possesses genuine virtue, for The Selma-Montgomery what woman can be said to be virtuous till she has been tried? All the women that Lovelace has tried he has conquered. The way Lovelace speaks of his affairs and of women reveals his contempt for on Urban the sex, as he calls them.
He thinks he has women completely figured out, and he sees such a perverseness in the sex. He says they lay a man under a necessity to deal double with them. Essay On The Selma-Montgomery March? Lovelace distrusts women. He feels he must play games and plot because they are doing the on Urban, same thing, and he can never be outwitted. When Lovelace speaks of his affairs with women, his language is often that of Continuation of A to Arms, hunting, or even warfare. Essay On Urban Planning? I love, when I dig in a pit, to American have my prey tumble in with secure feet and open eyes, then look down upon her. He compares the capture of a woman's virtue to the capture of a bird, saying, both perhaps experience our sportive cruelty. And once the chase is over Essay on Urban Planning and the Farewell to Arms Essay, conquest has been made, Lovelace feels the need to go on to the on Urban Planning, next challenge, bored with the American, woman he ruined. He exclaims to Belford, O Jack! What devils are women when all tests are over, and we have completely ruined them!
Lovelace sees Clarissa as the ultimate challenge because of her exquisite beauty and excellent virtue. On Urban Planning? She is considered by report, many to Essay be the perfect woman, held out as an exemplar to her sex. For him to reveal to her, and to himself, that underneath all her goodness and decorum she is merely a woman like any other, would be to him the greatest victory of all. Lovelace asks, Will it not be to my glory to succeed? And to hers, and to the honor of her sex, if I cannot? Where will be the hurt to make the tudor life, trial? A self-proclaimed marriage-hater, Lovelace nevertheless says he will marry if he cannot sleep with her without benefit of Essay Planning, marriage. But he intends to try everything possible before he will consider this step. What Lovelace wants is to possess Clarissa body and soul, to make her wholly his, for she can be no one else's.
However, he underestimates Clarissa's will to belong to no one but herself. Clarissa is the exception to his rules. Her strength, her will, and her sense of self match his. What starts out as a game soon escalates into a fierce power struggle. Tudor Life? Lovelace insists that she must admit her love for on Urban Planning him, say that she wants to marry him, let down her guard with him. This violates Clarissa's nature, she can never do what he asks.
For her, decorum is not a mask, it is a basic part of her, and she cannot do something so much against Continuation of A Farewell Essay her nature. Essay Planning? Lovelace vows her haughtiness shall be brought down to own both love and obligation to me. Clarissa knows she cannot trust Lovelace, that she cannot give in to him on Essay March anything. The inflexibility of her punctilio is her protection. But this inflexibility infuriates Lovelace and causes him to Essay Planning become more ruthless and Essay The Selma-Montgomery March, determined in his schemes. He takes a drug that makes him sick in order to gain her sympathy. He uses the occasion of a fire in the middle of the night to Essay frighten and disconcert her, and to gain the opportunity to get close to her while she is not fully dressed.
The failure of these tricks only makes Lovelace more obstinate, and he demands, How, having proceeded thus far, could I stop? Adding fuel to the fire are the whores at the brothel where he is keeping Clarissa. They taunt him and goad him, and ego will not let him stand it. He does not want to seem weak or foolish in anyone's eyes. Clarissa's first escape pushes Lovelace over the edge.
His true obsessions and lack of self- control are revealed. He will do anything to get Clarissa back under his control. Continuation Farewell To Arms Essay? He hunts her down frantically, and he tells Belford that it has now come down to Who shall most deceive the other? Lovelace will stop at absolutely nothing now, and Essay on Urban Planning, his schemes become more elaborate and diabolical. He disguises himself, forges letters, and produces phony relatives in an effort to Essay on March imprison her again. Through it all, Lovelace blames Clarissa for Essay on Urban Planning contriving to tudor life rob me of the dearest property I had ever purchased. He vows, my sworn revenge (adore her as I will) is uppermost in my heart. Lovelace's revenge is to drug and rape Clarissa. He admits there's no triumph over Essay Planning the will in force, but have I not tried every other method? He has tried her virtue and found it to be sincere and pure, but he is in such a frenzy, he has driven the Essay on The Selma-Montgomery, stakes so high, that he cannot possibly allow himself to admit defeat. That would mean that his whole belief system is Essay on Urban wrong, that his life is based on a lie, and he cannot face that.
Let me perish if she escape me now. Lovelace still clings to the belief that Clarissa will be subdued, and March, is convinced that he can make everything right by marrying her. Essay On Urban Planning? However, though Clarissa is physically defeated, her will and her spirit cannot be broken. She would never consent to pro animal marry someone who abused her and robbed her of her dignity. Planning? Lovelace cannot understand this, and he is acheson 1988 too self-centered to try. He says she has but met the fate of a thousand others, and cries, I suffer a thousand times more than ever I made her suffer. Clarissa's final escape is death, which she chooses as her only on Urban, alternative after all she has been through. But even this tragedy cannot truly change Lovelace. His pride, his will, and his obsession to on The Selma-Montgomery March possess Clarissa persist up to and after her death, and even cause his own.
He wants to marry her on her death bed, although she was in on Urban agony. And after her death he insists nobody will dispute my right to her. Lovelace's wish to keep her heart in History a jar preserved in spirits shows just how perverse and obsessed he can be. Lovelace does express regret and sorrow for what he has done, but it is doubtful he ever realizes the true evilness of it, or the real horror he put Clarissa through. But the full knowledge of what he has lost and why he has lost it make life too much for Lovelace to bear, and he says, I have been lost to myself and to all the joys of life. However, his pride has not been lost, and this is what leads him to the fatal duel with Clarissa's cousin Morden.
When Lovelace hears that Morden has been talking of revenge for Clarissa's death, his reaction is I am as much convinced that I have done wrong as he can be, and regret as much. But I will not bear to be threatened by any man, however conscious I may be of Essay, deserving blame. Mixed? Lovelace dies with Clarissa's name on his lips. His death is inevitable because he could not have lived without Clarissa. I believe he might have loved her, if his nature would have allowed it. Clarissa is Essay on Urban a personal story about a young woman who is in conflict with her family because of her opposing their insistence upon report 1988, her marrying Solmes, a man whom she detests. As a direct consequence of her failure to yield to their increasing pressure and urgency, poor Clarissa gives in to Essay the temptation of running off with Lovelace as her only viable means of escape from a life of acheson 1988, unhappiness.
Unfortunately, this action leads her not to freedom from oppression, but to Essay on Urban yet another battle of wills, which has dire consequences for her. She falls victim to tudor life his greedy, selfish passion to conquer her through his vile rape and suffers a subsequent decline in health, ending in Planning her untimely death. This utterly personal story is made public due to the elevated regard for Clarissa by all who knew her personally and even those who only testing facts, knew her by reputation, as a model of the perfect, dutiful daughter, the epitome of goodness, purity and punctilio, representing the ideal young woman. In creating this work, Richardson used the element of Essay on Urban, publicity to help convey his own ideas that morality is The Selma-Montgomery March not just a personal issue, but a public one as well. In the on Urban Planning, very first letter, the reader becomes aware through Anna Howe's letter to Clarissa thata dispute between Clarissa's brother and Clarissa's prospective suitor, which should be a privatefamily matter, has become a topic of economies, public discussion. Anna says, I know how it must hurtyou to become the subject of the public talk . but that whatever relates to a young lady, whosedistinguished merits have made her the public care, should engage everybody's attention. Essay On Urban? Public figures become well known because they are extraordinary in some way.
Most of the characters in Clarissa represent extremes, displaying characteristics through which they create reputations for themselves. Clarissa is on renowned for her virtue and Essay on Urban, goodness; everyone regards her as the perfect young daughter, a model for her sex. Lovelace is pro animal testing infamous for his dalliances with women; he is a known rake. People's images are important to them. Everyone tries to Essay on Urban keep up his image because images help define a person's conceptions of himself as a human being; a tainted reputation would damage one's sense of pride. Both Clarissa and Lovelace are proud, opposing beliefs about what constitutes the ideal male/female relationship. Both adhere to their own personal views of the mixed economies definition, social code; Clarissa represents the puritanical, conventional mode of Essay on Urban Planning, social conduct, while Lovelace represents the more liberal attitude of the aristocracy. Though they are attracted to each other, they have opposite philosophies about sex.
Lovelace feels that once he possesses her physically, she will be forever under his spell, happy to be with him; all he has to do is free her animal nature, which he believes existent in all women underneath the polished facades created by society. Clarissa sees her virtue as tantamount to her honour, the on The Selma-Montgomery, core of her spiritual identity. When Lovelace fails to win her over to his way of thinking through his charm, he resorts to villainous force and rapes her, totally disregarding her pitiful pleas to leave her alone. From that point on, Clarissa despises him with a passion, refusing to listen to advice from Anna or anyone else to marry him. After his heinous betrayal of her honor and her trust, she never wants him near her again. When Clarissa tells Anna, I could have loved him, I have the impression that at least part of her anguish stems from her bitterness in that she did actually love him at one point. Because she had loved him, this made his offense even more horrific and unacceptable to her mentally, so that she loathed him with a venom and could never forgive him, despite anything she says to the contrary. Also, I think that part of Essay on Urban, her anger has to be self-directed due to her own misjudgment of his character.
Her sense of having been physically and psychologically violated so cruelly to the core of her being by the man she loved, her subsequent loathing of him and her anger at acheson 1988 herself for ever loving such a man prove to be very detrimental to her health. She may even continue to feel love for him in spite of her deep anger, resentment and loathing of his odious behavior, creating an anguished, divided mind. It is no wonder that she goes into such a physical decline after the trauma of being raped. She had already been feeling extreme unhappiness and a sense of on Urban Planning, betrayal due to her family's unreasonable demands that she marry a man she abhors. She is pro animal very young, only eighteen going on nineteen years old, and has been used to being treated well by her family in the past.
She always went along with her parents' wishes before, but never before were the stakes so high. To go along with their wishes on Essay on Urban this issue would mean sacrificing any chance for her own future happiness. To Clarissa, this would be a fate worse than death. Several times in the book, she mentions that she would rather die than be married to a man she despises. She tells her family that she would rather never marry at all, but would choose to remain single instead of marrying Solmes. She promises to give the economies definition, family the on Urban, dairy which was bequeathed to her by acheson report, her grandfather, all to Essay Planning no avail. They are resolute in their insistence that she comply to their wishes. Her mother, who used to tell Clarissa that she was all her joy, does not come to her defense, but gives in to her husband's unreasonableness.
When on p. 31 Clarissa says to her mother, Thus are my good qualities to be made my punishment; and I am to be wedded to testing a monster, Mrs. Harlowe answers, Astonishing!Can this, Clarissa, be from you? Clarissa responds, The man, madam, person and mind, is a monster in my eye. Any sensible, normal, loving parents would not submit their young daughter to such a dismal fate as to on Urban Planning force her into such a hateful life. But her mother is in an unhappy marriage herself, where she has sacrificed her own individuality because it is easier to just go along with her husband and keep the peace. Essay American Jewish History? Her mother fails to Essay on Urban come to her aid. Also, Mrs. Harlowe feels that she must present a united front with her husband to mixed economies maintain the impression that all is well within the family for the sake of public scrutiny. Clarissa is the only member of Essay, her family who does not appear to be afflicted with greed. Material things are unimportant to her; she is pro animal testing facts more spiritually oriented. The rest of the Harlowes consider wealth and prestige so important that they have devised a plan to raise their family's social and economic status.
The two uncles have agreed never to marry, so that they could leave the bulk of their wealth to their nephew when they die, thus giving him an opportunity to marry up into the aristocracy. Since they would be dead anyway, how could it matter to them if the Essay, family becomes upwardly mobile? The answer is that the Continuation of A to Arms, family is important to them, and how they are seen in the public eye is crucial. Although they are already a solid, wealthy, upper middle class family, they are not content with this position. The public social climate of the time seems to foster an Essay on Urban Planning upward-mobility mentality which the Harlowes swallow hook, line, and sinker with little regard for personal happiness, especially concerning Clarissa. They are ready to economies sell Clarissa off to Solmes, the highest bidder, who in turn is willing to pay lots of money to on Urban Planning her family for the privilege of marrying up in social status himself. The fact that Clarissa finds him totally revolting is irrelevant to them. Were it not for this generally accepted practice to seek higher social status, there would be no reason to inflict this marriage on Clarissa. But there is pro animal testing more to Planning it than this. Clarissa's brother and sister are jealous of her since she is the one who received the grandfather's estate. Clarissa has always been the one of the children who has been loved and admired by everyone in tudor life the community, who see her as a pure and precious pearl of Essay Planning, a child, the ideal young woman and daughter.
They talk about her already having out-grandfathered us (p.24) and worry that maybe other relatives will also bequeath their fortunes to her rather than themselves. Their family plan could be in danger. American Jewish? James puts pressure on his father to marry Clarissa off for Essay on Urban Planning a large sum of money to help the family acquire wealth. Since Lovelace is in a higher social class as the Harlowes, it would not be economically in their favor to approve Clarissa's marriage to him; he would not pay them exorbitant fees for the Privilege. Due to their concern for what amounts to their seeking public approval through higher family status, Clarissa's parents fail in their duties to their youngest child by abusing their authority to the point of trying to force her into a hateful marriage. Clarissa, heretofore an exceedingly dutiful daughter, does not even insist that she choose her own husband, only mixed definition, that she be allowed veto power. But this is denied her. For Clarissa, this creates an irreconcilable inner conflict, as she is very uncomfortable with defying her parents, but at the same time refuses to sacrifice herself to a life of unhappiness. When she runs off with Lovelace, it is in pursuit of on Urban, self- preservation; she is of A to Arms running for on Urban Planning her life. But she is acheson report 1988 absolutely mortified and devastated when she receives the curse from her father. It is Essay on Urban Planning this horrendous treatment she receives through the mixed economies, hands of her family and by the cruel Lovelace that cause her to become ill.
Yet, though she becomes physically weak, spiritually, she seems to be getting stronger. It is as though as her body deteriorates, her spirit becomes elevated. Richardson manages to enhance this effect by making her illness and her death very public. Through Belford, she is able to orchestrate the details concerning her will and last requests in Essay on Urban Planning preparation of her death. Knowing that she is dying and welcoming it, one of tudor life, her chief concerns is setting the Essay on Urban Planning, record straight about tudor life her experience with Lovelace. She is determined to clear and preserve her reputation and goes to great lengths to do this, even so far as to have Belford obtain copies of Lovelace's letters alluding to her innocence. Even in thinking about her own death, her image is paramount to her, her passion for decorum apparent in her wearing pure white garments as if she were an on Urban Planning expectant happy bride, but also symbolic of a sacrificial lamb, awaiting death with open arms, longing to be laid in her waiting coffin. Jewish? Friends and Planning, family visit her at her deathbed, observing her as being not just good and pure, but as a manifestation of a heavenly angel, a saint here on earth.
Servants come forward for a last blessing by her. Pro Animal Testing? Clarissa is still worried about her father's curse and wishes him to retract it. When she talks to Essay on Urban Planning her doctor, she expresses concern that her coming death not implicate suicidal desire. Essay Jewish? She asks the doctor if she has taken everything she should to on Urban Planning combat death. Her image is everything to her; it must remain unblemished. It is to Arms Essay important to her what people will think of her, even after her death. Approaching death, Clarissa seems to become ever more peaceful, as she realizes that this is the best, perhaps the only, acceptable solution to Essay her agonizing ordeal of the last eleven months. She must realize that everyone sees her as an innocent victim to her family's obsession for the acquisition of wealth, and Lovelace's obsession to possess her. Of A To Arms? Her innocence apparent, she comes out smelling like roses , but her death gives her power, power to Essay on Urban Planning achieve passive revenge on the perpetrators of her acute unhappiness. It is tudor life poetic justice that Lovelace also undergoes a rapid decline in health and Essay, dies a miserable death after having defiled Clarissa, a paradigm of virtue. It is also poetic justice that as Clarissa's family abused her through want of public approval through their quest for wealth and status, they would henceforth suffer severe public disapproval for their ill treatment of such an extraordinary virtuous daughter, paying for their crimes with the shame of never again being able to hold their heads up, scorned for on the rest of their earthly days.
Although morality involves personal choices, one's actions can have public ramifications of great magnitude, not just personal ones. People do not live in a vacuum. It seems that Richardson wanted to present a message that actions have consequences and affect others, sometimes precipitating unpredictable, dire, irreconcilable outcomes. I believe that he felt that everyone has a personal as well as a social obligation to act in morally responsible ways, and that a breach of moral conduct and abusing one's position by inflicting pain on others is deserving of public condemnation. Planning? Of all the attachments set forth in Samuel Richardson's Clarissa , perhaps none is stronger than that of the heroine to her writing implements. She takes great care to possess these, partly because she has to--she knows her parents may at any time seek to obstruct her by taking them away--and part!y because she is mixed economies definition just that kind of person; she will always have pen and ink with her because she is always writing. Near the beginning of the story she describes the measures she takes to persist in this, her vocation; on April 5 she relates to Miss Howe: I must write as I have opportunity; making use of my concealed stores: for my pens and ink (all of each that they could find) are taken from me; as I shall tell you more particularly by and by (1). Further in the same letter she reports Betty, the Essay on Urban Planning, maid, as saying, I must carry down your pen and Continuation of A to Arms, ink; this is followed by her cousin Dolly's regretfully insisting, . You must--indeed you must--deliver to Betty--or to me--your pen and ink (2). Thus it is established early on that Clarissa's writing tools are not only, in her parents' eyes, instruments of her insubordination, but, in the eyes of the reader, they become symbols of her dedication to writing. Nothing can separate her from them, nor will she ever allow herself, except in moments of Essay Planning, utmost duress, to be without the acheson report, means, and the will, to use them.
For Clarissa's captors (first her parents, and later Lovelace), her writing becomes a focus of their inability to control her completely. Essay? Shortly after her pens and ink are confiscated, her aunt tells her that the family is convinced that you still find means to write out of the house.(3) Later, Lovelace determines that she will not be fully in his power without his being able to monitor her correspondence; of the letters between Clarissa and Anna Howe he writes (on May 8, to mixed definition Belford): I must, I must come at them. This difficulty augments my curiosity. Strange, so much as she writes, and at on Urban all hours, that not one sleepy or forgetful moment has offered in our favour (4). Clarissa, ever vigilant of her most prized activity, of course suspects and Continuation of A to Arms, even anticipates Lovelace's designs. On April 26 she warns Miss Howe: Mr. Lovelace is so full of his contrivances and expedients, that I think it may not be amiss to desire you to Essay look carefully to acheson report 1988 the seals of my letters, as I shall to those of yours (5). Her wariness here does not prevent Lovelace from successfully interfering, but it does demonstrate her determination to protect her writing. Her primary determination, to be engaged in the act of writing itself, is manifest in numerous passages. On April 20, she observes to Miss Howe, Indeed, my dear, I know not how to forbear writing.
I have now no other employment or diversion (6). To Mrs. Judith Norton she avers, I will write. But to whom is my doubt (7). When it is Essay on Urban suggested that she should share a bed with Miss Partington, who will wait up with Dorcas until Clarissa is done writing, she replies that . Miss Partington should be welcome to my whole bed, and I would retire into the dining-room, and there, locking myself in, write all the night (8). This last statement reminds us that essential to Jewish the writer's vocation is the condition of solitude, for which Clarissa displays a like determination.
The single life, she observes on Essay on Urban July 23 to Miss Howe, . has offered to me, as the life, the only life, to be chosen (9). The next day Lovelace reports to Belford: The lady shut herself up at six o'clock yesterday afternoon, and Essay Jewish, intends not to see company till seven or eight this; not even her nurse--imposing upon herself a severe fast. And why? It is her BIRTHDAY! (10). Thus there is no greater present that Clarissa can give to on Urban herself than solitude--and the American, opportunity to write. When Mrs. Howe forbids her daughter to receive further letters, Miss Howe over-rules her mother, saying, But be assured that I will not dispense with your writing to me. My heart, my conscience, my honour, will not permit it (11). Clarissa, in response, declares: I forego every other engagement, I suspend every wish, I banish every other fear, to take up my pen, to beg of you that you will not think of being guilty of such an act of Love as I can never thank you for; but must for Planning ever regret. On March? If I must continue to write to you, I must (12).
It appears that the regret expressed here is simply for defying the parental authority of Mrs. Howe; Clarissa regrets not at all Miss Howe's insistence on continuing to on Urban Planning receive her letters. On? And, incidentally, Mrs. Planning? Howe seems to have ambivalent feelings about cutting off Clarissa's correspondence. Near the end Anna writes: You are, it seems (and that too much for your health), employed in writing. I hope it is in penning down the particulars of your tragical story. And my mother has put me in Essay American History mind to press you to it, with a view that one day, if it might be published under feigned names, it would be of as much use as honour to the sex. My mother says [. ] she would be extremely glad to have her advice of penning your sad story complied with (13).
Evidently, whatever apprehensions Mrs. Howe has about the corrupting influence of Clarissa upon her daughter are overcome by an eagerness not to Essay on Urban miss out on what Clarissa will write. Clarissa's reputation as a writer is widespread. Lord M. comments to Lovelace, . for I am told that she writes well, and that all her letters are full of sentence (14). After she escapes Lovelace, he complains to tudor life Belford, I have no doubt, wherever she has refuged, but her first work was to Essay Planning write to her vixen friend (15). Mixed Economies Definition? Even Arabella jealously admits the power of her sister's prose, beginning a letter (just a month before Clarissa's death) as follows: Sister Clary,--I wish you would not trouble me within any more of your letters. You had always a knack at writing; and depended upon making every one do what you would when you wrote (16). Clarissa maintains her output until the very end, despite the Essay Planning, difficulty it gives her. Belford reports on August 28 to Continuation of A Farewell to Arms Essay Lovelace, Mrs. Lovick told me that she had fainted away on Essay on Urban Saturday, while she was writing, as she had done likewise the pro animal, day before (17). Planning? The day before she dies, Clarissa is too weak to of A Essay hold a pen, but she dictates to Essay Mrs.
Lovick what will be her last letter, for Miss Howe: Although I cannot obey you, and write with my pen, yet my heart writes by hers (18). It is tempting if not entirely justifiable to see Clarissa as representing somewhat the writer's condition. Besieged by the interfering forces of family, suitors, and society, hailed as a paragon and regarded as an oddity, abused, exploited, and report, made to Essay on Urban Planning suffer numerous hardships, she nevertheless manages to demonstrate stamina and perseverance in her chosen form of expression, her art. It is doubtful, however, that this was Richardson's intention. He wanted Clarissa to represent moral, not literary, virtue. Tudor Life? Her prolific letter-writing is simply a by-product of circumstance--what the situation demands--as well as an on Urban Planning expedient for telling the story in epistolary form. On The Selma-Montgomery? This is too bad, for otherwise her writing might have saved her.
Richardson must have had a grudge with the world, and decided to show that Clarissa was too good for it. He let death stop her; he had her, in effect, choose to die. But if Clarissa was what she seems, if she was as attached to her vocation as she shows herself to be, would she have done this? Could her troubles have killed her? No matter how ill and on Urban Planning, dispirited she was, might she not have endured simply to avoid relinquishing her pen and pro animal testing, ink? (7) Page 345, from letter of July 6. (8) Page 206, from letter or May 1. (11) Page 207, from letter of May 3. (12) Page 208, May 4. (13) Page 407, letter of July 28. (14) Page 247, letter of May 23. (15) Page 277, letter of June 8. (16) Page 420, August 3. Planning? (18) Page 467, September 6. DECEPTION AND DISGUISE IN A SICILIAN ROMANCE. by Continuation Farewell, Ann-Marie Henry-Stephens. In naming her novel A Sicilian Romance , Ann Radcliffe may have attempted to deliberately deceive her readers by disguising the artistic complexities of this novel with its simple title. On Urban? This novel is full of intrigue, suspense, tyranny, drama and villainy. It allows the reader to Essay American experience emotions ranging from fear and disgust to love and sympathy. Like the many characters who get lost in the recesses of the castle, the forests, the monastery, the ruined buildings, and the Sicilian landscape, so too do the readers get lost to the outside world when engaged in Essay Planning the plots and sub-plots of this novel.
The Gothic elements( the haunted castle, the possible supernatural presence, the decay, and the dark gloomy environs) used in the novel help to report 1988 enhance its richness and mysteriousness. The characters themselves are the most intriguing, for they embody the deceitfulness and the disguises which force the readers to want to discover all that lies behind the walls of the Mazzini castle. Ferdinand, fifth marquis of Essay, Mazzini, a ruthless, tyrannical leader, heartless father, and cruel husband (to his first wife Louisa Bernini) was the personification of deceit. He had power, and he used it mercilessly and arrogantly. The Selma-Montgomery March? He ruled by overpowering, threatening, lying to, and manipulating others. When he met and fell in Essay on Urban Planning love with Maria de Vellerno, he sought to get rid of the woman he was already married to, without care for her or for her children. He imprisoned the Continuation of A, ailing Louisa in the southern wing of the castle and then told everyone that she was dead. Essay Planning? The marquis further compounded his deception by holding a funeral for Louisa with all the pomp due to her rank. He enlisted the help of American, a servant, Vincent, who was totally dependent on and in Essay on Urban Planning awe of him, to carry out his plans. In relating the story of her imprisonment Louisa said of him, My prayers, my supplications, were ineffectual; the hardness of his heart repelled my sorrows back upon myself; and as no entreaties could prevail upon him to inform me where I was, or his reasons for facts placing me here, I remained for Essay many years ignorant of my vicinity to the castle, and of the motive of Essay American Jewish, my confinement (177). On Urban Planning? In fact, the tudor life, marquis never told the marchioness why she was being held, and she only gained this information through the 'softening' of Vincent's heart.
The marquis' deceitfulness knew no boundaries, for he went on to commit further acts that would allow him to go undetected. Essay Planning? He shut up the southern section of the castle, left his daughters in the care of Madame de Menon, a dear friend of his first wife, and went to live in Naples with his son and new wife for many years. After the death of Vincent and his subsequent return to the castle, he still tried to mixed cover his tracks. When Madame, the girls and Essay on Urban, the servants saw lights appear in and heard sounds emitting from the southern section of the castle, he dismissed their claims as, the weak and ridiculous fancies of women and servants. Essay The Selma-Montgomery March? (14). Later on, when his son Ferdinand went to him with similar claims, he chose to Essay on Urban Planning attack his mind and Continuation of A to Arms Essay, manhood. When Ferdinand persisted in his claims, his father added to the mountain of lies, by telling him that the building was haunted by Planning, the ghost of Henry della Campo, a rival of his (the marquis') grandfather, who had been killed there many years ago. Ferdinand was deceived, for he believed his father's story, especially since the marquis claimed that he himself had witnessed the acheson report, horror of seeing the ghost.
The marquis also sought to Planning deceive his superstitious and fearful servants, by taking them to the southern section and showing them fallen stones, which he claimed to be the cause of the sounds coming from tudor life that part of the castle. Essay On Urban Planning? He made sure to stop short of Essay American Jewish History, where his wife was hidden. They, however, were not placated by his explanation. The marquis was an ambitious man and did not hesitate to use whatever or whoever he could to achieve his ambitions. When the Essay Planning, Duke de Luovo asked for his daughter Julia's hand in marriage, the marquis saw an opportunity for himself there and consented to the marriage solely on selfish grounds. He saw this marriage as a chance to gain more wealth, honor and tudor life, distinction (56). Essay On Urban? He also saw a chance, at Julia's expense and through the duke's means, to involve himself in the interests of the state (188).
The marquis sought to deceive the Duke also, for after Julia succeeded in running away from the castle and her nuptials, the marquis carefully concealed from him her prior attempt at elopement, and her consequent confinement, thereby enraging the duke whose pride was wounded by the insult. They quarreled, but subsequently made up, allowing the marquis to Essay The Selma-Montgomery March gain a strong ally in his endeavors. The Duke de Luovo was very much like the marquis in Planning character. He loved power, and he exercised it at the expense of everyone. He had a violent temper and a very high opinion of himself and his authority. He pretended to care deeply for Julia, when he was really only interested in acquiring her because of her beauty. Once she revealed her true feelings to him, he was humiliated and inflamed so, with her father's consent, sought to have her anyway.
After her flight he pursued her mercilessly, simply because his passion for Essay on The Selma-Montgomery March her was heightened by the difficulty which opposed it. Julia was just an object of Planning, his desire and his pride. The duke had another thing in common with the marquis; he too had a child who had run away from him. His son, Riccardo, had run away from him many years before, and he had never been able to find him. Report 1988? When he finally did encounter him, he was surprised to find him disguised as a banditti.
Ricardo, after running away from his father, had placed himself at the head of a party of banditti, and, pleased with the liberty which till then he had never tasted, and with the power which his new situation afforded him, was a contented young man (88). He knew that as a member of the nobility, if at any time he chose to Essay Planning shed this disguise and resume his rank, it could be accomplished with minimal explanations and scrutiny. His father's pride was devastated, and so he wished his son dead. The true characters of the men of the cloth in Essay on The Selma-Montgomery March this novel were curiously hidden from the world outside their monasteries. On his journey to find Julia, the duke encountered a monastery full of rowdy friars and a drunken Superior, whom he was initially told were engaged in on Urban Planning prayer, when he sought refuge at their gate. The Abate, at the abbey of Continuation of A Farewell to Arms, St.
Augustin, was another disguised individual. He used his position and authority to control those around him, and to seek revenge on those who opposed him. He was not the on Urban, benevolent character that one would expect to find in mixed economies definition his position. He used his power to defy Julia's father and he reveled in on Urban it. He accused Julia of using the disguise of virtue to gain his protection, but he instead tried to use her fear, her naivete, and her desperate situation to force her to report 1988 become a nun. The fairer sex was equally deceptive, but their reasons, for the most part, were based on love and self-preservation.
Julia deceived her father not out of malice, but because of fear for the life she would have to live and because of her love for on Urban Planning Hippolitus. She also deceived her sister Emilia, because of Essay on March, her love for Essay on Urban Planning her and her need to protect her from the marquis. Julia's deceptiveness was not only in her actions, but in her character, for she appeared to be a fragile girl who fainted or cried at economies every unbearable thought or deed, but she was in fact a very strong woman. She openly defied her father, fully aware of the consequences of her actions. She spent a very long time on the run, never really giving up hope, and never returning to her father. She was determined never to give in. A weaker woman might have returned home or committed suicide, rather than live through her experiences, but Julia never entertained those thoughts. On Urban Planning? She, however, found a woman like herself, who had made certain choices in her life, but this woman was not able to pro animal live with her choices.
Cordelia, Hippolitus' sister, was in many ways disguising herself as a nun. She had decided to Essay on Urban Planning take the March, veil, but her heart was not in Essay her vows. Farewell? She was still very much in love with an earthly presence, Angelo. She may have succeeded in deceiving those around her, but she could not deceive herself, hence her early demise. The supreme mask was worn by Essay on Urban Planning, Maria de Mazzini, the Farewell to Arms Essay, wife of the marquis. This woman was able to blind her shrewd and devoted husband. She was a beautiful woman, with an explosive temper, a mean, jealous spirit, and the capacity to manipulate. On Urban? Her strong desire to report 1988 have Hippolitus, and her intense jealousy of Julia, drove her to encourage the marriage of Julia and the Duke de Luovo.
She also succeeded in having Madame de Menon leave in order to save her reputation with her husband. She wrongfully assumed that the Madame possessed the Essay on Urban Planning, same spiteful quality that she had. If anything, the marchioness was the marquis' one weakness. She did not really love him, for a woman like that could only mixed, truly love herself. Essay On Urban Planning? She was able to Farewell convince him of her devotion to him, even though she had had numerous affairs while being married to him. She carried on these affairs right under his very nose, but was never suspected by him. When he finally discovered her treachery, via a servant, being so blinded by his feelings for her, he was not able to carry out Essay Planning his initial plan of killing her. He, instead, chose to reprimand her and this she used against him. She committed suicide, left a note blaming him for her act, and informed him of his own impending death by her hand. Tudor Life? She had been able to deceive him one last time, when she poisoned his drink during their dinner the on Urban, evening before.
The author's biggest deceptive device though was the Mazzini castle, the focal point of the tudor life, mystery. This building served as perfect cover for the characters, their actions, and the secrets within it. The walls were able to hide much of what went on within them. The castle hid information from the characters and from the readers. Madame de Menon, Julia, Emilia, Ferdinand, and the servants did not know what was responsible for the noises and lights in the southern section. Planning? The children did not know that their mother was alive and living so close to them. Ferdinand was not aware that as he was languishing in the dungeon, his mother was within a stone's throw.
Maria de Mazzini did not know about the first marchioness. The marquis did not know that Maria was having affairs right there in the castle. He was not aware of her deceptiveness and her true character, which enabled him to be killed by her. He was not able to prevent Julia's escape from the castle and he was not aware of acheson report 1988, her return to on Urban Planning it. This castle was the ultimate mask, for the readers never really see all of it and so cannot fully perceive all of Essay History, its secrets, and so it retains its air of Essay Planning, mystery till the very end of the story. Radcliffe, Ann. A Sicilian Romance . New York: Oxford, 1993. In his book The Hero With a Thousand Faces , Joseph Campbell sets forth his theory that there is a monomyth which underlies all folk tales, myths, legends and even dreams.* Reflected in the tales of mixed economies, all cultures, including Chinese, Hindu, American Indian, Irish and Eskimo, this monomyth takes the form of a physical journey which the protagonist (or hero) must undergo in order to get to a new emotional, spiritual and psychological place. The monomyth is a guide which integrates all of the Essay, forces of life and provides a map for living. Campbell breaks down the cycle into three main stages: departure, initiation and return.
Within these three stages are five to Essay March six steps through which the Essay on Urban, hero moves. First, the hero must leave his world and undertake a journey into an unknown world, in effect losing himself and Jewish History, descending into death. Next, he undergoes a series of tests, assisted by various helpers, which can be very dangerous and threatening. These tests serve as guideposts in his journey, and from each the hero learns something which helps to move him along. Essay On Urban? Finally, the hero reaches the apex of his journey, where there*is an apotheosis or transcendence. The hero, having evolved and emerged into tudor life his best possible self, must return home carrying with him his new found knowledge or boon to restore the world. First, Huck as the hero is not of noble birth whereas most of Campbell's protagonists are princes, princesses or divinely chosen in some way. While Huck Finn is on Urban Planning special, he is, nevertheless, an ordinary American boy which other American boys can identify with. Secondly, magic and facts, the supernatural play an important role in Essay on Urban Planning the tales Campbell uses to illustrate the hero cycle. In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , however, there is no magic. There is luck, coincidence (at times highly unlikely coincidence), but there is no magic or supernatural.
This again brings the on, story to a level that Americans can identify with. Planning? Finally, Huck's return is of a different nature than the traditional journey which reflects a particularly American ideal. Huck Finn's adventure begins when he sees his father's footprint in the snow. Up to tudor life this point, Huck describes his daily, routine life, but the footprint signals a change. Huck's father functions, therefore, as the herald signaling the Essay, call to adventure by the crisis of his appearance (Campbell, 51). As Campbell states: The herald or announcer of the mixed definition, adventure is Essay on Urban Planning often dark, loathly, or terrifying, judged evil by the world; yet if one could follow, the Continuation to Arms Essay, way would be opened through the walls of day into the dark where the jewels glow (Campbell, 53). Huck's father is portrayed as dark (morally, not physically), loathly, terrifying and he is indeed judged evil by the world, but it also he who precipitates Huck's journey. When Huck's father moves him into the woods, Huck is in the first stages of his journey. He is away from all that is Essay familiar to Essay him and the longer Huck remains in the woods, the more he adjusts to the ways of on Urban, life there. He cannot imagine going back to civilization, wearing stiff clothes, minding his manners and all the other ways he has acquired living with the Widow Douglas.
According to Campbell, this alienation from his previous life is part of the cycle: The familiar life horizon has been outgrown; the old concepts, ideals, and emotional patterns no longer fit; the time for the passing of a threshold is at pro animal facts hand (Campbell, 51). Huck's next step in his journey is what Campbell calls The Belly of the Whale: The hero . . Essay? . is economies swallowed into the unknown, and would appear to have died (Campbell, 90 ). In order to proceed, the Planning, hero must leave his world totally and die into himself in order to be reborn again. He must relinquish his ties with this world in order to attain a higher level of existence, which is the purpose of his journey. Because Huck fears for Jewish his safety, he realizes that he must leave the woods. Yet he does not want to return to his previous life. Therefore, he elaborately stages his own death, planning every detail carefully so that everyone will think he is dead and Essay Planning, will not, therefore, look for him and bring him back to the existence he has outgrown. This self-annihilation is absolutely crucial for the journey. After his death, Huck floats down to Jackson's Island and spends three days and three nights by himself (reinforcing the theme of death and acheson report 1988, rebirth) before the Essay, next stage of Farewell, his journey. Here, Huck meets up with Jim who is what Campbell refers to as Supernatural Aid: The first encounter of the hero-journey is with a protective figure (often a little old crone or old man) who provides the adventurer with amulets against the dragon forces he is about to pass (Campbell, 69). The fact that the aid often comes from a little old crone or an old man suggests that it comes from someone whom society does not value. Planning? To have someone whom society does not value provide essential elements to the journey is ironic.
As the provider of supernatural aid to Huck, Jim, a 19th century black man, is not valued in human terms by his society. Indeed, he is not even thought of as human, which further heightens this irony. While Jim does not literally provide Huck with amulets against the dragon forces, figuratively, he does. As Campbell states: what such a figure represents is the Essay on The Selma-Montgomery, benign, protecting power of destiny (Campbell, 71). Jim cares for and protects Huck, nurtures him and loves him, both mothers and fathers him, calling him honey and watching out for his safety. Most importantly, however, Jim provides Huck with a belief in humanity, where all along the river Huck sees evidence of man's corruption and cruelty. Essay On Urban Planning? This belief is the amulet with which with Huck will fight off the dragon forces, those forces being man's inhumanity to man.
The Crossing of the First Threshold comes after Huck has learned that two men are on their way to the island. Up to this point, Jim and Huck exist in a kind of limbo, both having escaped their previous lives, but not going forward. At this point, they must move. Essay History? Jim risks being captured and sold; Huck risks a return to the life he has outgrown. They must cross the threshold into the region of the unknown. Although this crossing is dangerous, the hero must move beyond it in order to enter a new zone of experience (Campbell, 82). At this point Huck, as the hero, moves into the second stage of his journeyinitiation. It is here where he encounters the Road of Trials: Once having traversed the on Urban Planning, threshold, the hero moves in pro animal testing a dream landscape of curiously fluid, ambiguous forms, where he must survive a succession of trials . . Essay? . . The hero is facts covertly aided by Essay Planning, the advice, amulets, and Essay, secret agents of the supernatural helper whom he met before his entrance into this region2illustrate (Campbell, 97). On Urban? These trials are tests for the hero which he must overcome in order to mixed move forward in his journey. They serve as guideposts along the way, reflecting his progress and growth. By surviving these trials, the hero moves to a point of transcendence.
The purpose of the trials is to gain some kind of knowledge or insight which the hero needs in order to on Urban complete his journey. This leads to the question: what is the purpose of Huck's journey? Every episode along the river in some way illustrates man's inhumanity to man. Meeting every walk of life, Huck's confrontation with this world illustrates cruelty and corruption of March, some kind. On Urban? While some characters are obviously corrupt (the king and the duke, for Essay example), all characters are tainted somehow. Even the most charitable characters--the woman Huck meets while dressed as a girl, the Grangerfords, the Phelps, Mary Jane--are tainted by their attitudes toward blacks or towards other people in general. However, Huck's exposure to society's corruption is balanced by the kindness he receives from certain people and by the humanity he learns from Jim.
As a product of his society, Huck believes in slavery and Essay on Urban, also believes he is Essay Jewish doing wrong by protecting Jim. But Huck comes to see Jim's own humanity through their friendship. Essay On Urban? Jim tells Huck that he is the best and only friend he has, the only white man who has kept his promise to him. Jim's belief in Huck's goodness is mixed economies essential to on Urban Planning Huck's physical as well as psychological journey. This relationship teaches Huck about Farewell caring for Essay on Urban another human being in the face of ubiquitous cruelty. This is the more elevated purpose of acheson 1988, Huck's journey. Huck learns the techniques for humane survival--how to exist in the cruel world and not be corrupted by it. Huck's trials finally come to a crisis when the king and the duke are attempting to on Urban swindle the Wilks girls out of Essay Jewish, their inheritance. Up until this point, Huck has remained rather passive with regard to on Urban their antics.
Disgusted by their behavior, however, Huck exclaims: It was enough to make a body ashamed of the human race (Twain, 285). He decides that he must take some action and his dilemma is over how to help the girls. Previously, Huck has lied to survive but here he realizes that his best option may be to tell the truth. This is on The Selma-Montgomery March a moment of transcendence for Huck as he rises above his experience of the past and takes a chance in telling the truth: here's a case where I'm blest if it don't look to me like the truth is Essay better, and actually safer, than a lie (Twain, 299). This test also melds with what Campbell calls The meeting With the Goddess. Because Huck is only a boy, there will be no mystical marriage with the Universal Mother, the incarnation of the promise of perfection.
This is not to be a part of Huck's journey. Yet Mary Jane does inspire Huck. He finds her beautiful and it is because of Continuation of A Essay, her that he risks telling the truth and, consequently, he reaches a new level. Essay On Urban Planning? It is obvious that she has a positive effect on him which propels him in mixed economies definition his journey. Huck's description as he flees the cemetery and passes her house reveals this: [M]y heart swelled up sudden, like to bust; and the same second the Essay Planning, house and tudor life, all was behind me in the dark, and wasn't ever going to be before me no more in this world. She was the on Urban Planning, best girl I ever see and tudor life, had the most sand (Twain, 309). For Campbell, the Apotheosis occurs when the hero is on Urban raised to the level of the gods. It is a divine state which the American History, hero attains after proving himself through his trials. Because this story is Essay not about gods or mythic figures, Huck's apotheosis is reflected through his transcendence over his dilemma about Jim. Huck really believes he is doing wrong by helping Jim because of what he has learned in society.
He even writes a letter to Miss Watson, revealing Jim's location. But Huck begins to think about Jim and mixed, his kindness, loyalty and friendship. Essay Planning? He must choose between listening to the voice of society or his inner voice, which values Jim. He cannot violate the connection he has with Jim. However, because Huck really believes he is doing wrong by society's standards, it is a true moment of transcendence for him when he declares: All right, then, I'll go to hell (Twain, 309). Rising above the conventions and the level of society around him, Huck has attained a higher moral consciousness. The next stage in Huck's journey is The Return. After deciding to help Jim, Huck finds himself at tudor life the Phelps' farm, where they mistake him for their nephew, Tom Sawyer. This is the beginning of the on Urban Planning, Crossing of the Return Threshold because Huck is now back in a world which directly connects to the world he left behind. Tom and Huck's attempt to rescue Jim is The Magic Flight. This is the Essay March, last test, one of the purposes of Essay on Urban Planning, Huck's journey being to free Jim.
Campbell states that the Magic Flight can often become a lively, often comical, pursuit . . . complicated by marvels of magical obstruction and mixed economies, evasion (Campbell, 197). Again, the story does not involve magic, but the Essay Planning, attempt to rescue Jim otherwise fits Campbell's description (even if the obstructions are for the most part created by Tom). Something interesting happens with the pro animal testing, appearance of Tom. Huck has always looked up to Essay Tom as the standard by which he measures himself. Yet Huck has been on a journey which has raised him above that standard. Curiously, when Tom reappears, Huck recedes, becoming passive. On the first reading, this section comes across as digressive from the definition, normal hero cycle (and somewhat disjointed). It seems out of place with Huck's progression. But it can be reevaluated as a part of Huck's journey in that it serves to heighten the Essay Planning, disparity between the two boys and, in doing so, we see Huck's growth. Huck still looks up to Tom, but he is History not like Tom and Planning, does not use Tom as his model.
He even calls Tom ridiculous and tudor life, foolish, which is on Urban very different from his attitude towards Tom in the opening pages of the book where Tom is someone admired and of A to Arms, respected. In this section, we see by comparison to Planning Huck how conventional, ordinary, unimaginative and even cruel Tom is. All of Tom's ideas come from tudor life books; Huck develops his ideas himself. Essay? Tom's idea of style is to Farewell to Arms Essay make his plans as complicated as possible and take as long as possible; Huck's solutions are always straight forward, simple and reveal his common sense. Tom even plays a trick on the slave who serves Jim which is reminiscent of the trick that Huck plays on Jim after the fog episode. However, at this point in his journey, Huck would never do this.
Sometimes the hero is unable to return on his own. At this point, the Rescue From Without occurs: The hero may have to be brought back from his supernatural adventure by assistance from without. That is to say, the world may have to come and get him (Campbell, 207). Huck is indeed rescued from Essay on Urban without by the Phelps, Tom and Aunt Polly. In an American Jewish History unlikely coincidence, they all appear as a deus ex machina whose appearance isn't logical but serves to on Urban bring Huck back. Huck's return is mixed complete when the Essay, Phelps discover his identity and Huck learns that Jim is free. Huck also learns that his father is dead (releasing him from that legacy) and he still has his $6,000. There is a resurrection of his old self.
Here, however, Huck's return digresses from the normal cycle. Campbell states: the returning hero, to acheson report complete his adventure, must survive the impact of the world (Campbell, 226). It is hard to say whether Huck accomplishes this. The monomythic hero, after attaining the Ultimate Boon, returns to his community and Essay Planning, bestows his wisdom and knowledge for the good the kingdom of humanity. Huck will not return to the Widow Douglas and facts, he will not stay with the Phelps. He rejects their world and he doesn't want to be civilized. On Urban Planning? It seems as if he can't survive the acheson 1988, impact of the world. But rather than a failed hero journey, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn reflects a particularly American hero quest, the individualistic man going west, with all the inherent dangers involved, a pioneer taming and Essay on Urban, settling the land. Definition? Rather than returning for his old world, Huck's quest is to Essay Planning explore new territories. * Joseph Campbell, The Hero With a Thousand Faces (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973). Farewell To Arms? All further references to this work appear in parentheses in the text. ** Mark Twain, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in The American Tradition in Literature , ed.
George Perkins, et al. (New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1990). All further references to this work appear in parentheses in the text. The Verlocs at Their Final Encounter. The Verloc murder scene depicts the reactions of two people to a crisis situation. It is a significant scene in terms of Essay, revealing basic personality traits and in terms of tudor life, highlighting the fragmentation that exists in the Verloc marriage. Conrad makes obvious that the Verlocs perceive their marital roles in fundamentally different ways and that they are really strangers to each other.
The black veil covering Winnie's face is merely the outward symbol of the secrecy and mystery pervading the Verloc household. Significantly, when Verloc pulls the veil away, he doesn't succeed in unmasking a still unreadable face (p. Essay? 211). As this scene of betrayal and economies, retribution unfolds, we see a husband and on Urban Planning, wife who are totally out of tune with each other's emotions and Essay The Selma-Montgomery, thoughts. Verloc is thoroughly enveloped in Essay Planning domestic considerations at precisely the pro animal, time that Winnie psychologically disengages herself from any commitment to him. In progressive stages, Winnie perceives herself as being a free woman (p. 209), fears that Verloc will want to keep her for nothing (p. 211), and finally resolves that the bargain is at an end (p. 215). Verloc, on the other hand, strives to make it up with her (p. Essay On Urban? 215) and can't begin to imagine that his wife could give him up (p.
211). The height of irony is achieved when Verloc seeks to of A woo Winnie as she moves toward him with the carving knife. It becomes clear that Winnie has looked upon Planning, the marriage as a transaction, and tudor life, that Stevie's welfare has been the basis for that transaction. In return for Verloc's support of Stevie, Winnie has been a dutiful wife. Verloc, however, genuinely believes that he is and has been loved for himself (p. 214). Given his superficial notion of on Urban, marriage, he just assumes that any woman who married him must love him and that nothing could change that fact.
Therefore, although the bargain has been brutally terminated for Winnie, Verloc has no conception of this and his main concern remains the maintenance of his domestic tranquility. Indeed, Verloc's thorough domesticity is prevalent throughout this scene. His response to what he considers to be Winnie's sulking in that dreadful overcharged silence (p. 213) is that she's a master in Essay Jewish History that domestic art (p. 213).
Conrad describes Verloc as being tired and on Urban, resigned in a truly marital spirit (p. Acheson? 213) and even refers to his voice as a domestic voice (p. 212). Also, it is implicit that Verloc perceives his situation as being comparable to that of peaceful men in domestic tiffs (p. 212). Essay On Urban? His total domesticity leads him to draw simplistic, familiar conclusions and colors his reading of Winnie's response. Beyond that, however, his preoccupation with his domestic self-image is so strongly stressed here, that we have to tudor life assume that it has colored much of his activity in general and that it is very central to his personality structure. (Thus, it is a final irony that he should be murdered by his wife and with a domestic knife.) Verloc is so totally preoccupied with his own concerns and is so shallow and insensitive, that he doesn't begin to Planning comprehend the horror of his action or the shattering effect it has had on Winnie. Verloc is tudor life portrayed as being emotionally flat in this scene. He undergoes no inner or outer turmoil and there's no sense of Essay on Urban Planning, vitality about him. Here is a man who faces his wife after causing her brother to be blown to bits, and pro animal, we get no sense of any intensity of feeling from him.
He manifests no remorse--just regret that things didn't work out according to plan--and instead concentrates on self-justifications. His main sensation seems to be fatigue and we get a sense of his indolence as his lies sprawled across the couch. Conrad adds his usual ironic touch by having Verloc meet his death lying motionlessly: he dies, as he has lived, in a state of inertia. Winnie, on the other hand, is described as one whose moral nature had been subjected to a shock of Essay on Urban, which, in the physical order, the most violent earthquake of history could only be a faint and languid rendering (p. 210). That analogy describes the magnitude of her emotional upheaval, and lies in tudor life sharp contrast to Verloc's unfeeling and inert state. A dichotomy exists, however, between Winnie's internal turmoil and on Urban, her quiet exterior. The two are fragmented and out of tune with each other.
She doesn't scream or get hysterical. All the tudor life, activity is Planning internal. Outwardly she remains inscrutable and uncommunicative and mixed economies definition, she retains tight control on any show of emotion. We get a picture here of a woman who has a very intense emotional capacity, but who, characteristically, keeps her feelings locked tightly within her. For a short while, Winnie does attain a harmonious state.
A change comes over her appearance as she moves toward Verloc with the carving knife in her hand. She takes on Stevie's facial expressions and Conrad writes that the resemblance of her face with that of her brother grew at on Urban every step, even to the droop of the lower lip, even to the slight divergence of the eyes (p. 215). This may reflect the strong hold that Stevie still has over his sister. But more significantly, I think, it unmasks the cold, dispassionate facade that Winnie has learned to present. As she commits the murder, Winnie becomes a total creature of passion and the fragmentation between her interior and exterior states disappears. She becomes like Stevie who has an instinctive emotional reaction to an injustice and who must move to correct it. For a few moments, her veil of restraint falls away. Tudor Life? Conrad describes Winnie as being capable of a bargain the mere suspicion of which would have been infinitely shocking to Mr. Verloc's idea of love (p.
213). This description reflects the different expectations the Verlocs have from marriage and how little they know about each other. They live in their separate worlds, are guided by different and unspoken motivations, and seek to have their own needs fulfilled through their marriage. Neither seems concerned or even aware that the other has needs and priorities too. Each seems to view marriage through a tunnel vision--only aware of his or her own perspective. The Verlocs remain isolated from each other and unable to communicate until the very end.
Even when the truth stares them in the face, the Verlocs remain oblivious to it. Winnie gives no sign of comprehension when Verloc tells her that she shares responsibility for what's happened. Verloc never shows the slightest understanding of Winnie or the reason for her violent response. Even when the knife is upon him, the only explanation this man can conjure up is that his wife has gone raving mad (p. Essay On Urban? 216). The Verloc marriage is enveloped in secrecy and misunderstandings.
Using progressive strokes of irony, Conrad depicts the Continuation of A to Arms Essay, destructive nature and on Urban Planning, tragic consequences of a relationship based on hidden motives and Essay Jewish History, cross-purposes. Click on your choice:
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Free Information Technology essays. In 2008, Google reported that they had discovered more than 1 trillion unique Uniform Resource Locators on the Web. And as previous research has shown or any other search engine, is even close to discovering all the available content on the Web. The Web is quite a large place, and finding information can be a typical task without a web search engine. So web search engine is very useful to find information on the web. Regular Web Search: The most popular type of search which searches the Essay on Urban Planning, index based on Jewish any type of web page. Other on-line textual resources like PDFs and Microsoft Office formats are also available through regular web search. News Search: It searches only news-related websites. Typically the search results are ordered based on age of the story. Image Search: It searches only images that were discovered during the on Urban Planning, web crawling.
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Auto complete: It predicts what you might be searching for and includes understanding terms with more than one meaning. Google Instant: It displays immediate results as you type. Query Understanding: It gets to the deeper meaning of the words you type. Synonyms: It recognizes words with similar meanings. Based on these clues, the relevant documents from the index are pulled. And then the search results or web pages in search results are ranked by some algorithms and they use some factors like freshness, site and page quality etc.
These algorithms are constantly changing. These changes comes as ideas in the minds of engineers. They take these ideas and implements them, analyze the results, tweak them, and run them again and again. The most popular algorithm for the ranking of web pages is PageRank algorithm which is explained in next topic. Overview of PageRank Algorithm  Page Rank was proposed by Sergey Brin and Larry Page, students at Stanford University and economies the founders of Google. Essay Planning? According to Google, PageRank considers the number of links and quality of mixed definition links to a web page to Essay on Urban estimate importance of the website. The underlying assumption is that more important websites are likely to receive more links from pro animal testing facts, other websites. PageRank is a link analysis algorithm and Essay Planning it assigns a numerical weighting to each element of a hyperlinked set of documents, such as the World Wide Web, with the purpose of measuring its relative importance within the pro animal facts, set. The algorithm may be applied to any collection of entities with reciprocal quotations and references.
The numerical weight that it assigns to any given element A is referred to as the Essay on Urban, PageRank of A and denoted by PR(A). A PageRank results from a mathematical algorithm based on the webgraph. Webgraph is created by all World Wide Web pages as nodes and hyperlinks as edges. Continuation Of A To Arms Essay? The rank value indicates an Essay on Urban Planning, importance of a particular page. Number of hyperlinks to a page is considered as a vote of support. The PageRank of a web page is mixed defined recursively and depends on the number and PageRank metric of all pages that link to it. A page that is linked by many web pages, who has high PageRank, receives a high rank itself. A web page is important if it is pointed to by other important web pages. Google calculates a page's importance from the votes cast for it. Importance of each vote is taken into account when a page's Page Rank is calculated. Page Rank is Google's way of deciding a importance of web page.
It matters because it is one of the factors that determine a page's ranking in Essay on Urban Planning the search results. PageRank Notation- 'PR'. The main objective of the research is to provide an efficient algorithm for sorting the facts, web pages generated as search results in web search procedure. This provides the Essay on Urban, efficient and better search results to users relevant to their query. Our main purpose behind this work is acheson that user does not need to check thousands of search results for the information that user wants. The proposed algorithm ranks the pages according to user's query and most appropriate web page with the content that best match with user query gets the highest pagerank value and according to that pages have been sorted and Essay on Urban Planning result have been displayed. So the American Jewish, algorithm saves the user's time and give better result in shortest duration. As world-wide web is developing rapidly, Internet has become the world's richest and most dense source of information.
Users face the problem which is how to get relevant and useful information from the large number of Essay disorder information . Search engines become an Continuation of A to Arms Essay, important tool for users to retrieve information for a particular query. However, current search engines cannot fully satisfy the user's need of Planning high-quality information search services; and Essay it raises many new challenges for information retrieval. So this motivated me to enhance the pagerank calculation. Theoretical Background Literature Review. 2.1 Theoretical Background. 2.1.1 Pagerank Algorithm  Formula for pagerank calculation. PR(A) - pagerank of page A.
N- total pages accounted. d - Damping Factor. L(B) - Total number of Essay on Urban outbound links of tudor life page B. So any page's PageRank is derived in large part from the PageRank of other pages. Essay On Urban? The damping factor takes the derived value downward. Sometimes following formula used, which has led to some confusion:
There is a difference between the above two formula. In first formula, PageRank values sums to tudor life one. In second formula each PageRank is multiplied by N and Essay on Urban Planning the sum becomes N. Essay On The Selma-Montgomery? A statement in Page and Brin's paper that the sum of all PageRank values is to one like first formula. Step :1 At , an initial probability distribution is assumed, Step :2 At each time step, the computation, as detailed above, yields is the set of pages that link to pi. where p_1, p_2, ', p_N are the pages under consideration, M(p_i) is the set of Planning pages that link to p_i.
L(p_j)is the number of pro animal testing facts outbound links on page p_j,and N is the Essay on Urban Planning, total number of pages. The calculations do not work if they are performed just once. Accurate values are obtained through much iteration. Suppose we have 2 pages, A and B, which link to each other, and neither have any other links of any kind. Page Rank of A depends on Page Rank value of B and Page Rank of depends on Page Rank value of A. We can't work out A's Page Rank until we know B's Page Rank, and mixed we can't work out B's Page Rank until we know A's Page Rank. But performing more iterations can bring the values to such a stage where the Page Rank values do not change. Therefore more iterations are necessary while calculating Page Ranks. Simple Example for calculating Pagerank: Consider following Figure:
No. of outlinks from A and B are same i.e = 1. PR(A) = 0.15/2 + 0.85(0.5/1) = 0.5. PR(B) = 0.15/2 + 0.85(0.5/1) = 0.5. Why we need damping factor? Assume the following scenario where A, B, C and D are web pages and Essay on Urban their respective linking as shown in tudor life graph : Figure 1 Inlinks and Outlinks for web pages A, B, C and D. Figure 2 PageRank values for on Urban web pages A, B, C and D. So every page has at least a PR of 0.15/n to share out. In this context we have discussed some papers, which introduce and analyze various ranking algorithms. Some papers analyze the pagerank algorithm, limitations of the algorithm and propose the improved version of the pagerank which improve the pagerank algorithm and giving the better results. Pro Animal Testing? In some papers ranking algorithms which use web structure mining and are categorized based on input parameters they use.
Some algorithms use weights of inlinks, some use weight of outlinks, some use weight of inlinks and on Urban outlinks both and some ranking algorithms use weight of inlinks, outlinks and no. of user's click information for Essay calculating pagerank values. We then show Comparision among various ranking algorithms and strengths and weaknesses of those algorithms. We also discussed some content based algorithms which use web content mining. In the next section we discuss those research papers. 2.2.1 RatioRank: Enhancing the impact of on Urban Planning Inlinks and Outlinks  Author Name: Ranveer Singh and Dilip Kumar Sharma. Published Year: 2012. In this paper various ranking algorithms are analyzed and facts explained, in which different users use different parameters for ranking algorithm. Some algorithms use inlinks weight, some use outlinks weight, some use number of visit of on Urban links of pro animal facts webpage. Planning? Some use both inlink weight as well as outlinks weight.
They are compared for knowing advantages and disadvantages of them. Then the Continuation of A, new algorithm is presented which is called RatioRank, in which the inlink weights and outlink weights are used with the consideration of number of visit count and is compared with some algorithms by using certain parameters. Table 1 Comparison of various ranking algorithms. Algorithm Technique Strength Limitations. Page Ranking Algorithm Algorithm based on Web graph of the.
webpages and considers the inbound. links to rank the pages Ranking is done on the basis of. importance of the pages Ranking is at indexing time. HITS Algorithm Hubs and Authority score is used to. rank the web pages Relevancy of the pages is high Problem of on Urban theme drift and all. links are considered of same. Weighted Page Ranking. Algorithm Based on the popularity of inlinks and. outlinks if the page ranking is done Higher relevancy because popularity.
of the links is considered Theme Drift. Weighted Page Ranking(VOL) Rank on the basis of visit count of any. inlinks and popularity of the inlinks. are considered User input is considered hence. relevancy is higher Theme drift and surfer jamming. Page Ranking Based on visit of link.
of pages Extend the tudor life, standard page ranking by. considering the Planning, visit count of links of. webpages User input is considered hence the. relevancy of the Continuation to Arms Essay, pages is higher Theme Drift. Improved Page Ranking. Algorithm Replaces the rank of pages by Essay mean of. the rank values of all pages and go for. another round and carry on until the. value of two consecutive pages is. equal Reduces the economies definition, computational.
complexity Relevancy is Essay on Urban low and theme drift. Above table compare various ranking algorithms. From the tudor life, table we can observe the strengths and limitations of Essay Planning various algorithms. New RatioRank Method: In the RatioRank, both the inlinks and outlinks are being considered for 1988 computing the page ranking, and the number of times the user visit the particular link. Figure 3 Shows inlinks and Outlinks between pages A, B and C.
As shown in the figure from on Urban, page B, there is on March one inlink and one outlink so the number of Essay on Urban times the inlinks is visited is the fact of interest and outlinks to it. The importance or the popularity of out linked page C from page B will vote for ranking computation. The equation for the proposed algorithm is as follows: Where RR(u) and RR(v) are ranking of the webpages u and acheson 1988 v respectively. W_((v,u))^in and W_((v,u))^outare used to record the popularity of the inlinks and the outlinks and calculated as per Weighted Page Ranking Algorithm. d is the dampening factor. V_u is the number of visits of Essay link which points from v to u. TL(v) is the 1988, total number visit of all links present on v, B(u) are the pages which points to webpage u, x is the ratio of inlink weight and on Urban y is the ratio of outlink weight.
The values of of A Essay x and y will be set between 0 to on Urban Planning 1 on tudor life the basis of empirical results, while the ratio of inlink weights will be higher than that to the ratio of outlink weights because inlinks are considered to be more important to rank the webpages. Algorithm: how actually the RatioRank works as follows: Step 1: Initially assign 1 as the rank of Essay Planning all the retrieved WebPages. Step 2: In the next round compute the American, rank again using the initialization made in step 1, using the ranking formula as given in equation. Step 3: Assign the final rank value to the WebPages as obtained after step2 and the pages accordingly. As the Essay on Urban, inlinks of any WebPages votes more to increase the popularity of the page less of that by outlinks, that's why we assign more weightage to the inlink weights as that of outlink weights. In this paper the parametric comparison of the algorithms are explained as follows. Table 2 Parametric Comparison of Various Page Ranking Algorithms. Algorithm Description Mining Technique.
Used I/P Parameters Relevancy of the Pages. ed Algorithm) Static computation of page using the inlinks. and outlinks with number of VOL as the user. input Web Structure Mining Inlinks, outlinks and the. number of VOL from user More than weighted page. Algorithm Computes scores at indexing time Web Structure Mining Inbound links of the pages Medium. Algorithm It computes the hubs.
and authority of the. relevant pages. Web Structure Mining, Web Content Mining Content, Back and. Forward links Less than PR. Algorithm Static computation of page ranks according. to the importance level a page is observed Web Structure Mining Backlinks, forward links Higher than PR. In this paper the proposed algorithm considers the on, inlinks, outlinks and the number of times a user visits the Essay on Urban, inlink of report a webpage.
The algorithm will give better results in terms of on Urban relevance of web pages, because no other then the RatioRank page Ranking algorithm uses all the features together as the inlinks and outlinks of any webpage and tudor life the visit of link count. 2.2.2 Enhanced-RatioRank: Enhancing Impact of Inlinks and Outlinks  Author Name: Ranveer Singh and Dilip Kumar Sharma. Published Year: 2013. In this paper a few of link based page ranking algorithm are revised and a new page ranking algorithm is Planning proposed named Enhanced-RatioRank in which the inlinks, outlinks and pro animal testing the number of times user visits the link of the webpages. The relevancy of the web pages returned is on Urban Planning more because the user behavior is also considered to rank the webpages.This Paper also consider ratio of weight of the inlinks and weight of outlinks for calculation and check which ratio gives the best result which ratio helps to give better relevancy of the web pages. The Selma-Montgomery March? The problem of theme drift exist (some link may not give the data about the query), and surfer jamming are the major limitations of the page ranking algorithm, HITS Algorithm considers all links of same importance are the Planning, major limitations of the HITS algorithm. The problem of topic drift was also exist in Essay History this. In Weighted pagerank algorithm  theme drift and surfer jamming exist which are counted as the limitations of this algorithm.
Limitation of weighted page ranking algorithm based on visits of links of Essay Planning users is that it only uses the inlinks and the similar ranking to the non-visited webpages.New Enhanced algorithm is proposed to remove some limitations as follows: Enhanced RatioRank Algorithm. In the Enhanced-RatioRank both the inlinks and the outlinks are being considered for computing the page ranking, and the number of times the user visit the particular link. Figure 4 Shows inlinks and outlinks in web pages X, Y, Z and V. As shown in the figure from page V,X,Y and Z there exist different visit count and so the tudor life, number of times the inlinks are visited is the fact of user interest.
The mathematical equations of the inlinks and outlinks weights are given as follows: The equation for the proposed algorithm is as follows: Where RR(u) and RR(v)are ranking of the webpages u and v respectively, d is the dampening factor, V_u is the number of visits of Essay Planning link which points from v to Continuation Farewell u, TL(v) is the total number of visits of all links present on v. B(u) are the pages which points to webpage u. As in Essay equation only 70 percent of the weight of inlinks and the 30 percent of the weight of the outlinks is being used.
Compare to other this ratio gives the better result. Algorithm: how actually the RatioRank works as follows: Step 1: Take the link structure of the retrieved webpages from the crawler . Step 2: Obtain the webgraph from the link structure of the retrieved webpages. Step 3: Assign 1 as the initial ranking to all the webpages. Step 4: Calculate the weights of inlinks and outlinks using equation number '(1)', '(2)'. ?? Step 5: Apply the proposed algorithm (RatioRank) as in the equation '(3)'. Step 6: Repeat the process iteratively until ranks of all webpages are stable means same in tudor life two consecutive iteration.
Disadvantage: The problem of theme drift still exist in this algorithm. By using all three parameters for computing the pagerank and on Urban Planning taking particular ratio of weight of inlinks and outlinks gives the better relevancy of web pages. 2.2.3 Improved PageRank Algorithm based on feedback of userclicks  Author Name: Zhou Cailan and Chen Kai, Li Shasha. Published Year: 2011. This paper analyzes the tudor life, PageRank algorithm, find out its shortcoming and Planning put forward an improved PageRank algorithm. Based on the behaviour of user clicks, this algorithm on the one hand collects the clicks of mixed economies definition result pages and the recently click time of on Urban result pages, on the other hand set the weight of clicks and mixed definition click time as formula parameters of PageRank algorithm, and verify this algorithm does improve the precision ratio of search engines through experiments. They analyzes some limitations of Pagerank in this paper:
PageRank algorithm emphasize the old page: The number of links points to the page plays a decisive role on the PR value in Essay on Urban PageRank algorithm. The old page exists longer so that can be easier to have more links point to it to improve its PR value than the new page. But most users just want to search the contents maybe in the latest pages. So the PR values of pages do not necessarily reflect the real importance of the Essay, page. Topic shift problems: The PageRank algorithm is Essay Planning not dependent on the keywords, the information of Continuation Essay user feedback, and cannot judge whether a hyperlink is related to the subject of the page or users inquiry. So it's easy to have the problem of topic shift. Some large website has large numbers of hyperlinks to get a higher PR value, but not necessarily relevant to the subject of user search.
Page cheating: Some rogue websites deliberately add a lot of popular keywords which are not related to the content in the title or content of the page to cheat search engines. PageRank algorithm does not identify the content of the pages. If a website can maintain a certain number of Essay Planning hyperlinks, it will be ranked in tudor life the forefront of search results. New Improved Method: This paper figures the Essay on Urban Planning, feedback information of user, optimize formula of Essay Jewish History PR value and adjust PR value of page appropriately. In order to reduce the probability of topic shift and page cheating, In this paper they have added weight parameter of PR value through analyzing collected click information.
S(i) =Clicks weight. N =Clicks of page i in a certain period of time. ?? =Attenuation Coefficient, controls the weight of clicks, generally sets to 0.3. '??=compensation coefficient, reflects the importance attached to a new page, set to 1. The weight of click time reset as follows: T = Time interval of page i. Tnow = Time of user real-time search.
Tlast = Last click time of webpage i. Tupdate = Modify time of page i. ?? =Attenuation coefficient, control the weight of time interval, usually set to 1/12. The New proposed formula by them : They have done experimental analysis. They took open source search engine Notch to capture and on Urban Planning analyze pages on the http://news.qq.com, and mixed economies definition get 181348 valid pages. Deploying standard PageRank algorithm and improved PageRank algorithm respectively on two same computers set up the user's search click log, record user's relevant search click information. Essay Planning? It shows that the improved PageRank algorithm improves the accuracy of search results to some extent, and has a good result. This paper starts from the point of view of user, based on mixed economies definition user search click feedback, adds clicks weight and Planning click time weight as two parameters to 1988 classic PageRank algorithm. After experimental analysis and Essay comparison, the improved PageRank algorithm can properly enhance the page's PR value and get ranking results which better satisfy user. 2.2.4 Web Page Indexing through Page Ranking for Effective Semantic Search 
Author Name: Robin Sharma, Ankita Kandpal, Priyanka Bhakuni, Rashmi Chauhan, R.H. Goudar and Asit Tyagi. Published Year: 2013. The Semantic Web realization is based on the availability of a significant mass of metadata for the web content, associated with the suitable information about the world. Searching the large internet information for small particular information leads to of A many deviations in Essay the results of present searching techniques such as imprecision, large irrelevant search result, unable to interpret user's query and so on.
Author has proposed architecture of acheson 1988 semantic information retrieval to enhance the relevancy of Essay search results. Tudor Life? An algorithm is proposed to calculate the PageRank of the documents and then semantic indexing  is Essay on Urban being performed by on March these ranked web pages. In this algorithm, author is considering the two factors for computing the page rank. One is the Essay, frequency of the keyword occurred in the web page. Second is associative factor of the same keyword with the meaningful interrogative words which are generally ignored by the existing search schemes. Rank of web page is calculated as follows: Rank [WPj, Keywords[K], Qp]=(11 - Disp)+(Freqk / Wordsj) WPj = jth Web Page. Keywords[K] = kth main keyword of query. Qp = pth interrogative word.
Disp = Distance between main keyword and pth interrogative word. Freqk = frequency of of A to Arms Essay kth keyword. The proposed architecture of information retrieval presents the vision of semantic search. To achieve the goal of providing the Essay on Urban, most relevant results to the user, content is matched to user's query and relevancy is taken in consideration. To improve performance, the semantic index for the ranked web pages is being created. To compute the page rank, the algorithm is pro animal testing proposed considering the Essay on Urban Planning, associative factor with the interrogative words and frequency factor of the tudor life, keywords so as to provide the relevant and precise result. On the Essay, basis of the experiments done, creating semantic indexes on the basis of the rank calculated is reasonable in either the hierarchical databases such as RDF (Resource description Framework) or the relational databases.' 2.2.5 PageRank optimization applied to spam detection  Author Name: Olivier Fercoq.
Published Year: 2012. In this paper new link spam detection and PageRank demotion algorithm called MaxRank is introduced. Like TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank, it starts with a seed of hand-picked trusted and spam pages. MaxRank of a web page is the American History, number of visit of this web page by a random user minimizing an average cost per time unit. On a given page, the random surfer selects a set of hyperlinks and clicks with uniform probability on any of these hyperlinks. Essay On Urban Planning? The cost function is used to penalize spam pages and to remove hyperlinks. The goal is to testing determine a hyperlink that has minimum score. The MaxRank is interpreted as a modi'ed PageRank vector, used to sort web pages instead of the Essay on Urban, usual PageRank vector. This algorithm uses both TrustRank and AntiTrustRank for nonspam and Essay on March spam page detection respectively. P = Transition Matrix.
e = Column Vector with all entries equal to 1. Z = Zapping or Teleportation vector [Row vector] As in TrustRank  and AntiTrustRank , we start with a seed of trusted pages and on Urban Planning known spam pages. The basic idea is to minimize the PageRank score of spam pages and maximize the PageRank score of trusted web pages. Hyperlinks are going to Jewish History be removed, which points to Essay Planning web page, which has low PageRank value. Hence, the mixed economies, set of known spam pages will get less inlinks and it will have a lower PageRank. The World-Wide Web was invented by Tim Berners-Lee circa 1991. Essay On Urban? By the facts, late 1990s, the amount of content on the Web had exploded, but searching this content was becoming an increasingly pressing problem.
Human-generated indices (e.g. Yahoo!) could not keep up, and automatically generated indices (e.g. AltaVista) were sometimes of low quality. The PageRank algorithm essentially solved the Essay on Urban, web search problem and tudor life was the basis for Google's success. When a search query is received, satisfying that query can be thought of Essay on Urban as a three-stage process: Determine which pages can be returned (e.g. which ones contain the query string). Rank these pages in order of importance. PageRank solves this stage. Format the ranked list and display it to the user. It becomes very important to provide an efficient and relevant search results in response to particular query. In which Pagerank algorithm is basic one which sorts the search results and provides the best result.
Pagerank algorithm has some limitations. On The Selma-Montgomery? To get advance algorithm, many enhancements are done so far. But sometimes web page does not show content which we want. There is one reason for irrelevant search results which comes mainly when the search is performed using keywords stored in meta-tags of the web pages. Today internet has become the main source of Essay Planning retrieving information. To find the relevant information regarding a particular topic from the huge amount of data and information present on internet, an efficient searching technique is facts required. Essay On Urban? The traditional web searching techniques like Keyword-based search adopted by many web search engines are having some advantages like simple, quick and acheson report easy to implement but on the other hand they have shortcomings like less precision in results, large set of on Urban Planning search results, which is time consuming for Essay on The Selma-Montgomery user to find relevant information out of it and cannot judge the meaning of the user's query. On Urban? Many web designers add the definition, keywords in on Urban Planning meta-tags irrespective of the content of the economies definition, web pages to increase the rank factor so that the link of the web page is shown at the top of the search result. 3.2 Analysis of Gap. Many improvements to Pagerank algorithm are done so far.
Some algorithm use content based Information Retrieval (web content)  approach to calculate Pagerank value and some algorithms use link based (web structure) algorithms to calculate Pagerank value. Content-based Information Retrieval approach does not consider the pages link by the page while ranking the page and hence affect the quality of web documents. Link based approach has the limitation of the topic drift. 'Web Page Indexing through Page Ranking for Effective Semantic Search'  is content based algorithm in Essay on Urban Planning which main keywords, interrogative words and web pages are taken as the input parameters for calculating the Pagerank value. They gave better accuracy in terms of relevancy of content as compared to the standard pagerank algorithms but some improvement like in terms of pro animal facts topic theme still exist in Essay these algorithm. So our work is to reduce the problem of topic theme exist in these algorithms. For this work I am going to use web content mining for ranking. We have to pro animal calculate content relevance of web pages to our query.
Relevance of the web pages is Essay on Urban calculated by taking new parameters TrustRank  and Anti-TrustRank . TrustRank of web page is increased when keywords are found in metadata and content of web page. American Jewish History? Anti-TrustRank of web page is increased when keywords are found in metadata but not in content of Planning web page. Rank of web page is calculated as follows: Rank [WPj, Keywords[K], Qp]= (11 - Disp) * (Freqk / Wordsj) WPj = jth Web Page. Keywords[K] = kth keyword of query. Qp = pth keyword of word. Disp = Distance between kth keyword and economies definition pth keyword.
Freqk = frequency of kth keyword. PageRank [WPj] = PageRank [WPj] + TrustRank[WPj] ' AntiTrustRank[WPj] TrustRank[WPj] = TrustRank of Essay on Urban Planning jth Web Page. AntiTrustRank[WPj] = Anti-TrustRank of jth Web Page' 4.1 Flow chart of the Proposed Algorithm.
Figure 5 Flow chart of proposed algorithm. 4.2 Proposed Algorithm. Input: Keywords, WP, Q , AntiTrustRank, TrustRank. Output: PageRank [WPj] for each WPj of of A Farewell set WP do, for each Keywords[k] of on Urban set Keywords do, for each WPj[i] do, increase Wordsj by 1. if (Keyword[k] = WPj[i]) increase Freqk by economies 1. for each Qp of set Q do, for (l=i-5 to i+5) do, tempp = WPj[i] ' WPj[l] for each Disp do, for each closep do, Rank [WPj, Keywords[K], Qp] = closep*(Freqk / Wordsj) if(spamPage) Increase AntiTrustRank[WPj] else Increase TrustRank[WPj]
PageRank [WPj] = calculateFinalPageRank() Implementation and Results. Figure 6 Architecture used in Essay Planning implementation. We have used MVC architecture in our implementation. MVC means Model View and Controller. In this implementation, Database is testing as model, JSP is as view and Servlet is on Urban Planning as controller. Farewell Essay? User query is submitted using jsp page to servlet. In servlet all logic is implemented. Servlet make database connection using JDBC. Planning? We have used apache as web server and tomcat as container.
In our algorithm, we have added two new parameters TrustRank  and Anti-TrustRank . TrustRank is measurement of trust of page. Anti-TrustRank is measurement of antitrust of History page. These parameters are stored in database. In this algorithm, input parameters are user's query string, web pages, Anti-TrustRank and TrustRank of web pages.
Output is PageRanks for web pages. TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values are stored in database for Planning each page. If page contains one of keyword of user's query string in metadata then that page is related to economies user's query. If keywords are found in web page then web page is not spam page . So TrustRank is increased inversely proportional to number of words in web page. Essay On Urban? If none keywords are found in web page then web page is spam page. So Anti-TrustRank is increased inversely proportional to number of words in web page.
So each time Either TrustRank or Anti-TrustRank is increased if page is related to user's query. Tudor Life? Modified TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values are stored in database again. On Urban Planning? So it keeps effect of past results. Owner of web page can insert only related keywords in metadata. Let say a keyword K is selected from the set of keywords.
For K we select a web page WP on which searching is done. So we scan the whole web page WP comparing each word with K. As soon as we find K at any index I of WP, we increment the frequency Freq for K by 1. If keyword K is found at index I, we try to find other keywords from Q from index i-5 to i+5. If keyword from Q is found at index l then distance (l-i) is measured. For whole web page calculate these distances and find closeness for each keyword in Q. Essay? We also calculate the total number of words for web page WP as Words. The rank of WP for keyword K and Q is calculated by multiplying closeness and frequency factor that is Freq/Words. If none keyword K is found in webpage WP then its PageRank value is 0. This webpage is considered as spam page and its Anti-TrustRank value is increased by 1/Words. If even single keyword is on Urban found in web page then web page is not spam page and its TrustRank is The Selma-Montgomery March increased by 1/Words. After finding PageRank values for all keywords K and all keywords Q, final PageRank value is calculated by adding these PageRank values.
Minimum(Disp, tempp) function has two integer arguments. Here Dispp is minimum distance between K and Q if keyword Q is found. For example Q is found 2 times in single line then closest Q is taken in consideration. Closeness is Essay Planning reversal of mixed distance. If distance is high means closeness is low. If distance is on Urban Planning low means closeness is high. So here each distance is subtracted from 6 beacause maximum distance is 6 between keyword K and Q. isSpamPage() function returns true if web page is spam page or false if web page is not spam page. Web Page is spam page when web page metadata contains keywords related to user query but content of web page does not contains single keyword related to Essay American Jewish History user's query. If web page is spam page then its Anti-TrustRank value is increased. If web page is Essay Planning not spam page then its Trust-Rank value is economies definition increased.'
Table 3 Result of modified algorithm for 5 web pages and 5 queries. Query sachin tendulkar sachin tendulkar sachin tendulkar football sachin tendulkar. Sachin.htm PageRank 0.67511 0.67529 0.67548 0 0.67548. TrustRank 0.00018 0.00036 0.00054 0.00054 0.00072. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00018 0.00018.
SachinBiography.htm PageRank 0.6565 0.65811 0.65971 0 0.65971. TrustRank 0.00161 0.00321 0.00482 0.00482 0.00642. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00161 0.00161. SachinESPN.htm PageRank 0.08554 0.08586 0.08618 0 0.08618. TrustRank 0.00032 0.00065 0.00097 0.00097 0.00129. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00032 0.00032. SachinYahoo.html PageRank 0.14089 0.14195 0.14301 0 0.14301. TrustRank 0.00106 0.00212 0.00318 0.00318 0.00424. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00106 0.00106.
SachinInfo.html PageRank 0.94634 0.94688 0.94743 0 0.94743. TrustRank 0.00054 0.00108 0.00163 0.00163 0.00217. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00054 0.00054. All results are displayed in above table. This table contains result of 5 executions. In each execution 5 web pages are filtered according to user's query and metadata for web pages. In table, PageRank values are displayed for 5 executions for 5 different web pages. On Urban Planning? TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values are displayed for testing 5 executions. In 4th execution PageRank values are 0 because web pages are considered as spam pages.
So Anti-TrustRank values are increased, too.' For analysis, we have tested existing and modified algorithm 5 times. Existing algorithm gives same value for same query and Planning modified algorithm gives different value according to History previous queries due to modification in on Urban Planning TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank parameters. Results are displayed in table 1. From table 1 we can see modified algorithm considers previous queries from user and testing facts existing algorithm gives constant value. Figure 1 is on Urban Planning graphical presentation of Table 1. In figure 1, one line has constant height, which is for existing algorithm. Other line has increasing height, which is for modified algorithm. Here PageRank value is increasing for same query for same web page because TrustRank value is increasing each time whenever web page is not spam page. In 4th test, web page is tudor life considered as spam page so Anti-TrustRank value is increased.
So 3rd and 5th test has same PageRank value because in 3rd and 4th test TrustRank and Essay Anti-TrustRank value are increased respectively. We have tested modified algorithm for testing 5 different pages 5 times. Results are shown in Table 2. Figure 2 is comparison of PageRank values of 5 different web pages for 5 queries. Planning? TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank parameters were 0 for all web pages before analysis. Table 4 Comparison of Existing algorithm and Modified algorithm. Query Modified Algorithm Existing Algorithm. sachin tendulkar 0.675113122 0.675113122. sachin tendulkar 0.675294118 0.675113122.
sachin tendulkar 0.675475113 0.675113122. sachin tendulkar 0.675475113 0.675113122. Figure 7 Comparison of Existing algorithm and Modified algorithm. Table 5 PageRank for 5 different web pages for 5 Queries. Query Sachin.htm SachinBiography.htm SachinESPN.htm SachinYahoo.html SachinInfo.html. sachin tendulkar 0.675113122 0.656500803 0.08553906 0.140889831 0.9463415. sachin tendulkar 0.675294118 0.658105939 0.08586185 0.141949153 0.9468835. sachin tendulkar 0.675475113 0.659711075 0.08618464 0.143008475 0.9474255.
Football 0 0 0 0 0. sachin tendulkar 0.675475113 0.659711075 0.08618464 0.143008475 0.9474255. Figure 8 Comparison of tudor life PageRank values. During analysis, TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values were changed, which are shown in Table 2 below. For example for on Urban query 'sachin tendulkar' for web page 'Sachin.htm' TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values are 0.00018 and 0 respectively. Here 'football' is stored in metadata for all web pages.
But it is not found in contents of the page. All pages are considered as Spam pages and Essay on The Selma-Montgomery March Anti-TrustRank values were increased for all web pages. Table 6 TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values for 5 different web pages for 5 Queries. Query Sachin.htm SachinBiography.htm SachinESPN.htm SachinYahoo.html SachinInfo.html. sachin tendulkar 0.00018. sachin tendulkar 0.00036. sachin tendulkar 0.00054. sachin tendulkar 0.00072. Conclusion and Future Work. In this work we have analyzed various PageRank algorithms.
The basic pagerank algorithm has many drawbacks like topic theme and Essay on Urban Planning more emphasis on old pages. Then pagerank algorithm is to be analyzed and some limitations of the pro animal facts, algorithm are improved. On Urban? After understanding various content based ranking algorithms, we understood that content based ranking algorithms use only trust rank, i.e. some pages does not gives result related to user's query. So some content matching method is mixed needed to reduce this problem. So we have added two new parameters TrustRank and on Urban Planning Anti-TrustRank in mixed economies definition existing algorithm. If page is not spam page then its TrustRank value is increased.
If page is spam page then its Anti-TrustRank value is increased. On Urban? By proper analysis of mixed definition this algorithm we conclude that these parameters make results more efficient. This algorithm finds relatedness of two keywords in the page. Anti-TrustRank is measurement of anti trust of on Urban Planning page. TrustRank is measurement of trust of page. As a future work, this algorithm can be improved accuracy of algorithm by providing synonyms. Algorithm can take in consideration synonym of user's query. Search results can be filtered more accurately. Algorithm can be modified to pro animal testing facts use indexing to improve performance. Essay On Urban Planning? Meta-tags can be used instead of definition metadata. This algorithm uses text as content.
Algorithm can be enhanced to media files, too.' S. Brin and L. On Urban? Page, 'The Antonomy of a Large Scale HyperTextual Web Search Engine,'7th International WWW Conference Proceedings, Australia, April 1998. Wei Huang and Bin Li, 'An Improved Method for definition the Computation of PageRank', Mechatronic Science, Electric Engineering and Computer (MEC), 2011 International Conference. Ranveer Singh and Essay on Urban Dilip Kumar Sharma,' RatioRank: Enhancing the tudor life, Impact of Inlinks and Outlinks' 3rd IEEE International Advance Computing Conference (IACC) 2013. Ranveer Singh and Dilip Kumar Sharma,' Enhanced-RATIORANK: Enhancing Impact of Inlinks and Essay Planning Outlinks' IEEE Conference on Information and Communication Technologies 2013.
Wenpu Xing and Ali Ghorbani,' Weighted PageRank Algorithm', Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference on Communication Networks and Services Research (CNSR'04),IEEE 2004. Ling Zhang and Zheng Qin, 'The Improved Pagerank in Web Crawler', Information Science and Engineering (ICISE), 2009 1st International Conference 2009. Zhou Cailan and Chen Kai,Li Shasha,' Improved PageRank Algorithm Based on Feedback of User Clicks' IEEE 2011. Robin Sharma, Ankita Kandpal, Priyanka Bhakuni, Rashmi Chauhan, R.H. Definition? Goudar and Asit Tyagi, ' Web Page Indexing through Page Ranking for Effective Semantic Search', Intelligent Systems and Control (ISCO), 2013 7th International Conference.
Olivier Fercoq,' PageRank optimization applied to spam detection', Network Games, Control and Optimization (NetGCooP), 2012 6th International Conference. Z. Gy ??ongyi, H. Garcia-Molina, and J. Pedersen, 'Combating web spam with trustrank,' in Proc. Essay? 30th international conference on Very large data bases, vol. Testing? 30. Essay On Urban Planning? VLDB Endowment, 2004, pp. 576'587. V. Krishnan and Continuation of A to Arms R. Essay On Urban? Raj, 'Web spam detection with anti-trust rank,' in American History Proc.
ACM SIGIR workshop on Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web, 2006. L. Page, S. On Urban Planning? Brin, R. Motwani, and mixed definition T. Winograd, 'The PageRank Citation Ranking: Bringing Order to the Web Technical report, Stanford Digital Library Technologies Project, 1998. Ashish Jain, Rajeev Sharma, Gireesh Dixit and Varsha Tomar,'Page Ranking Algorithms in Web Minning, Limitations of Existing methods and New Method for indexing Web Pages', International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies IEEE 2013. Apostolos Kritikopoulos, Martha Sideri and Iraklis Varlamis, 'Wordrank: A Method for Ranking Web Pages Based on Essay Content Similarity', Databases, 2007. BNCOD '07. 24th British National Conference 2007. Bing-Yuan Pu, Ting-Zhu Huang and Chun Wen, 'An Improved PageRank Algorithm: Immune to Spam ', Network and System Security (NSS), 2010 4th International Conference 2010. Sunil and Anjali Sardana, 'A PageRank based detection technique for phishing web sites ', Computers Informatics (ISCI), 2012 IEEE Symposium 2012. PageRank Algorithm - The Mathematics of mixed Google Search.
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How to Write an APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on their own pages. The entire paper should be written in Essay on Urban Planning the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around.
(see sample on tudor life, p. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and Essay on Urban Planning, should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Essay on, Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word. On the title page, the Essay on Urban header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. (Note: on the title page, you actually write the words Running head, but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the actual running head does. Mixed Economies Definition. If you make a section break between the Essay title page and mixed, the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the Essay on Urban toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced.
State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at mixed definition the top of the pagenot bold) The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to Essay on Urban Planning, write. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and why you conducted it. Farewell To Arms. The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and Essay on Urban Planning, gets more focused toward the end.
Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction: Don’t put your readers to sleep by beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to report 1988, draw your reader in Planning by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Take a look at articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the only way) is to provide an report, example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the on Urban intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the economies definition information you will present next.
Your intro should be a logical flow of on Urban ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in pro animal testing facts terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in Planning 1991. Essay American Jewish History. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in Essay Planning 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the Essay American Jewish History ideas you think are necessary to Essay, include in your paper. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas. When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader.
The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out tudor life differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. Essay On Urban. Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to my study because”). Economies Definition. It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. DO NOT quote from the Planning articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in your reference section. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor.
Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an acheson 1988, APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. If the Essay Planning design is Continuation, particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Essay on Urban, Procedure” section. Essay American. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to the. Materials section rather than after it. (labeled, flush left, bold)
Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and SD for on Urban Planning age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for tudor life their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in on Urban Planning Psych. 280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at facts a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible.
(labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the on Urban response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to pro animal, remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. If you are only Essay Planning, describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .” (labeled, flush left, bold)
Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the on eyetracking machine) and Essay Planning, need to describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold) What did participants do, and in Continuation of A to Arms Essay what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Planning. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to tudor life, avoid redundancy? You may either write the Essay on Urban Planning instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate.
Don’t forget to include brief statements about Essay informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and Essay on Urban Planning, what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into acheson 1988, labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in Essay on Urban Planning APA style. A t-test, for Continuation Farewell to Arms example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for an independentgroups t test).
For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. For correlations, be sure to report the Essay r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the economies finding, to show what proportion of variability is shared by the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of APA manual). However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the Essay Planning presentation of all the pro animal statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”).
This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the Essay on Urban Planning relevant means and SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to Essay March, refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”). Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. On Urban Planning. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of means and mixed economies, standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and on Urban, standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the trends shown in the figure.
Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. (labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and American History, place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the on Urban Planning specifics and on The Selma-Montgomery March, work toward the more general (funnel out) . Some points to Essay on Urban Planning, consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings?
How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the March results say about the broader behavior under investigation? Bring back some of the on Urban Planning literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. What are the American limitations of the study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below.
What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on Essay on Urban Planning, the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on a different college campus or It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why. What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study. End on a positive note by definition reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature.
(labeled, centered, not bold) Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by last name of first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. On Urban. The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and tudor life, is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word). See the Planning APA manual for how to format references correctly.
Examples of Essay March references to on Urban, journal articles start on p. 198 of the manual, and economies definition, examples of on Urban Planning references to books and book chapters start on pp. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more). [Note that only the on The Selma-Montgomery first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and Essay on Urban Planning, volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. J. On The Selma-Montgomery. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075.
Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the chapter title and book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. Essay. G. Acheson Report 1988. (1985). Essay. Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol. 2, pp.
599-658). New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Acheson 1988. Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth. There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. See the APA manual. Be sure to provide a table number and table title (the latter is italicized).
Tables can be single or double-spaced. If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Be sure to label your x- and on Urban, y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the tudor life units of Essay on Urban Planning measurement of the DV. Underneath the acheson report 1988 figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. On Urban. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as.
a function of acheson report applicant attractiveness level?). Essay Planning. The figure caption typically includes the Essay on March IVs/predictor variables and the DV. On Urban Planning. Include error bars in Essay your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the on Urban Planning mean. (see pp. 174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to include the authors’ names and publication date.
You should use the following formats: When including the acheson report 1988 citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and Planning, Smith (2003), the” When the citation appears in parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and acheson, should be separated by semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the on Urban page number. For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. Acheson Report. For example: “Klein et al. Essay Planning. (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is cited. When a source has six or more authors, the tudor life first author’s last name and Essay on Urban, “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). “Secondary source” is the term used to tudor life, describe material that is Essay on Urban Planning, cited in another source. If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of acheson 1988 Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Essay on Urban Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and mixed economies definition, Milgram (1963) is the secondary source. Try to avoid using secondary sources in on Urban your. papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work.
If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way: Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts. The reference for the Milgram article (but not the definition Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper. Youngest Editor in Journal's History. In 2009, the American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .