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Math/Stats Thesis and Colloquium Topics. THE DEGREE WITH HONORS IN MATHEMATICS. The degree with honors in The Preatorian Mathematics is awarded to on Gilgamesh VS “Genesis”: Noah Flood the student who has demonstrated outstanding intellectual achievement in a program of study which extends beyond the requirements of the major. The principal considerations for recommending a student for the degree with honors will be: Mastery of Guard, core material and skills, breadth and, particularly, depth of knowledge beyond the core material, ability to pursue independent study of extramarital, mathematics or statistics, originality in methods of investigation, and, where appropriate, creativity in The Preatorian research. An honors program normally consists of two semesters (MATH/STAT 493 and poverty africa, 494) and a winter study (WSP 031) of independent research, culminating in a thesis and Guard, a presentation. Under certain circumstances, the honors work can consist of coordinated study involving a one semester (MATH/STAT 493 or 494) and a winter study (WSP 030) of independent research, culminating in a minithesis and poverty africa, a presentation. At least one semester should be in addition to the major requirements, and thesis courses do not count as 400-level senior seminars. An honors program in The Preatorian Guard Essay actuarial studies requires significant achievement on four appropriate examinations of the extramarital Society of Actuaries and giving a second colloquium talk.

Written work is a possible component. Highest honors will be reserved for the rare student who has displayed exceptional ability, achievement or originality. Such a student usually will have written a thesis, or pursued actuarial honors and written a mini-thesis. An outstanding student who writes a mini-thesis, or pursues actuarial honors and writes a paper, might also be considered. In all cases, the award of honors and Essay, highest honors is the decision of the Department. RESEARCH INTERESTS OF MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS FACULTY. Here is on Gilgamesh Noah and the Flood a list of faculty interests and possible thesis topics. You may use this list to Guard Essay select a thesis topic or you can use the list below to to kill ham costume get a general idea of the mathematical interests of our faculty. There is also a list of possible colloquium topics that different faculty are willing and The Preatorian Essay, eager to advise. You can talk to how many tribes in nigeria several faculty about any colloquium topic, the sooner the Essay better, at extramarital, least a month or two before your talk. For various reasons faculty may or may not be willing or able to advise your colloquium, which is another reason to start early.

Research interests : Topology. I work in low-dimensional topology. Specifically, I work in The Preatorian Guard the two fields of a mockingbird, knot theory and hyperbolic 3-manifold theory and develop the connections between the two. Knot theory is the study of knotted circles in 3-space, and it has applications to chemistry, biology and physics. Hyperbolic 3-manifold theory utilizes hyperbolic geometry to understand 3-manifolds, which can be thought of as possible models of the spatial universe. Possible thesis topics: Investigate n -crossing number of knots. An n -crossing is a crossing with n strands of the knot passing through it.

Every knot can be drawn in a picture with only n -crossings in it. The least number of n -crossings is called the n -crossing number. Guard. Determine the n -crossing number for a mockingbird ham costume, various n and various families of knots. An ubercrossing projection of a knot is Essay a projection with just one n -crossing. The ubercrossing number of a knot is the poverty africa least n for which there is such an ubercrossing projection. Determine the ubercrossing number for various knots, and see how it relates to other traditional knot invariants. A petal projection of a knot is a projection with just one n -crossing such that none of the loops coming out of the crossing are nested. In other words, the Essay projection looks like a daisy. The petal number of a knot is the least n for such a projection.

Determine petal number for various knots, and see how it relates to other traditional knot invariants. Investigate the stick number of relation, knots, which is the least number of sticks glued end-to-end to make a given knot. Still unknown for two twisted strands. Can also consider lattice stick knots, where all sticks are parallel to the x,y,z. Investigate superinvariants, which are related to the standard invariants given by bridge number, unknotting number, crossing number and braid number. Generalize concepts known for knots to virtual knots. Determine how many knots must exist in The Preatorian Guard a given graph, no matter how that graph is placed in space.

Investigate knots in a thickened surface. When are they hyperbolic? Investigate which knots have totally geodesic Seifert surfaces. Investigate the width and cusp thickness of poverty africa, quasi-Fuchsian surfaces in hyperbolic 3-manifolds. Quasi-Fuchsian surfaces generalize totally geodesic surfaces. Show that many surfaces in Essay knot complements are quasi-Fuchsian. Investigate geodesics on hyperbolic surfaces. In particular, find lower bounds for the so-called systole, the length of the shortest geodesic.

Explore how cusp diagrams determine a hyperbolic 3-manifold. Other related topics. Possible colloquium topics: Particularly interested in topology, knot theory, graph theory, tiling theory and geometry but will consider other topics as well. Research Interests: Mathematical modeling, theoretical ecology, population biology, differential equations, dynamical systems. My research uses mathematical models to poverty africa uncover the The Preatorian Guard Essay complex mechanisms generating ecological dynamics, and when applicable emphasis is placed on evaluating intervention programs. My research is in various ecological areas including ( I ) invasive species management by using mathematical and extramarital relation, economic models to evaluate the costs and benefits of The Preatorian Guard Essay, control strategies, and ( II ) disease ecology by evaluating competing mathematical models of the how many in nigeria transmission dynamics for both human and wildlife diseases.

Possible thesis topics: 1) Mathematical modeling of invasive species. 2) Mathematical modeling of vector-borne or directly transmitted diseases. 3) Developing mathematical models to The Preatorian Guard Essay manage vector-borne diseases through vector control. 4) Other relevant topics of interest in mathematical biology. Each topic (1-3) can focus on Essay VS “Genesis”:, a case study of a particular invasive species or disease, and/or can investigate the The Preatorian Guard Essay effects of ecological properties (spatial structure, resource availability, contact structure, etc.) of the system. Possible colloquium topics : Any topics in extramarital applied mathematics, especially those related to biology. Research interests: Commutative algebra and The Preatorian Essay, algebraic geometry. I am primarily interested in positive characteristic commutative algebra. More specifically, I study types of invariants which allow one to measure the singularities of a ring or an algebraic variety abstractly. These techniques include the multiplier and test ideal, tight closure, F-signature, and the Hilbert-Kunz Multiplicity.

In addition, I often use these tools to relate the singularities of a variety to a mockingbird a general hypersurface and vice-versa (for example, studying a surface by studying most of the curves contained within it). Possible thesis topics: How do singularities restrict to a hypersurface? g. Finjective or F-rational singularities. Behavior of singularities in flat families. Open questions pertaining to the test ideal and non-F-pure ideal. Measuring the The Preatorian Guard Essay smallest degree hypersurfaces through a given collection of points. This list is not exclusive, and broader topics in commutative algebra or algebraic geometry are encouraged. Possible colloquium topics: Any topics in tribes algebra and especially commutative algebra or algebraic geometry.

Possible colloquium topics: Any topic in abstract algebra or number theory. Richard De Veaux (On Leave 2017-2018) Research interests: Statistics. My research interests are in Essay both statistical methodology and in statistical applications. For the first, I look at different methods and try to understand why some methods work well in particular settings, or more creatively, to try to come up with new methods. Extramarital. For the second, I work in collaboration with an investigator (e.g. scientist, doctor, marketing analyst) on a particular statistical application.

I have been especially interested in problems dealing with large data sets and the associated modeling tools that work for these problems. Possible thesis topics: Human Performance and The Preatorian Essay, Aging. I have been working on models for assessing the effect of age on how many, performance in running and The Preatorian Guard Essay, swimming events. There is still much work to extramarital relation do. So far Ive looked at masters swim data and a handicapped race in California, but there are world records for each age group and every events in running and swimming that Ive not incorporated. Masters events in running would be another source for data. Social Networks and unstructured data.

Classical statistics deals with quantitative and The Preatorian, categorical variables, but what happens when the variables have even less structure? Using text mining and other recent work from statistics and machine learning can we figure out how people feel about Essay Home Remedies for Acidity a topic by The Preatorian Guard analyzing what they say as well as their actions? Variable Selection. How do we choose variables when we have dozens, hundreds or even thousands of Essay Noah and the, potential predictors? Various model selection strategies exist, but there is Guard Essay still a lot of work to be done to find out on Gilgamesh VS “Genesis”: Noah which ones work under what assumptions and conditions.

Text Mining. Statistics has lots of models that help predict outcomes for data that are numerical. But what if the data are text? What can we say about documents based only on the words they contain? Can we use comments in surveys to help answer questions traditionally modeled only by The Preatorian Guard quantitative variables? Problems at the interface. In this era of Big Data, not all methods of classical statistics can be applied in Home Remedies for Acidity practice. What methods scale up well, and what advances in computer science give insights into the statistical methods that are best suited to large data sets? Applying statistical methods to Guard problems in science or social science. In collaboration with a scientist or social scientist, find a problem for which statistical analysis plays a key role. Possible colloquium topics:

Topics in statistics, such as: Social Networks and unstructured data. Applying statistical methods to problems in science or social science. Research interest: Geometry and Number Theory. I work in algebraic and differential geometry and in number theory. I am interested in poverty africa the geometry of functions (polynomials for algebraic geometry and differentiable functions for The Preatorian Guard Essay, differential geometry) and in the Hermite problem (which asks for how many tribes in nigeria, ways to represent real numbers so that interesting algebraic properties can be easily identified). Possible thesis topics:

Generalizations of continued fractions. Using algebraic geometry to The Preatorian Guard study real submanifolds of complex spaces. Possible colloquium topics: Any interesting topic in Essay Home mathematics. Leo Goldmakher (On Leave Fall 2017) Research interests: Number theory and arithmetic combinatorics.

Im interested in quantifying structure and randomness within naturally occurring sets or sequences, such as the prime numbers, or the sequence of coefficients of a continued fraction, or a subset of a vector space. Doing so typically involves using ideas from analysis, probability, algebra, and combinatorics. Possible thesis topics: Anything in The Preatorian number theory or arithmetic combinatorics. Possible colloquium topics: Im happy to advise a colloquium in proposed solutions any area of math.

Research interest and possible thesis topics : Representation theory, enumerative and algebraic combinatorics, graph theory, and poset theory. Possible colloquium topics : Social networks and other complex networks, algebra, representation theory, combinatorics (enumerative and algebraic), graph theory, poset theory, and discrete mathematics. Research interests: I work broadly in statistical methodology and applications. My current work involves the study and development of statistical models that can uncover structure and patterns in Guard Essay data specifically in longitudinal and poverty africa, spatial data that have inherent dependence. Additionally, I work in collaboration with scientists in a variety of The Preatorian Guard Essay, fields such as epidemiology and environmental science to apply statistical methods to extramarital relation answer scientific research questions. Possible thesis topics: Cluster analysis for longitudinal data and functional data. Regression trees for longitudinal data. Methodology for estimating health impacts of chemical mixture exposure. Applying statistical methods to real data sets in innovative ways, usually in collaboration with a scientist or social scientist. Possible colloquium topics:

Any topics in statistics, such as. 1) Data Mining techniques such as Cluster analysis, Classification, Regression Trees. 2) Longitudinal or spatial methodology. 3) Applying statistical methods to real data sets in innovative ways. Research interests: Dynamical systems, ordinary differential equations, mathematical modelling, control theory, evolutionary dynamics. Possible thesis topics: Mathematical modelling using dynamical systems and differential equations. Possible colloquium topics: Any topics in mathematics, dynamical systems, mathematical models in life sciences, engineering, and other fields, applied mathematics in general. Possible thesis topics:

Methods for Categorical Data Analysis. Possible colloquium topics: Any topic in statistics, such as: Exact methods for categorical data. Simultaneous Inference and Multiple Comparisons. Research Interests : Commutative and Guard Essay, Homological Algebra. Homology and solutions to human, cohomology groups are used to measure the size and shape of algebraic objects like commutative rings or topological spaces.

Lately, my research has focused on understanding the vanishing of certain cohomology groups. As a result I also have a growing interest in The Preatorian Guard Essay algebraic topology and the representation theory of finite dimensional algebras. Possible Colloquium topics: Id be happy to advise any topics in Algebra. Research interests: Commutative Algebra. I study algebraic structures called commutative rings. Specifically, I have been investigating the relationship between local rings and their completion. One defines the completion of a ring by first defining a metric on the ring and then completing the ring with respect to that metric. I am interested in poverty africa what kinds of algebraic properties a ring and its completion share. This relationship has proven to The Preatorian Essay be intricate and quite surprising.

I am also interested in the theory of tight closure, and Homological Algebra. Possible thesis topics: Topics in Commutative Algebra including: What prime ideals of C[[x1,,xn]] can be maximal in the generic formal fiber of a ring? More generally, characterize what sets of prime ideals of a complete local ring can occur in how many the generic formal fiber.

2. The Preatorian Guard. Characterize what sets of prime ideals of a complete local ring can occur in formal fibers of ideals with height n where n ?1. 3. Characterize which complete local rings are the completion of an excellent unique factorization domain. 4. Compute the tight closures of specific ideals in rings. 5. Explore the relationship between the formal fibers of R and S where S is a flat extension of R. For which ideals in excellent rings does tight closure and completion commute? Possible colloquium topics: Any topics in mathematics and to kill, especially commutative algebra/ring theory. For more information and references, see http://www.williams.edu/Mathematics/sjmiller/public_html/index.htm. Research interests : Analytic number theory, random matrix theory, probability and Guard Essay, statistics, graph theory. My main research interest is in the distribution of zeros of L-functions.

The most studied of in nigeria, these is the Riemann zeta function, Sum_ 1/n^s. The importance of this function becomes apparent when we notice that it can also be written as Prod_ 1 / (1 1/p^s); this function relates properties of the primes to those of the integers (and we know where the integers are!). Guard. It turns out ham costume that the properties of zeros of The Preatorian Essay, L-functions are extremely useful in attacking questions in poverty africa number theory. Interestingly, a terrific model for these zeros is given by random matrix theory: choose a large matrix at random and study its eigenvalues. This model also does a terrific job describing behavior ranging from heavy nuclei like Uranium to bus routes in Mexico! Im studying several problems in random matrix theory, which also have applications to The Preatorian Essay graph theory (building efficient networks). I am also working on several problems in probability and statistics, especially (but not limited to) sabermetrics (applying mathematical statistics to baseball) and Benfords law of digit bias (which is how many often connected to fascinating questions about Essay equidistribution). Many data sets have a preponderance of first digits equal to 1 (look at the first million Fibonacci numbers, and youll see a leading digit of 1 about 30% of the time). In addition to being of theoretical interest, applications range from the IRS (which uses it to relation detect tax fraud) to computer science (building more efficient computers). Im exploring the subject with several colleagues in fields ranging from accounting to engineering to the social sciences. Possible thesis topics:

Theoretical models for zeros of elliptic curve L-functions (in the number field and Essay, function field cases). Studying lower order term behavior in zeros of L-functions. Studying the Home Remedies distribution of The Preatorian Guard Essay, eigenvalues of Essay about Home, sets of random matrices. Exploring Benfords law of digit bias (both its theory and applications, such as image, voter and tax fraud). Propagation of viruses in networks (a graph theory / dynamical systems problem). Sabermetrics. Additive number theory (questions on sum and difference sets). Possible colloquium topics:

Theoretical models for zeros of The Preatorian Guard Essay, elliptic curve L-functions (in the number field and function field cases). Studying lower order term behavior in zeros of L-functions. Studying the distribution of eigenvalues of sets of random matrices. Exploring Benfords law of extramarital, digit bias (both its theory and applications, such as image, voter and tax fraud). Propagation of viruses in networks (a graph theory / dynamical systems problem). Sabermetrics. Additive number theory (questions on sum and difference sets). Plus anything you find interesting. The Preatorian Guard Essay. Im also interested in applications, and have worked on subjects ranging from accounting to computer science to geology to marketing. Research interests: I work in algebraic geometry, which is the study of solution sets to poverty africa polynomial equations.

Such a solution set is The Preatorian Essay called a variety. In particular, I focus on tropical geometry, which is a skeletonized version of algebraic geometry. A Mockingbird Ham Costume. We take a classical variety and The Preatorian, tropicalize it, giving us a tropical variety, which is a piecewise-linear subset of Euclidean space. Tropical geometry combines combinatorics and discrete geometry with classical algebraic geometry, and allows for developing theory and computations that tell us about the classical varieties. I also study computational algebraic geometry, which uses various algorithmic tools to better study the geometry of varieties. Im especially interested in this area when working over non-Archimedean fields, like the p-adics. Possible thesis topics: Anything related to the fields of poverty africa, tropical and algebraic geometry, or non-Archimedean fields. The Preatorian Essay. Here are a few example questions/topics. Given a subset of Euclidean space that looks like a tropicalization, when does it actually arise as the tropicalization of an algebraic variety? Given the equations for an algebraic variety, find a tropicalization that preserves the most. information about the curve. (Such a tropicalization is called faithful.)

A tropical curve is a finite graph with lengths on each edge. Which such graphs arise as tropical. curves, under various restrictions? For instance, with the tropical curve being embedded in the Euclidean plane. Study the combinatorics of higher-dimensional tropical varieties.

For instance, a tropical surface of. degree 4 contains a distinguished polyhedron with at to kill a mockingbird ham costume, most 63 facets. Which polyhedra are possible? When tropicalizing a variety over The Preatorian Guard the complex numbers, there are intermediate objects between the. variety and the tropical variety called amoebas. What can we say about Essay VS “Genesis”: their geometry? Many results in classical algebraic geometry have analogs in The Preatorian Essay tropical geometry that do not trivially follow from the original result. Prove such results in the tropical world, and study how the classical and tropical results interact. An algebraic variety is defined by an ideal in a polynomial ring. How can we find nice sets of.

generators for a mockingbird, this ideal? What do these generators tell us about the associated tropical variety? Many objects that arise in linear algebra (such as pairs of commuting matrices) can be described. using polynomial equations. How can we find nice collections of generating polynomials? What do they let us compute about the varieties? Develop algorithms for computing properties of algebraic and/or tropical varieties. Possible Colloquium topics: Im happy to advise a talk in Essay any area of math, but would be especially excited about talks related to algebra, geometry, or number theory. For instance, there are many results in classical algebraic geometry (about the geometry of Essay Home for Acidity, plane curves, for instance) that would be perfect for Guard Essay, a colloquium. Allison Pacelli (On Leave Spring 2018) Research interests: Algebraic Number Theory and Math Education.

The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic states that the ring of integers is a unique factorization domain, that is, every integer can be uniquely factored into a product of primes. In other rings, there are analogues of prime numbers, but factorization into in nigeria primes is not necessarily unique! In order to determine whether factorization into primes is unique in the ring of integers of a number field or function field, it is useful to study the associated class group the Guard Essay group of equivalence classes of ideals. The class group is trivial if and only if the ring is a unique factorization domain. Although the study of class groups dates back to Gauss and played a key role in in nigeria the history of Fermats Last Theorem, many basic questions remain open. I am also very interested in The Preatorian Essay the beautiful analogies between the integers and polynomials over on Gilgamesh Flood a finite field and between number fields and function fields. 1 ) Investigating the divisibility of Guard Essay, class numbers of to kill a mockingbird ham costume, quadratic fields and higher degree extensions. 2) Investigating the The Preatorian Guard structure of the class group. 3) Exploring polynomial analogues of theorems from extramarital, number theory concerning sums of powers, primes, divisibility, and The Preatorian, arithmetic functions.

4) Topics in math education. Possible colloquium topics: Im interested in poverty africa advising any topics in algebra, number theory, or mathematics and politics, including voting and fair division. Research interests : Ergodic theory and measurable dynamics; in particular mixing properties and Essay, rank one examples, and infinite measure-preserving and nonsingular transformations and group actions. Measurable dynamics of transformations defined on the p-adic field. Measurable sensitivity. Fractals. Trafficking. Fractal Geometry. Possible thesis topics: Ergodic Theory. Ergodic theory studies the probabilistic behavior of abstract dynamical systems. Dynamical systems are systems that change with time, such as the motion of the planets or of a pendulum.

Abstract dynamical systems represent the state of a dynamical system by Essay a point in a mathematical space (phase space). In many cases this space is Essay on Gilgamesh VS “Genesis”: Flood assumed to be the unit interval [0,1) with Lebesgue measure. One usually assumes that time is measured at discrete intervals and so the law of motion of the system is represented by a single map (or transformation) of the phase space [0,1). In this case one studies various dynamical behaviors of these maps, such as ergodicity, weak mixing and mixing. The Preatorian. I am also interested in studying the measurable dynamics of systems defined on tribes in nigeria, the p-adics numbers. The prerequisite is a first course in real analysis. Topological Dynamics. Dynamics on compact or locally compact spaces. Probability.

Markov shifts, information theory. Possible colloquium topics: Topics in mathematics and in particular: Any topic in The Preatorian Guard Essay measure theory. See for example any of the first few chapters in Measure and Category by J. Oxtoby, possible topics include the Banach-Tarski paradox, the Banach-Mazur game, Liouville numbers and s-Hausdorff measure zero. 2. Topics in applied linear algebra and functional analysis. 3. Fractal sets, fractal generation, image compression, and fractal dimension. 4. P-adic dynamics. To Kill. P-adic numbers, dynamics on the p-adics. 5. Banach-Tarski paradox, space filling curves. Research interests: Applied mathematics, mathematical modeling, dynamical systems, ordinary and partial differential equations, numerical computation, topological data analysis, data science.

My research uses diverse mathematical tools to examine complex systems in the natural and social sciences. I am most interested in systems that form patterns or display other sorts of The Preatorian Guard, collective behavior. Examples include: biological aggregations such as insect swarms and fish schools; chemical reaction-diffusion systems; fluid surface waves; spatial vegetation patterns in Home Remedies ecology; gender representation in STEM fields; and much more. Possible thesis topics: 1) Topological data analysis of The Preatorian, agent-based models. Agent based models may display complex dynamics that can be difficult to analyze and predict. However, if we view the data output by such models through a topological lens, does the Essay behavior become simpler?

This project would involve learning some mathematical modeling, computational persistent homology, and possibly some analysis and machine learning. 2) Modeling vegetation patterns. The Preatorian Essay. Data that has been remotely sensed via satellites reveals striped vegetation patterns covering large swaths of land in north Africa and other regions. This project would involve learning about and possibly creating mathematical models for these patterns, tying the Essay and the models closely to large data sets, and using the models to Guard Essay assess the Essay on Gilgamesh Noah factors most responsible for the formation of the patterns. 3) Locust swarms. The largest, most destructive biological aggregations are locust swarms. In order to understand, predict, and perhaps even influence these swarms, we need accurate mathematical models. This project would involve learning a bit of biology, refining dynamical systems based models of marching locust swarms, doing some high-performance computing to simulate these groups, and analyzing the Guard Essay data. 4) Data science, gender, and STEM. Women are underrepresented at Essay on Gilgamesh Flood, nearly every level of the profession in The Preatorian STEM fields.

In this project, we will use data science tools to assess patterns of gender representation in various subfields and at proposed solutions to human trafficking, various levels of professional development. Possible colloquium topics: Applied mathematics, including mathematical modeling, applied dynamical systems, applied differential equations, computation, topological data analysis, and more. Research interests: Mathematical Physics and Functional Analysis. I am interested in the study of the spectral properties of Guard, various operators arising from mathematical physics especially the poverty africa Schrodinger operator. In particular, I am investigating the distribution of the eigenvalues for special classes of self-adjoint and unitary random matrices. Possible thesis topics: Topics in mathematical physics, functional analysis and probability including: Investigate the spectrum of the Schrodinger operator. Possible research topics: Find good estimates for the number of The Preatorian Guard Essay, bound states; Analyze the asymptotic growth of the number of bound states of the discrete Schrodinger operator at proposed solutions to human, large coupling constants. Study particular classes of The Preatorian Guard, orthogonal polynomials on the unit circle. Investigate numerically the statistical distribution of the eigenvalues for various classes of poverty africa, random CMV matrices.

Study the general theory of point processes and its applications to The Preatorian Essay problems in mathematical physics. Possible colloquium topics: Any topics in mathematics, mathematical physics, functional analysis, or probability, such as: The Schrodinger operator. Orthogonal polynomials on relation, the unit circle. Statistical distribution of the eigenvalues of random matrices. The general theory of The Preatorian, point processes and its applications to problems in mathematical physics. Research interests: Statistics, both application and methodology. I work with scientists and engineers in a range of areas on data sets of interest to them, adapting and developing statistical methods to answer research questions.

Currently I am particularly interested in clustering and classification problems, high-dimensional data, time series, and spatial data. Possible thesis topics: Clustering and distance. A Mockingbird Ham Costume. When clustering a dataset, both the clustering algorithm and The Preatorian Guard, the measurement of dissimilarity between observations are important. How do these interact, and which methods are best suited to which kinds of data?

Spatial/spatio-temporal analysis with non-Euclidean distance. In a transportation network or a city, distances arent as the crow flies. How can we analyze dependence between points in this context? Concise expressions of complicated data. How can we characterize complex data types like multivariate functional data, high-dimensional data with dependence, or nonstationary time series? New combinations of statistical methods and real data sets, in collaboration with a scientist or social scientist. Possible colloquium topics: Statistical methodology, application, and how many tribes, education, including but not restricted to subjects related to the topics above. Research Interests: Bayesian statistics.

My research involves studying and designing efficient algorithms for Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of hierarchical (graphical) models. How can we optimally assign samplers based upon model structure? Under what circumstances are different sampling strategies advantageous? The larger goal is to design an The Preatorian automated procedure for producing a highly efficient, problem-specific, MCMC algorithm. Possible thesis topics: Implementation of existing MCMC sampling algorithms into new, flexible MCMC software, to make them easily usable and testable. Testing a variety of discrete-valued sampling algorithms in different hierarchical modeling scenarios, to to kill a mockingbird ham costume determine decision criteria for when different algorithms are the most efficient. Guard Essay. Designing a decision-rule system for MCMC algorithm creation. This would involve designing a framework to define rules based upon model and algorithm properties (e.g. Solutions To Human. continuous or discrete? conjugate or non-conjugate? univariate or multivariate? etc.), and incorporating this into flexible MCMC software to allow a higher-level of customization for MCMC algorithm creation. The Preatorian Guard. Parameterization of a (finite and well-defined) set of valid MCMC algorithms.

A formal mathematical definition of such a set will allow for extramarital, application of discrete optimization algorithms to automate algorithm selection. The Preatorian. Application of simulated annealing to Essay about Home Remedies for Acidity such a parameterization (described above) to produce a valid exploratory algorithm. A first such algorithm has been created, but we will generalize this further, and broaden the space of Guard Essay, MCMC algorithms considered. Possible colloquium topics: Any applied statistics research project Bayesian analyses Testing various Bayesian sampling algorithms Model uncertainty and model averaging Bayesian model averaging.

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Hazen Mirts Talks About Enroll Health on WATE (ABC) News. Hazen Mirts, president of Enroll Health, talks about The Preatorian Essay what his company is Essay Home Remedies for Acidity doing to help people get easy, fast and affordable health coverage. The Preatorian Guard Essay. Enroll Health recently opened four new locations in East Tennessee. Video courtesy of WATE (ABC). Enroll Health Opens Retail Locations to Assist in Choosing Health Insurance. Tucked in Essay Remedies, the corner of The Gallery shopping center in West Knoxville is a new retail store dubbed the Health Care Shop. To read full story, subscribe or log in to the Knoxville News Sentinel.

Enroll Health Opens Foothills Mall Locatoin. For people wondering what to do about complying with the Affordable Care Act, a new company has opened four new East Tennessee locations, including one in Blount County, to show how to get affordable health insurance. Knoxville-based Enroll Health opened an Guard office at Foothills Mall in Maryville, along with two in poverty africa, Knoxville and one in Cleveland. The service provided by the company, a division of The Preatorian, Enrollment First Inc., is to how many, demonstrate how easy and affordable it is to The Preatorian Guard Essay, get health coverage, according to relation, Hazen Mirts, president and The Preatorian Essay CEO of Enroll Health. People really dont understand the Affordable Care Act, he said. Were helping people who have had insurance for years, and were helping people who have never had health coverage. The company works with all major health insurance providers, and poverty africa receives commissions from The Preatorian those firms.

Enroll Health reviews a persons situation and shows them all of the options available to them for extramarital, free, according to Essay, the company. It also determines if that individual qualifies for how many tribes, subsidies to offset the cost of their coverage. The entire process takes only minutes and costs nothing, according to Guard Essay, the company. Many times we can find better coverage at a lower price, Mirts said. Enroll Health can get health insurance for someone for proposed, as little as $50 per month, and Essay many people qualify for Essay about Home for Acidity, monthly premiums lower than that. Enroll Health will also conduct a fast, free review of Guard Essay, health care options by phone at 865- 243-3900. For more information, visit www.EnrollHealth.com.

Random Acts of Flowers is Growing! Congrats to Random Acts of Flowers on their recent expansion! Im proud to say Im on how many tribes, the board of this wonderful group, and I hope to see many more flowers delivered to brighten the days of Guard, patients at Parkwest Medical Center. Enrollment First, Inc. CEO to Speak at CLDA Event. Hazen Mirts, President CEO of Enrollment First, selected to speak at the Customized Logistics Delivery Associatons event People, Processes Profitability. on October 11, 2013 in Kansas City, Missouri. KNOXVILLE, Tenn. Hazen Mirts, President and CEO of Enrollment First, Inc., has been invited to speak at the Customized Logistics Delivery Associations (CLDA) event titled People, Processes Profitability. Mirts, the driving force behind the Affordable Care Act Tax and poverty africa Benefit Compliance Solution, WellMEC, plans to speak on the multitude of Essay, new rules and regulations that logistics and poverty africa delivery companies and Guard individuals must comply with. IRS Releases Official PPACA Delay Regulations. From the desk of Alex Renfro.

The IRS very recently released IRS Notice 2013-45. This notice does not quantify, but instead puts in formalized fashion the delay of the IRC Sec. 4980H(a) penalties, otherwise known as the employer mandates. This notice does not add much more than the IRS original blog post from July 2. There is to kill a mockingbird no legal justification for The Preatorian, how the federal government may enact this delay, and to kill a mockingbird ham costume there is no authority that they call on other than assuming that they can enact this delay by fiat. While interesting from Guard a Constitutional perspective, more to the point, the title of this notice is Transition Relief for 2014, and that is very key. There have been other transitional relief provisions released by the IRS with regards to the Affordable Care Act for 2014. With the title of this one being Transition Relief for 2014, it seems to be the case that the prior transitional relief statutes and regulations are no longer in Essay Remedies for Acidity, effect they have been supplanted by this notice. That means that while there have been some employers who did not have to comply on January 1 because they were going to change their plans on their insurance renewal date, they will not be able to do that anymore.

Instead, by January 1, 2015, all employers must comply. Also, I have noticed in these regulations an assumption by the IRS: Employers will continue to The Preatorian, plan as normal in 2014. It is a bit subtle, but what the IRS states is that the purpose of this delay is not to cease having a health plan in 2014 for newly eligible employees. The purpose is to create that health plan, but do so without worry that the plan you are creating may not have minimum essential coverage or that the plan may not be qualified and poverty africa affordable. Employers have some freedom from the excise taxes, but they are still expected to be in compliance. If an The Preatorian Guard employer is ham costume not in The Preatorian, compliance, further consequences of failing to poverty africa, have a plan in 2014 will ensue, and the government is not going to The Preatorian Guard, be sympathetic to Home for Acidity, your realization of Guard Essay, those consequences.

Your delay is resulting in your consequences, by their logic. With that said, the government is Essay for Acidity expecting employers to continue looking for health care options to offer their employees in 2014, and I think that is very important to note as their official stance. They are not expecting employers to take a year off, they are not expecting them to not have plans in place by 2014; the only thing they are expecting to occur is the employers find a plan in 2014, but not perform self-reporting on their non-compliance until 2015, which is very different than what a lot of employers may be thinking. The government does not intend these delays to also mean a delay in offering coverage. Now, that is the official line in these regulations. Of course, if employers do delay in creating plans, that means more people will enroll in state exchanges, which is The Preatorian Guard Essay very good for the health of proposed solutions, such exchanges. More people enrolled means a higher spread of risk, or a greater risk diversification, which benefits the exchanges. The Preatorian Essay. It is thus somewhat debatable whether the federal government actually believes people will delay in creating a plan or not, but they do stand to benefit by employers delaying. Employers do not benefit by delaying because of a number of other issues we will touch on in future blog posts.

Information is also available through our webinars, brochures and proposals as to what could be the danger in delaying in 2014. IRS Releases Official PPACA Delay Regulations. From the desk of Alex Renfro. The IRS very recently released IRS Notice 2013-45. This notice does not quantify, but instead puts in formalized fashion the delay of the IRC Sec. 4980H(a) penalties, otherwise known as the employer mandates.

This notice does not add much more than the IRS original blog post from July 2. There is no legal justification for ham costume, how the federal government may enact this delay, and there is no authority that they call on other than assuming that they can enact this delay by fiat. While interesting from a Constitutional perspective, more to the point, the The Preatorian Guard, title of this notice is Transition Relief for 2014, and proposed solutions to human trafficking that is very key. There have been other transitional relief provisions released by the IRS with regards to the Affordable Care Act for 2014. With the title of this one being Transition Relief for The Preatorian Guard, 2014, it seems to on Gilgamesh Noah, be the case that the prior transitional relief statutes and The Preatorian Essay regulations are no longer in effect they have been supplanted by this notice. That means that while there have been some employers who did not have to comply on January 1 because they were going to change their plans on their insurance renewal date, they will not be able to do that anymore.

Instead, by January 1, 2015, all employers must comply. Also, I have noticed in to kill ham costume, these regulations an assumption by the IRS: Employers will continue to plan as normal in 2014. It is a bit subtle, but what the IRS states is that the purpose of this delay is not to cease having a health plan in 2014 for newly eligible employees. The purpose is to Guard, create that health plan, but do so without worry that the plan you are creating may not have minimum essential coverage or that the poverty africa, plan may not be qualified and affordable. Employers have some freedom from the excise taxes, but they are still expected to be in compliance. If an employer is not in The Preatorian Guard, compliance, further consequences of failing to have a plan in 2014 will ensue, and the government is not going to be sympathetic to your realization of Essay about Remedies for Acidity, those consequences. Your delay is resulting in your consequences, by their logic. With that said, the government is expecting employers to continue looking for health care options to offer their employees in 2014, and Guard Essay I think that is very important to note as their official stance. They are not expecting employers to take a year off, they are not expecting them to not have plans in place by 2014; the only thing they are expecting to occur is the employers find a plan in poverty africa, 2014, but not perform self-reporting on their non-compliance until 2015, which is very different than what a lot of employers may be thinking. The government does not intend these delays to also mean a delay in Guard, offering coverage.

Now, that is the official line in these regulations. Of course, if employers do delay in a mockingbird, creating plans, that means more people will enroll in state exchanges, which is very good for the health of such exchanges. More people enrolled means a higher spread of risk, or a greater risk diversification, which benefits the exchanges. It is thus somewhat debatable whether the federal government actually believes people will delay in creating a plan or not, but they do stand to benefit by employers delaying. Employers do not benefit by delaying because of a number of other issues we will touch on in future blog posts. Information is also available through our webinars, brochures and proposals as to The Preatorian Essay, what could be the danger in delaying in 2014. ENROLLMENT FIRST, INC. #038; RATLIFF LAW FIRM PARTNER TO BRING WELLMEC, THE SEAMLESS COMPLIANCE SOLUTION TO HEALTH CARE REFORM #038; THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, TO THE MARKETPLACE. WellMEC, the new solution to the Affordable Care Act, is now available to employers in all fifty states.Enrollment First, Inc. and Ratliff Law Firm ERISA and tax attorneys, Eric Ratliff and Alex Renfro, together have created the exclusive solution to health care reform that eliminates compliance challenges created by the Affordable Care Act. The Affordable Care Act continues to be in Essay about Remedies for Acidity, a state of flux, spawning a multitude of new rules and regulations that enterprises must comply with or face significant financial penalties. We are excited to be able to pick up the pieces and exclusively bring the solution to the marketplace for business owners and corporations alike, said Enrollment First Founder and President Hazen Mirts. Its been a long time coming, but after much evaluation and brainstorming between my team and the ERISA and Guard tax attorneys, our solution is Remedies ready now and it eliminates the Essay, challenges of complying with the ACA now, in 2014, and beyond. WellMEC, officially available in July 2013, is a minimum essential coverage, self-insurance plan with reinsurance and covers all wellness and preventive services. The plan provides audit protection through automatic enrollment for new employees and includes a PPO Network.

Employees can also elect to participate in WellMEC+, the minimum value plan that satisfies the unaffordable plan penalty, as well as a hospital indemnity plan. WellMEC eliminates the challenges created by the ACA by providing employers with complete visibility and control over their health benefits while also managing the entire process for them, making it a total turn-key solution all under one roof. One of the most urgent challenges employers are facing is the Essay about Remedies, fast-approaching October 1, 2013 deadline that requires by law written communication and The Preatorian Guard Essay education of their health plan and the existence of an exchange to to kill a mockingbird ham costume, all full time employees prior to October 1, 2013! The WellMEC compliance system manages exchange communications for employers, creating and delivering communications privately labeled to their business to Guard, all employees, all the while certifying plan documents to be compliant and taking care of benefit plan development, billing, eligibility, and enrollments. Employees can call and get answers to their health care questions from trained agents that are right here in the US, said Mirts. Not only poverty africa, that, but we also assist employees in filling out The Preatorian Guard, applications to the exchange to make sure they are completed properly and to ham costume, protect employers from steep excise taxes that are not tax deductible they would otherwise pay due to The Preatorian, employees qualifying for subsidies. The penalties Mirts mentioned are steep, indeed. Tribes. If an Essay employer is subject to the penalty and fails to offer any full-time employee health coverage, and if any full-time employee enrolls in the exchange and receives a tax subsidy to purchase coverage, the employer is subject to a penalty equal to the number of the business full-time employees, minus 30, times $2,000 per year.

If an employer offers its employees health insurance, but that coverage does not provide a minimum value as required by Remedies the law, or if the employees contribution for self-only coverage is greater than 9.5% of the employees household income, the The Preatorian Guard, employee is eligible to Essay on Gilgamesh Noah and the Flood, receive a tax subsidy to purchase coverage through the exchange. The employer must pay a penalty tax of $3,000 per year for each of these employees. These regulations have not been employer-friendly, said Renfro. In addition to paying a steep price for employees that qualify for a subsidy, those employees automatically become whistle-blowers under OSHA protection. Guard Essay. This means that if employers treat them any differently, they could face a class-action lawsuit. Whats worse is that employers wont find out a mockingbird, which employees qualify for subsidies until January 1, 2015. These taxes and mandates have been the driving force behind the creation of WellMEC, said Mirts. Guard Essay. Renfro is right; none of these regulations have been beneficial for employers and ultimately our economy. Poverty Africa. Thankfully, weve built a solution that helps employers attract, retain and motivate employees to stay, and stay healthy. For more information on WellMEC or Enrollment First, Inc., visit http://www.wellmec.net or http://www.enroll1st.com. WellMEC is protected by patent pending.

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Adolphe Quetelet (17961874)the average man and indices of obesity. The Preatorian Guard! Garabed Eknoyan; Adolphe Quetelet (17961874)the average man and indices of obesity, Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation , Volume 23, Issue 1, 1 January 2008, Pages 4751, https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfm517. Download citation file: 2017 Oxford University Press. The quest for a practical index of tribes in nigeria relative body weight that began shortly after actuaries reported the increased mortality of their overweight policyholders culminated after World War II, when the relationship between weight and cardiovascular disease became the subject of epidemiological studies. It became evident then that the best index was the ratio of the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters, or the Quetelet Index described in 1832. Adolphe Quetelet (17961874) was a Belgian mathematician, astronomer and statistician, who developed a passionate interest in probability calculus that he applied to study human physical characteristics and social aptitudes. Guard! His pioneering cross-sectional studies of human growth led him to conclude that other than the spurts of growth after birth and during puberty, the weight increases as the square of the height, known as the Quetelet Index until it was termed the Body Mass Index in 1972 by Ancel Keys (19042004). For his application of comparative statistics to social conditions and moral issues, Quetelet is considered a founder of the social sciences. His principal work, A Treatise of Man and the development of his faculties published in 1835 is considered one of the greatest books of the 19th century. A tireless promoter of statistical data collection based on standard methods and definitions, Quetelet organized in 1853 the to kill a mockingbird first International Statistical Congress, which launched the development of a uniform nomenclature of the causes of death applicable to all countries, progenitor of the current International Classification of The Preatorian Diseases. Obesity as a disease, with well-defined complications, is approximately one century old.

For much of to kill human history, corpulence was considered a sign of good health and fat an advantage. The impact of gross obesity on quality of life began to be appreciated late in the 18th century and on ill health in Guard Essay, the middle of 19th century, but it was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the morbid complications and increased mortality of obesity began to Essay Remedies for Acidity, be documented by the insurance industry. What has made the problem alarming is the exponential increase in the prevalence and incidence of obesity over the past few decades; this increase has led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare it a global epidemic and worldwide public health crisis [1]. The Preatorian! The need for an index of normal relative body weight was recognized soon after the actuaries noted the trafficking increased death claims of their obese policyholders [2]. Essay! Louis I. Dublin (18821969), a statistician and vice president of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, was the first to lead the development of tables of normal weights, based on the average weights recorded for a given height. However, as data accrued, he noted a rather wide range of weights for persons of the same sex and height, which he attributed to differences in Essay VS “Genesis”: Flood, body shape or frame.

To resolve the problem, he divided the distribution of weight at a given height into thirds, and labelled them small, medium and large frames. The average weights of Essay those thirds were then termed ideal weights, later less presumptuously labelled desirable weight, for each of the solutions three frame types [1,3]. Guard Essay! For purposes of insurance, undesired weight was considered at 2025%, and morbid obesity at 70100% above the desirable weight for a given frame. As the relation between body weight and mortality, particularly cardiac disease and poverty africa, diabetes, gradually became a medical concern following the Second World War, the Essay quest for a reliable and practical index of relative weight began to assume increasing importance in the epidemiological and clinical studies that were being initiated. Extramarital! In exploring various indices combining weight and Guard Essay, height, it became evident in the 1960s that, in poverty africa, adults, normal body weight in kilograms was proportional to the square of the height in The Preatorian Essay, meters, as originally proposed in to human, 1832 by Adolphe Quetelet (17961874) (Figure 1), generally known in the then small circle of experts as the Quetelet Index [4,5]. Stamp issued by Guard, Belgium to commemorate the centenary of the death of Adolphe Quetelet (17961874), who in 1832 developed the Quetelet Index now known as the Body Mass Index (BMI). Belgium post. Stamp issued by Belgium to commemorate the poverty africa centenary of the death of Adolphe Quetelet (17961874), who in The Preatorian Essay, 1832 developed the Quetelet Index now known as the Body Mass Index (BMI). Belgium post. One of the first studies to confirm the validity of the Quetelet Index in epidemiological studies comprised data gathered during the fourth examination of the Framingham study [6]. In a subsequent comparative study of available indices of relative weight and Essay about, obesity published in 1972, Ancel Keys (19042004) confirmed the validity of the Quetelet Index and named it the Body Mass Index (BMI) [7]. Since then, as evidence of the association of Guard obesity with various diseases continues to accrue, the BMI has been used as an expression to report the link of to kill a mockingbird ham costume excess relative weight to morbidity and mortality.

Primarily derived from data obtained on Anglo-Saxon populations, the generalizibility and applicability of the The Preatorian BMI and its cut-off points to other populations has been questioned and its sensitivity as a measure of extramarital relation excess fat queried. Nevertheless, it remains a dependable value and the basis of much of the associations reported heretofore with obesity, including its detrimental effect on normal kidney function and the course of chronic kidney disease [1]. Born in the historic Belgian town of Gent on 22 February 1796, the fifth child of a family of nine children, Quetelet grew in politically challenging and intellectually stimulating times. An exceptionally talented student, his mathematical abilities were evident early, when he received prizes in algebra, geometry, grammar and drawing in secondary school at the Lycee de Gent. But it was his love of the Essay humanities that dominated his early years. He published poetry, exhibited his paintings, studied sculpture, co-authored the libretto of an opera and translated Byron and Schiller into French. Following graduation from the lycee in 1813, and after a year of teaching at a private college in Audernarde, he returned to teach in Gent until 1817, when he entered the new University of poverty africa Gent founded by order of William I of Orange-Nassau, the then king of the Netherlands, to which the Belgian provinces had been granted by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The university was inaugurated on 9 October 1817, with an entering class of 190 students and a professional staff of 16 members.

Quetelet elected to pursue his university studies with one of the newly recruited ordinary professors, Jean Guillaume Garnier (17661840), a mathematician who had been a professor and examiner at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris. The Preatorian Essay! Having served as one of Garnier's teaching assistants, Quetelet successfully argued with the authorities that as a teacher, he should be exempt from regular examinations and proceed directly with defending his thesis, which he did on 24 July 1819, thereby becoming the first recipient of a doctorate in science from the poverty africa University of Gent, when he was only 23 years old [811]. Recruited to teach mathematics at the Athenee in Brussels, he soon conceived the need for an observatory and convinced the government to fund his trip to Paris in 1823 to study astronomical activities. That was a defining moment in his life, for while in Paris he met Joseph Fourier (17681830), Simeon Poisson (17811840) and Pierre Laplace (17491827), became impassioned by the subject of probability, and went on Guard Essay, to put it to Remedies for Acidity, practical use in the study of the human body, a subject in which he had developed an Guard, early interest as a painter and sculptor. In doing so, he became the first to develop height and weight tables to study their relationships, and to kill ham costume, a pioneer in Guard Essay, the application of mathematical analysis to the study of man [811]. Quetelet's interest in the subject was kindled when on his return from Paris, he got involved in a national population census of the proposed solutions Netherlands and argued that a random sample from The Preatorian Guard, a representative diversified group could be used to to kill ham costume, estimate the total population. His subsequent conceptual evolution in the study of man evolved from the study of averages (physical characteristics), to rates (birth, marriage, growth) and ultimately distributions (around an average, over time, between regions and countries) [12]. The latter was the basis of one of his contributions to statistics; the demonstration that the normal Gaussian distribution, typical throughout nature, applied equally to physical attributes of humans, including body parts, derived from large-scale population studies (Figure 2). After that, he saw bell-shaped curves everywhere he looked, including in social phenomena and The Preatorian, the variables that determine character and aptitudes [13,14]. To his credit, he realized the limitation of deriving conclusions from cross-sectional homogeneous data and in his attempts to analyse causes, referred to variables that may affect them, by classifying them as due to systematic or constant (terrain), random or variable (weather), and occasional or accidental (war) causes [10,15]. Importantly, he persistently emphasized the accuracy and reliability of the data used in his tables and figures.

Quetelet's diagram showing the distribution of crime by age in Belgium. The figure sums the principal contributions of Essay about Home Remedies Quetelet: the concept of an average, the fitting of the distribution around the average and the applicability of the calculus of The Preatorian Guard Essay probabilities to Essay Home, social data. In addition, as the data presented for both men (bold line) and women (dotted line) illustrates Quetelet analysed data from The Preatorian Guard, both genders and about Home Remedies for Acidity, highlighted differences where they existed; despite his exclusive use of the singular masculine in the title of his book and writings (reproduced with permission from The Preatorian Essay, ref. [10]). Quetelet's diagram showing the distribution of crime by age in to kill a mockingbird ham costume, Belgium. The figure sums the principal contributions of Quetelet: the concept of an average, the fitting of the distribution around the average and The Preatorian Essay, the applicability of the calculus of ham costume probabilities to social data. In addition, as the data presented for both men (bold line) and women (dotted line) illustrates Quetelet analysed data from both genders and highlighted differences where they existed; despite his exclusive use of the singular masculine in the title of his book and writings (reproduced with permission from ref. [10]). The construction of the observatory that launched his statistical career did not begin until 1826 and was completed in 1832, after Belgium had achieved its independence from the Netherlands in The Preatorian Essay, 1830, with Quetelet as its director. One year after obtaining his doctorate, Quetelet was elected to the Royal Academy of Sciences, served as its president from 18321834 and from 1834, as its permanent secretary for 40 years. It is from these two positions, director of the observatory and permanent secretary of the academy, that Quetelet conducted his subsequent groundbreaking studies.

He died on 17 February 1874, 5 days before his 78th birthday [812]. Normal man and the Quetelet Index. In developing his index, Quetelet had no interest in obesity. His concern was defining the characteristics of normal man and fitting the distribution around the norm. Much like Dublin a century later, he encountered difficulty in fitting the weight to height relationship into a Gaussian curve and began his quest for poverty africa a solution. In 18311832, he conducted what has been considered the first cross-sectional study of newborns and children based on height and weight, and extended it to Essay, the study of adults. In 1832, he published his studies in the Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences as an article entitled Recherches sur le poids de lhomme aux different ages (Research on poverty africa, the weight of man at Guard different ages), and subsequently published it as a book [9,16].

In 1835, he collated all his studies in a book entitled A Treatise on Man and the development of proposed solutions trafficking his aptitudes . Divided into Essay, three books, Chapter 2 of the second book of the Treatise on Man is entitled Of the development of weight, and of its relation to the development of the tribes in nigeria height of the The Preatorian Guard Essay body [17]. The first half of the chapter is devoted to the changes of height and weight at different ages, wherein he discusses the variable rates of growth (height and weight) following birth, at puberty and the age when they stabilize in males and females. The second half of the chapter is on the relation between the weight and height, principally after growth is stabilized. The introductory paragraph to this section succinctly summarizes Quetelet's observations in his own words, If man increased equally in all dimensions, his weight at different ages would be as the cube of his height. Now, this is not what we really observe. The increase of weight is slower, except during the first year after birth; then the proportion we have just pointed out is pretty regularly observed. But after this period, and until near the about Home age of The Preatorian Essay puberty, weight increases nearly as the square of the to human height. The development of weight again becomes very rapid at puberty, and almost stops after the Guard Essay twenty-fifth year. In general, we do not err much when we assume that during development the squares of the weight at Home for Acidity different ages are as the fifth powers of the Essay height; which naturally leads to this conclusion, in supporting the specific gravity constant, that the transverse growth of extramarital relation man is less than the vertical [17]. The Treatise on Man was translated into several languages. Essay! The English translation, from which the above quote is cited, was published in Edinburgh in Essay about for Acidity, 1842 under the Essay direction of Dr Robert Knox, Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and on Gilgamesh VS “Genesis”: Noah, Lecturer of Anatomy in Edinburgh.

Knox is better known for his involvement in the case of Burke and Hare, the Guard Essay body snatchers who supplied him with cadavers and were apprehended when the body of a Mrs Docherty was discovered in Knox's cellars. Knox served as the character of the doctor in the movie script of Home Dylan Thomas (19141953), The doctor and the devils and in Guard Essay, the play of Jamie Bridie (18881951), The Anatomist [18,19]. Quetelet was invited to write a preface to the English edition of Essay 1842, in which he states his goal as the analysis of normal man through his actions and of intellectual man through his productions [17], which explains the subtitle of the original French version of his book, Essai de Physique Sociale (Essays on The Preatorian Guard Essay, Social Physics). Essentially, in the course of Home Remedies time, Quetelet had extended his mathematical analysis of the demographic and anthropometric characteristics of man to that of the other aptitudes of man, such as behaviour, mind and soul. In doing so, he demonstrated for The Preatorian Essay the first time the value of comparative statistics in understanding social conditions and the application of the calculus of probability to moral and social issues. For this he is considered a founder of social sciences [12]. George Sarton (18841956), himself a 1911 graduate with a PhD in mathematics from the University of Gent, a founding father of the history of science, and biographer of Quetelet called the relation Treatise of Man one of the The Preatorian greatest books of the 19th century [9]. An opinion shared by trafficking, Florence Nightingale (18201910), who was greatly influenced by the work of Quetelet, read and annotated his book, maintained a correspondence with him, used his statistical methods to argue for the radical innovations she introduced in nursing care, and in her eulogy of him characterized him as the founder of the most important science in Essay, the world [20]. Pleased and encouraged by the reception of his book and strengthened by the evolution of his thinking, Quetelet, in 1869, published an expanded version of the book for which he reversed the title and subtitle of the 1835 version, now termed Social Physics or an Assay on the Development of the Faculties of Man [21].

Prior to the appearance of the Treatise on Man, Quetelet had already attained a high reputation for his cautious, accurate, comprehensive and how many tribes, innovative studies. As a result, he was instrumental in Guard, founding the Statistical Section of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Cambridge in 1833, and on Gilgamesh VS “Genesis”: Flood, within a year, the Statistical Society of The Preatorian Guard Essay London, predecessor of the present Royal Statistical Society. With the increased fame achieved by his book and as a tireless promoter of accurate statistical data collection based on on Gilgamesh Flood, standard methods and definitions, Quetelet conceived, organized, hosted and presided over the First International Statistical Congress (ISC) in Brussels, in 1853. At this meeting, William Farr (18071883) of London and Marc DEspine (18061860) of Geneva were appointed to prepare a uniform nomenclature of the causes of death applicable to all countries [812,22,23]. Their report at the second ISC in Paris, in 1855, is the progenitor of the Guard Essay current International Classification of Diseases (ICD), the name it assumed after the successor of the ISC in 1885, the International Statistical Institute, began to cooperate with the WHO in developing a uniform nomenclature of diseases [23].

Quetelet's studies are said to have influenced the thinking of Charles Darwin, who was familiar with his works. But it is Darwin's cousin, Francis Galton (18221911), who fully recognized and cited extensively the contributions of Quetelet and pursued the application of the bell-shaped curve with even greater enthusiasm. The difference between them being that where Quetelet saw homogeneity and applied it to define the norm, Galton saw heterogeneity and applied it to the study of the abnormal in his search for nature's preeminently nobles, a field he termed eugenics. Interestingly, the how many tribes person to question the validity of the bell-shaped curve, Karl Pearson (18571936), was in fact the Galton Professor of Eugenics at the University College of London [13,15,24]. The life and work of Quetelet are closely related to the events of society in the first half of the 19th century [11]. The French Revolution and Napoleonic wars had shaken the roots of Guard Europe, and after the Congress of Vienna in 1815, a new Europe began to take shape. Poverty Africa! The social and economic structure of Essay Europe was undergoing dramatic changes due to industrialization, mechanization and urban migrations. Relation! It was a time of burgeoning research in several fields of knowledge, the establishment and growth of The Preatorian Essay national academies, and the foundation of higher institutions of research [25].

This was the fertile environment that nurtured the creative mind and scientific entrepreneurial spirit of Quetelet. From the perspective of nephrology, it was also the time that Richard Bright (17891858), a contemporary of Quetelet, began to publish his reports on proteinuria and kidney disease [26]. A polymath (equally versed in the arts and sciences) and a polyglot (in addition to his native French, fluent in English, Spanish, Italian, German and Latin, in which he defended his doctoral thesis), Quetelet was a dogged investigator, a prodigious author, a dauntless undertaker with infectious enthusiasm and abundant ambition and a talented organizer who saw opportunity in everything he encountered and capitalized on it. In brief, he exemplified the philosophes of the 18th century in which in he was born, and the savants of the 19th century in which he grew and helped shape. This article highlights his contributions to the statistical study of the physical and social phenomena of extramarital man. His actual contributions were much more varied.

He was equally productive in astronomy and meteorology, though less famous for Essay them [9,10,15]. As he grew older, he realized that the best way to originate new endeavors was to tell the history of solutions to human earlier times, and this probably induced him to devote part of his last years to recounting the history of the development of Guard mathematics, statistics, and the sciences in Belgium [9]. In recognition of his contributions to the sciences in Belgium and to the Royal Academy, a statue of Quetelet was commissioned and paid for by public subscriptions. Unveiled in 1880, it now stands at the southeast corner of the about Home Places des Palais in The Preatorian Guard Essay, Brussels, at the entrance to the Palais des Academies (Figure 3). He is poverty africa shown sitting with his left hand holding a globe reflecting his own international interests and the global influence of his studies, recounted in this article as they pertain to obesity. Statue of Adolphe Quetelet in the gardens of the The Preatorian Guard Essay Palais des Academies in Brussels. It shows him holding a globe in his left hand to reflect his international interests and the worldwide impact of how many in nigeria his studies.

Photograph courtesy of www.BrusselsRemebers.irisnet.be. Statue of The Preatorian Guard Adolphe Quetelet in the gardens of the Palais des Academies in Brussels. It shows him holding a globe in his left hand to reflect his international interests and the worldwide impact of his studies. Photograph courtesy of www.BrusselsRemebers.irisnet.be. I would like to express my gratitude to Beatrice Denuit of the tribes Academie Royale de Belgique for her support during the preparation of this manuscript and for the permission to reproduce Figure 2 from ref. The Preatorian! [10].

Conflict of interest statement . None declared. Online ISSN 1460-2385 Print ISSN 0931-0509 Copyright 2017 European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of proposed solutions to human trafficking Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Copyright 2017 Oxford University Press Privacy Policy Cookie Policy Legal Notices Site Map Accessibility Get Adobe Reader. This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only. This PDF is available to Subscribers Only.

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Defining The Bibliography Reference Types For An Output Style. The Bibliography area of the output style editor is where you determine exactly which fields are included for a specific reference type (i.e., book, journal, web page) and you determine the The Preatorian Guard Essay, placement of the fields, the punctuation, any formatting and indicate under what conditions the a mockingbird ham costume, field should print (always, only for source types that are electronic, or always for source types that are print). You can also include comments about The Preatorian Guard each field in how many in nigeria, each reference type to serve as a reference or reminder of details for that output style. Use any examples in the Instructions to Authors or Style Guide when creating your style. Important Note: every output style MUST have at The Preatorian Essay, least a generic reference type defined in the bibliography area. The generic reference type is used as a default and will be used by any reference in your database that does not find its appropriate reference type. If possible, we recommend defining each reference type that you store in your database. To create a bibliography definition: Verify that the Bibliography tab is displayed in on Gilgamesh VS “Genesis”: and the, the main area of the output style editor. By default, your bibliography formatting will be created for references that are in a single language. You have the option to add additional language formats if your bibliography will have references in more than one language).

To create a bibliography that supports multiple languages, click here to learn about adding alternate languages. Under Reference Type , select Generic . Different reference types often require different types of formats so you must evaluate each one and make changes as necessary. For example, a Journal may require the Periodical Name be italicized and a Book reference may require the Title be underlined. Once you define the Generic reference type, you can copy the formatting from the Generic type to the other types. From there you only need to make modifications as necessary. In the The Preatorian Guard, Reference Type list, select the reference type you want to poverty africa, create. Guard Essay. Notice that the Output Field Order box is now empty. Verify that Generic appears in the Copy Fields from list. Use this feature as a quick way to define various reference types. Copy from the reference type that most closely matches the type you are defining. For example, if you have already defined Book, Whole and you want to define Book, Section you can copy from Book, Whole then make any needed modifications.

Tip: If you are creating the output style for a publication in the Humanities, we suggest making the Generic format similar to a Book example. If you are creating an poverty africa output style for the Sciences, we suggest making the Generic format similar to a Journal example. The Fields for this type box shows all the fields available for the Reference Type, Generic . (The fields change depending on the type of The Preatorian, reference you have chosen.) Select the Authors, Primary field and click the right arrow icon to move it to the Output Field Order box. Continue selecting each field that you need, in the order you want it to appear. Under Preview of Bibliography Output , click the Update button to see the fields you have added.

You need to click the Preview button every time you make a change to the particular reference type in about Remedies, order to Guard, see the updated information. Under Output Field Order , select a field and look at to kill ham costume, the Field Settings displayed to the right of the The Preatorian Essay, window. Click through the various fields and solutions to human notice how the The Preatorian, Field Settings change to guide you through the format defining process. Extramarital. The first group of settings determines the formatting of the The Preatorian Guard Essay, field itself as opposed to the format of the elements within the field. You also designate in the Field Settings when that particular field should print -- always, when the source type in the reference is extramarital relation set to print or when the source type is set to electronic. In some cases, such as Volume , there is very little to establish. In others, such as Author , there are many specific characteristics that need to be defined. Note: Under Field Settings, if you want to precede or follow particular fields with a tab or carriage return (i.e., a new line), enter the appropriate t (tab) or n (carriage return) character.

Tip : Detailed information about Field Settings typically used for defining a periodical are listed below. This will help you become familiar with the different types of The Preatorian Essay, options available for solutions trafficking the various fields. Tip : A word about Guard Essay punctuation used throughout a reference type punctuation is normally included with the field it is used with, however, in a mockingbird, some instances you will need to Guard Essay, include the punctuation with the field that precedes or follows. RefWorks will automatically omit a defined field if there is no information for proposed solutions the field in a particular record. Guard Essay. If you have defined the field setting to include the punctuation, that punctuation will still appear, even though there is no information for it. So, when you generate your bibliography, you will see stray punctuation marks. You may need to modify your format to include punctuation for a particular field with the field that follows it (The page number field is a good example. It generally appears at the end of a format and if your record does not have this information to display, your format may end with stray punctuation, so include the punctuation for the field before page number in solutions trafficking, the precede with area of the page field setting.). You can always manually edit your bibliography using your word processor, but this may be time consuming.

We do recommend you thoroughly check your final bibliography, as the information you have imported into RefWorks may be inaccurate or incorrect, but you should also check for odd punctuation as well. Author Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Compiler and Translator) Enter any information you would like to include about this field. This field is information only and Essay does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and relation enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. The number of author names to be included in the bibliography. You can include all of the names or some portion of The Preatorian Guard, them. Selecting Include All overrides the other settings.

Enter 2 in the If more, show first box and select Italic. Click Update and proposed solutions to human see the display change to two authors and display the et al in italics. By default, RefWorks inserts the word Anonymous in place of author names if the author field in a reference is left blank. If you want to insert another word, such as Unknown, delete Anonymous and The Preatorian type Unknown. If you want the field left blank, delete Anonymous and don't replace it with anything. If you want to how many tribes, replace the author with the The Preatorian Guard Essay, title, click the Use Title box. Varies depending upon where the separator is located (i.e., between first and how many in nigeria second author or between the The Preatorian, second and Essay Home Remedies third author, etc.). In our example under If only 2 use , press the spacebar type and (without the quote marks) then press the spacebar again. It will display as ( and ). You need to The Preatorian, include a space on each side of poverty africa, the and or the result will be John JonesandBob Smith. Leave the comma in The Preatorian, the If more than 2 use box and in extramarital relation, the Before Last box. The Preatorian Guard. Notice that there are spaces after the comma and before and to kill after the and.

These settings may be different than the The Preatorian Guard, settings for subsequent authors. How Many Tribes In Nigeria. Under Name select the correct order of the names for the output style. For example, if the style requires names to be last name first followed by a comma and space, then the first name and middle name, select Last, First Middle. The Preatorian Essay. The Initial box determines the format of the extramarital relation, name. Guard Essay. For example, if the first name should be a full name and how many tribes middle name an initial only, you should select First M . Under Case Setting , select any casing requirements (Last name in uppercase or Entire name in The Preatorian Essay, uppercase). These options determine the to human, setting for all names after the The Preatorian Essay, first author. In many formats, the first author is Last, Middle First but all other authors are First Middle Last. The Precede With and Follow With fields determine what comes before and after the author in Noah and the Flood, a reference that contains only one author. If, as in our case, author is the The Preatorian Guard, first field in the reference, you do not want a preceding character so leave this box blank.

If you want to follow the author with a period, leave the period in the Follow With box. Keep in mind that all fields in the Field Settings area have a Precede With and Follow With option. VS “Genesis”: Noah And The Flood. If you have Follow With characters of a period and a space and a Precede With in the very next field of The Preatorian, a space what will actually show between the two fields will be a period and two spaces. The Precede With and Follow With fields determine what comes before and after the relation, author field in Guard, a reference that contains multiple authors. Title Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary)

Enter any information you would like to include about Essay VS “Genesis”: Noah and the Flood this field. This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and The Preatorian Essay enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. To leave the title as it is in your database, under Case Setting , select None. To change it to Uppercase, Lowercase, Title Case or Sentence Case, select the appropriate option from the Case Setting box. Uppercase capitalizes the to kill, entire title (e.g., THIS IS THE ENTIRE TITLE), and Lowercase format all of the characters as lowercase, even the first word in The Preatorian, the title (e.g., this is the entire title). Title case capitalizes the first letter of the Remedies, first word and all significant words in the title (e.g., This is the Entire Title). Words not capitalized in Title case include certain articles, prepositions and conjunctions such as a, an, and the. Sentence case capitalizes the first word of the title only The Preatorian Essay (e.g., This is the entire title). Note: If you have proper nouns or specific words that MUST be capitalized or italicized in your bibliography, we recommend leaving the case setting option as None . When None is selected, RefWorks will print the Essay Home, title EXACTLY as it is entered in your database including casing and font attributes (bold, italic, underline, etc.).

Enter any information you would like to The Preatorian Essay, include about proposed solutions to human trafficking this field. This field is information only and The Preatorian Guard does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the to kill ham costume, field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. To leave the title as it is in your database, under Case Setting, select None. To change it to Uppercase, Lowercase, Title Case or Sentence Case, select the appropriate option from the Case Setting box. Periodical Name Format: Some Periodicals have both a full name and an abbreviated name. The Preatorian Guard. For example, Journal of Biology may be abbreviated J.Biol. A Mockingbird Ham Costume. There are several options for the periodical name format.

To choose to have a preference in using the full name or abbreviated name, select Full if present, otherwise abbreviated or Abbreviated if present, otherwise full. Or, you may specify using only one, full or abbreviated, by selecting Full Only or Abbreviated Only. If you use the abbreviation and The Preatorian want a particular mark to follow it add the mark to the Follow abbreviations with box. Follow abbreviation with: Any entry in this field would be in addition to what you defined in the Field Settings area. Volume, Issue, Pub Year, and Pages Fields. Enter any information you would like to include about this field. This field is how many in nigeria information only and does not affect the formatting or output.

Options for these fields are very similar. Because they are numeric fields, you may choose to add a numeric suffix to the field. RefWorks adds the appropriate suffix for the number. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to precede or follow the field (for example, if it should appear as Vol. 10, you need to include the Vol. in the precedes area). Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to precede or follow the field (for example, if the The Preatorian, issue should appear as (1), you need to include a left parentheses ( in the Precedes With area and a right parentheses ) in the Follow With area. Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the to human trafficking, next field. Determine any text formatting and The Preatorian if any information needs to Home Remedies for Acidity, precede or follow the Guard Essay, field.

Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the how many in nigeria, next field. Enter any preceding characters (fore example p. might be used -- make sure include a blank space after the Guard, p. Essay VS “Genesis”: Noah And The Flood. if needed) . Select the Page Range Setting (If you wanted the output to show 149-159, select Full End Page, for the output to be 149-59, select Abbreviated End Page and for 149, you would select Start Page Only.) The program assumes you want to separate pages with a dash. Adding this field to an output style allows you to type in your own text and format it as bold, underline, italics, superscript or subscript. Simply type the text in Guard, the Text to insert box and click the ham costume, box next to Guard, the appropriate format. One common use for this is in relation, the Book, Section reference type. A book section frequently requires you to include information on the book itself as well as the section information. Guard Essay. You may need to create a format like:

Book Section Title. In Book Title. In this case, you would type In in the Text to insert box and on Gilgamesh Noah select Italic as the formatting option. All other fields with the exception of Descriptors have just the basic Field Settings. Guard Essay. The Descriptors field also has an option for the separator between the words. Some of how many, these fields may be useful for various reasons. For example, if you are printing a bibliography from a reference list for a particular class you may want to include the notes field for reference. If you do not define a reference type, Report for The Preatorian Guard Essay example, and you import a reference that is poverty africa a Report, RefWorks automatically uses the definition you created for the Generic type. In general the Generic type is the The Preatorian Guard Essay, same as the Journal reference type in the already defined formats. You can easily change this using the Copy feature discussed above. If you selected Book for a mockingbird ham costume example, the Generic Reference is now patterned after the Guard, Book Reference Type.

In the Bibliography Settings area you specify the overall layout of the bibliography. Verify that you are in the Bibliography area (the bibliography tab should be grey and prominent). Click Bibliography Settings to expand and display the settings options. Select the appropriate sort order for the bibliography. In Order They Are Cited.

References are listed in ham costume, the order they are cited in the paper. All Authors, Year Title. References are sorted by the entire Author field first, then by year. References with the exact same authors and year are then sorted by title. All Authors Title. References are first sorted by the entire Author field.

References with the same authors are then sorted by Guard Essay, title. First Author, Year Other Authors. References are sorted by the first author only, then, for references with the same first author, by year. About Home Remedies. References with the same first author and The Preatorian Guard Essay year are then sorted based upon all other authors. First Author, Number of Authors Year.

References are sorted by the first author only and then by the number of solutions trafficking, authors in the reference. Guard Essay. For example, if the Essay VS “Genesis”: and the Flood, first author is the same, references with three authors sort before references with four. References with the same first author and the same number of authors are then sorted by year. Author, Year Ascending Title. References are sorted by the entire Author field first, then by year with the oldest first. References with the Essay, exact same authors and year are then sorted by title. All Authors Title (MLA) This sort combines all authors and to kill a mockingbird ham costume titles (for references with no author) into one sort. Other sorts place references without authors at the top of the list. Title, Year descending.

References are sorted first by title and then by year with most recent articles at the top. Periodical, Year descending. Sorts by periodical name and then by year with the most recent at The Preatorian Essay, the top. Year descending, Author. Sorts first by year with the a mockingbird ham costume, most recent at the top and within the same year by author.

Year descending, Title. Sorts first by year with the most recent at the top and within the same year by title. Year descending, Periodical. Sorts first by year with the most recent at Guard, the top and ham costume within the same year by periodical name. Year ascending, Title.

Sorts first by year with the oldest at the top and within the same year by title. Sorts references by the ID number. If the bibliography should have a title before it begins, type the title in the Reference List Title box. The title is automatically centered on the page when you view or print the document. Select Include empty fields in The Preatorian Guard Essay, the reference output if, for example, you want the page number field included in the bibliography even if there is no page number in the reference. If you do not select this option, RefWorks automatically takes out empty fields. On Gilgamesh VS “Genesis”: Noah And The Flood. Most output styles do not call for empty fields to be included, so this option should be cleared.

Select Apply APA Rules for Electronic Source field inclusion if your style should follow the The Preatorian Guard Essay, new APA guidelines that require inclusion of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) if available, in the bibliography. When this option is selected, RefWorks will look for Digital Object Identifier (DOI) information for how many tribes the reference and print that first. Guard. If there is no DOI in poverty africa, the reference, then the RefWorks will print the information in the Links and the Retrieved Date fields. If there is The Preatorian Essay no DOI or Links information, RefWorks will print the Database information for a particular reference. This applies to all reference types except Unpublished Material and Web Pages. For Unpublished Material the Database and Retrieved Date will print if there is no DOI or Links. For Web Pages, the Accessed Date and Database will print if there is no DOI or Links.

Note: This setting only applies to references where the Source Type field is set to Electronic . Under Indent Setting select the appropriate indent. Select Normal if the first line of each reference should be indented, Hanging if all lines except the first should be indented or None . Under Line Spacing , select the spacing to to human, apply to all lines within the reference. Your choices are Single , Double , or Triple . RefWorks automatically inserts one blank line between references in the bibliography. Make the appropriate selection from the drop-down box for consecutive works by the same author. In some cases it may be appropriate to substitute dashes for the author names. Enter the appropriate Precede with and Follow with characters for each reference. For example, you may want to follow each reference with a period.

Text After Bibliography could be used to specify punctation for all bibliography entries. Guard Essay. Placing the poverty africa, ending punctuation in the bibliography settings would eliminate the need to include ending punctuation for The Preatorian every defined reference type.

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creative writing/Realism in Literature term paper 2873. REALISM IN LITERATURE. In the late nineteenth century, Realism was the main style expressed in all of the stories written in that period. A change took place, from romance to Guard, reality. Authors were motivated by the change going on around them. Such items as science, language, art, and religion were understood to be the building stones for the realistic style of the extramarital late nineteenth century. Realism was portrayed through regionalism, naturalism, and Essay most importantly through the reality of the story. Regionalism is best defined as the about Home Remedies for Acidity part in a story or novel when an author describes the area of which the story takes place in.

Not only the area, but any characteristics of the area that describe it in any way. Such authors as Ambrose Pierce, Mark Twain, and Bret Harte heavily rely on regionalism in their works. The Outcasts of Poker Flat by Bret Harte is Essay, a great story which contains many good examples of regionalism. Relation. The geography of the story held a great role in the outcome and Guard more or less the situations throughout the story. It lay over a steep mountain range. In walking distance they passed out of proposed to human trafficking, momome and more or less the situations throughout the story. It lay over a steep mountain range.

In walking distance they passed out of mo________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ssissippi was a great one by Mark Twain. Cleanly stated in The Preatorian the title the Mississippi River plays an important role in this book. For example, . it is the longest river in extramarital relation the world. four thousand three hundred miles. (Twain, Life on the Mississippi 113). Maggie: A Girl of the Streets by Stephan Crane, was a true story of a homeless girl on her own in the streets of New York City. Eventually they entered into a dark region where, form a careening building, a dozen gruesome doorways gave up loads of babies to the street and the gutter. A wind of The Preatorian Essay, early autumn raised yellow dust form cobbles and swirled it against a hundred windows. Long streamers of about Remedies, garments fluttered from fire escapes. In all unhandy places there were buckets, brooms, rugs, and The Preatorian Guard bottles. In the street infants played of fought with other infants or sat stupidly in the way of vehicles. (Crane, Maggie: A Girl of the Streets 6) The way Crane uses powerful words to describe every characteristic of NEW YORK city is Essay and the, wonderful. He paints a picture in your head of what a city is like. He doesn't stop there, he goes on to say, a dozen cabs.

Electric lights. He constantly describes the city and every sight he remembers to be intriguing. Lastly, the book has some strong dialect. For example, Are yehs hurted much, Jimmie. Will I wash deh blood. Naw(Crane, Maggie: A Girl of the Streets 29).

Poorly educated English can easily signify slum-like people from the city, but then I would be a hypocrite. Naturalism is expressed through this saying, we are just pawns on a chessboard controlled by fate. Guard Essay. Such authors as Theodore Dreiser and Stephan Crane are writers that focused on tribes in nigeria naturalism. The Open Boat by Stephan Crane shows how four men totally different are shipwrecked and forced to The Preatorian Essay, grasp for their lives on a small boat (dingy). All four men are put at mercy of proposed to human trafficking, nature. Ripped about in the ocean for days and they aren't able to control what is made of them. Fate controls the movement and the outcome of the story.

Naturalism is also shown when the smartest and bravest of them all dies at the end (Crane, The Open Boat 467). Now, To Build A Fire by Jack London is story of a man and battle to survive in a harsh environment. Fate controls either or not he makes the Guard Essay right decision because if he makes the wrong one, he has a chance of dying. About Home Remedies For Acidity. That is what happened. He fell through thin ice then he built a fire underneath a snow-covered tree which was the beginning of Guard Essay, his death. In Nigeria. His mistakes are controlled by fate. In his case There were many mistakes (London, To Build A Fire 486).

The Cop and The Anthem by Guard Essay O. Henry illustrates to us the to kill a mockingbird ham costume normal everyday life of a homeless man. Through the story, the Guard man tries his best to be put in jail. But he is consistently denied. Fate controls either or not he is poverty africa, put in jail ( Unger 423). The Call of the Wild by Jack London was a great example of naturalism. Essay. Buck the main character is put through some life-chancing obstacles throughout the novel. His survival is based on fate, either or not he overcomes these obstacles or not. For example, Buck countered back and bit him(Spitz). Extramarital Relation. with a bloody body.

Buck used his instincts and fought back (London, The Call of the Wild 50). Now, in The Red Badge of Courage by The Preatorian Essay Crane, there was a different kind of naturalism. An emotional type, meaning if you don't mature then you won't survive or at VS “Genesis”: Noah and the, least conquer your fears. So, in Guard Essay this novel, Henry fights inside of his head wether or not he will flee when battle came. Sure enough, he fled. Essay On Gilgamesh VS “Genesis”: Noah Flood. For example,. The youth turned his head, shaken from his trance by this movement as if the regiment was leaving him behind. He yelled then with fright and swung about. He lost the direction of safety.

Destruction threatened him at all points(Otfinoski 109). This was the point at where he fled. Fate controlled at this time that he should've fled because he was scared and immature and he would've probably been killed. Luckily, he matured and The Preatorian came back, this time with a wound witch was considered a red badge of courage, and fought like a bat out of hell. Fate controlled his emotional stability (Crane, The Red Badge of Courage 139). The last characteristic of realism is itself, realism. The straight out, tell it like it was type stories. Giving you a detailed description of life like it was.

Also, from a reporter's point of view and the story doesn't include any comments from the author. Such authors like Mark Twain, Henry James, and Upton Sinclair were all very famous realist authors. The Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge by Ambrose Bierce was a different story. The story is about the poverty africa last moments of a man's life. Most of the story is focused on this man's dream he has, as he is about to be hanged, of escaping and meeting up with his wife again. The Preatorian Guard. As he is about to hug his wife, he is suddenly hanged. Besides the fact of situation irony, because we were lead to believe that the dream was what was really happening, there was definitely a taste of really. A man hanging there limp and dead. Also, the relation story was told through the main character's eyes and Guard mind. As soon as he is hanged, the story is over, no comments or nothing ( Bierce 426). The Man that Corrupted Hadleyburg by Twain was a great and interesting story.

It was about how no town nor person can be perfect. A stranger brings in relation a sack of so-called gold and expects someone to The Preatorian, claim it. As days go by everyone starts to poverty africa, become creative and greedy. The Preatorian Guard Essay. Their possessiveness filled hearts become money crazed. Finally, at the end when the sack is opened and nothing is revealed, everyone realizes the amount of greed in the town. This story ended as soon as the sack was opened.

Disgracefully, that is the realistic point then and also now (Pizer 147). The Open Boat by Crane was a phenomenal piece of Essay on Gilgamesh Noah Flood, work. The Preatorian Essay. Because of Essay on Gilgamesh VS “Genesis”: Flood, a shipwreck, four men are forced to survive in The Preatorian Guard a dingy in the middle of about Home for Acidity, some ocean. Crane took a real life experience and turned it into a story The Open Boat (Otfinoski 112). Also, the The Preatorian Essay correspondent tells the story but doesn't comment based on the fact that he doesn't know the three men quite good enough (Crane, The Open Boat 459). The Red Badge of Courage by poverty africa Crane was the best example of realism.

First, the reconstruction of a war is quite impossible inless you have first hand evidence or experience. Guard Essay. The whole novel is based on the realism shown throughout the story. The setting, characters' reactions, and the events. Everything was perfectly detailed and written. The book shows the solutions real life emotional and The Preatorian physical suffrage inflicted on soldiers. Crane wrote in his usual greatness and brought the vivid to life (Otfinoski 112). The Call of the Wild by London was another great realist piece. Every scene was detailed enough to paint a picture, to enable the reader to feel and about watch as well as read. Guard Essay. Realism is shown through the all out survival of a everyday house pet and to kill ham costume the maturing of one into a wild beast.

The conflicts Buck got into. Like the battle between the wild huskies and the sled team. Suddenly, Buck was beset by three wild huskies. The Preatorian Essay. His head and a mockingbird ham costume shoulders were quickly slashed (London, The Call of the Wild 48). Every event was just like this one, maybe worst.

The harsh weather everyday playing a role in the weakening of certain dogs. Dolly, one of the huskies went mad and had to be put to rest . Essay. (London, The Call of the Wild 44). The Jumping Frog of Calaveras County by Twain was a short, but meaningful story. Realism is represented through the about Home story by gambling. One day a man made a bet to a man to race two frogs, but he had to go find one first so he decided to trust a stranger.He, then went to find a frog for his gambling opposition, meanwhile. . he got the frog out and prized his mouth open and took out a teaspoon and filled him full of quailshot. (Otfinoski 94). This meaning that the frog lost the race because of a man's cheating attitude. Realism at it's finest, when attitudes and actions of today's world is shown through this short story (Twain, The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County 389).

Stephan Crane's Maggie: A Girl of the Streets shows incredible realism. Guard. Besides the fact that she is tribes, homeless and she lives on the streets. She encounters a drinking problem also. A pretty girl turnedhor caused by her surroundings and the only way she can escape is to commit suicide (Unger 410). Bret Harte's The Outcasts of Poker Flat shows how four people are punished by being, more or less, banished from the town for real-life acts of crime. The Preatorian Guard Essay. John Oakhurst, the main character, is to kill ham costume, a compulsive gambler and is in debt. The rest of criminals are postiturtes and one is a drunk (Pizer 238). Finally, The Adventures of Huck Finn shows realism through the manor and morals at which Huck Finn presents himself. Twain used langauge, behavior, and morality as a basis and force for the regionalism in each of Guard, his books, (Pizer 92) especially this one. The way he lies, cheats, steals, and uses profane language. Also, the white folk called Jim, a nigger and when back then the form of severe punishment was to hang someone and extramarital relation that is what they did.

This story shows the detailed life of that time period (Twain, The Adventures of Huck Finn 119). This nover explored the questions of freedom, independance, and slavery (Unger 420). Realism was a widely used aspect of life and Guard writing. Instead of idealizing life and using perfect emotions and stories, authors started to write straight from proposed solutions their experiences, reality. Realists job was to portray life as accurately and honestly as possible as it is observed through the senses (World BooK 163). Many authors used regionalism, naturalism, and realism to The Preatorian Essay, bring together their realistic literature. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects.

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