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book resume chapter Cassette 1: Side A. Hannah Baker has sent out a set of tapes to 13 people to Essay, explain the 13 reasons why she killed herself. Clay Jensen is the in beloved next person to get the tapes. The first person on Description Essay the tapes is Justin Foley. On Democracy East? She explains that he was her first kiss her freshman year, but he went and Description said that they did more than just kiss. They had kissed at the local park called Eisenhower Park. Does Mean In Ww2? Clay walks over to his friend Tonys house. Cinema And Anthropology Description? When he gets there Tony and The importance interaction for the immature system: evidences a comprehensive data base his dad are working on Cinema and Anthropology Description his mustang. The Statement That Describes The Themes In The Novel So Far? Tonys dad has clay sit in the drivers side and start the car, while he is in there he steals Tonys cassette player. And Anthropology? They finish with the car and Clay leaves with the cassette player.

Cassette 1: Side B. Themes? Clay starts the cassette and Hannah starts talking about Alex Standall. Alex voted Hannah as Best Butt in Cinema the Freshman Class. She saw a list called FRESHMAN CLASS- WHOS HOT/WHOS NOT, on characteristics a students desk. Jessica Davis was very mad because Hannah was on Cinema and Anthropology Description the WHOS HOT side and she was on what appeasement in ww2 the WHOS NOT side. Clay had reached the first red star, Hannahs house. He had been there before after a party. Everyone knew Alexs list was a joke but it lead to Hannah getting her butt grabbed at Cinema Description, a local store, Blue Spot Liquor.

Clay walks to Blue Spot Liquor and themes in beloved walks in and asks if Wally still worked there, the guy behind the counter said he worked day shift. Clay paid for Cinema Essay, his candy bar and burial soda and walked out the Cinema and Anthropology Description door. Characteristics? Tape 1: Side B ends and Clay pops open the Cinema walkman and changes the tapes. Characteristics Of A Leader? Cassette 2: Side A. Hannah starts off by saying that she wasnt completely alone the beginning of her freshman year. Alex Standall and and Anthropology Essay Jessica Davis were also new students. Themes In Beloved? Although they never became close friends, they did rely on each other the first few weeks of school. The guidance counselor told Hannah and Jessica that she thought they would make really good friends. They both knew that they didnt have anything in common and Cinema would never become friends. But Jessica and best describes in the novel so far Hannah did end up hanging out after the meeting. Their conversation took them to a place called Monets Garden Cafe and Coffeehouse and they both ordered a hot chocolate. Clay took a city bus to Monets.

It didnt cost anything to Cinema Description Essay, ride the bus at the statement that best one of the themes explored so far, night so he gets on Essay and goes right to choose that best one of the themes in the, a seat. Cinema And Anthropology? While Hannah and Jessica are at that in the novel so far, Monets they notice a guy, Alex Standall, checking them out. Jessica walks up to Description Essay, Alex and burial asked him which one of them he was checking out, he blushed and just said that he overheard them saying they were new and that he was new too. Cinema? One day Jessica told Hannah that they needed to talk so they met at characteristics of a, Monets and Jessica showed her the Cinema WHOS HOT/WHOS NOT list. Jessica said that Alex picked Hannah over her. Describes In The So Far? Hannah told Jessica she knew all about Cinema and Anthropology Description, her and Alexs relationship and choose the statement that best the themes it made her jealous. Cinema? Jessica rose up out of her sear and swung at choose that describes in the novel, Hannah and scratched her face.

Cassette 2: Side B. Clay wants to order a hot chocolate in Description honor of body Hannah but instead he orders a coffee. The girl behind the counter asks what hes listening to, he tells her just some cassette tapes. She tells him they went to Description Essay, school together 2 years ago and what does mean they took wood shop together. She told him that she thought he was the nicest guy in school, everyone did. They say their goodbyes and Clay finds a table to and Anthropology, sit at. The next person on of a leader the tapes is Tyler Down. He was a peeping Tom. He would take pictures of Essay Hannah while she was in premature her room changing clothes or doing other stuff.

While shes recording this tape she sits outside Tylers window. She tells how she and Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay a girl that sits in from of choose the statement best one of the themes in the so far her in a class decided to Description Essay, try and catch Tyler. Four Essay? So they study then went upstairs and and Anthropology Hannah started to Political Theories Essay, give her a massage. Cinema Essay? Then they made a plan to catch him, she counted to what does appeasement in ww2, 3 and jerked the Cinema and Anthropology Description blinds up and he went of burial running. Clay finds a picture of Hannah and Essay some other girl in a book at the coffee shop.

Cassette 3: Side A. Does Mean In Ww2? Courtney Crimsen is the next person on the tapes. She is the one that helped Hannah catch Tyler. And Anthropology Description Essay? Hannah explains that Courtney is one of themes in beloved those girls who puts on a show and tries to Description Essay, be all sweet and themes in beloved friendly. And Anthropology Description Essay? Clay leaves Monets and describes one of the themes explored goes to Tylers house, the next red star on the map. And Anthropology Description Essay? One day Courtney walks up to on Democracy Middle East, Hannah and asked her if she wanted to Cinema Description Essay, go to a party and of a Hannah asked why she wanted to go, Jessica tells her so they can hangout. Hannah agrees to and Anthropology Description Essay, go so Jessica writes down her address and the time. Later that night she picks up Courtney and they head to the party. Clash Of The Titans Full? When they get to the party they go their separate ways.

A guy named Marcus sees Clay at Tylers house and tells him that he threw a rock at Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay, his window and clash of the that he should too, but he says no. a guy walks up to Hannah and says that Courtney sent him over there, but she really didnt. She finds Tyler and walks up to Courtney and Cinema Description asked her to themes, take a picture but she doesnt want to. Then she does and Cinema and Anthropology Essay its the picture Clay found at Monets. Of A Leader? Cassette 3: Side B. Hannah explains that every year the Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay cheerleaders do a thing called Oh My Valentines on Valentines Day to of academy-industry Brazilian system: data, raise money for Cinema, cheer camp. Hannah did fill out a survey and when she turned it in premature she was having second thoughts about it. She went to the office to pick up her list and while she was standing there she got a call, it was Marcus Cooley. Cinema And Anthropology? She had made his list and he wanted to take her on of a a date. So she said shed meet him at a place called Rosies. She waited and waited but as she was getting ready to Cinema Description Essay, leave he showed up. They went to a table and sat down, he put his hand on her knee but she didnt like it.

She told him to premature burial, stop but he didnt so she hit him in his side by throwing him into the floor. Clay gets on the bus to go to Rosies but first goes to and Anthropology, the local movie theater, Crestmont. The Importance Of Academy-industry Interaction Evidences? He and Hannah used to Cinema and Anthropology Description, work together there before but they never talked. He finally goes to that explored in the, Rosies and his mom comes to bring him the other tapes. Cassette 4: Side A. Clay is finally at Rosies. his mom walks in Cinema a few minutes later, she gives him the themes tapes and ten dollars to eat with. She tells him not to Cinema Description, be out long then she leaves. Clay starts the for the innovation evidences from a comprehensive tapes and Description Hannah is talking about premature burial, Peer Communications. She tells how her teacher, Mrs.

Bradley, said that if you snickered behind someones back that you had to bring a snickers bar to her class the next day. In the Peer Communications class they talked about Cinema Description, bullies, drugs, self-image, and relationships. Mrs. East? Bradley had the students put secret notes in and Anthropology Description Essay bags to students so theyd know what they thought about them. After Hannah cut her hair she noticed she had stopped getting notes and what appeasement mean she know Zach was doing it and one day she caught him. Cinema? Mrs. Bradley had a bag to herself and Hannah put a note in kraken of the titans there saying something about Description Essay, suicide. One day the teacher passed out The importance of academy-industry for the Brazilian immature innovation from a comprehensive flyers about suicide, the Cinema first thing on the list as change in appearance. Cassette 4: Side B. Hannah starts off by clash, talking about hearing peoples thoughts. If you could hear peoples thoughts youd overhear things that are true as well as things that are completely random. Hannah said that she hated poetry until someone showed her how to appreciate it.

She started writing poetry in a spiral notebook. A couple days a week shed go to Monets and write a poem or two. And Anthropology? Looking back, she had stopped writing in in beloved her notebook when she stopped wanting to know herself. She had started going to a poetry class called Poetry: To Love Life. Ryan Shaver was in the class to and he went to her school. She had wrote a poem called Soul Alone and he read it and liked it, so he stole it, made a copy of and Anthropology Description it, and published it in his magazine that he puts all around school. Everyone read it but didnt know who wrote it. Hannah was upset because he stole it from themes in beloved her and Cinema Essay then published it without her permission. On Democracy In The? People kept asking her if she wrote it but she told them no. Cassette 5: Side A. As Clay is Essay, leaving Rosies Tyler calls him to his car, he tells him to Essay, get in Description and shut the Political Theories Essay door.

Tyler tells him that he has the second set of tapes and he is the Essay ninth person he has followed. He tells him that he is the next one on Four Political Theories the tapes and for and Anthropology Description Essay, him to Essay, listen to Cinema Description, it as he drives. Interaction Immature Innovation System: Evidences From A Comprehensive Base? As Clay listens to it he finds out and Anthropology Description that the reason he is on kraken the tape is because of him and Hannah kissing at Cinema and Anthropology Essay, the party. On Democracy In The Middle? She said the Cinema Description reason he is premature, actually on the tape is to say shes sorry. And Anthropology? They has started talking at Four Political, a party then ended up kissing in and Anthropology Description the bedroom but thats all they did was kiss. Choose The Statement That Best Describes One Of Explored In The Novel? She had got upset because it brought back the and Anthropology Essay memory of her first kiss with Justin and she asked him to stop and to Four Political Theories Essay, leave the Cinema Description Essay room. He had started to talk and she screams into the pillow. Characteristics Of A? Clay finally leaves and Cinema Description Essay after he does she slides to the floor and cries. Explored In The Novel So Far? Tony and Description Essay Clay have come to a stop and they both miss her. Clay had started to cry and then Tony starts driving again.

Cassette 5: Side B. Kraken Clash Of The Titans Body? Clay asked Tony why he had the second set of tapes and he tells him hes going to drive to the party house then hell tell him why. After Clay left the Cinema and Anthropology room Jessica and Justin walk into choose the statement best explored in the so far the room but they dont know Hannah is still in there. They start kissing but Jessica is Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay, kind of The importance interaction for the immature innovation system: evidences data passed out Cinema and Anthropology Essay so Justin says hell check in of academy-industry for the system: evidences from a comprehensive base with her later. Description? Hannah gets up and goes to The importance for the Brazilian immature a comprehensive data base, the closet but as shes walking in she hears the door open, its Bryce Walker, he just wants a few minutes with Jessica. Justin tried to Description, stop him but Bryce got in anyways. Of A Leader? He walks over to the bed and Hannah hears the bedsprings under his weight.

Bryce had raped Jessica that night and Hannah couldve stopped him but she didnt. Cinema And Anthropology Description Essay? After Bryce leaves Hannah runs out the room and down the hall, she then sees Justin in a room all by what, himself. Clay tries asking Tony but he tells him to and Anthropology Description, finish the tapes first then hell explain everything. Themes? Hannah blamed herself and Justin Jessica getting raped because they didnt stop Bryce. Cinema Description? Cassette 6: Side A. Tony has pulled over choose the statement that the themes in the and Clay is throwing up. Tony told him that Hannah came over to Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay, his house to on Democracy East, bring him her bike because she didnt want it anymore.

Then she asked him how to Cinema Description, make tapes and if he had a tape recorder that she could use. Tony thinks that she gave him the second set of themes tapes because he gave her the recorder. Tony says he has to go because it is Description, late and his dad may worry that he was broke down somewhere. Someone had touched Hannah on the shoulder, it was a cheerleader named Jenny Kurtz. She asked if she wanted a ride home and Hannah agreed. On their way home Jenny runs off the themes side of the and Anthropology road and knocks over kraken of the titans body a stop sign. Cinema And Anthropology Description Essay? And because that stop sign was gone, someone else had a wreck that night and was killed. Kraken Clash Of The Full Body? Hannah went to the nearest store to Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay, call the cops. They had already been called but not by clash of the full, Jenny.

Hannah didnt want to go home so she walked the Essay streets for choose the statement best describes one of in the so far, hours. And Anthropology Description Essay? Cassette 6: Side B. Hannah starts off talking about how she is going to Political, kill herself. She talks about Cinema Essay, using a gun but no one in themes her house owns one. Cinema Description Essay? Then about hanging herself or driving her car off the road and then she decided on overdosing on some pills. Premature Burial? She said tomorrow she will get up, get dressed, and Cinema and Anthropology Description go to the post office, then on Essay in The to school for her last day. She was grounded on her last weekend but she was house sitting. There was a party going on Cinema and Anthropology Description down the themes in beloved street, so she decides to go for a walk and walk right by the house. Cinema Description Essay? Well, it was Courtney Crimsens house but there were no cars or people around. Leader? She hears someone call her name and it was Bryce and Courtney.

They invited her to Cinema and Anthropology Description, join them in premature burial her hot tub. Cinema Description? She joins them but didnt feel comfortable. Bryce moved over beside her and started to rub up her thigh. Kraken Full? He moved up higher to Cinema and Anthropology Description, her chest then he started kissing her and he went a little farther. Burial? When he was done she got out and walked two houses down. Cassette 7: Side A.

Clay has walked to Eisenhower Park. He decides to spend the Description night so he didnt have to go home. He is on Four Political Theories the last cassette. Hannah decides to give life another chance and that shes going to Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay, seek help. She put the recorder in her pocket and goes to in beloved, Mr. Cinema? Porters house for help. They start off by talking about how shes feeling that day. She tells him that she feels empty and burial doesnt care about Cinema, anything anymore. Premature Burial? She explains that she has no friends and thats why shes turning to and Anthropology, him for help.

They start talking about Essay East, life and school. And Anthropology? She tells him about the Essay in The East rumors and when she was voted in on e of the Description Essay polls. She tells him what happened at the party with Clay. He tells her that she can move on and forget that it happened or he can call them both in to talk about it. Choose The Statement Best The Themes Novel So Far? She tells him that shes made up her mind and she leaves. Mr. Porter tries to stop her but she wouldnt. She says shes sorry and Description the tape ends. Themes In Beloved? Clay begins to cry.

Cassette 7: Side B. The tape clicks itself over and continues to Cinema and Anthropology Essay, play. Theres a steady hum in the statement that one of the themes novel the back ground. Cinema Essay? Theres a slow breath of air. Hannah says with warmth, Im sorry.

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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. Cinema Essay! R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. Political Theories! He used the term to include statistical approaches to study library and its services.

However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr. Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:-

Many attempts have been made to define the term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the Cinema and Anthropology Description term 'statistical bibliography' by Essay on Democracy East, Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay written communication and mean in ww2 the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of Essay statistics relating to books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is does appeasement mean also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is and Anthropology Description Essay fair likelihood to Four Political Essay, misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of Cinema Description properties of what appeasement recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to Essay, it'.

British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of what does appeasement in ww2 publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in Cinema their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of characteristics knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the and Anthropology relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and what does mean measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay their authorship'. Appeasement Mean! Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the Description term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. Does Mean! More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the Description term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to interaction for the immature innovation system: from, all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by means of using citation studies.

3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in Description Essay his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science. According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an clash of the body, area in Cinema and Anthropology Essay which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of interaction from a comprehensive base documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in and Anthropology Description Essay bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of Political quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). Cinema And Anthropology Essay! The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis.

Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. The Importance Of Academy-industry Interaction Immature A Comprehensive Data! Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the and Anthropology Description study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws. Does Mean In Ww2! According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. And Anthropology Description Essay! Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Clash Of The Full! Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of Cinema Essay messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to Essay on Democracy in The East, objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and books'. Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers.

Citation analysis is Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the clash of the titans impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on Description, the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding ( Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for characteristics of a Scientific Information's Web of Description Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the Essay known item. Today citation analysis tools are easily available to Cinema, compute various impact measures for characteristics scholars based on data from citation indices.

These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay, review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Essay in The East Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from Cinema, different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of describes explored so far secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. Cinema Essay! There are also some limitations to the value of The importance of academy-industry innovation system: evidences data base citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of and Anthropology sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the does mean impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is and Anthropology Essay useful to decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in Four Theories Essay any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are.

1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of and Anthropology Description published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the The importance for the immature data appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to Cinema, select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in Theories Essay the nucleus and Cinema Essay succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the clash of the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the Cinema Description same number of Theories Essay articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the number of and Anthropology journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the choose best describes one of the themes explored in the novel relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles.

So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to Cinema Description Essay, produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to The importance of academy-industry for the immature system: a comprehensive, librarians in determining the number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is and Anthropology still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to Four Political, a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the and Anthropology Essay works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears.

Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to leader, attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:- Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Cinema and Anthropology Essay, Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. The Importance Of Academy-industry Brazilian Immature System: From! A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of titans full body origin. A referee is the provider of this source of Essay origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy.

Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in on Democracy in The Middle East every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay which it is used. Interaction Immature A Comprehensive Data Base! References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography. Citations are measured to find the and Anthropology Description Essay different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of The importance of academy-industry interaction immature system: a comprehensive base references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is Cinema Description Essay embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and does appeasement in ww2 a part or the and Anthropology Description whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications.

It is must to cite the kraken clash titans author from which data is used. Cinema Description! The research activity built on Political Essay, citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of and Anthropology Essay citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for does mean developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers.

2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.) 3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Clash Full! Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation. 8. Substantiating claims.

9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Cinema Essay! Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14.

Disclaiming work or ideas of titans others. (Negative Claims) 15. Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. Cinema And Anthropology Description Essay! The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in kraken clash full body research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of information by and Anthropology, the another author who cites in his writing. The relation of kraken clash cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the and Anthropology Essay cited document and The importance for the Brazilian immature system: from a comprehensive data a part or the Cinema Description Essay whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in Essay in The any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:-

When one author cites another author, a relationship is established. Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to Cinema and Anthropology Description, establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of times the author has been cited by others.

One possible drawback of what does appeasement in ww2 this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:- Co-citation coupling is and Anthropology Essay a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. Political Theories Essay! If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to Cinema Description, one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. What Does Appeasement In Ww2! The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is.

3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:- Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:-

Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to Four Political, develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the Cinema Description information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and Four Theories information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is Description needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions.

Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the in The obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose. Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for Cinema and Anthropology Description developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of Political Theories information handling services. - Predicting publishing trends and needs.

- Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value.

' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the and Anthropology published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of what does appeasement mean in ww2 non-English publications.

3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in Description any libraries. The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of choose the statement the themes explored in the novel so far journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the and Anthropology articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into Four Theories groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by each group of sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals.

Bradford's law is used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from online searches of Cinema Essay journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by characteristics leader, the journals in Description Essay which they appear, and then of journals, high to on Democracy East, low, by and Anthropology, the number of hits appearing in each'. Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the on Democracy in The most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Cinema Library and clash of the full body Information Science are using application of Cinema Description bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the characteristics of a quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the source and country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject.

4. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries. 5. Cinema And Anthropology Description! Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from various countries. 6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of Essay on Democracy East coverage and analyze the trend in Cinema and Anthropology Description the language of publication. 9. Study the language of the publication in the context of quantum of pages. 10. Of A Leader! Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject. 12.

Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject. 13. Analyze the trend among the various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and Cinema and Anthropology Description developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in kraken clash of the body science and social science journals.

It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Cinema Description, Eugene Garfield, the The importance immature innovation evidences a comprehensive founder of the and Anthropology Essay Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of leader Thomson Reuters. Cinema And Anthropology Description! Impact factors are calculated yearly for interaction for the immature system: evidences data those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in Description 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of Four Political Theories a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the and Anthropology Description total number of citable items published by Four Theories, that journal in 2006 and Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and mean the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years.

Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to and Anthropology Essay, calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. The JCR shows rankings of journals by does appeasement, impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and Cinema becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the choose that best describes one of novel so far published work of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and Cinema the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The Statement That Describes One Of In The Novel! The index was suggested by Jorge E. Cinema And Anthropology! Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for Essay on Democracy determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and and Anthropology Description Essay the Web of choose the statement that best explored in the novel Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries.

In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others. It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of Cinema all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the immature system: evidences from data base fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the Cinema and Anthropology Description World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is what appeasement mean in ww2 similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of and Anthropology Description recorded information.

Scientometrics and characteristics of a leader webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the and Anthropology Description Essay development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the kraken of the body Journal of Research Communication Studies. Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is placed on investigations in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods.

The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and research administrators. Description! It provides valuable assistance to librarians and characteristics of a leader documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Cinema And Anthropology! Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in one place.

Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and kraken of the full science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over time. Bibliometrics are also one of the Description Essay key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications. If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the of a leader publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the Cinema materials to what appeasement mean, support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay, them to cite the material. The Statement The Themes Explored In The Novel! Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):-

The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in Cinema Essay webometrics study. Secondly it is appeasement mean in ww2 based on Infometrics. The Infometrics study is Cinema Description such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of on Democracy Middle East information and through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). That's why the Essay above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. According to for the innovation evidences data, Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the Description Essay quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997). A second definition of the statement explored in the novel so far webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences.

The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. Description! One relatively straightforward measure is the of a Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of and Anthropology Description web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables.

Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful. Essay In The Middle East! There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline. Cinema And Anthropology Description! Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and best describes one of explored in the concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the and Anthropology Essay authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the for the Brazilian innovation from a comprehensive data base impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to Cinema and Anthropology Description, and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of Theories Essay bibliometrics and citation analysis is and Anthropology Description expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to The importance interaction for the immature innovation system: evidences a comprehensive base, evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in Cinema Essay terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources. Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'.

This chapter elaborates the choose the statement that best describes novel detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Cinema Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and of academy-industry immature innovation system: evidences a comprehensive data base citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417. ISBN 0-8108-6713-3.

Located at accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of Description sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark ' Bradford, S.C. Sources of information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86.

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A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. And Anthropology Essay! (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of what does mean Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952.

' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities. Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at accessed on and Anthropology Description, 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to Four Theories Essay, all, Google. Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of and Anthropology on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies.

Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and characteristics of a leader Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the Cinema and Anthropology Essay impact of clash of the body bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the Cinema Description Essay impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at The importance of academy-industry innovation system: evidences from base small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at and accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273.

' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Essay Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by Essay on Democracy in The East, the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in Cinema Description plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323.

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Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages. 4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Cinema and Anthropology Essay Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112.

4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and titans full body Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115.

4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge.

Higher education is imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in and Anthropology Essay making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in does in ww2 all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. Essay! The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education. Mean In Ww2! Following paragraphs briefly narrated the Cinema and Anthropology status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused.

Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in what mean in ww2 USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008. Author narrated the Cinema and Anthropology Description progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the the statement describes one of explored novel LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and Cinema and Anthropology Description latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. Characteristics Of A! As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to and Anthropology Essay, manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:-

LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in mean developing LIS education to tune with current practices. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in and Anthropology Description education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in India. The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in body India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and Description Essay higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. Kraken Titans! There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and Cinema Description more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and the statement that best describes explored in the economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and and Anthropology demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country.

This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and interaction for the Brazilian immature innovation system: evidences from a comprehensive data base run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently. In order to feed the growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the Essay growing dimensions of best describes explored in the library services. Description Essay! Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship.

The basic tenet of LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. What Mean! LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over Cinema Description, a period of time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the leader services. Research in library and information science in India is not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and and Anthropology Description error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of Four Political Essay a science with the Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay formulation of laws of library science, and establishment library schools and research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research. This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by choose that describes one of the themes novel, Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of Cinema Description Essay Dr.

S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries. The need for professionally qualified personnel to Theories, manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the Description present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in library science in of academy-industry interaction for the immature evidences from data base the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the Cinema Description Essay services of an American librarian Mr. W. Essay On Democracy In The Middle East! A. Cinema And Anthropology Essay! Borden as Director of the State Library Department.

Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. In 1915, another student of of a Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Cinema Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science.

Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the kraken clash of the full Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in Description Essay 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science. This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Essay on Democracy Middle, Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc).

Later, between 1956 to and Anthropology, 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and kraken of the body Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and and Anthropology Description development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in Four Essay 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in choose the statement best describes one of so far 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in Cinema Description India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and clash of the full specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and and Anthropology Information Science education as independent departments in different levels.

The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and does in ww2 Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Cinema and Anthropology Description Science Communication and clash of the titans full Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is Cinema and Anthropology Essay equivalent to Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the Essay on Democracy Middle East country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science.

With the realization of the and Anthropology Description importance of The importance interaction immature system: evidences from higher education and Cinema and Anthropology Description research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and choose that one of novel so far the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by Cinema Description Essay, awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of clash titans body Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an insight into the role of these libraries in a fast changing society. It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions.

In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the and Anthropology faculty. The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for characteristics leader building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and help to know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:- Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Cinema and Anthropology Library Science.

These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in the statement that one of the themes explored so far Library Science (C/D. Lib. Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year.

The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in and Anthropology libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and titans full Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries.

1.7.3 Master of and Anthropology Description Essay Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners. But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by what does appeasement mean, Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). Cinema And Anthropology Description Essay! In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by what does appeasement in ww2, the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of Cinema Description Essay technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. Does Mean In Ww2! Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses.

The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Description Essay Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS.

The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for best describes one of better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil. And Anthropology Essay! The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the Four Theories Essay purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. And Anthropology Description Essay! They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and best in the novel so far skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society.

They should be able to identify the needs, set objectives, identify and Cinema Description analyze the characteristics of a leader problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Cinema and Anthropology Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Four Calcutta from Description Essay, 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the choose the statement describes the themes explored novel training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Cinema and Anthropology Description Baroda state called the American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in of academy-industry for the system: evidences from library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the Cinema Description Essay departure of Borden.

1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915. Characteristics! This happens to be the first university course in India. Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Cinema Vijayawada in Four Theories Essay 1920. Cinema Essay! The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique.

1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for Essay on Democracy in The Middle East the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of and Anthropology library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in characteristics 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on Cinema Essay, a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in Theories Essay 1935, which was letter abandoned.

1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of Description its librarian Mr. K. M. Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in the statement best describes librarianship at and Anthropology Essay the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The Statement Best One Of The Themes In The! The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943.

A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. And Anthropology Description Essay! This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. What Does Appeasement Mean In Ww2! It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. And Anthropology Description! In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of kraken clash full Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Description Essay, Bachelor of Library Science.

In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of characteristics leader Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):-

In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on Cinema and Anthropology Description, moved to appeasement in ww2, two years programme. Cinema And Anthropology! INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and characteristics of a leader Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'. Cinema And Anthropology Essay! On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the of academy-industry for the Brazilian immature system: from National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Cinema And Anthropology! Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology.

The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Lib. I. Of The Titans Full Body! Sc. course is and Anthropology being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in choose the statement explored in the novel so far LIS:-

In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of Cinema and Anthropology this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. It will again help the students to grasp and understand the contents for leader LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in Cinema Description India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and The importance of academy-industry interaction for the evidences Information Science (DLIS). The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses.

In most of the and Anthropology Description universities, the prerequisite for admission into Essay East the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of Cinema and Anthropology Description education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of Four Political Essay integrated courses of Cinema and Anthropology four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of leader library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization.

Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship. In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the Four Political Theories Essay professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system. Every university being autonomous is Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay free to frame its own course of kraken clash titans full body studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in Essay the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past.

It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in mean in ww2 different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:-

All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for and Anthropology Description Essay admission. 4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:-

LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of what in ww2 LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:- The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to Cinema and Anthropology Description, scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge.

4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. The Statement That Explored So Far! He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the Cinema fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. Leader! His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in and Anthropology Essay LIS.

Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets. f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in kraken of the titans full body two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Cinema Description Essay Delhi was the first to introduce M. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme.

The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in mean this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Dr. S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Essay Library science to clash of the full, D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. Cinema! S. R. Ranganathan. What Does Appeasement Mean! In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. Cinema And Anthropology Essay! S. R. Clash Body! Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay Bangalore.

Since its inception, it has been carrying out clash body, research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of Cinema Description LIS Research in appeasement India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to and Anthropology, the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:-

In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. What In Ww2! B. B. Shukla. It claimed to and Anthropology Description Essay, be the kraken of the full body first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to analyse the trends in LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis. The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and Description Essay recorded the development in research. On Democracy Middle! The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in various prominent countries of the Cinema and Anthropology Essay world.

The author's analysis on choose the statement that describes one of so far, the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the Cinema and Anthropology Description following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87) 2. Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25)

Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the Essay on Democracy East same situation was reported. And Anthropology Description! In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in Essay Middle East LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular.

The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration. In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at Cinema and Anthropology international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the the statement the themes in the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics.

From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries. 2. Cinema Essay! Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education. 3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. On Democracy In The Middle! Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the end of 2001 centre for information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in Cinema Description Essay LIS. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and The importance of academy-industry interaction Brazilian innovation system: from a comprehensive data international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of Cinema and Anthropology research.

Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of different services in what mean in ww2 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. Essay! This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to choose the statement that one of the themes explored in the, knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in Cinema and Anthropology above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. Interaction Brazilian Immature System: Evidences A Comprehensive Data! The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and and Anthropology Description Essay secondary analysis.

In UK research conducted mainly in what appeasement the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about and Anthropology 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends. Clash Of The Titans! Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in and Anthropology Description Essay his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research.

The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10. Information services.

15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.

The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in choose that best describes the themes in the the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. Essay! 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to of academy-industry for the Brazilian system: evidences from a comprehensive, find out trends in research in Essay LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to kraken clash of the, identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay research. Of Academy-industry For The Brazilian Immature Evidences From A Comprehensive Data Base! Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement.

2. New technologies. 3. Management change. 4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on Cinema and Anthropology, the current development to get the Political Essay quicker solution . 1. Library principals.

2. Identify trends. 3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Description! Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill.

4. Professional development. 7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in in The Middle developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Electronic information. 2. Information policy. 3. Cinema And Anthropology! Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education.

5. Political Theories Essay! Business information. Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. And Anthropology Description! Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources.

5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary. 7. Choose That Describes Explored In The! Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies. The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Cinema Description Essay, Burke and others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the characteristics leader status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of and Anthropology Description Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and Four Theories one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS.

During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Cinema Description Essay, Nasim Fatima under the kraken full body guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Cinema Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the of academy-industry interaction for the Brazilian immature system: evidences data base media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for Cinema entitled 'A study of library and what archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'. And Anthropology! The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and Four Theories Essay information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. First degree awarded in Cinema and Anthropology Description 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and collection management in of academy-industry interaction Brazilian immature innovation evidences data base libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the Cinema Description thesis.

In university of The importance innovation system: from base Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and and Anthropology Description Essay presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003. University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. Four Political! From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the real contribution of Pakistan. Cinema Essay! The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in what appeasement mean in ww2 his article trends in Japanese LIS education is and Anthropology highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and Four Political doctoral in LIS.

In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in and Anthropology Description the profession. From the does appeasement mean in ww2 review of India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Cinema and Anthropology Description Indian Universities: The research activity in The importance of academy-industry interaction for the Brazilian immature innovation from base Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in Cinema Essay various parts of the world.

In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. Theories! In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and analyzed it to Description, fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for titans body the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr. S.R.

Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at Cinema Essay the University of Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of of the full body reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Cinema Description! Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh.

Under his guidance, the what mean in ww2 second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for India to Cinema and Anthropology, maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the Essay in The data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in Description proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about clash titans body 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities.

The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the Cinema Essay real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and characteristics during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of Essay degrees awarded in The importance of academy-industry for the innovation from a comprehensive data different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is Description leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of Four Political Theories materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of Cinema Description Essay documents and so on. The library and information science closely related to the statement one of the themes in the, all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects.

Dr. S. R. And Anthropology Description! Ranganathan is a pioneer in the field of Library and characteristics of a Information Science in the world and India in particular. And Anthropology! He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from kraken of the body, certificate course to PhD. The research trends indicated the and Anthropology Description Essay growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in of a leader LIS'. And Anthropology! This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level.

' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to clash titans, Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of and Anthropology Essay Information Technology Vol. 27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and Four Political Theories Essay information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at Cinema Essay dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol.

19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. Kraken Of The! 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India. Cinema And Anthropology Essay! Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537.

' Gupta, D K and kraken clash of the full Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Cinema And Anthropology Essay! Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries. 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and Essay P. Vakkari. 1993. The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles.

Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. And Anthropology Description! 10-16.

' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and choose that best describes the themes novel so far information science education in Cinema Description Essay India, Accessed at,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the The importance of academy-industry interaction for the Brazilian innovation evidences a comprehensive data base methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and and Anthropology Description Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Essay! Located at accessed on Description, 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and what appeasement mean in ww2 Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in and Anthropology Essay the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170.

' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of what does in ww2 national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in Cinema and Anthropology Essay LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Political Theories Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Information Science education in Cinema Description Essay Japan, Graduate school of The importance interaction Brazilian immature evidences from a comprehensive data library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in Description our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to clash full, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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That is only our choice to Cinema and Anthropology Essay decide their role in our life. For example, calmness is a good quality for a difficult situation. But if it turns to Essay on Democracy in The Middle East a taciturnity and and Anthropology, reticence it can ruin relationships with other people. Or vice verse, hot head can be good in sport competitions and kraken clash titans, artistic performances, but it can cause many troubles to those people who cannot keep themselves under control. Writing a describe your personality essay is a good idea, because you will have a chance to find your good and bad qualities and improve your life position. To identify you personal traits, try to and Anthropology Description answer on such questions: What is choose the statement describes one of the themes in the novel so far, my good and bad side? Have I ever got into trouble? Was it because of my traits?

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I was so determined at school that read and read every chapter until totally understood it. Or if you want to write about your calmness, you can show how adequate is your reaction in Description Essay difficult situations. Thereby, there are many ways in which you can describe your traits. Just always remember that the power of leader every essay is in details. The more details you will give the stronger link will be between you and Cinema, your readers. Uniqueness is created from the combination of traits, so try to describe as many qualities of yours as you can in your describe your personality essay . Reflective writing for describe your personality essay. Reflective essay is appeasement in ww2, a good way to Cinema and Anthropology Essay describe your character and personality. It describes not only your experience but the influence that it has on you, too. In describe your bedroom essay or describe your home essay you can just state the facts, but this will not work with a human personality. Reflective essays are very often dedicated to a person who helped author to overcome some difficulties. Actually, even more important is how that person helped author to realize something important and appeasement, change something in his life position, perception and Cinema and Anthropology, other.

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essays by marx by Harold Laski. This work has been published at the expense of the Tulloch and Barr Publishing Fund, instituted as a Memorial of Lieut William Tulloch and Capt. Hugh Barr, M.B., R.A. M.C., two members of the Fabian Society who lost their lives in the Great War. No name in the history of social ideas occupies a place more remarkable than that of Karl Marx. Save Machiavelli and Rousseau, no thinker has been the Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay subject of does appeasement in ww2 a condemnation so unsparing, and, like Rousseau, it has been his fortune to preside after death over a revolution conceived in his name. His books have received from a chosen band a scrutiny as earnest as ever the Bible or the Digest have obtained. Yet the precise grounds of the position he occupies among Socialists is Essay, a more complex problem than is characteristics of a, usually assumed. His theory of value is no more than a formidable adaptation of a concept already worked out in full by a group of English predecessors. Men like Harrington and James Madison realized, hardly less clearly than he, the significance of the materialist interpretation of history.

His appreciation of the and Anthropology Description fact of class antagonism had been anticipated in detail by Saint-Simon. Political! Even his passionate sympathy with the inarticulate aspirations of the worldling class was no more profound than that of Charles Nail and Owen and John Stuart Mill. His position, indeed, cannot be appreciated unless it is Cinema Essay, seen in characteristics leader, its historical perspective. Born between too revolutions, he utilized the method produced by the reaction from the excesses of Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay France to Four Theories the service of its fundamental principles. The disciple of Hegel, he was the first of those who felt his master's influence to apply his dialectic to the analysis of social facts. Cinema And Anthropology Description Essay! Hardly less important was the material of clash full body which he made use. Beginning to write when the full implications of capitalism were becoming visible, he utilized its own description of its economic consequences as the proof of its moral inadequacy.

The evidence was impressive and complete; and the induction therefrom of a social order at Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay once new and does appeasement mean in ww2, inevitable, suited to a nicety the yearnings of his generation. The main result of the Hegelian movement was to lend a new sanction to philosophic conservatism. The impact of the revolutionary wars seems to Description have turned the mind of its founder towards the justification of established order. In that sense, Hegel is a chief of reactionary romanticism, and his affinity to Theories men like Burke and Savigny is obvious. Cinema Description Essay! Yet the essence of Hegelianism is, at the same time, the idea of evolution, and, to an age which, as with de Maistre, was chiefly concerned with finding the basis of a permanent social scheme the notion of evolution was a definitely radical one. Kraken Titans Full Body! For Hegel insists on the impermanence of institutions. Each age is its predecessor with a difference.

There is a change of Cinema tone and outlook, a tendency to emphasize the antithesis of what has been characteristic of the what appeasement mean earlier period. To the period of religious intensity there succeeds the age of religious indifference; Bossuet begets Voltaire, as Lord Eldon implies the reforming zeal of Henry Brougham. The law of life is the Description Essay warring of contradictions, with growth as its consequence. This process, which Hegel called dialectic, is, as it were, a kind of rhythm which moves from the concrete hardness of interaction Brazilian immature innovation system: evidences some definite idea to Description Essay its opposite; from what appeasement mean that repulsion it shifts towards a synthesis in which the two first stages interpenetrate each other to form a new concept by and Anthropology Description Essay, their union. This notion is the ruling method of Marxian thought. Obviously enough, it provides a means whereby the foundations of any given social system may be criticized at the statement describes in the novel their base.

For if we can be certain that any interpretation of a period is necessarily a partial view, we have only to emphasize its antithesis to call forth the possibility of a new standpoint. Hegelianism, for example, might insist on the moral adequacy of the Prussian State. But under its very banner, Young Germany might make protest against its rigorous impermeability to freedom. Where Hegelian doctrine had emphasized birth and position, Young Germany could point to the frustration of talent and the tragedies of the poor. Where it insisted on the value of religion, the newer thinkers might question the very foundations of faith. The disciples of Hegel, in fact, turned the weapons of their master to the service of a cause he had denied.

Strauss and Feuerbach, Bruno Bauer and Heine are essentially a part of the same general tendency of which Marx is the representative in social ideas. Cinema And Anthropology Description Essay! They are the heralds of revolt against the reaction. Their difference from of the full Marx consists in their failure to Cinema Description see the political implications of titans body their position. Marx grasped: them from the outset; and the Hegelian dialectic in his hands is an effort at the overthrow of the existing social order. The time, indeed, was singularly fitted for the ideas of which he was the protagonist. The shadow of two French Revolutions bestrode Europe like a colossus; and the very reaction they had provoked was compelled to make grudging concessions to ensure even its temporary survival. The mood of the people was everywhere bitter and discontented; and the criticism of existing institutions secured a widespread and eager welcome. In France, the work of Saint-Simon and Fourier and Enfantin had shown how prolific of novelty the revolution remained; and its influence was hardly less apparent in the new liberalism of Sismondi and the Catholic experiments of Lamennais. England was in and Anthropology Description, the throes of a convulsion not the Essay less profound because it was silent. Bentham had at last come into his own; and, under the stress of his urgent protests English institutions were being transformed into the organs of a middle-class state. The relics of feudalism had at last submitted to the assaults of Ricardo and Cinema and Anthropology, his school; and the newborn industrialism, even if, to an observant eye, it seemed but the grim doctrines of Calvin translated to an economic sphere, completely altered the atmosphere of social life.

The revolution, indeed, did not achieve its purpose without suffering As early as 1805, Charles Hall had uttered a remarkable protest against the implications of the new civilization and what does in ww2, that half-forgotten school of economists who form a link between the individualism of Bentham and the co-operation of Owen, were riddling its protective armour in Cinema and Anthropology, the name of social justice. The masses had regarded the the statement describes one of explored so far Reform Act of 1832 as the prelude to the greatest happiness of the greatest number; and their disappointment expressed itself in the revolutionary activity of the trade unions and and Anthropology Essay, the formation of the Chartist movement. Thinkers like William Thompson and J. F. Bray, noble-minded agitators like Francis Place and William Lovett, are every whit as indicative of the new capitalism as the great merchants and the incredible machines of Lancashire and Yorkshire. The Industrial Revolution reaped what it had sown. Political Theories! It ground a whole generation into Description, intolerable despair, and dreams of its destruction were the sole refuge of its victims. What Appeasement Mean! Those dreams were the background which made possible the emergence of Essay Karl Marx. They gave him the foundation of of a his social philosophy. Karl Marx was born at Treves on May 5th, 1818, of Jewish parents who were descended on both sides from rabbinic ancestors.

Neither his father, who was a lawyer, nor his mother seems to have had any special ability; and Marx himself was the only one of several children who attained intellectual distinction. When he was six years old, the family was converted to Christianity, not, it appears, from any desire to avoid the Cinema Description stigma then attached to the Jewish faith, but as a result of that romantic idealizing of Christianity of which Chateaubriand was the most famous representative. It is not easy to measure exactly what influence this change had upon Marx. If it later opened to East him avenues that would otherwise have been closed, he never availed himself of them. To the end of his life he remained something of an anti-Semite; but this does not seem traceable to any emotion of apostasy. Marx's childhood was passed in the normal atmosphere of Cinema Description Essay a patriotic lawyer's life. His father was a zealous Prussian, to whom the defeat of Napoleon offered the opportunity, of which his son did not take advantage, of a lyrical hymn to Prussian victory. He went to the grammar school of his native town, where his ability was immediately marked by his teachers. There too, he was. intimate with the Political Essay Privy Councillor, von Westphalen, whose house was a kind of salon for the intellectual youth of Treves. At least Marx learned there a love of Cinema and Anthropology Essay literature and the dedication of his doctor's thesis is testimony to his grateful regard for his future father-in-law. For even before his departure, in The importance of academy-industry interaction innovation evidences base, 1835, to Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay Bonn University, he had become secretly engaged to Jenny von Westphalen, whose beauty and strength of mind had awakened in him an affection which did not diminish through life.

Marx remained a year in Bonn, studying jurisprudence; but he seems to have devoted himself to the more convivial side of the University, and it was not until his removal to Four Political Berlin, in 1836, that he threw himself into Cinema Description Essay, intellectual work.. Berlin was then at the very height of its reputation; and the influence of Hegel was still paramount in of academy-industry interaction Brazilian from data base, its instruction. No sort of learning seems to Description have come amiss to Marx. History and philosophy geography and in The, jurisprudence, literature and Aesthetic, all of them aroused in Cinema, him the typical enthusiasm of an undergraduate in search of Middle omniscience. Nor--it is a grateful thought--did he fail to write poetry; and if his verses are a fair index to his state of mind, he was full of a restless insatiability for knowledge, and a zealous desire to solve the problems of the universe, from which at least there must have been derived many hours of happy work. He tried his hand at composing philosophic systems. He attempted to compile an outline of jurisprudence.

He went hardly at all into society, and it was not until the winter of 1837 that his experiments resolved themselves into a settled system. He surrendered the neo-idealism of Kant and took refuge in a complete acceptance of Hegelian metaphysic. That this change represented for Cinema and Anthropology Description, him a very real mental crisis is evident from the passionate, if turgid, letter to his father of November 10th, 1837. There he summarizes the intense struggle through which he had passed, the characteristics of a desire to dive into the deeps of the ocean . . . bringing up chaste pearls into the sunlight. He was ill and troubled. His poems and short stories were burned; he sought escape from the seductions of Hegel in Cinema and Anthropology Description, discussion at the Graduates' Club, only to find himself the more securely enmeshed therein. It is the typical intellectual history of an ardent mind, conscious of great powers, and characteristics of a leader, eager to secure a foothold from which to survey the Cinema Description universe.

Not unnaturally, it greatly disturbed his father. What Does Appeasement Mean! He, good man, was anxious above all to see Karl at work in a lawyer's office, or, even better, in Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay, Government service. Why did he not do as other students, attend his lectures, meet the right people, and embark upon his future career? He did not understand this mental torment save to see that it involved physical ill-health and on Democracy in The, a good deal of miscellaneous reading totally unconnected with the law. But Marx's ideals had already passed beyond so pedestrian an existence; and his father seems to have reconciled himself to Cinema the new ambitions. Marx determined upon a University post, and for that purpose devoted himself to the study of philosophic jurisprudence. The Importance Of Academy-industry For The Brazilian System:! With friends like Bruno Bauer and Cinema Essay, Friedrich Koppen, he buried himself in study and discussion. A thesis was written on the philosophical systems of Democritus and Epicurus, and in 1841 Marx became a doctor of the University of Jena. He rejoined Bauer at Bonn and awaited the offer of a lectureship in the University. Interaction Immature Innovation Evidences From A Comprehensive Data! Had that offer come, the history of Description Essay European Socialism might have been very different. Four Theories Essay! But the Cinema and Anthropology Prussian educational system did not look with affection upon eager young men whose views did not square with orthodox teaching.

The post did not arrive, and it was shortly enough obvious that it was not likely to arrive. An academic career being thus impossible, Marx set to work to find a living in journalism, and in 1842 an opportunity of an attractive kind presented itself. The first number of the Rheinische Zeitung was published on January 1st, 1842, and of a leader, Marx was a warm friend of the editor, who had met him at the Graduates' Club in Berlin. Cinema And Anthropology! Invited to assist, he wrote philosophical articles which not only brought him to the notice of a wider circle, among whom were men like Feuerbach and Moses Hess, but also secured for him the direction of the journal on the retirement of its first editor in on Democracy in The Middle East, the next October. Thereby Marx was compelled to deal, and for the first time, with immediate political issues. He came into contact with French and German Socialism, then in their Utopian stage.

The agrarian problem in the Rhine provinces and the discussion of the tariff, gave him the first stimulus to investigate economic questions. French socialist ideas were already being discussed in the paper, but Marx, as always, determined upon a thorough grasp of the issue, did not as yet pronounce upon their worth. An editor who takes time to make up his mind is obviously lost; and the directors of the and Anthropology Description Essay paper decided to make a change in its management. Marx, who had just married, seems to have resigned without regret, and to clash have buried himself for the next two years in those economic studies from which he emerged a Socialist. Of the inner history of those years we know practically nothing. Certain alone it is that as early as May, 1843, he detected within society a breach which the old system cannot heal; and it was not long before he showed in his letters an intimate knowledge of Cinema and Anthropology Fourier, Proudhon and Cabet.

Already he had done with Utopias; the problem was to explain the struggles and yearnings of the Four Political Theories time. In the winter of 1843, when he had settled with his wife in Paris, he wrote the introduction to Hegel's Philosophy of Law, which remains, perhaps, his profoundest piece of Description technical criticism. Already he was thinking in terms of revolution, and insisting that the task of the The importance of academy-industry interaction Brazilian evidences from a comprehensive data proletariat was to free itself from the existing social order. Poverty he viewed, thus early, as the artificial product of a bourgeois society; and the denial of the right to private property had become for him the and Anthropology Essay fundamental avenue of release. But we catch glimpses only of this time. All that can be said with certainty is the fact that reflection had made him a Socialist. He had realized, too, the inadequacies of the abstract remoteness of French Socialism.

He had seen that the political state was, at any given time, the reflection in structure of the ideas of Theories that epoch. He had realized that the main need was to make plain to the mass of men the implications of the state, and the end to Description Essay which their half-conscious struggle should lead them. His thought, indeed, was abstract enough, and still fettered within the narrowly walls of the for the immature from a comprehensive base Hegelian dialectic. But at least it was moving forward. Meanwhile, the problem of how to Cinema and Anthropology Essay live had still to be solved. He had gone to Paris in October, 1843, to become editor of the in The Middle Franco-German Year Books . But that periodical lasted only for a single issue, and, for Marx, its chief importance was the appearance therein of a long and frankly, bad article by and Anthropology Description, Friedrich Engels on political economy. The article led to correspondence between them, and in the autumn of 1844, Engels went to Paris to visit Marx. That visit was the commencement of a friendship which even death did not terminate. Friedrich Engels was the son of of a leader a rich manufacturer in the Rhineland. His father owned a cotton mill near Manchester, to which, in 1842, Engels had been sent to study English business conditions.

He was already an and Anthropology Description Essay, eager critic of social conditions, and how carefully he observed the life about him, his Condition of the Working Classes in Middle, England in 1844, which he published in 1845, bears witness. A sympathizer with the Chartist Movement, and Cinema and Anthropology Essay, a contributor to choose that describes one of the themes in the novel Owen's New Moral World , he was exactly in Description Essay, the frame of mind to be receptive to Marx's ideas. On Democracy East! And his personal qualities admirably fitted him to and Anthropology Description Essay be the complement of Marx. Thoroughly loyal, without an atom of leader personal ambition, generous, and self-effacing, practical and energetic, he brought to Marx all the necessary characteristics of a Fidus Achates. His unstinting literary assistance hardly less than his constant financial aid were the materials which determined Marx's future career. It is, indeed, almost impossible to disentangle the Cinema Description Essay labours of the two. Clearly enough, it was to Engels that Marx owed both his knowledge of English blue-books as a source of economic theory, and his introduction to the work of the English socialist school. Choose That Best Describes One Of The Themes In The! Without Engels, too, it would have been difficult for Marx to undertake the research to which the Description first volume of the Capital bears witness; and on Democracy Middle East, the posthumous publication of the two latter volumes was the tribute that Engels paid to the memory of his master. Description Essay! That Marx would have been an important figure without Engels is clear enough; but the aid rendered by the latter made all the difference between the comparative calm of London and of the titans full body, the restless wanderings of which hapless exiles like Bakunin were the miserable victims.

The sudden end of the Franco-German Year Books made Marx turn to more solid production. The Holy Family (1845) is important, not only because it contains the Cinema and Anthropology first clear outline of the Essay materialistic conception of history, but also because its attack on Bruno Bauer is evidence that Marx had already broken with the young Hegelians. He had come to place all his faith in the significance of mass-movements. where Bauer believed that the ideas by which mankind is moved cannot hope for more than superficial understanding from the mass and depend for their success upon the efforts of great men. Simultaneously, also, he was answering Ruge's attacks upon the German proletariat with an impassioned defcnce of socialism and revolution. Weitling is held up as proof of proletarian virtue against Cinema Description, the mediocrity of the political literature of the German bourgeoisie. And in the polemic against Ruge it is insisted that the of academy-industry interaction Brazilian immature a comprehensive base time for Description Essay, political revolution, the only revolution of which the German bourgeoisie is capable, had passed; the capacity of Geimany is the capacity of its workers, and it is to a social revolution that Marx directs attention. This Paris period is important not only for the advent of Engels.

Mingling with the German workers then living in Paris, Marx naturally met those who were already in sympathy with his own views. From them to Proudhon was a natural step, for Proudhon was already the dominant socialist influence in of academy-industry for the Brazilian innovation system: from base, France. Proudhon was interested in the Hegelian dialectic, and Cinema, he and Marx spent countless hours in discussing its application to choose best describes one of the themes explored novel social science. But this fruitful intercourse was interrupted by his expulsion from France (January, 1845) at the demand of the Prussian Government. Marx went from Paris to Brussels, where he remained, but for short intervals, until the outbreak of the revolution of 1848. Engels gave him a selection of his library and Marx devoted himself to the composition of his singularly able and unpleasant criticism of Proudhon.

This was published in 1847, and it may be said to mark his transition to the full vigour of his matured philosophy. Proudhon's reputation as a social philosopher has undergone an interesting reconstruction in our own day. (1) As an economist he has hardly survived the analysis of Marx. A self-taught man, originally a printer, he came into prominence by the publication, in 1840, of his prize essays What is Property ? in which, with much brilliance of style and Cinema and Anthropology Description, no small genius for Four Essay, paradox, he repeated in the economic sphere the substance of those criticisms of social organization which Rousseau had expressed in a prize essay not less famous. But Proudhon's aspirations were not limited by his knowledge. With undoubted ability and with a real gift of social insight, he yet lacked that rigorous training in the method of intellectual inquiry without which the production of a logical system is rarely possible. Discovering the work of Hegel, he attempted an interpretation of social life in terms of the Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay dialectic. What Does Appeasement! It is, broadly, a mass of ill-arranged jargon with some brilliant asides. But the work was written while in contact with Marx, and the Philosophie de la Misère is the exposition of exactly that type of Utopia-mongering which aroused Marx's anger.

It depended for its success mainly upon and Anthropology Description the unconscious ease with which it determines the most complex economic problems, and the reckless certitude of its own conclusions. It is, indeed, at the same time, a very attractive book. Proudhon realized, not less keenly than Marx, the evils of capitalism, and he was not less anxious to point the way to an economic order of which the motives were freedom and justice. The Statement That In The Novel! In the Du Principe Fédératif and the Justice dans la Revolution , indeed, he outlined a type of federalism of Cinema Essay which the suggestiveness is immense; and choose that describes the themes novel so far, it would be legitimate to argue that not the least significant source of the ancestry of Guild Socialism could be traced to his; writings. But the conflict between Marx and Proudhon was an inevitable one. Cinema Description Essay! At bottom, the ideals of that best describes explored novel Proudhon were those of a peasant socialism, in which the authority of a central state was reduced to a minimum; he was reformist in outlook, despite the Cinema Description vigour of his phrases, and his economic views were always subordinate to certain ethical assumptions. Marx was the typical representative of the new industrialism, and the source of change for him was solely to be traced to developments in industrial technique.

Authoritarian and materialist in both outlook and temper there was no real contact between Proudhon and himself. Marx, moreover, was a trained scholar, to whom the luxuriance of Proudhon's speculations was never an adequate substitute for the statement in the novel so far, fact. Cinema And Anthropology! He was able without difficulty to show that Proudhon understood neither the what mean theory of value nor the process of production. At bottom, as he insists, Proudhon had done little more than urge, first that labour was the source of value, and next that riches and poverty co-exist. Proudhon could see that the source of economic injustice lay somewhere within the system of production, but he could not, with any clarity, explain its development. Marx overwhelmed him with ridicule, abuse, and sarcasm, and it must be admitted that from the standpoint of an economist, right is on his side. And Marx's answer, the Poverty of Philosophy , is noteworthy also for its firm grasp of the and Anthropology economic processes of history and for his insistence upon the part that an oppressed class has always played in the development of any system founded upon class antagonism. But the main value of the book consists less in any positive doctrine that it announces than in the atmosphere by which it is permeated. It is definitely revolutionary, and The importance evidences from a comprehensive base, it is revolutionary because it is historical.

Its lesson is the argument that social evolution implies economic revolution. That was a new note to strike in the history of European Socialism. The controversy with Proudhon was the Cinema and Anthropology Essay natural prelude to the Communist Manifesto . Essay! It had been evident to Marx, for several years before 1848, that Europe was on the verge of revolt. Cinema And Anthropology Essay! England was passing through a period of intense agitation. Socialism was growing in Germany by leaps and bounds; and of a leader, the lyrical falsifications of Lamartine seemed to the Paris workmen infinitely preferable to the mediocre corruption of Guizot and Louis Philippe. Description! Marx, indeed, did not see that the political situation was far too complex to admit of an interpretation in uniform terms. Democratic nationalism like that of Mazzini, individualist republicanism like that of Ledru-Rollin, such hostility to dynastic oppression as Kossuth embodied, state socialism as typified by Louis Blanc--the forces of upheaval were too various and the statement describes in the novel, incompatible to admit of any continuous co-operation. Bitterly as the worker might resent the consequences of industrialism he had not vet reached the stage where the seizure of political power for economic ends seemed to him the one ideal worthy of attainment.

And he was to no small degree, still attracted by Cinema and Anthropology, the kind of unrealistic thinking of which Robert Owen was so prolific, the sense that the difficulties of the characteristics leader time might be evaded by Description, extra-political organization. The Importance Immature Innovation Evidences From A Comprehensive Data Base! Marx realized that this attitude was definitely unconstructive. The seizure of the State was to him the starting point of successful effort, and when Frederic William IV summoned the United Assembly in February, 1847, it was not unnatural for him to assume that the hour for Description, action was at characteristics leader hand. From the outset of his life in Brussels Marx had mingled with the German socialist residents there. He had come into contact with the League of the Just, an organization of German workers with branches in the chief European towns. This society, founded in 1836, had in 1840 moved its headquarters to London, probably to Cinema and Anthropology Essay escape the unwelcome attentions of the political police. The attention of the London group had been drawn to Marx by the members in Paris and Brussels. The Statement Best Explored Novel! The London branch commissioned inquiries to Cinema and Anthropology be made about him, and when the first Congress of the League was held in London in the summer of 1847, Engels and Wilhelm Wolff, the latter, through Engels, a disciple of Marx, were present at its deliberations. Engels had spent the year in efforts at revolutionary propaganda in Paris and the Rhineland; and it is probably due, in the main, to him that the the statement describes in the so far League of the Just was transformed into the Communist League. The ground was thus prepared for Marx, who appeared at the second Congress, also in London, in December, 1847.

Engels had already conferred with him as to the ground to be taken there; and he had sent Marx the outline of a programme to Cinema and Anthropology be offered to the Congress for acceptance. Engel's outline contains the substance of the famous manifesto; but it lacks the ringing challenge and Political, firm grasp of its successor. At the Congress, Marx and Engels were commissioned to draw up a programme. They were prepared for the effort; and the German edition of the Communist Manifesto appeared a few days before the outbreak of the Paris revolution. It is not easy to over estimate the significance of the Manifesto. It gave direction and and Anthropology Description Essay, a philosophy to what had been before little more than an inchoate protest against injustice. It began the long process of welding together the scattered groups of the for the immature innovation from a comprehensive disinherited into an organized and Cinema and Anthropology Essay, influential party. It freed Socialism from its earlier situation of a doctrine cherished by conspirators in defiance of government and gave to Essay in The Middle East it at Cinema and Anthropology once a purpose and an historic background.

It almost created a proletarian consciousness by giving, and for mean, the first time, to the workers at once a high sense of their historic mission and a realization of the Essay dignity implicit in Brazilian immature evidences from a comprehensive, their task. It destroyed at a stroke both the belief that Socialism could triumph without long preparation, and the hope that any form of economic organization was possible save that which was implicit in the facts of the and Anthropology Description Essay time. It insisted upon kraken clash titans full no natural rights. It did not lay down any metaphysic. Cinema Description Essay! It was, on the contrary, a careful and critical historic survey of the institutional process regarded as a whole. To insist upon its epoch-mating character is not to regard it as an original or definitive document or to suggest that it is free from inconsistencies. It owes much, clearly, to Four Considerant's Manifeste de la Democratie which was published four years before. (2) There have been Utopian socialisms in despite of Marx; and we are doubtless not at the end of them. The belief in natural rights revives with every age of discontent, and it would be possible to and Anthropology Description prove that the The importance immature innovation from a comprehensive data base idea of natural rights is necessarily implicit in the juridical structure of Socialism. Nor is Cinema and Anthropology Description, its treatment of the middle class at all adequate. At one point it is subject to a vituperation so scathing and relentless, as to make it seem the nurse of all social evil. The Importance Brazilian Innovation System: From A Comprehensive Data Base! At another its great historic achievements are exalted beyond all praise.

Its immediate programme of action is borrowed in almost every particular from those earlier Socialists who are so unsparingly condemned. Nor can Marx's claim that he substituted a critical insight into the facts, progress and general results of the actual social movement for the systems of his predecessors, be entirely accepted; for, after all, it is not the least merit of Fourier and Saint-Simon that they had described with not less sober accuracy than that of Marx the economic conditions of their time. Even the use of the class-war as the Cinema and Anthropology key to history was brilliantly in the Genevan Letters of kraken clash of the body Saint-Simon. Yet the general superiority of the Manifesto to previous Socialist writing is incontestable. It contains, broadly speaking, four definite groups of ideas. Beginning with a history of the Cinema and Anthropology growth of the middle class it recounts its victory over feudal privilege, its emergence into the full development of capitalistic enterprise, and its necessary result in a revolutionary proletariat. A second section deals with the philosophic interpretation of this history.

It argues that the doctrine of the kraken titans full body class struggle, the necessary and inevitable conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, with the consequent revolutionary role that is assigned to the latter, are the and Anthropology Essay plain deductions to be drawn. Ways and means are then discussed, the main object of which is to what mean in ww2 bring within the ambit of state control the Cinema and Anthropology Essay whole economic life of the on Democracy in The people. There then follows a criticism of previous Socialist literature of which it must be said that, forcible and eloquent as it is, much of it is inaccurate and the whole unfair. And Anthropology Description Essay! No description can do justice to the brilliant vigour of the whole. The Importance Of Academy-industry For The Immature System: Evidences! Every phrase of it is a challenge, and much of it has the same moving passion that distinguishes the Cinema and Anthropology Essay exordium of the Social Contract or, in a very different type of polemic, the Paroles d'un Croyant of Lamennais. It is the book of men who have viewed the whole process of history from an eminence and discovered therein an inescapable lesson. It is at once an epilogue and a prophecy--an epilogue to the deception from which the workers suffered in the Revolution of 1789 and a prophecy of the what appeasement land of promise they may still hope to enter. A movement that could produce a challenge so profound came hardly less to fulfil than to destroy. It had hardly appeared before the Cinema Description Essay Revolution broke out in Paris, and what mean, Marx, as a precautionary measure, was banished from Brussels by the Belgian Government. Tyranny has banished you, wrote the French Provisional Government, but a free France opens her gates to you. Marx proceeded to Paris, but remained there only a short time.

Germany was already seething with revolt, and the natural vantage-ground for him was obviously the Rhineland. Gathering about' trim the members of the Communist League Marx went to Cologne where the editorship of the revolutionary paper, the Neue Rheinische Zeitung , was entrusted to him. Brief as was its life, its substance was not merely brilliant but of great significance as an indication of the Marxian tactic. Engels and Wilhelm Wolff were its chief contributors, and Freiligrath and Lassalle sent poems and essays. Mehring has published a selection of the Cinema Essay chief articles of Marx in this paper. Titans Body! Dominantly, they insist upon three ideas: the disarming of the bourgeoisie, the erection of a revolutionary terror to abridge and concentrate the hideous death agonies of society, and the creation of a revolutionary army.

There is no room in Marx's thought, save perhaps as an ultimate, for Description Essay, any democratic system. Revolution opposes counter-revolution, and a reign of choose the statement that best one of the themes explored in the terror is the path to triumph. Liberty is dismissed as a purely bourgeois ideal, which impedes proletarian advance to Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay its goal. The idea of a general upheaval, Russia linking hands with France, Berlin uniting with Vienna, is emphasized, though it should be added that Marx had no full realization either of the difficulties the Revolution would encounter, or the speediness of choose the statement that describes explored its destruction. The paper hardly lived for a year, when troubles with the censorship put an end to its existence, Marx left Cologne and and Anthropology, returned to Paris, but only to witness the bloody suppression of the days of June. Banished by the French Government in July, 1849, to a remote corner of Brittany, he decided to move to London. Thither he went with his family, and he remained in England, with one or two brief intervals, for the rest of his life. Marx's London period is, creatively, the most important part of his career; but it was a difficult and tragic struggle for existence, and his work was accomplished only by heroic effort. For the first ten years, the family was hardly over the verge of starvation, and Marx had even to interaction for the Brazilian system: evidences from data base pawn his clothes for necessary expenses. For was his intellectual environment easy.

The disappointed makers of a revolution are never comfortable neighbours; and his pamphlet, Herr Vogt (1860) is proof that German Communists did not differ from their fellows of France or Russia. ten years (1851-60) Marx acted as European correspondent of the New York Tribune , a post which was the sole source of and Anthropology any continuous income. It was, however, very poorly paid, and if the selection of his articles therein published by Eleanor Marx after his death is at all representative, it is clear that the taste of the American reader has changed in remarkable fashion since the 'sixties. For Marx does not abate one iota of his convictions in what does appeasement mean in ww2, his correspondence; and the manner of interpretation is that of the philosopher rather than the journalist. That income apart, Marx had no consistent means of livelihood during his first ten vears in London. Then came one or two family legacies, and a generous tribute from Cinema and Anthropology Wilhelm Wolff; later, Engels was able from his own means to allow Marx some three hundred and fifty pounds a year.

Yet, with all their penury, these were not unhappy years. His wife seems to have had a real genius for Theories Essay, deriving contentment from misfortune; judges like Heine and Paul Lafargue paid her the Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay tribute of profound admiration. His children were growing up, and Marx was passionately fond of his children. Their nurse, Helene Demuth, was a source of infinite help and comfort, and there was always the sure knowledge of the inevitable triumph of the revolutionary cause. For Marx did not share in the sense of depression which fell upon Liberals after the Political Theories failure of 1848. He shut himself in the British Museum and, sometimes working sixteen hours a day, set himself to the composition of a socialist economics. One or two minor pamphlets were written, as the Essay unsparing denunciation of the coup d'etat of 1851, which he called the Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1852) and the Critique of kraken clash titans full Political Economy (1859) which is important in part because it is the groundwork of the Capital itself and in part because of the valuable light it throws upon his own conception of his method. Description Essay! But outside his relations with the international, it was to the Capital that these years were devoted.

And they were years of unremitting and devoted service. He was at the Museum as it opened and kraken clash of the full body, never left until the attendants turned him out. A chosen band of helpers, all fellow-exiles, used to accompany him and Description Essay, aid in the researches he conducted; though it should perhaps be added that they were not admitted as assistants until they had shown their agreement with Marx and for the Brazilian immature innovation system: evidences data, passed certain craniological tests. Phrenology was not typical merely of the Utopian period of Socialism. Marx, moreover, never considered the exchange of conviction for comfort; offers of Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay position came to him, as when Buchar sounded him, possibly on Bismarck's behalf; but he never dreamed of desertion. There is certainly no more remarkable instance of great sacrifice for intellectual discovery than that of which Marx's life is a record. Darwin, it is true, devoted twenty years to the testing of his hypotheses, but he had ample means at his command. Marx was surrounded by difficulties, of which not the least was the knowledge that his self-imposed task condemned his wife and family to profound suffering. Neither he nor they seemed to have flinched from the consequences, and one may judge not unfairly that their pride in his work was for Marx his happiest achievement. Of Marx's intellectual environment in London, we know all too little.

Men like John Stuart Mill he never met, though he was on friendly terms with the leading trade unionists as Odger and Applegarth. With the latter, however, he had no intimate political relations, and in the contemporary history of English labour, his name has no large place. That, perhaps, was natural enough; for English trade unionism was then a system of compromises with which Marx's revolutionary dogmas had little connection. For the most part his affiliations were with Engels and the German exiles in what, London, though only the former seems to have enjoyed his full confidence. He had, moreover, a close relation-ship with that mysterious figure, half-fanatic and half-knight-errant, David Urquhart, whose loathing of Russia Marx seems fully to have shared. Both of them saw spies at every street corner, and at one time or another, in Essay, each case without a shadow of justification, Marx was able to convince himself that Herwegh and Bakunin were government emissaries.

It is, of course, sufficiently intelligible that an exile who had himself been the object of police attentions should live in Four, an atmosphere of nervous suspicion; but it is a regrettable corollary of Marx's accusations that both Herwegh and and Anthropology Essay, Bakunin belonged to different sections of the Socialist party. Marx never welcomed opposition or rivalry; and he Noms too prone to what mean assume that a doubt of his rightness was a doubt also of his opponent's integrity. Yet it must be counted to his great credit in these years that he is in no small degree responsible for Cinema and Anthropology, the .svmpathy shown to the North by the working class during the what appeasement mean in ww2 American Civil War. It was Marx who advised the union of the labour leaders with Cobden and Bright to arouse the Essay enthusiasm of the trade unions; and it was Marx who proposed in on Democracy Middle East, the General Council of the International, that a vote of congratulation be sent to Lincoln, on Cinema Essay his re-election as President of the United States. Marx played some part also in kraken clash titans, arousing the trade unions to protest against the brutal suppression by Russia of the Polish revolt of 1863. But, apart from the preparation of Capital , Marx's chief occupation in Cinema, London was with the choose the statement the themes early stages of the First International. In 1862 a group of Paris workmen paid a visit to the London Exhibition of that year. Cinema And Anthropology! A trade union committee received them and a joint international Council was founded.

When the Polish rebellion of 1863 broke out, it was this Council which prepared the of the titans full gigantic protest meetings against Russian barbarity which represented the first intervention, failure though it was, of British labour in Cinema and Anthropology Description, foreign politics. It was in connection with this campaign that Odger, a member of the Junta, suggested that the needs of the working class involved the holding of regular international meetings. The idea was taken up with enthusiasm and a great meeting was held in London in September, 1864, to organize the the statement that best in the movement. Marx, who had held rather aloof from the initial stages was present at the meeting, and joined the Founders' Committee that was created. He perceived at once the significance of the new movement, and and Anthropology Description, though he seems to have had little but contempt for its leaders, he was appointed to draw up the The importance for the Brazilian innovation from a comprehensive data inaugural address. The Committee had given him a basis prepared by the French delegates and accepted by it as adequate. Marx, characteristically enough, destroyed the basis, and produced instead an and Anthropology Description, address of his own detailing the progress of the working class in England during the past thirty years, and insisting that its meaning must be read in terms only of his own theories. Does Mean! It is, in Description Essay, fact, a new edition of the Communist Manifesto , with the revolutionary period of trade unionism as the basis of its deductions instead of universal history.

The special interest of the address, however, lies in Marx's use of the history of the Factory Acts as a proof of the value of working-class agitation. In the bright sunlight of day, he said, the bourgeois political economy was here vanquished for the first time by the political economy of the working class. The Importance For The System: A Comprehensive Base! The Factory Acts were, indeed, revolutionary in the sense that they were a direct admission of the inadequacy of laissez-faire; but their passage was hardly due to the type of influence Marx had in mind. At least in other moods he would not have called Lord Shaftesbury a revolutionary Communist. Marx henceforward devoted much energy to the International, and as he hurried it forth from its cradle, so he may be said to have hastened it towards the grave. Its origin began in dissension--the struggle between the idealist nationalism of Cinema and Anthropology Essay Mazzini and the revolutionary and class-conscious aggressiveness of Marx. On the latter's victory Mazzini withdrew, though with characteristic selflessness he advised his followers to continue their support. Marx henceforth dominated the organization, though he waged a continuous warfare to maintain his supremacy.

To him, the movement was essentially an effort to propagate the ideas of the Communist Manifesto and thus to prepare the way for the revolution. But to the English members the International was essentially an organ for promoting trade unionism; and when Ogder perceived, in the Commune of 1871 and Marx's defence of it, the real drift of its purpose, he resigned from the organization. The English section always remained aloof from the directorate; for it was that special brand of Radicalism of kraken clash titans which William Lovett was perhaps the finest representative that they were really concerned to foster. Nor was the English section the only difficulty. For the first two years, the followers of Proudhon were not able rivals, and they had no sympathy with Marx's idea of a direct and immediate political revolution.

They were, moreover, hostile to Cinema Description Communism; and racial differences played their part. Even when the Proudhonians had been defeated, Bakunin and clash titans body, his followers remained. They were anarchists and Cinema Essay, bitterly opposed to the centralized dictatorship of which Marx was the exponent; and there were grave differences between them on the degree to which property was to be confiscated. Bakunin, it must be admitted, was as difficult as Marx himself in colleagueship. He founded a rival organization and did much intriguing against Marx when he was readmitted on its abandonment. Political Theories Essay! By 1872 his influence had so increased that a frontal attack upon Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay him was impossible. In the Hague Congress of that year, Marx therefore proposed the removal of the headquarters to New York.

The motion was carried; but it was obviously impossible to direct European Socialism from a position three thousand miles away. By 1875 the kraken clash body International was extinct; and hostile as were the attentions given to it by the Governments of Europe, it rather perished of internal dissension, tile struggle between two powerful and antithetic personalities, than from external attack. Not, however, before it had rendered one great service. The Second Empire perished in the defeat of Sedan, and the provisional government created by Thiers was not merely hostile to a democratic re-organization, but even looked forward to the building of a new monarchy. Cinema Description Essay! The working men of Paris had no sympathy with these ideas; and what does mean in ww2, the Commune was their answer to them. The effort lasted only seven weeks, when it was overthrown amid scenes of unexampled butchery. Marx had been definitely hostile to its inception. For him tile essential function of the workers was to strengthen their own organizations and to prepare themselves thereby for their coming freedom. But when the Communards perished in their heroic folly, and and Anthropology Description Essay, were pursued, as even more modern history has pursued them, by a campaign of virulent and Four Theories, lying attack, Marx came to their defence in what is, the Communist Manifesto apart, the most brilliant pamphlet he ever wrote. The Civil War in France , published as an official statement of the International, is, of course, a partial and and Anthropology Essay, incomplete view of the complicated events it narrates; but nothing that has been written since so admirably depicts the ideas and sentiments by which the Communards were inspired, or more energetically displays the savage brutality with which they were treated.

The defence was the more generous when Marx's low opinion of the French Socialist movement is remembered, as also his conviction that Sedan was the just price of Bonapartist imperialism. Yet even in the hour of Essay a victory he welcomed, Marx addressed the German workers in a manifesto which demanded a fair and and Anthropology, honourable place for the vanquished. Meanwhile, the great labour of his life had been partially completed by the publication, in 1867, of the first volume of the Capital . It cannot be said to have received the welcome it deserved. Written, of course, as it was in a German particularly cumbrous and involved in structure, it was necessarily caviare to that one of the themes explored in the novel the multitude. The Saturday Review perceived the value of the material of which it made use; though not even Professor Beesly's persuasiveness could induce George Henry Lewes to insert a long notice from Engels in the Fortnightly . Russian and French translations soon followed; and in Russia, particularly, the Description book soon made its way to that position of commanding influence it has never lost. Marx, it must be remembered, was already well-known in choose the statement that one of explored in the novel, Russia. And Anthropology Essay! Belinsky had already praised the Franco-German Year Books ; Annenkov had published a long critique from Marx on Proudhon; and Four Theories, his relations with Herzen and Bakunin had made him a notable figure among international Socialists. Cinema Description! In Germany the book seems to have made its way but slowly; and the second edition (1873) contains a long protest by Marx against what he deemed an organized conspiracy of silence.

It had, of course, presently to undergo the inevitable attack incidental to all learned German controversy--on the ground that its doctrines had been anticipated; and Marx was ludicrously assumed to have stolen his thunder from Rodbertus. But within five years from its publication Capital had become the pivotal part of German Socialist literature, and his name assumed the position from which ail other socialists might be surveyed. Marx, was not, however, destined to complete it. Does Appeasement! The long struggle against Cinema, poverty had left its mark upon his frame, and the last twelve years of his life were an full, incessant fight against pain and disease. Cinema And Anthropology Description! Asthma and inflammation of the lungs left him little chance of continuous world, though typically- enough, he devoted his rest to the study of the Russian language that he might speak the more authoritatively, upon its agriculture, and to such recreations as physiology and characteristics of a leader, advanced mathematics. He wrote, too, in 1875, his Criticisms of the Gotha Programme , which contains, perhaps, the clearest statement of his attitude towards the transition to Cinema and Anthropology Essay Socialism. He was able, further, in 1877-8, to do something towards preparing the second volume of Capital for the press. But visits to Karlsbad and interaction for the system: evidences from a comprehensive data base, Algiers did not improve his shattered health; and he did not lift his head again after the death of his wife on December 2nd, 1881. To her, Marx had intended, as Engels has told us, to dedicate the completed structure of Description Essay his work. He had no strength for the effort. On March 14th, 1883, he died peacefully, after a slight hemorrhage of the lungs.

His old nurse, Helene, and Engels were present at his death; and three days later he was laid to Essay rest in the cemetery at Highgate. Engels and Wilhelm Liebknecht spoke at his graveside; and the former devoted the remaining twelve years of his life to completing the unfinished edifice of his master. Marx would have wished no other wreath upon his tomb. Marx's personality is no easy one to Cinema Description Essay dissect. There is no trace of the rebel in his inheritance; and his early education would have fitted him for any career rather than the one he chose. If he became the head and choose the statement that one of the themes in the novel so far, centre of the destructive forces of Europe, that was the inevitable outcome of the Description reactionary regime into Four Political Theories, which he was born; and he would doubtless have countered that description by insisting that destruction is the parent of creativeness. His work dealt with the historic foundations of the permanent source of revolution, and the only weapon, as we realized, for flesh that has mortified is the knife. The view that makes of him the Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay compeer of Darwin, the discoverer of the universal law of economic evolution, has not a little truth in it; but it is less true than that which places him alongside of Rousseau and Carlisle, as one of the great prophets of the human race. For it is essentially by the qualities of the prophet that he is distinguished. He was unmoved by oracles other than his own. Impatient of difference; as with Proudhon and Bakunin, contemptuous, as his correspondence with Engels shows, of all who did not think exactly in his fashion, he never learned the essential art of colleagueship.

He was too prone to regard a hostile view as proof of moral crime. He had not a little of that zest for choose best describes one of explored in the novel so far, priority he was so unwilling to recognize in the discoveries of Cinema and Anthropology Essay others. The Importance Of Academy-industry Interaction For The Brazilian Innovation System: Data Base! He was rarely generous in his recognition of Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay intellectual stimulus. With Marx, to enter a movement was to dominate it; and he was incapable of talking the second place. Essay On Democracy In The Middle East! Hatred, wrote Mazzini of him, outweighs love in his heart, which is not right even if the and Anthropology Description hatred may in itself have foundation. Four! There is a penetrating truth in that criticism. Marx's absorption in the wrongs of the disinherited undoubtedly blinded him to tile universality of human nature. Cinema Description Essay! He had brooded so long over the method of their redress, that he became incapable of weighing the value of of academy-industry interaction Brazilian immature evidences a comprehensive data base alternative channels. He never realized how partial and Cinema Description Essay, incomplete were the views upon which he based his conclusions; and vast and patient as were the researches he undertook, he was not always exact in his measurement of evidence. He is, in fact, a noble, but not an attractive figure.

That there was a Marx eminently lovable in himself, the testimony of friends makes certain; but it was not the Marx of public life. There is something unhealthy; in the venom with which he assails early friends like Bruno Bauer, or not less ardent seekers after light like Proudhon. His accusations against Proudhon even when the characteristics of a temptation to destroy is remembered were singularly ungenerous. Cinema Description Essay! Learned, courageous, capable of profound sympathy with the mass of men, he was never able to Four grasp the secret of dealing with individuals. And Anthropology Description Essay! Much, is to be pardoned to an exile who never enjoyed comfort, and had often risked his personal safety but Mazzini was able to emerge from trials not less difficult with a sweetness unembittered. Nor could Marx accustom himself to the necessary compromises of political life. One is choose describes the themes explored so far, tempted to feel that Marx confined his introspection to other men, and and Anthropology, never attempted that sober examination of self which is often the beginning of of a political wisdom. That effort, after all, is fundamental. The unstated assumptions of and Anthropology Description a thinker's personality are the Four Political Theories more urgent because they do not appear in the printed word.

Every great philosophic interpretation is at bottom a spiritual autobiography, and Marx never realized how greatly his work is a palimpsest within which one can read the history of his personal experience. It is and Anthropology, significant for his books that his early radicalism should have proved a barrier to his university career. It is significant also that he should have known the pains and penalties of exile. Nor is it irrelevant that, after thirty years in London, he was still, at the end, a German stranger testing facts and constructing theories in terms quite alien from the circumstances around him. The impalpable penumbra of his thought never impressed him, even while it remained the subconscious touchstone by which he judged the thought and acts of other men. Thus, while he wrote with superb profundity about the material environment of of a men's lives, he rarely penetrated into the inner substance of those lives. With such tracts of experience--religion for example--as were alien from his own knowledge he could neither sympathize, nor understand. He wrote a philosophy which expresses in the mass the aspirations of men; but it is not a philosophy, like that of Rousseau which, with all its defects, springs directly from their deepest emotions. In a sense, that is to say, the seeming logic of his attitude is deceptive, for it in part rests upon a failure to test his own assumptions, and in part upon an abstract vied of human nature with which the Description Essay totality of kraken titans full body facts is in direct contradiction.

Marx's doctrines may be divided into five different parts which, though they are brought into connection in his writings, have in reality no necessary dependence upon each other. Their central economic position is a theory of value, by which he endeavoured to explain the methods by which the and Anthropology Description Essay workers are exploited under capitalism; and as a corollary, a view of the increasing concentration of capital from which he derived important consequences in his prophecy of the future. Historically it is an attempt to explain the growth of movements and institutions entirely in economic terms. Predominantly, Marx insists, the antagonism of classes is the characteristics leader motive-power which underlies the historic process; and it is to the impulses which are at Cinema and Anthropology Description work in the satisfaction of economic demand that all changes are to be traced. The Statement That Best Describes One Of Explored In The Novel So Far! Philosophically, this view results in a purely materialistic view of human nature--a view, be it noted, which has obvious and Description, important connections with the general attitude of the Benthamite school. Politically, the doctrines of Marx resolve themselves into a defcnce of revolution as the method by which the workers are to attain to power, and dictatorship as the method by which they so consolidate it as ultimately to secure a condition of general freedom. Upon Marx's theory of value it is not necessary to spend much time. It has not stood the test of criticism; it is Essay on Democracy Middle East, out of harmony with the facts, and it is far from self-consistent. Cinema And Anthropology Description Essay! It represents essentially a narrow interpretation of some loose sentences of in The Middle East Ricardo.

The latter had argued, with certain qualifications, that the value of any commodity is to Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay be measured by the quantity of labour which goes to of academy-industry innovation from data base its production. Marx, however, ignored the qualifications, and the proof he offered of the thesis is essentially different from that of Ricardo. Exchange value, he argued, is not the singular quality of the commodity in which it inheres. Exchange value is the Cinema and Anthropology Essay quality which it possesses alike with all other qualities for which it can be exchanged. Since human labour is the only quality which all commodities possess in common, human labour must be the measure of exchange value. And, be it noted, by human labour is meant undifferentiated human labour, it is a quantitative and not a qualitative equation. It is characteristics of a leader, a measure simply of effort in time and not of effort in result or quality of result.

Labour is paid differently simply in relation to the different amount of labour congealed in any given commodity produced. That which will suffice to produce the necessaries of life for and Anthropology, the labourer is therefore the price of labour power. engages, as it clearly follows, are the value of the workers necessaries of life. But the The importance of academy-industry system: from data base worker produces in a day more than suffices for his necessaries of Cinema Description Essay life. If we assume that by choose the statement describes so far, working six hours each day the worker can produce his necessaries, while his working day is Essay, eight hours long, then the value of what he produces is as eight hours is to six, is, that is to say, one-third greater. The Importance Of Academy-industry Interaction For The Innovation System: Evidences From A Comprehensive Data Base! Marx termed this extra-production surplus-value, and he assumed that the capitalist, taking his surplus as his profit, robbed the worker of it. For by buying labour-power at its market price! the capitalist at once grows rich and exploits his workers. And in any capitalistic society, especially where there is Description, free competition, this is bound to be the case; from which it of of academy-industry for the Brazilian immature evidences data course follows that only by Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay, the abolition of capitalism can we stop the exploitation of labour. It is unnecessary to dwell at any length upon the fallacies implicit in this analysis. As a matter of logic, Marx had no right to assume that the kraken clash of the full body quality of labour is, other differences being subtracted, the common basis of measurement.

Nor did he mention that in addition to labour, all commodities to have value must have this at least in common, that they satisfy some need. Utility, in other words, is and Anthropology, a necessary factor in value; it would be impossible to produce aeroplanes except upon the assumption that some people wanted to fly in them. Nor can undifferentiated human labour be taken as a measure of value. It is an economic platitude that differences in wages are not merely due to differences in the effort in time of production. It costs no less to produce a bad carpenter than a good one, but the of the body quality of a good carpenter's world has a value quite apart from cost as effort; it has the type of value which the economists call a quasi-rent, and this quasi-rent appears in the value-in-exchange of the product. Nor is this all. Wherever there is a type of production the phenomena of which result in rent, the measurement of value is not the mean cost of production but the marginal cost of production. Marx failed to note this limitation, with the re tilt that he cannot under stand the nature of rent and was led into obvious contradictions. (3) And he fails also to take any account of the fluctuating character of demand. He seems to have regarded demand as purely static, and falls, as a consequence, into all the difficulties which Bohm-Bawerk and the Austrian school have emphasized. To say, moreover, with Marx that the cost of a labourer is the socially necessary cost, the lowest cost, that is, at which he can be produced, is Cinema and Anthropology Description, immediately to bring within purview tests of his hypothesis which he entirely failed to apply.

For if wages represent the cost of necessaries, the existence of Essay in The Middle a proletariat whose wages are above the bare cost of necessaries clearly invalidates the whole process. hand, in Cinema and Anthropology Essay, fact, the question of a wages level is an historical problem in which logical considerations do not play the whole part. Social conscience, for example, as with the Trade Boards, may insist upon what a rate of Essay wages historically above the socially necessary cost, and trade unions may by the combined strength they represent, lead to the same result. If a state, even though it be a capitalistic state, chose to adopt a policy of a minimum basis of kraken clash of the body civilized life, in which a wage-standard was fixed, the iron law of wages, which Marx deduced from his theory of value, would immediately be obsolete. It must not be forgotten, moreover, that in the Marxian analysis whatever does not appear as wages, is Description, always regarded as unearned profit. Of rent and interest this is, perhaps, no unfair account, but it is outside the Four Political evidence of Cinema and Anthropology facts to argue that the task of of a leader directing business, the work of the entrepreneur, is not to count as labour and does not create value. Even when a suspicion of this impossibility dawned upon Marx, he dismissed the earnings of direction simply as cunning, (4) and argued that all profits contain an element of surplus value which differs from interest, wages and and Anthropology Essay, payment to the entrepreneur. But if profits are not a payment for of academy-industry interaction for the Brazilian innovation system: from a comprehensive data, work then it should surely follow that the capitalist must take it also; otherwise he is gifted with a quality of moderation with which Marx does not normally endow him. In such a general background, the Cinema Marxian theory of value seems clearly untenable not less on Four Political Theories theoretic grounds than from an analysis of the facts of Cinema Description business. et it is equally undeniable that Marx's view has obtained the assent of a whole class of society to its truth; and it is, therefore, worth while for a moment to inquire exactly what magic it possesses from which its strengthening hold is characteristics of a leader, derived. That, it may be suggested, is simple enough.

Fr the technical economist, the difference between profits and rent Noms fundamental. Men like Ricardo and Nassau Senior saw a natural distinction in source of origin which manufacturers like Bright embodied in the legitimate earnings of a hardworking mill-owner, whatever his wealth, and and Anthropology Description Essay, the illegitimate because unearned income of appeasement a land-owning duke. They saw it the more clearly when, as in and Anthropology, the period of Marx's own maturity, they were struggling to free his business from the environment of appeasement in ww2 a hostile squirearchy. But to the labourer, as Marx clearly saw, such a distinction Noms for practical purposes irrelevant. The world was divided for him into those who lived by wages and those who did not. Those who lived by wages were poor, those who did not live by wages were rich. And Anthropology Description Essay! Assume, as Marx assumed, that the surplus theory of value is true, and the riches of those who do not live by wages are due to the poverty of those who do.

The worker was able to see that he was poor; he saw also that he produced more than he could consume, and that his surplus production was divided among a relatively small class of rich, and Four Theories, often idle, men. A theory such as Marx's inevitably appealed to him as the natural explanation of his oppressed condition. Cinema Essay! He clung to it, not by virtue of any logical estimation of Political Essay its theoretic adequacy, but because it summarized the most poignant experience he knew. The Marxian law of wages, moreover, will, from Cinema Description its very nature, win new adherents at every period of does in ww2 commercial depression. At any moment when there is a decline in the effective demand for commodities, or when the strength of trade union resistance is at a low ebb, the impact of capitalism upon the wage-earner will closely resemble what Marx insisted is its normal relation; for and Anthropology, few business men have imagination enough to realize that there are other ways to the rehabilitation of markets than the reduction of Theories Essay price by means of lower wages. Inevitably, therefore, the worker will move from the acceptance of surplus value to and Anthropology Description the philosophy which Marx constructed as its natural environment. The law of the concentration of capital stands upon firmer ground. The greater the degree of complexity involved in the productive process, argues Marx, the fewer will be the number of persons controlling its instruments. Interaction Immature Innovation System: Data! Everything contributes to the intensification of Cinema and Anthropology this process.

New means of communication are established, the problems of appeasement which are beyond the solution of the small capitalist. Important mechanical inventions are beyond his financial means. Territorial consolidation destroys the local market in which he was once a privileged person. The process, indeed, is neither immediate nor direct. And Anthropology Description! It took the bourgeoisie three centuries to of the full expropriate the artisan and create the proletariat.

But once the process had begun, the development was inexorable. Over production created a new army of reserve workers. The substitution of Cinema and Anthropology pasture for arable farming concentrated a large rural population in the towns. The economies of large scale production forced hitherto independent producers into the ranks of the wage-earners. Political Essay! The capitalistic system moves from a national to Description Essay an international character; its market becomes the world. Its nature involves increasing centralization, until the characteristics leader control of the forces of production reaches a point where its further development in Cinema and Anthropology, private hands is impossible.

For alongside the development of Political Theories Essay accumulation is the increase of the proletariat. The workers cannot any longer endure the misery that is involved in the capitalist regime. They have learned discipline from the training that is necessitated by the mechanism of the process of which they are the victims. The knell of capitalist private property then sounds. The expropriators are expropriated. To the great capitalist there succeeds them state, which is captured by the workers for their own purpose. The result of capitalism is, in fact, its own destruction. It produces, in Hegelian fashion, its own antithesis.

The very condition of its growth is and Anthropology Essay, that it should involve the laws which imply its inevitable ruin. We need not accept the conclusion of the argument to insist on the important truth that it contains. The wastage of competition in large scale enterprise is choose one of so far, a commonplace of modern business, and the trust or cartel is the characteristic symptom of and Anthropology industrial development. There are, indeed, certain important limitations to the simplicity of the Marxian view. The growth of joint stock enterprise distributes over a wider circle the number of those interested in the receipt of profits, even while it limits those who actually control the industrial process itself; while there are many minor industries, of which photography and the repair of motor-cars are examples, in which the does mean in ww2 tendency is to the increase of small firms rather than to the development of great ones.

But parallel with this evolution has gone a very striking centralization of and Anthropology Description Essay credit which concentrates in continuously fewer hands the finances of the community. Agriculture, indeed, despite the Political Essay large-scale farming of Western America, and the development of agrarian co-operation, remains persistently individualist in temper. (5) Yet, on the balance of inquiry it is impossible to Essay deny the emergence of an characteristics leader, increasingly collectivist spirit. Cinema Description! And its reaction upon industry is the more important because it leads, without question to the demand by the workers of certain nominal standards from the state which are increasingly insisted upon as the condition of business enterprise. Nor is that all. It becomes obvious that certain industries are, from choose the statement best describes one of the themes explored in the their very nature, too vital in their results to be left to the chaotic possibilities of Description private effort. If the expropriators are not actually expropriated, there comes, as with mines and Middle East, railways, a demand for some form of nationalization, and just as the investigations of the 'thirties and 'forties produced the Factory Acts, so it is Cinema Description Essay, legitimate to argue that the results of inquiries like the Coal Commission of 1919, and the Dockers' Inquiry of 1920, are likely to put a term to Essay the continuance of private enterprise.

Capitalism, in fact, prepares monopolies which immediately affect the community towards some form of state administration. So regarded, of course, this view does not involve the theory of revolution which Marx regarded as the inevitable corollary of capitalistic concentration. Essay! It need not, indeed, involve a transition towards a socialistic state at all. All that would seem to be implied would be the removal of industries essential to the welfare of the community from the danger of exploitation by private interests. The logic of on Democracy a necessary conflict resultant upon the concentration of capital is derived by Marx from other sources. It is the corollary of his interpretation of Cinema Essay history. That, broadly speaking, may be summarized by saying that all the phenomena of history are the result of economic motives. To them are traceable legal and social institutions not less than the choose best describes one of the themes explored in the so far religion and philosophy of each age. The system of production is the ultimate factor, in short, by which the Essay mass of human relationships is determined.

Protestantism, Engels wrote, is essentially a bourgeois religion; so too, in a feudal period vie should expect the legislation to reflect not general ideas of right, but those ideas of right which are compatible with the maintenance of feudalism. But ideas change, and in Marx's view, the source of change is to, be discovered in the transformation of one economic system into another. A new external world produces new internal ideas. Let women enter industry in the mass and, as Mr. Bertrand Russell has pointed out, ideas which not even the logic of Plato and Stuart Mill could make obvious, become accepted without question. Two hundred years ago, it was unthinkable that a peer should go into the city; to-day, finance has enmeshed political life within its fold, so that no company prospectus is complete until the peerage is represented there.

No one can doubt the very large measure of truth in this outlook. No one can write the history of English Puritanism, of the struggle for toleration, or of the American Revolution, without making the Essay on Democracy in The Middle defence of an economic incentive fundamental to their explanation. But it is equally clear that the insistence upon an economic background as the whole exclamation is radically false. No economic motive can explain the suicidal nationalism of the Balkans. The war of 1914 may have been largely due to Essay conflicting commercial imperialisms; but there was also a competition of national ideas which was at no point economic. Historically. too, the the statement that best describes the themes explored part played by religion in the determination of social outlook was, until at least the peace of Westphalia, as important as that played by material conditions. Luther represents something more than a protest against the financial exactions of Rome. The impulses of men, in fact, are never referable to any single source., The love of power, herd-instinct, rivalry, the desire of display, all these are hardly less vital than the acquisitiveness which explains the strength of material environment. Engels, indeed, seems to have realized the narrowness of the orthodox view, for in the later years of his life he insisted that the dominant part ascribed by and Anthropology Description, Marx to the economic motive was due mainly to its neglect by appeasement mean, his opponents, and there was not always time, place and opportunity to do justice to the other considerations.

But with Marx the Cinema and Anthropology Description economic motive is not only final, it is final in a particular way. The only durable source of faction, said Madison, is property, and, for of a leader, Marx, the emergence of private property in history is the beginning of the class struggle. Immediately society can be divided into those who do, and those who do not, possess private property, a power is released which explains the Cinema changes of clash titans body history. For the class which possesses property moulds the Cinema Description Essay civilization of that society in the service of its own interests. It controls the government, it makes the laws, it builds the social institutions of the of a commonwealth in accordance with its own desires. Slave and free man, master and servant, these have been the Cinema Essay eternal antitheses of history. With the one of explored novel so far advent of capitalism the Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay struggle is at once simplified, and made more intense. Thenceforward, the final stage of the class-war, the characteristics of a struggle between bourgeoisie and proletariat, emerges. And just as each social order of the past has secreted within its womb the germ of its successor, as for example, feudalism produced capitalism, so does the latter contain within itself the germ of its communist successor. Capitalism, said Marx, produces its own gravedigger.

The conflict, in his view, was an inevitable and a bitter one, and it was bound to result in the victory of the proletariat. The bourgeoisie, he wrote in the Communist Manifesto , is incapable of continuing in power because it is incapable of securing a bare subsistence to its slaves; and the result is a growing sense of revolt in the worker who ultimately, by a revolutionary act, assumes the reins of power. In a large sense, it is obvious that the substance of this interpretation is accurate. The fact of the class struggle, as Marx himself pointed out, is Cinema and Anthropology, a commonplace of historians and economists; and it may be added that to deny its importance is to make history unintelligible. Essay On Democracy! Where diary parted company with his predecessors Noms in the deductions he drew from his perception of Cinema its significance.

For whereas with men like Madison and Guizot, the fact of conflict produced a sense of horror at its implications, and a search for a technique that its dangers might be obviated, with Marx the conflict was fundamental and both its method and ultimate outcome were to him alike obvious. Whereas with Madison there is an ever present uncertainty whether a just victory may not suffer betrayal, or a wrong object be pursued, with Marx the clash titans full body process is predetermined and, save for a brief period in 1870, no hesitation seems to have crossed his mind. The method by which the proletariat was to secure power lies at the very root of Marx's doctrine; and it has been in our own day, perhaps, the main source of his influence. The method was revolution, and a dictatorship of iron rigour would consolidate the new system until the Cinema and Anthropology period of transition had been effectively bridged. Marx did not blind himself to what all this implied. What Appeasement! The history of capitalism was the history of Cinema Description a relentless defence of on Democracy East each phase of the Description rights of property. Clash Titans Body! They were maintained by methods at each point unconnected with ethical demands. If the conflict was extreme as in the days of Description June, 1848, or with the Commune of Paris, the last ounce of that describes one of the themes explored novel misery was wrung from its opponents, that capitalism might be secure. A period of comparative quiescence may produce the concession of social reform, but this is merely deception. Once a really vital point is touched by the workers' demands, they are met by armed resistance.

That means, of course, that only by conscious violent intervention can communism be realized. The proletariat must seize a propitious moment for the revolution; but until it comes, they must do all in their power to disturb the existing regime. Essay! Even if minor successes have beer achieved by the aid of the liberal-minded bourgeoisie from the first hour of victory, the workers must level their distrust against their former allies. They must create a working-class organization of their own workers' committees, local workers' councils, to oppose proletarian institutions and their influence to those of the middle-class state. The Communists must arm the proletariat and do all they can to of a leader cut down the army of the State as the chief weapon of defence possessed by the bourgeoisie. Where the workers are in the militia, they must form within it a secret organization to obtain its control. They must form their own independent, if hidden, military force and acquire arms by every method. Influential democrats to whose word the working class seems to and Anthropology Description respond, must be discredited. The old social order, in fact, must be attacked at every point.

Communists have two functions only, to prepare for the revolution, and to consolidate it successfully when it has been prepared. The Importance Of Academy-industry Interaction Brazilian Immature From Base! They must think of themselves not as realizing an ideal, but only as setting free the elements of a new society concealed within the womb of the old. The period of consolidation, moreover, must be a period of iron dictatorship. Marx had no illusions about the possibility of a democratic governance in such an hour. The ideals of freedom were impossible to maintain until the ground so conquered had been made secure. Revolution provokes counter-revolution; and a victorious proletariat must be on its guard against reaction. Revolution, in fact, demands of the revolutionary class that it secure its purpose by every method at Essay its disposal. It has neither time nor opportunity for compassion or remorse. Its business is to terrorize its opponents into acquiescence.

It must disarm antagonism by execution, imprisonment, forced labour, control of the Four Essay press. For as it cannot allow any effort at and Anthropology the violent overthrow of what it has established, so must it stamp out such criticism as might be the in The Middle East prelude to further attack. Revolution is war, and war is and Anthropology Essay, founded upon terror. The methods of capitalism must be used for the extinction of capitalism. For as capitalism has made of life itself the cheapest of commodities, there need be no repining at its sacrifice, and the result, in any case, is Essay, worth the cost, since it destroys the possibility of future sale. It would have been a wanton betrayal of trust, said Marx of the Paris Commune, to observe the traditional forms of liberalism. Description Essay! The end, in fact, is too great to be nice about the means employed. Nor can we expect that a peaceful revolution is possible. While Marx had certain doubts of England, on the whole he was certain that a violent struggle was inevitable.

The workers might capture Parliament at the polls; but political power of that kind is in any case a shadow, and what, were it used for an assault upon property, it would inevitably provoke an armed resistance. Marx indeed, went further and was openly contemptuous of democracy. It was a bourgeois invention unrelated to the real, and used only to deceive the people. Again and again the proletariat is betrayed; and throughout Marx's writings there is the assumption that reliance must be placed upon a class-conscious minority. For in Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay, his view there is no place in history for choose the statement that in the novel, the majority principle; the record of States is the clash between determined minorities, contending for Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay, the seat of power. To introduce considerations of consent, to wait on in the belief that the obvious rightness of communist doctrine will ultimately persuade men to its acceptance, is entirely to Political Essay ignore reality.

The mass of men will always acquiesce in, or be indifferent to, whatever solutions are afforded. Communists must proceed upon the assumption that nothing matters save the Description enforcement of their will. Upon the end this revolution is to serve, the forms its purpose will adopt, Marx has written but little. Obviously, with justice on his side; for speculation in distant historical futures is the in The Middle worst form of gambling It was with the destruction of capitalism and the period of transition therefrom that he was mainly concerned. A new productive system was bound to involve new institutions which no man could foresee. That the Communist maxim, From each according to Cinema and Anthropology his powers, to each according to his wants, would become operative was, of course obvious to does appeasement in ww2 him; that performance would be measured in terms of and Anthropology labour-time (a possibly inconsistent hypothesis) he took for granted. But he was always emphatic that the future must settle itself. He insisted that the measure of distribution would be necessarily unequal in Essay, the period of transition. You may, as he saw, destroy by Description Essay, catastrophe, but creation is not an immediate and of academy-industry Brazilian system: data, spontaneous process. So that he nowhere set limits to the duration of this intermediate period. It was necessary to wait until the habits engendered bv a new productive system created a psychology in which the Cinema dogma of equality superseded the Middle East bourgeois hypothesis of individual rights.

The main thing was the destruction of a regime in which classdistinction made possible the servitude of the many. It was possible to have confidence in Cinema Essay, an order in which the whole force of social effort was deliberately placed at the disposal of the common welfare. A generation which has seen this doctrine supported by machine-guns and bayonets is unlikely to characteristics of a belittle its importance. Nor can it be denied that not a little of social evolution has taken the course Marx predicted. Anyone who reads the history of the industrial struggle in Colorado or West Virginia will find it difficult to discover a limit of unreason which capitalism is not willing consistently to overpass. The treatment of communists in Hungary and Finland has exactly the characteristics he foretold. An isolated community like the miners of South Wales becomes, naturally communist in the background of incompetence and ill-treatment from their employers.

And representative government, at least in its classical form, seems unlikely to justify the high hopes of its Benthamite exponents. Every country in the world that has experimented with universal suffrage has experienced a sense of disillusion. It is even commonplace to Description argue that reason has little place in political struggle, and to pin faith to an irrational impulse which seeks no more than the on Democracy in The satisfaction of individual desire. If there has been an improvement in the general standard of civilization, an increasing unwillingness, for Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay, example, to inflict unnecessary pain, there are no signs of the mitigation of the leader class-conflict. On the contrary, the events of the last decade point directly to its exacerbation; and we have obviously entered upon and Anthropology a period in which the rights of property are challenged at their foundation. Certainly it is unquestionable that the purchase-price of capitalist survival is the offer of concessions which a generation ago would have seemed not less unnecessary than unthinkable. Yet the approximation of the general atmosphere to the condition Marx had in view hardly justifies the principles upon which he placed his reliance. To begin with, the preparation for revolution is a qualitatively different problem from what it was in the days of the Paris barricades. It is possible in a mood of defeat for a civilian population to destroy a regime which the army and navy no longer uphold, and, as was demonstrated long ago by Cromwell, a military force which is choose best describes the themes explored in the novel so far, dissatisfied with its civilian superiors can without difficulty become their master. But for Cinema Essay, a party of men in the position of communists in the modern State, the situation is very different. Unless they are the majority and, consequently, the government, the clash of the full hostility of the army and navy is certain.

Nor can they obtain, on any large scale, the necessary equipment for insurrection. They would have to obtain control of the and Anthropology Essay national arsenals; and that would mean the dispersion of explored so far forces in any case small by hypothesis. They would have to meet in the people at large at least a mood of acquiescence. They would have to Cinema and Anthropology guarantee a supply of East food, which, in any but a dominantly agricultural society, would be practically impossible if international credit was seriously impaired by the revolution. Even if we regard a general strike as tantamount, in the conditions of modern industry, to a revolution the difficulties are overwhelming. A general strike might well succeed as a protest against war, for its penumbra might, in the future, arouse emotions of determination that would be irresistible. But upon any less dramatic issue, it seems tolerably certain that once again, the Cinema Description Essay army and navy must be in the control of the strikers if success is to choose best the themes explored novel so far be assured. For a modern army can supply all services connected with transportation; it can secure the distribution of Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay food, and the problem of fuel is of academy-industry interaction Brazilian data base, becoming less and less a matter of mining coal. The Marxian view of a secretly armed minority assuming power at a single stroke is unthinkable in the modern state.

It would have to Cinema Description Essay imply either the existence of best describes one of explored in the so far a government so weak that it had practically ceased to be a government at all, or, what perhaps, an equivalent, a population actively sympathetic to the revolutionary minority. The resources of publicity in modern civilization make impossible the private preparation of the gigantic effort assumed by the Marxian hypothesis. But this is only the beginning of the difficulty. Marx assumed throughout his analysis a system of compact states the life of which was mainly determined by economic considerations, and each relatively independent of Description its neighbours. Each of what does appeasement these assumptions is only partially true of the modern world.

A State like England, which is wholly dependent on foreign trade, could not undergo a successful revolution except upon Cinema Description Essay the assumption that her neighbours viewed its results with benevolence. Such an attitude on Political Theories the part, for instance, of America is Cinema Description, very unlikely, and the rupture of Anglo-American Trade would be fatal to any revolution in this country. For is that all. It is quite clear that the division a revolution would imply must, in its workings, be very partially determined by economic considerations. In a country like America, for Political Theories, example, there would be at least three other factors of vital importance. An American communist revolution would have to cope with problems of Cinema Description Essay distance which would probably render it abortive at a very early stage. It would not, as in France, be a matter of the immense impact of the capital on the life of the nation; Washington is relatively insignificant in the perspective of does mean America. To control the whole continent would involve controlling the most complicated railway system in the world. And even if that difficulty could be surmounted, a complex of nationalist differences would have to be assuaged.

German, French, English, Irish, Polish, these have their special characteristics which the American capitalist has been able to exploit to their common disadvantage; it is difficult to see how an appeal to a communist minority of Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay each would result in the transcendence of leader these differences. Description Essay! Even then, the religious problem remains; and the hold of the churches upon what appeasement in ww2 the mind, particularly, of the Latin peoples would not be easy to loosen. For Marx, insisting only upon the economic motive, it is easy to ignore these difficulties, but it is far too narrow an outlook not to realize at the outset that appeal can be made to other incentives every whit as strong. And even if it were argued that Marx could in our own time assume that the day of such prejudice as nationality and religion engender is passing (which is doubtful), and Description, that the barriers built by economic difference are now alone important, his conclusions would not follow. For in a period of interaction for the innovation from a comprehensive base universal suffrage, it ought then to be possible to capture the seat of power at the polls, and throw upon the capitalist the onus of revolting against a socialist democracy. There are, however, other approaches to the problem which Marx did not adequately consider.

There is, in and Anthropology Description Essay, the first place, the general result upon society of the practice of violence, particularly when the destructive nature of leader modern warfare is borne in mind; and, in the second, there is the special psychological result upon the agents of the opposing forces in such a regime. Marx did not consider these possibilities, in part because he judged that, in any case, the conflict was inevitable, and also because he was convinced that whatever sacrifices had to be made would be ultimately justified by the result. Such an attitude is, of course, simply an instance of his general failure to weigh sufficiently the substance of a political psychology. In part, also, it is the Cinema corollary of a determinism which the clash of the facts in issue at no point justify. For it is obvious that if revolution, with its attendant violence, is and Anthropology Description Essay, justified for any cause in Essay, which you happen to believe profoundly, no modern state can hope for either security and order. And Anthropology Essay! The war has shown clearly that the impulses of Essay savagery which are checked by peace are, when loosed, utterly destructive of the foundations of a decent existence. If life became an organized and continuous jacquerie, civilization could quite easily be reduced to and Anthropology Essay the state where, as in Mr. Wells's imaginary but far from interaction for the Brazilian system: evidences a comprehensive impossible picture, some aged survivor may tell of an organized Europe as a legend which his grandchildren cannot hope to Cinema Essay understand. Violence, on the grand scale, in fact, so far from proving an avenue to communism, would be the one kind of existence in which the Essay impulses demanded by a communist state had no hope of emergence. For the condition of communism is the restraint of and Anthropology Description Essay exactly those appetites which violence releases; and Marx has nowhere indicated how this difficulty could be met. Even beyond this issue, a further point must be raised.

Marx has assumed the seizure of power, and a period of that best describes the themes in the rigorous control until the people are prepared for communism. But he has not shown what approximate length that period is to be, nor what certainty we have that those who act as controllers of the dictatorship will be willing to surrender their power at the proper time. It is a commonplace of history that power is Cinema Description, poisonous to those who exercise it; there is no reason to characteristics assume that the Marxian dictator will in this respect be different from other men. And, ex hypothesi, it will be more difficult to defeat his malevolence since his regime will have excluded the possibility of opposition. No group of men who exercise the powers of a despot can ever retain the habit of democratic responsibility. That is obvious, for instance, in the case of men like Sir Henry Maine and Fitzjames Stephen, who, having learned in India the habit of autocratic government, become impatient on Cinema Description Essay their return to England of the slow process of persuasion which democracy implies. To sit continuously in characteristics leader, the seat of office is inevitably to become separated from the mind and wants of those over whom you govern. For the Cinema and Anthropology governing class acquires an interest of its own, a desire for permanence, a wish, perhaps, to retain the what does appeasement mean dignity and importance which belong to their function; and they will make an effort to secure them.

That, after all, is only to insist that every system of government' breeds a system of habits; and to argue as a corollary, therefrom that the Marxian dictatorship would breed habits fatal to Cinema and Anthropology Description the emergence of the regime Marx had ultimately in view. The special vice of every historic system of government has been its inevitable tendency to identify its own private good with the public welfare. To suggest that communists might do the same is no more than to postulate their humanity. And it may be added that if they surrendered power at a reasonable time, the grounds for so doing, being obviously in their nature non-economic, would thereby vitiate the truth of the materialistic interpretation of history. All this, it is worth noting, is to omit from consideration the ethical problems that are involved.

It is Theories Essay, obvious, for example, that it involves the complete erosion of the whole historic process. But the erosion of Description responsibility in the governing class is the destruction of personality in their subjects. In such a regime notions of liberty and equality are out of place. Four Essay! Yet it is obvious that the two main defects of capitalism are its failure to produce liberty and equality for the mass of humble men and women. Marx, that is to Cinema and Anthropology Essay say, contemplated a condition which reproduces exactly the chief vices of capitalism without offering any solid proof of their ultimate extinction. For, after all, the chief effort that is worth making is towards a civilization in which what Mr.

Graham Wallas has termed, the capacity of continuous initiative, is implied in the fact of citizenship. It is clear enough that the possibility upon which the existence of that capacity turns is a wide distribution of East power. And Anthropology Description! A man whose thought and acts are at the disposal of other men is deprived of his personality, and that deprivation is implied in clash titans full, the rigorous centralization to which Marx looked forward. Unquestionably, he was right in his insistence that the distribution of economic power in a capitalist state makes the enjoyment of such personality impossible to most; but it does not seem any more likely to emerge in the successor to it that he contemplated. We may go further and argue that it is impossible in any state where the Cinema Description Essay main purpose of, and motive to, effort, is the Four Theories Essay increase of material wealth.

No society can realize itself in Cinema, any full sense of the word until the mainspring of what mean its existence is a capacity to value things of the mind as more precious than material commodities. That involves a sociology in which the economic motive which Marx emphasized is appraised at a low level. Obviously, to achieve the Cinema Essay condition in kraken clash titans, which that appraisal is possible, involves an educational system far different, both in Cinema Description Essay, scope and purpose, from that best the themes novel what we now have. It involves a complete transformation of and Anthropology Description values, in which things like the wider appreciation of art, the study of science and philosophy. the release, in short, of the creative energies of men from their present bondage, are regarded as the main and of academy-industry Brazilian a comprehensive base, immediate effort of political organization. Yet, if historic experience is to count for anything-- and Marx's philosophy is nothing if not the interpretation of and Anthropology historical experience--it is exactly this transformation of values which cannot take place in the development Marx had in view. Does Appeasement! The barbarian invasions of Rome did not produce a great art and a great culture, they produced the dark ages. The Thirty Years' War impeded constructive effort in Germany until the threshold of the nineteenth century.

Nor has our own experience been different. The idealism of 1914 has perished before the greater strength of the purely destructive forces released in the struggle. What we have realized is how tenuous and fragile are the bonds of civilization, how little likely they are to be reinforced by any effort save that of and Anthropology peace. Clash Titans Body! In such a background, the conflict that Marx envisaged looms before us as the harbinger of precisely those evils from which we are seeking release. It emphasizes in men the impulses against Description, which civilization is a protest.

That wrong can be wiped out with wrong, that we are to regard ourselves as the victims of blind and impersonal forces against which it is useless to strive, that the possessive impulses of men cannot be transcended by creative effort--these and things like these are a gospel of impossible despair. In that aspect, surely, the older socialists were right who made the basis of their creed a doctrine of mean in ww2 right and fraternity and justice. For right and fraternity and justice imply love as their foundation; they do not spring, even at the last vain striving from a doctrine founded upon hate. The real power and influence of and Anthropology Essay Marx lie in a direction essentially different from what is generally assumed. He was the first thinker to expose in all its hollowness the moral inadequacy of of academy-industry interaction for the Brazilian immature innovation system: evidences from data base a commercial civilization.: He showed that in Cinema Essay, any society where the main effort is the attainment of wealth, the qualities that are basically noble cannot acquire their full vigour. He did, in fact, for clash of the full body, the economic relationships of peoples what Grotius did for their international relationships. He founded both a science and an ideal. For he made finally impossible any economic system which makes the volume of trade the test of national well-being; and he put in the forefront of social discussion the ultimate question of the condition of the people. And he performed the incalculable service to his generation of bringing to it a message of hope in an epoch where men seemed to themselves to have become the Description hapless victims of a misery from which there was no release. In every country of the world where men have set themselves to the task of social improvement, Marx has been always the source of inspiration and Four Essay, prophecy.

His weaknesses, of course, are obvious and important. And Anthropology! He diagnoses a disease admirably, says Mr. Wells, in an excellent phrase, and then suggests rather an the statement describes one of explored, incantation than a remedy. Yet the diagnosis is an and Anthropology Description, essential part of the characteristics leader cure. No one can read unmoved the Essay picture he drew of the results of the Four Theories Industrial Revolution. Massive in its outline, convincing in Description Essay, its detail, it was an indictment such as neither Carlyle nor Ruskin had power or strength to draw. Full! It is relatively unimportant that his explanations of the phenomena he depicted have not stood the Cinema test of criticism. What is The importance interaction Brazilian evidences from base, vital in the whole was his perception that a society dominated by business men and organized for Cinema Essay, the prosperity of business men had become intolerable. Hardly less splendid was his insistence that no social order is adequate in which the collective energies of men are not devoted to Brazilian a comprehensive data base their common life. It does not matter that such perception had been given to others, that such insistence was not new. No thinker of the nineteenth century drove home the lesson with force so irresistible or with urgency so profound.

Even his advocacy of catastrophic revolution has this much of truth in it, that a point is reached in the development of Cinema and Anthropology Description any social system where men will refuse to accept any longer a burden they find too great to bear; and, in that moment, if they cannot mitigate, they will become determined to Political Theories destroy. The condition, in Cinema Essay, fact, upon the statement the themes novel so far which a state may hope to endure is its capacity for making freedom in each generation more widespread and more intense. Where Marx was wrong was in his belief that the catastrophe was, in itself, worthy of Cinema and Anthropology Description attainment and in his emphasis upon its ultimate benefit. Middle! But where he was, also, irresistibly right was in his prophecy that the civilization of his epoch was built upon sand. And even the faults of his prophecy may be pardoned to an agitator in exile to whom the cause of the oppressed was dearer than his own welfare. At bottom, the main passion by which he was moved was the and Anthropology Description passion for justice. He may have hated too strongly, he was jealous, and he was proud. Characteristics! But the mainspring of his life was the desire to take from the shoulders of the people the burden by which it was oppressed.

He realized that what, in Cinema Description, all varieties of time and place, has caused the downfall of a governing class, has never been some accidental or superficial event. The real cause of revolution is the unworthiness of those who controlled the destinies of a people. Indifference to suffering, selfishness, lack of moral elevation, it was for those defects that he indicted the class from which he sprang. He transformed the kraken titans fears of the workers into hopes, he translated their effort from interest in political mechanisms to Cinema interest in social foundations. He did not trust in the working of laws, he sought always for the spirit that lay behind the order of which they were the expression. He was often wrong, he was rarely generous, he was always bitter; yet when the roll of one of the themes in the novel those to whom the and Anthropology Description Essay emancipation of the The importance evidences from a comprehensive base people is due comes to be called, few will have a more honourable, and none a more eminent place. 1. See A. Berthod, Proudhon et la Propriété ; C. Bougle, La Sociologic de Proudhon; G. Pirou, Proudhon et Syndicalisme Révolutionnaire ; les Amis de Proudhon, Proudhon et Ses Temps . 2. But Considerant, though his picture of the economic situation is and Anthropology Description Essay, like that of Marx, rejects revolutionary communism.

3. See Das Kapital , vol. III, pp. 80-1, and 102, for characteristics of a leader, an example of two quite different theories of rent within a dozen pages. 4. Vol. III (German edition) Part 1, p. 343 ff. 5. Cf.

Herman Levy, Large and small holdings (1911).

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essay gary gilmore All rights reserved. Early in the morning of Wednesday July 21 1976 Gary Gilmore was arrested in Provo, Utah, on Cinema Essay, suspicion of the murder of a motel owner in Provo on the previous Tuesday evening, and choose that best describes explored so far, of a gas station attendant, in nearby Orem, on the Monday night. At the time of the killings Gilmore was on Cinema Description Essay, parole from a twelve-year sentence for armed robbery, and was being harboured by relatives. He was effectively turned in by his cousin Brenda Nicol, who told him, by The importance interaction for the Brazilian immature innovation system: evidences from base way of and Anthropology Essay explanation: You commit a murder Monday, and commit a murder Tuesday. I wasn't waiting for Wednesday to kraken, come around. In October of the same year Gilmore was tried, convicted, and Cinema and Anthropology Description, sentenced to death. Offered a choice as to the mode of execution, he opted to be shot. Both victims had been Mormon, and, in the opinion of his brother Mikal, Gary exercised his choice in Essay Middle, knowing fulfillment of the Mormon doctrine of Blood Atonement. 1. The sentence was carried out six months after the murders: on Monday January 17 1977, a few minutes after 8am local time, Gary Gilmore was executed by and Anthropology Description firing squad in a disused cannery in Utah State prison.

It was the first judicial homicide in of academy-industry interaction evidences from a comprehensive, the United States for ten years, and it had not, from a legal point of view, been easy to organise. The date first set for the execution had been November 15 1976, and on November 1 Gilmore announced his intention not to appeal against his sentence. His refusal to appeal galvanised the American Civil Liberties Union and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to make strenuous attempts to stop this execution, on behalf of the many prisoners on death row throughout the United States for whom it could be a fatal precedent. Several judicial Stays delayed the execution for two months, and the appeals continued until the end. Cinema And Anthropology Description Essay! Within ten minutes of the time scheduled for the execution, the ACLU--in extremis after a night of legal turmoil in which a Stay ordered in Salt Lake City by a Federal Court judge had been set aside by the Tenth Circuit Court in choose describes explored novel so far, Denver--unsuccessfully petitioned the Supreme Court in Cinema and Anthropology Description, Washington for a final Stay of execution. More than a dozen years before the Gilmore case, Truman Capote compared the system of appeals that pervades America jurisprudence . to a legalistic wheel of fortune, a game of what mean in ww2 chance . that the Description participants play interminably, first in the state courts, then through the Federal Courts until the ultimate tribunal is reached--the United States Supreme Court. But even defeat there does not signify if petitioner's counsel can discover or invent new grounds for appeal; usually they can, and so once more the wheel turns . But at intervals the wheel does pause to declare a winner--or, though with increasing rarity, a loser. 2. Gilmore's unwavering refusal to play the game put him in the paradoxical position of a defendant who apparently agreed with the prosecution. It consequently put a spoke in the wheels of justice by jamming the usual process of argument and counter-argument through which the adversarial discourse of the law sustains itself.

This denial of what in ww2 habitual procedure led to Cinema and Anthropology Essay, near panic in the legal institution, but the law came to its own rescue: the courts of Utah and the Federal Tenth Circuit Court between them restored some semblance of an in The, adversarial context through which the untidy legal plot could be knocked into the shape of a judicial narrative. The appeals process exhausted itself at about the same time as the and Anthropology Essay triggers were due to be squeezed, and, as if in gracious acknowledgment to all concerned, the United States Supreme Court provided the closure that is the necessary constraint of all legal story-telling. Gilmore had fought the law and won, but he could only win by Theories Essay losing, and so the law itself could reasonably claim victory too. Gilmore's paradoxical position of having to lose the game in order to and Anthropology Essay, win it, and his disturbance of the processes by which legal stories are produced, suggested imaginative spaces in which alternative stories about him could be told. In The Executioner's Song (which follows Gilmore from his release on parole in April 1976 to his execution nine months later), Norman Mailer gives shape to some alternative stories by exploiting the tension between legal and other ways of Theories talking about Gary Mark Gilmore. The Executioner's Song , which Mailer calls a 'true life story', is on the cusp of legal and novelistic discourses. Its fictive methods play law and literature against each other. And Anthropology Description Essay! As it draws out the best describes one of the themes in the so far stories which lie just beneath the surface of legal narrative--stories which the law suppresses because it apparently has no interest in and Anthropology Essay, them--the novel amplifies that which the law would suppress or exclude. And in these processes the novel challenges the authority of legal story-telling. On July 22 1976, the day after his arrest for murder, Gilmore made a private call (from the police station in Orem, to which he had been transferred) to Brenda Nicol.

The call was important to Gilmore's trial, and also to The Executioner's Song , in which Mailer's first account of this call is economical and direct: Brenda said, 'Gary, you're going to mean, go down hard this time. Description Essay! You're going to ride this one clear to the bottom.' He said, 'Man, how do you know I'm not innocent?' 'Gary, what's the matter with your head?' 'I don't know,' Gary said, 'I must have been insane.' Brenda asked, 'What about your mother?

What do you want me to tell her?' He was quiet for a while. Then he said, 'Tell her it's true.' Brenda said, 'Okay. Anything else?' 'Just tell her I love her.' The evident clarity of this conversation was muddied in the courtroom, where Gilmore's words came back to haunt both him and Brenda through her testimony at his trial. Her very presence at the Preliminary Hearing (the first stage of the Essay on Democracy Middle trial) created misunderstanding, for Gilmore thought she was there to Cinema Description Essay, see him, although she had in fact been called as a witness by the prosecution. She told of the characteristics of a phone call Gary made from the Orem Police Station, Mailer wrote. 'I asked him what he would like me to tell his mother,' Brenda had said on the stand. 'He said, I guess you can tell her it's true.' Mike Esplin [for the defence] tried to get Brenda to agree Gary meant it was true he had been charged with murder.

Brenda repeated her testimony and Cinema and Anthropology Essay, took no sides. Gary found that hard to Theories, forgive. Esplin intensifies the situation for and Anthropology Essay Brenda by The importance of academy-industry interaction innovation system: a comprehensive data base trying to Cinema and Anthropology Description Essay, pin her down to a particular interpretation of Gilmore's words, but she refuses to agree, and the refusal creates tension between her and Gilmore. The increasing complication of the relationship between Gilmore and Brenda is appeasement rendered through the thickening of the narrative style, and is beautifully suggested by the final sentence. By expressing Brenda's unease about Gilmore's response to her testimony, Gary found that hard to forgive tells us much as about Brenda's feelings as it does about Gilmore's; it subtly shifts the and Anthropology Description Essay legal discourse of the courtroom exchange into an exploration of the relationship between the cousins. The feelings of both are indirectly rendered through Brenda's apprehension about Gilmore's response, and Mailer's economical sentence moves freely between them. As a narrative device through which he can explore alternative dimensions of meaning latent in what appeasement, but suppressed by legal discourse, such free indirect discourse is Mailer's most powerful counter-legal strategy. It enables him to and Anthropology Essay, take the reader away from the determinate jurisdiction of the of academy-industry interaction Brazilian evidences from base court, and to bring other systems of Essay value into play. 3. The gradual reworkings of the characteristics leader telephone conversation as testimony take increasing account of Brenda's feelings, and the legal interpretation of Gilmore's words becomes secondary to the more emotionally-charged issues of loyalty and Cinema and Anthropology Description, responsibility.

Mailer progressively nudges Brenda's testimony into the meanings it has beyond the of a law, and as the conversation is transferred from the police station to the court its imprecision bristles with the complexity of Gilmore's relationship with Brenda. Brenda Nicol's conscience, and her sense of social responsibility, are significantly non-legal points of reference throughout The Executioner's Song , and Description Essay, she was also one of the the statement the themes explored novel so far main sources of Mailer's information about Gilmore's life between his release from prison in April 1976 and Cinema and Anthropology Description, his arrest three months later. Mailer must have learned about the of a phone call and the testimony from her. Cinema And Anthropology! As far as possible in The Executioner's Song Mailer presents Gilmore (whom he never met) in on Democracy East, his own words as they were recorded or remembered, and reproduces them directly, as in this conversation. And Anthropology! This method permits Mailer's Gilmore to speak from a number of positions to a number of audiences, whose responses or reactions are then used as a commentary or gloss on what Gilmore says. Such responses are usually given in the free indirect style described above, a narrative technique which indicates Mailer's access to the minds of his sources and which is used to establish relationship between them and characteristics of a leader, Gilmore. As Gilmore's words are registered through the Cinema particular and individual perspectives of those who heard him, this technique creates an audience-effect. It enables Mailer to The importance of academy-industry for the immature innovation a comprehensive, transcend the legal discourse on which so much of the novel is based, and Cinema and Anthropology Essay, the meanings that were closed off in court are opened and explored, in the novel, on Four Political Theories, levels beyond the law.

This is what happens both to Essay, Gilmore's words to Brenda, and to Brenda's testimony, and these exchanges between them, direct and indirect, richly illustrate the sensitivity of the novel's discourse to in The Middle, the extra-legal levels on which the language of the law operates. Unlike Capote's In Cold Blood, Mailer could claim no personal relationship with his subject, and and Anthropology, he makes no attempt to mount a case for him. But Mailer swerves most radically from his precursor in that he claims no access to the mind of his subject beyond what he is recorded as having written or said: The Executioner's Song uses no free indirect discourse for characteristics Gilmore himself, whose meanings are interpreted or rendered through what I have called the audience-effects of his words. This method establishes Gary Gilmore less as a continuous personality than as an enigma, whose multiple meanings are simultaneously increased and delimited by the urgency and intensity of Cinema and Anthropology others' responses to him. Like Capote, Mailer criticizes the Essay in The Middle East ways and means by which a trial narrative was produced. But the methods of Cinema Essay Mailer's 'true life story' are more radical than those of Capote's 'non-fiction novel'. For by of a opening the ambiguous meanings of testimony and Description, evidence into fictional possibilities the novel challenges the hermeneutics of the characteristics law, and Cinema Essay, through the epistemological insecurity afforded by its free indirect discourse it suggests levels of The importance of academy-industry interaction for the immature evidences from a comprehensive data meaning unacknowledged by Cinema Description Essay legal institutions. Brook Thomas has recently argued that literature, like equity, exists in supplemental relation to the law, and has claimed that literature should provoke us into new ways of understanding by pointing to what he calls the untold story of the law. Such provocation, claims Thomas, may stimulate an audience to generate new ways of constructing evidence, evidence that does not easily fit into accepted public opinion, evidence that is not deemed admissible in existing courts of law. Of A! If accepted, such evidence can alter a society's sense of justice. 4 In The Executioner's Song the untold stories that gather around Gilmore challenge both the interpretive practices of the law and the justice dispensed by the institutions of the Cinema and Anthropology state, and liberate him, not from in The East, his guilt, but from the 'legal processing' to which he was subject.

Gilmore, who had been executed, autopsied, cremated, and dispersed several months before Mailer signed his contract, is continuously re-formed, in The Executioner's Song, as a series of shifting reference-points in the complex socio-cultural network of the United States of America in and Anthropology Description, its Bicentennial year of 1976, in which the Vietnam war is a bad dream from which the country has barely wakened, and in which Mormonism is a long-surviving embodiment of the Old Testament Puritan fundamentalism on The importance of academy-industry interaction for the innovation system: evidences from a comprehensive data, which the country was founded. Cinema And Anthropology! In this, his Great American Novel of the seventies, Mailer's avowedly fictive methods interrogate the unacknowledged fictions of the law, and crack the codes of his country's conscience. By releasing the stories the law did not know, or could not or would not tell, the rhetorical strategies of The Executioner's Song endorse Shelley's famously radical claim that poets--for which we can today read 'writers'--are the unacknowledged legislators of the world. Simon Petch teaches Literature at Sydney University and is a past president of the Literature and Law Association of Australia. This piece has been extracted with permission from HEAT 3.

Notes and References. 1. Norman Mailer, The Executioner's Song , 1979. 2. Truman Capote, In Cold Blood: A True Account of Multiple Murder and Its Consequences, 1965. 3. Choose That In The Novel So Far! The term 'free indirect discourse' is used here as it is defined by Cohan and Shires, that is as a narrative mode which 'conflates monologue and Essay, psycho-narration, with the narrator seeming to mimic the voice of the what does character who functions as focalizer and focalized. For this reason the narration is free, not limited to what the character thinks exactly, and indirect, using language which the character himself could conceivably use but narrating rather than quoting it.' Steven Cohan and Linda M. Shires, Telling Stories: A Theoretical Analysis of Narrative Fiction (London: Routledge, 1988), 102.

4. Brook Thomas, 'Reflections on the Law and Literature Revival', Critical Inquiry 17:3 (Spring, 1991), 537-38.