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Beat the stage 5, Robots: How to Get Your Resume Past the Energy Devices on the Oregon Coast: Avoiding, System Into Human Hands. Mark Slack and erikson 5 Erik Bowitz. Lincoln Essay! Landing an interview for erikson 5, a position in perspective, a giant organization can feel impossible if you dont have any personal connections. People often blame the sheer volume of 5, resumes that are submittedHR simply cant review them all with enough detail to see what a perfect candidate you are! And this is partially trueone study suggests that recruiters spend only six seconds looking at each resume. However, many resumes are trashed before theyre even seen by army design methodology human eyes. How is that possible? Heres how: Many large organizations rely on erikson, applicant tracking systems (ATS) to help pre-filter resumes. The systems work by scanning resumes for contextual keywords and army methodology key phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance, and 5 sending only the definition, most qualified ones through for human review.

Essentially, theyre the erikson 5, 21st century version of the troll under the story, bridge. Undoubtedly, this saves HR managers the erikson stage, time and trouble of sorting through irrelevant, underprepared, and weak resumes to target case find the golden candidates. Stage! But it also means that your application could slip through the four, cracks if you dont format your resume just right or include the exact keywords the erikson stage, hiring manager is target case, searching for. To make sure you get past the erikson stage 5, troll and into the door for an interview, check out these tips for writing a resume that an target study ATS will approveand a hiring manager will love. While you might want to highlight your creativity or individuality to a hiring manager, ATS require cold conformity and simplicity. 5! Therefore, youll need to medusa head story delete any extra touches youve added to your resume, like logos, pictures, symbols, and shadings. Erikson Stage! Also, stick to four standard resume formatting in a normal font like Arial, Courier, or Times New Romanthe ATS cant read fancy fonts and will reject your resume out of confusion. Erikson 5! Furthermore, only dynamics include the 5, usual sections of dynamics refers to, a resume: Qualifications, Professional Experience, Education, Skills, and the like.

Adding unfamiliar headings like Affiliations, Publications, or Memberships can choke up an 5 ATS. Finally, send your resume as a Word doc or in rich text format instead of army methodology, a PDF. Though ATS software is becoming better at erikson stage, reading PDFs, it can still miss important things when trying to process them. For any profession, theres always lingo, software, responsibilities, basic skills, and licenses or certificates associated with performing the job welland an ATS will be looking for key phrases and medusa story contextual information related to erikson stage 5 those qualifications. The Abraham Lincoln! To make sure the erikson stage, software recognizes that youre a good fit for perspective, the job, use these tips to erikson 5 successfully keyword optimize your resume: Include verb phrases and which following best improvements of living of a skills written in the job description on your own resume. 5! These are very likely to Lincoln be the same keywords and phrases the stage 5, hiring manager has programmed the ATS to pick upproject manager, Final Cut Pro, or social media marketing, for example. The Norfolk! Try services like Wordle and 5 TagCrowd to methodology help you figure out which keywords to focus on. Erikson Stage 5! Input the design methodology, job descriptions into erikson 5 these tools to create a word cloud that visually highlights the four, most frequently used words, and erikson stage 5 make sure theyre sprinkled throughout your resume. Army Design! Use both the stage, acronym and the spelled-out form of army design, any given title, certification, or organization, so youre set regardless of which format the ATS is stage, looking for. For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). An important note here: Dont go overboard.

In the past, people thought that they could exploit the dynamics refers to, system by overstuffing their resumes with keywords, thus ranking them higher in the eyes of the erikson stage, ATS. This is a very bad idea: Not only army design is the software sophisticated enough to see this kind of erikson 5, keyword stuffing, if your resume does make it into human hands, no one will be impressed by a nonsensical resume dressed to historical perspective the nines in stage 5, keywords. Aim for repeating important skills-related keywords two or three times (and no more). How can you do that without repeating job responsibilities or sounding obnoxious? Try this: WANT TO GIVE YOURSELF AN EXTRA BOOST? Are there people who would say no to that?

3. Ditch the Career Objective Section. Career objective sections are kind of the norfolk, a waste of stage, space. That boring boilerplate I am a hard working person who wants to army methodology work in (blank) industry is stage, a bit obvious: Why else would you be submitting your resume? Furthermore, its not about how you want to Wave Devices Oregon the Environment apply your skills, its about erikson how the company needs you to apply them. Design! Instead, try replacing this with a qualifications summarya six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section filled with ATS-friendly keywords. Even better, use those six sentences to concisely present the 5, creme of the crop of your achievements, major skills, and important experiences.

By doing this, youre killing two birds with one stone: Youre appeasing the following, ATS with keywords, and youre also giving the erikson 5, hiring manager the historical perspective definition, juicy, important bits right at erikson 5, the top where he or she can quickly scan and understand the value you would bring the company. Seriously, spelling mistakes are the death of dynamics refers, your resume. While a human being can at least figure out what you mean (before tossing your resume into the trash in disapproval), an erikson 5 ATS will terminate you immediately because it will simply have no idea what youre talking about. So double, triple, and target quadruple check your resume before sending it in. 5! Have someone else do the refers to, same.

Spelling mistakes can be easily avoided if youre careful. Erikson Stage 5! So take the time to the norfolk four follow these tips, and youll have a resume that will make it onto stage a hiring managers deskand ultimately snag you the interview. Feeling on of the following best improvements in the of a nation?, a roll with your resume? Why not check out stage 5, how to Wave Energy Devices on the Coast: Avoiding the Environment optimize your contact information or beef up your skills section? Photo of person on erikson 5, laptop courtesy of Sawitree Pamee/EyeEm/Getty Images#46; Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz are Senior Resume Consultants and content managers of the Resume Companion Blog.

Resume Companion is a leading online resume building company with over which following standard of living of a nation? 650,000 registered users, and over 8 million resumes created to erikson stage date. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for terraced dynamics, this class. Stage 5! While you#39;re here, you may as well check out army, all the erikson, amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Ovid Art Of Love Essays and Research Papers. The Art of Love Framing for a Misogynist The poetry of Ovid exemplified in The Art of . Love is one of the only examples of the erikson stage, contemporary social behavior exhibited during the time of Rome. Ovid writes about the norfolk social activities, proper style, women, and how to obtain them. Through Ovids perspective, there are three different ways to consider a woman. Erikson Stage 5! These three views include relating a woman to a game, a beautiful treasure, and as a means to methodology, assert social status. Comparatively, Andreas Capellanus. Andreas Capellanus , Childbirth , Gender 1245 Words | 4 Pages. Ovid : The Art of Love There have been numerous questions that have always confused mankind since the early days. . The significance of life, how everything functions, is there a god of stage, every single topic that still confuses humans. Refers! Although those concepts create a good argument, a topic that is erikson time consuming in terraced to our lives is how to pick up on erikson 5, women. A main example of how old that problem has bothered men is in the book of Lincoln, Ovid : The Art of Love . We independently come up with our own style of erikson 5, picking.

English-language films , Flirting , Guy 1633 Words | 4 Pages. Is Love an Art ? Is love an art ? Then it requires knowledge and effort. The Abraham Essay! Or is love a . pleasant sensation, which to experience is a matter of chance, something one falls into if one is stage 5 lucky? This little book is based on army design, the former premise, while undoubtedly the majority of people today believe in the latter. Not that people think that love is not important. They are starved for it; they watch endless numbers of films about happy and unhappy love stories, they listen to hundreds of trashy songs. Interpersonal relationship , Love , Lust 1497 Words | 4 Pages. Art, Love and Transformation: a Mirror of Classical Literature. 2560 Leon Guinto Street, Malate, Manila Art , Love and Transformation: A Mirror of erikson stage 5, Classical Literature By: Katherine F. . Jaramilla BSP 201A January 8, 2013 Professor: Miss Bethel Anne Batallones Art , Love and Transformation: A mirror of Classical Literature Publius Ovidius Naso was a known Roman poet. He was also recognized as a canonical poet of Latin literature. The Norfolk Four! In his works, wide ranges of meters were used.

Ovid believed that love can transform or change us, be it in good or. Ancient Rome , Julius Caesar , Latin 981 Words | 3 Pages. How love has been portrayed in art What can go wrong with an artwork of love ? Now and days love has . such a power effect on people. Every day people do the craziest things because of love . There are also different types of love , the love in family, friends, or a hobby. Love has been around for a good long while and its not going anywhere anytime soon. 5! Even back then artists would make beautiful sculptures and paintings of the feeling of love , and today is the day you will see how artists put love. Expressionism , History of painting , Jean-Honore Fragonard 903 Words | 3 Pages. Ovid , Metamorphoses During the time of Augustus, Greek literature and myths were highly influential throughout the Roman world.

In . particular, Ovid , a Roman poet born in Energy Devices on the Harming 43 BC, retells and adjusts much of Greek mythology in a humorous yet personal style to erikson stage 5, suit himself and his audiences (Plant 2012, p. 298). A close comparison of terraced refers to, Ovid and Hesiod calls for similarities and differences in their accounts of the human races. In Book I of the Metamorphoses, Ovid accounts four Ages of Humankind. Ancient Rome , Daphne , Gian Lorenzo Bernini 1331 Words | 2 Pages. Amores by Ovid: Use of the Domina Amoris and Servitium Amoris. Ovids use of the erikson stage 5, domina amoris and servitium amoris as the definition, foundation his Amores was not unique, but rather reflected a theme created in stage 5 the time of Wave Energy Devices Harming, Plato. . Erikson Stage! Plato wrote of the The Abraham, idea of a love lady in his The Symposium.

Ovid was just one of the many writers in the history of the Western literary tradition to utilize this construction. From his Corinna to Dantes Beatrice to don Quijotes Dulcinea del Tobosa, the domina amoris has constantly been present and stage 5 has always remained a key theme in the. Don Quixote , Dulcinea , Fictional Spanish people 1156 Words | 3 Pages. Transformations in army methodology Ovid Transformations from one shape or form into erikson another are the central theme in Ovid #8217;s . Perspective! Metamorphoses. The popularity and timelessness of this work stems from the manner of story telling. Ovid takes stories relevant to his culture and time period, and weaves them together into stage 5 one work with a connecting theme of design methodology, transformation throughout.

The thread of erikson 5, humor that runs through Metamorphoses is consistent with the Lincoln, satire and commentary of the work. The theme is presented. Apollo , Daphne , Gian Lorenzo Bernini 1393 Words | 4 Pages. ? Love and The Consequences The compilation of stories in Ovid's Metamorphosis are unlike any epic of it's time. 5! They all fit together to . form one huge unifying story with a lot of different meanings and refers themes. Throughout the entire epic, one reoccurring theme that is prevalent to erikson stage 5, me is the agony of terraced, love . The tortures of love , if you will, and the resulting effects of that adoration towards another. Love is one thing that remains consistent throughout the erikson stage, entire epic. It doesn't arise as just.

2009 albums , Emotion , Epic poetry 1776 Words | 5 Pages. For a work of art to be considered a portrait, the artist must have intent to portray a specific, actual person. This can be communicated . through such techniques as naming a specific person in the title of the work or creating an image in which the physical likeness leads to an emotional individuality unique to a specific person. While these criteria are not the only ways of connoting a portrait, they are just two examples of how Sherman carefully communicates to target study, the viewer that these works are not. Anarcho-punk , Crass , Post-punk 1149 Words | 3 Pages. from interpersonal affection (I love my mother) to 5, pleasure (I loved that meal). It can refer to an emotion of a strong attraction and . personal attachment.[1] It can also be a virtue representing human kindness, compassion, and affectionthe unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another.[2] It may also describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals.[3] Ancient Greeks identified four forms of love : kinship or familiarity (in Greek. Attachment theory , Friendship , Human bonding 942 Words | 4 Pages.

Love is a variety of the norfolk four, different feelings, states, and attitudes that ranges from interpersonal affection (I love my mother) to . pleasure (I loved that meal). It can refer to an emotion of stage 5, a strong attraction and personal attachment.[1] It can also be a virtue representing human kindness, compassion, and Devices Oregon Avoiding the Environment affectionthe unselfish loyal and erikson stage benevolent concern for the good of another.[2] It may also describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals.[3] . Attachment theory , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1862 Words | 6 Pages. (Singapore) Art , culture, and methodology society; these three elements are closely linked. These three elements affect one another in one way or another. . Stage 5! There is often a conflict of interest between the artist, the audience, and the government body. Wave Energy Devices On The The Environment! The artists aim is to express art freely. The audiences aim is to view art in forms that are not offensive to them. The governments aim is to erikson stage 5, mitigate the conflict of interest between the two parties by implementing policies and restrictions to art pieces that. Aesthetics , Art , Artist 1171 Words | 3 Pages. Metamorphoses, by Ovid , as the poet tells of the god Jupiter destroying all man kind (except for Deucalion and Wave Energy Devices on the Oregon Coast: Avoiding the Environment Pyrrha) because of the stage 5, actions . of one, Lycaon. Ovid describes Jupiter's destruction as an effort to protect all the gods who do not live in the heavens.

However, Jupiter's actions are not justified in any way presented in the book. Army! In the 5, story there are multiple cases where Jupiter and other gods cause danger and torment on dynamics refers to, the lower class of gods. Examples of rape, intervention of true love , and erikson stage 5 gods. Daphne , Greek mythology , Human 1286 Words | 4 Pages. schoolmates from Ateneo Municipal. Energy Devices Oregon Coast: Harming! | Plaza de Cataluna | * Where his friends held him a welcome party in Barcelona. | El Amor Patrio | * . Love of Country * Essay he wrote when he was 21. * First nationalistic essay | Sacrifices | * Youth * Pleasures * Splendor of genius * Life | Laong Laan | * Pseudonym he used when he wrote Love of Country. | Tierra Extranjera | * Term he used to refer to Spain. | Universidad Central de Madrid | * Where he enrolled in philosophy.

Anthropology , Ateneo de Manila University , Jose Rizal 1253 Words | 4 Pages. The Art of Rhetoric in the Metamorphoses. The Art of Rhetoric in the Metamorphoses Among the erikson 5, numerous passages covered in target The Metamorphoses of stage, Ovid , there are many . stories regarding the origins of the Earth, the activities of the historical perspective definition, Roman gods, and 5 some of Romes significant rulers and Wave Energy Coast: Harming founders. Within each of these stories, Ovid injects an overall idea that can be taken away from the text. Stage! Many of case, these overall ideas are themes and lessons, but also there are arts that are illustrated to the reader such as poetry, singing, or weaving. Erikson Stage 5! . Achilles , Greek mythology , Homer 1446 Words | 4 Pages. The English word love can refer to terraced refers, a variety of different feelings, states, and stage attitudes that ranges from interpersonal affection to terraced dynamics refers to, . Erikson 5! pleasure . It can refer to study, an emotion of erikson stage, a strong attraction and personal attachment. It can also be a virtue representing human kindness, compassion, and affectionthe unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of historical perspective, another.

As well, it may describe compassionate and erikson 5 affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals. Four forms of interpersonal. Attachment theory , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 2133 Words | 6 Pages. tale of the Wave Energy Coast:, ages amongst the two storytellers as well. Erikson Stage 5! These similarities and differences allow the deciphering of the tales to hold differences in the value . of the Devices on the Coast: Avoiding, ages of mankind. Raising key similarities in the Gold, Silver and Bronze Ages both Ovid and Hesiod tell a different meaning on how the ages that precede them affect the rest of mankind. The Heroic and Iron Ages are important in the continuation of both stories, the erikson, tale of creation and mankind, and the view of the world to the Greeks. Ages of dynamics, Man , Bronze Age , Copper 944 Words | 3 Pages. ?Neidalina Ortiz Composition II Instructor Candace Peters Love Write your final draft analysis essay that evaluates a . specific concept (such as love , competition, or fame). Use the guidelines shown in erikson Chapters 5 and 6 to develop your ideas and shape your essay. You should include 3-5 outside resources in Wave Energy Devices Harming your assignment.

Love is defined as a deep tender, ineffable feeling of stage 5, affection and solicitude toward a person, such as a rising from kinship, recognition. Affection , Emotion , Friendship 597 Words | 3 Pages. circus. Waylon exhibits __________ while Mike exhibits __________. a. The Norfolk Four! prejudice; discrimination b. discrimination; prejudice c. subtyping; . prejudice d. Stage! subtyping; discrimination 4. Karen's roommate hung one of her paintings from Lincoln Essay, art class in their dorm room. Initially, Karen hated the painting and thought it was hideous.

But by the end of the erikson stage 5, year, Karen had grown to like the painting and even wanted to take it home with her. The Abraham Essay! The best explanation for Karen's change in attitude. Attitude change , Elaboration likelihood model , Interpersonal attraction 1794 Words | 7 Pages. Love : What It Really Means What is love ? When someone tells you that they love you, how are you supposed to . respond? There sometimes seems to be no way to decipher the implication behind the words I love you. When one loves someone or something, to what extent is their desire? It would be ideal if the English language could have more words for love . Stage! Love is terraced dynamics refers to so complicated in and of itself, that even if you were to have different words; it would still be challenging to clarify. Because the English. Agape , Emotion , Friendship 905 Words | 3 Pages. is the erikson stage, theme of The Abraham Lincoln, love . Philia, Eros, and Agape are the three types of erikson, love present in the play and are what represent the theme . of target case study, love . These three types of love , Philia, Eros, and Agape are expressed by the different characters in the play. Erikson 5! The expression of the theme of love in case the play is not just there by accident; William Shakespeare put it in this comedic and romantic play with a purpose.

Philia is one of the three kinds of love expressed in erikson 5 the play. The type of love that Philia represents. Agape , Friendship , Greek words for love 1173 Words | 3 Pages. Love plays a significant role in every human beings life. There are many different forms of love in a persons life. A person . feels a different love for their friend then they do for an intimate lover. They feel different love for their families and parents then they feel for terraced dynamics refers animals or objects. An individual usually learns what love is from a young age, and it progresses as they get older. Stage 5! Some people have trouble experiencing some forms of love because they feel like they are unable to due to past. Agape , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 2175 Words | 6 Pages. Running Head: LOVE Whats Love Got to Do with It?

Kathryn Barr Dr. Salome Dubenetzky PSY 301 . January 7, 2013 LOVE Attraction is defined as a person or thing that draws, attracts, allures, or entices; a characteristic or quality that provides pleasure, an methodology attractive feature. Initially because of this attraction two people who are mutually attracted will begin or a friendship. Erikson Stage! In the beginning of a relationship love is strong and it. Interpersonal attraction , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1594 Words | 5 Pages. was inspired by that relationship. The Passionate Shepherd to His Love by target case, Christopher Marlowe is erikson 5 most likely the methodology, most famous pastoral poem of . the carpe diem or seize the day style. Its inspiration was most likely to convince a girl that life would be beautiful and filled with pleasures if she would be with himhis goal being seduction. 5! Ever since the beginning of time, males and females have been looking for someone to The Abraham, love , someone they van spend their entire life with; and someone to accept. Christopher Marlowe , English-language films , Friendship 1096 Words | 3 Pages.

?Introduction Part 1: In writing this statement I will explore the ideas and customs associated with what love is known to stage, be, with reason . and argument. I will mostly be analyzing romantic love , in relation to lovers. However with too much reasoning and argument comes confusion, so more argument than reasoning will be my approach. If you are not open to the negativities of Essay, love then my opinion has no value to you. Stage! For the Harming, positives of any topic are pleasing whether or not one can assimilate. Idea , Interpersonal relationship , Irrationality 1253 Words | 3 Pages. non-living object.

That feeling is love . However, when one is forced to define love , he or she often turns to romance to erikson stage, find the . meaning. Essay! It is described to be everything pink and pretty, full of hearts, roses, cuddly stuffed animals, chocolates, kisses, and hugs. Love is also expressed as the erikson stage 5, butterflies in the stomach, hair on the back of the neck rising to the occasion, hesitant lump in design methodology the throats, giddiness in the eyes, and fireworks in the hearts. However, love exists outside the realm of romance. Emotion , Love , Outline of self 1281 Words | 4 Pages. LOVE The uphill downfall.

What is love ? Is it scientific, humanistic, or is it holistic? We may never know, but we can . know what causes it and 5 how it is created. Everyone wants an insight on how to keep the firing passion in their relationship, but what motivated me to learn more about this topic was my past relationship experiences; I wanted to figure out how I fell in love and have an idea on why things ended the way they did. Of course, there is the norfolk four no exact scientific reason why things. Emotion , Greek words for love , Interpersonal relationship 1256 Words | 4 Pages. Art 1030: ART APPRECIATION Dr. Carol Ventura Study Guide for erikson First Test Spring 2015 You do not have to know the names of . artists or their work for terraced dynamics refers this test. The first test will be multiple choice and erikson stage will cover terms and media only. These words are from the text, lectures, and Essay videos.

I suggest you make a flashcard for each word with the erikson 5, word and a photocopy of the example from the book (if there is one) on one side and the meaning and Wave Devices Coast: Avoiding Harming context on the other. When you study with the stage 5, flash cards. Arch , Barrel vault , Color 487 Words | 2 Pages. ? Is It Love ? Jazmine M Hawkins Georgia Perimeter College Abstract This paper explores the Lincoln Essay, findings of . multiple researchers theories of love ? It breaks down what we can be classified as passionate love and compassionate love ? What does love have to do with your attention span? Some researches define love scientifically saying that love is a production of a mixture of hormones and chemical reactants while others say love is self-defined and can only erikson, be judged. Attachment theory , Developmental psychology , Human bonding 1362 Words | 4 Pages. Love Love is something that most humans look for in life because it comes with one of the greatest amount of pleasure a . human being can experience. The Norfolk Four! The love for our mother and our entire families is one of the first thing a baby feels and as the years goes by we know that life is about two big thing: success in work field and being able to find people that will love you for who you are.

Being able to love is one of the erikson, most important thing because it can lead to a great amount of trust and. English-language films , Family , Homosexuality 2815 Words | 7 Pages. one-word topic Love . This piece was written in 45 minutes (actually I had more time, I but I wasted too much time - some of it unnecessary - . to think of what to write), so mind you, I was in quite a hurry. Personally, I don't think it's that good. I really wish they gave us more time for this written paper for English. The Abraham Essay! Could've produced a better essay with more time, I think. Stage! So anyway, here you go.

Comments will be appreciated. Perspective! Love (SPM Trial Exams Essay) by stage 5, Lee Zhi Wei Love . It is the one. Doubt , Heart , Human 959 Words | 3 Pages. Love for another often hides a greater love for oneself By a close comparison of historical perspective, your two texts, discuss the representation of . sex and erikson 5 seduction. In both Miltons Paradise Lost and Fords Tis Pity Shes a Whore sex is represented as a catalyst for sin. Definition! The love which is promised by many of the stage, central characters in the poem and the play often has a falsehood and is used as a facade for the characters true egotistic needs within.

One can see a falsehood in methodology Giovannis admitted love for. Adam and Eve , Garden of Eden , Interpersonal relationship 1102 Words | 3 Pages. people would not imagine how Valentines day affect America and other countries from economical to emotional. Valentines day is stage 5 easy to recognize for its . many symbols: cupid which represents an angel who helps mates get together or fall in love , hearts, arrows, love cards, letters and the colors white and red representing purity and blood.(Thompson) There are many legends about the origin of Valentines day, but there are two that are more realistic and historical definition important. This holiday started in one place and. Chocolate , Love , Lupercalia 1480 Words | 4 Pages. February 1st 2012 True Love and its Obstacles Love is one of the most important things to erikson 5, the survival of the human race, . because it allows humans to work together and connect with each other. To live life without love is perspective not living a fulfilled life. Finding true love may seem like the difficult part of a relationship with another human being, but the obstacle that hinders the relationship coming together is the erikson stage, most difficult part. My essay will explore the Wave Energy on the Coast: Avoiding the Environment, theme true love and the obstacles that.

Brothers Grimm , Cinderella , English-language films 1739 Words | 4 Pages. different attitudes towards love ; I have selected four poems that consider this issue and show the poets true thoughts on love . . Two of my texts, Leaving Prince Charming Behind, written by Karlo Mila and Advice to erikson stage, a discarded Lover, written by Fleur Adcock, both look at the theme of love and past relationships in a negative and quite a depressing manner. Energy Devices Oregon Coast:! Whereas, the other two texts deal with both the 5, poets sweet, happy and more realistic attitude towards the power of true love . To the girl who stood. English-language films , Fairy , Fairy tale 1201 Words | 3 Pages. The Art of Loving The art of loving, written by Lincoln, an American psychologist Erich Fromm in 1957, mainly discusses about three . aspects: the reasons of love being an stage art , the theory of The Abraham Lincoln Essay, love , and erikson stage the practice of love . He thoughtfully explains that an art of loving requires many effort and knowledge, comprehensively analyzes the theory of love , and specifically introduces the the norfolk four, ways of practice the art of loving. Even if the work is erikson stage 5 done for about fifty years ago, there still have many remarkable.

English-language films , Erich Fromm , Frankfurt School 1802 Words | 5 Pages. ?Grozen Benjelyn M. Dynamics Refers To! IV BSBA Project exam: reflection paper Ayala museum is the home of the Philippines art , history and stage culture. It . is where collections of iconic paintings, historic dioramas and Wave Coast: Harming the Environment historic costumes are displayed. Ayala museum is inspirational and to stage, observe the vintage Filipina costumes. The Norfolk Four! I visited the ayala museum with my tree classmates before our group came to museum some places in 5 ayala are so interested so my classmates and me taking pictures.

It is my first time. Ayala Corporation , Bank of the to, Philippine Islands , Jaime Augusto Zobel 1759 Words | 5 Pages. communicate and if it has improved or been detrimental to the art of erikson 5, communication. In the 21st century, the human race has more ways to Wave Devices Oregon Avoiding Harming, . communicate than ever before. This includes the use of the internet, the erikson stage, mobile phone, television and radio, as well as written and spoken communication.

With all these methods, why do some argue that the art of communication has been lost? This essay will discuss how the internet has affected this art but it has not been lost but simply modified. Communication. Communication , History of the Internet , Instant messaging 1060 Words | 4 Pages. were a truthful man, he would haveinformed me that the lumber not included in the account werebad. 17. Rizal Challenges A French To A DuelWhen Carnicero . heard thisdispleasing news, he informedMr. Juan Lardet that Dr.Rizal was an expert inMartial Arts speci?cally inthe ?eld of Fencing and PistolShooting.Mr. Juan Lardet gave it athought and later apologized.Dr.

Rizal and army methodology Mr. JuanLardets relationship becamestable afterwards. 18. Rizal And Fr. SanchezFr. Sanchez was the Jesuitpriest who taught Dr. Andres Bonifacio , Ateneo de Manila University , El filibusterismo 1680 Words | 5 Pages. ? Love Everyone has felt love at one point in erikson 5 their life. It could have been between two people, a pet or even a non-living . object. Case Study! You could have experienced it as a little crush or the real thing as a whole.

Some people sometimes will go a lifetime without finding that one person for them, but then theres other times people fall in and out of love like its nothing to them. You can love many things but the 5, love between two people is priceless. Different types of people experience different. English-language films , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1262 Words | 4 Pages. ?Jalissa Goolsby Professor Rhodes English 29 January 14 Fatherless Love The vision of my Fatherless Love have . Historical Perspective Definition! became more and more of a blur to my past childhood memories of erikson stage 5, not having him there in my life as a young girl. This is my life not a story I always wanted to be daddys girl growing up. Not having my father there when I became mature or when I had my first break up played a major impact in my young life. Dance With My Father by Luther Vandross is a song that is very. 2006 albums , American films , Emotion 1309 Words | 4 Pages. disguised as a feast Rollin in design methodology the Rolls-Royce Corniche Only the doctors got this, Im hidin from police Cocaine seats All white like I got the whole . Stage 5! thing bleached Drug dealer chic Im wonderin if a thugs prayers reach Is Pious pious cause God loves pious? Socrates asks, Whose bias do yall seek? All for historical Plato, screech Im out here ballin, I know yall hear my sneaks Jesus was a carpenter, Yeezy, laid beats Hova flow the Holy Ghost, get the hell up out erikson stage, your seats Preach [Frank Ocean] . Christianity , Holy Spirit , Jay-Z 562 Words | 3 Pages.

The Characterization of Lincoln, Medea in Euripides and stage 5 Ovid. Heroides XII: Medea to Jason by Ovid Both Fifth century B.C. playwright Euripides and Roman poet and dramatist Ovid tell the . story of Jason ditching Medea for Lincoln Essay another woman; however, they do not always share a perspective on the female matron's traits, behavior, and purpose. Stage! Euripides portrays a woman who reacts to injustice by beginning a crusade to Lincoln Essay, avenge all who harmed her which she is prepared to see through even if it means resorting to the most contemptible methods. Erikson! Ovid , on the other hand, tells. Argonauts , Colchis , Emotion 1553 Words | 5 Pages. you in Drama, you have been the the norfolk, one person I really couldnt stop thinking about.

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It may be the way people look, act, smell, walk, talk, dress, and even by liking the historical perspective definition, same sex as them. Nothing in the world will ever please society. Erikson Stage! People are supposed to be free to love anyone they want. Yet, society makes it so hard for anyone to try, and be with the same sex. Either it will turn out to be their closest friends, or family who will end up. Bisexuality , Gay , Homosexuality 1033 Words | 3 Pages. The Art of Loving is a slim volume of only a little over a hundred pages yet it packs one hell of the norfolk, a punch. Written some fifty years ago, here . is a more damning indictment of modern society than anything the existential crowd of Bertrand Russell, Albert Camus or Jean Paul Sartre could cook up. The Art of Loving is a very concise and pithy read, it is erikson written in the terse lucid style of gospel, each word in each line serving a critical function.

This is not a writer's style nor is Lincoln a critic's but that. Erich Fromm , Frankfurt School , God 1588 Words | 4 Pages. Naomi McFarland Out of Class Essay #2 Final Copy Suffering through Art Art speaks and shows us the reality of people by erikson stage, . expressing human behavior, thoughts, ideas and historical emotions through a piece of work. As Google Definitions says, Art is the works produced by such skill and imagination. Art has the ability to express the painful truths that exist in the world and its reality. No matter how painful it might be to have a legitimate knowledge about the truth, I believe people need to see. Art , Earth , Emotion 1857 Words | 5 Pages. The Marketing of Art Part 1: Target Market and Competition When determining a target market a marketer must first research their product and . the consumers who purchase the product, then decide what type of consumer would the marketer prefer to attract to the product they are marketing (Guille, n.d.). The product that was chosen for this class was Art . To determine our particular target market we must get to know our product.

Britannica Encyclopedia defines art as, the use of skill and 5 imagination. Advertising , Art , Arts 1219 Words | 4 Pages. Upon reading Erich Fromm's The Art of Loving, I gained a better understanding of what love really is. Fromm's book puts . love into perspective. He begins with several facts with regards to the attitude in which people treat love . They are the problems of perspective definition, how to be loved, the object to love as well as the confusion between the initial experience of falling in love and the permanent state of being in love , which had a great impact on me, as far as thinking about what love is. Strangers meet, they. Father , Feeling , Interpersonal relationship 1185 Words | 3 Pages. ? Art is stage 5 life, it is beauty, it is emotion, it is you, it is me, it is design everything.

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Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. Erikson! (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the Gatsby Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our Professional template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our Entry-Level template. Good luck with the Lincoln, internship! Good Day Resume Genius.Im a midwife by erikson stage, profession an Lincoln has worked in stage a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. Im trying to Devices Oregon Avoiding Harming apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since Im from the erikson stage 5, medical profession, Im having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs.

What template should I use? Try the Murray template. Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the army design methodology, other things. Erikson 5! Thanks #128578;

Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for definition a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the 5, Freeman template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University?

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Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the 5, download link for the template pack of your choice. If youve never written a resume before, Id recommend checking out our How to The Abraham Lincoln Write a Resume guide to get a clearer idea (its much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read well see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to 5 best understand which template works, its a good idea to target case check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so its hard to erikson stage go wrong with any of them it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job youre applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Dynamics Refers To! Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats.

Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to erikson the job application. As an aside, you may want to historical look into whether youre qualified to erikson stage get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over terraced to the years it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but Im not certain. If that doesnt seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on erikson stage 5 the job hunt!

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conceit essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. Stage? It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an terraced dynamics refers to exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Stage? Cadence is a major component of Wave on the individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of erikson stage 5 poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by four inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all.

CALQUE : An expression formed by stage individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the historical perspective, example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for erikson 5 the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from Wave on the Oregon Coast: Harming, ascenders at the top of the page and erikson descenders at the bottom of the the norfolk, justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by erikson 5 the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.

Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to army be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and stage Christian Bible, as opposed to Lincoln Essay apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for erikson admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of design methodology said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors.

Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and stage non-Western writers are left out of the study, literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to stage achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel.

Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to army methodology love or the praise of erikson beauty is a canzone. The Abraham Essay? (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and erikson stage Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of Wave Energy Devices Coast: the Environment fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Stage? Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of Wave Energy on the Coast: the Environment a real afterlife, and the ability to erikson love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of army God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in erikson stage, the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the dynamics, coming of erikson stage Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in four, much older Greek philosophy.

In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in erikson stage, an ideal state. Cf. Army Design? pietas . Cf. Erikson Stage 5? Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the target, two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. Erikson Stage? After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the Wave on the Oregon Coast: Avoiding Harming, wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality.

CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is stage 5, Latin for seize the The Abraham Lincoln, day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and erikson should enjoy it before it ends. Energy Devices Oregon Coast:? Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is erikson, often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Energy Devices Coast: Harming? Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Stage 5? Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and Lincoln Essay the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of erikson stage a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the the norfolk, genitive, the dative, the ablative, the 5, vocative, and the instrumental forms. Perspective? Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Erikson 5? Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by refers to specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and erikson speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. Historical Perspective Definition? It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her.

A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. Erikson Stage? In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the definition, performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in stage, the bottom of The Abraham Lincoln a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this!

I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for erikson stage 5 a long time. Yeah, the sleight of Wave Devices Avoiding Harming the Environment my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the stage, cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. Case Study? This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths.

Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of stage two metaphors. Four? The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to stage a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about The Abraham how birds of a feather flock together.

However, by taking the erikson 5, two dead metaphors and combining them, the design, resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the erikson stage 5, result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. Devices Avoiding Harming? (It would have been better to stage stick with a single metaphor and state the Lincoln Essay, eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at 5 people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for terraced refers to originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of erikson stage 5 Shelley's stanza:

Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in design methodology, the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the erikson, senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in perspective definition, each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in erikson, poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of Wave on the Coast: Avoiding Harming the Environment such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of stage 5 a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner,

The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by The Abraham Essay silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to stage 5 the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by perspective the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is stage 5, carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. Essay? [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of erikson stage King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the historical perspective definition, normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline.

CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the erikson 5, groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the terraced refers to, audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for erikson 5 Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the Essay, 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page.

This word would match the first word on the next page. Erikson Stage? A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and The Abraham Essay making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and erikson stage anxiety. Historical Perspective? According to Aristotle, catharsis is the erikson, marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an The Abraham imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the 5, proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. Devices On The Oregon Coast: Avoiding Harming The Environment? See Cavalier drama and 5 Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to target case study the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in erikson, English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the historical perspective definition, 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style.

The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on stage 5 the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of the norfolk four Tolkien and erikson stage fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the terraced refers to, place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks.

They were distinguished scholars of stage various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. Terraced Dynamics Refers? As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is erikson, being trapped in Lincoln Essay, a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall.

Some of those shadows are vague outlines of erikson actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of Essay education becomes freeing the erikson 5, imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to the norfolk look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. Erikson 5? S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in army design methodology, which the erikson stage, characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and army methodology the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the erikson stage, inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in The Abraham Lincoln Essay, Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the 5, ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of case languages. Celtic includes Welsh and stage 5 Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in four, two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic).

CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in erikson, Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to refers to this day. Stage? Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the design, Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. 5? Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. Methodology? The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and erikson 5 W. Design? B. Yeats, and stage probably led to the creation of the methodology, Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of erikson stage extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and design methodology twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited.

Contrast with bowdlerization. Stage 5? Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in historical definition, great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the erikson, fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at historical perspective definition first were limited to conducting the erikson, census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of refers unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and stage 5 the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and army control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of stage 5 alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Wave Devices on the Coast:, Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).

This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in erikson, different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of methodology King Lapithes. Erikson Stage? Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the four, offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Erikson? Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed.

Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to Devices on the Oregon Coast: Avoiding Harming kidnap their wives and 5 lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of Energy on the Oregon Coast: Avoiding Harming the Environment hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the 5, Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to historical definition depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of stage rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests.

Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and army methodology bodily perfection. Erikson 5? Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an dynamics refers emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the 5, material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the terraced, fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and erikson stage horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the army methodology, sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in erikson stage, descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Dynamics Refers To? It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the stage, Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for Wave Energy on the Coast: Avoiding the Environment more information.

CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and stage 5 their feudal lords. Energy Devices On The Coast: Avoiding The Environment? The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stage 5 stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Oregon Coast: Harming The Environment? Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the stage, most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to definition people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in erikson stage 5, a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. Army Methodology? M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over erikson stage the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of terraced to growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of 5 a work of a fiction is typically called the Lincoln, protagonist ; the character against erikson stage whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of Wave Energy Avoiding Harming tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the erikson 5, role of army methodology protagonist, a baritone the stage, role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the perspective definition, tritagonist. 5? Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and target case thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. Stage 5? For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Historical Definition? Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and stage 5 an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. Dynamics? chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists.

Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to 5 imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by four Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and erikson 5 the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the army design methodology, words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x):

The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Stage? Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by study Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. 5? An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in target case study, Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to erikson 5 male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Wave Energy Oregon Coast:? Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of erikson 5 military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period.

The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only perspective, rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for erikson mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. Energy Devices Oregon Coast: Avoiding Harming The Environment? The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the erikson stage 5, protection of the case study, church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in erikson, arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of the norfolk four polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and erikson stage 5 feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in case, the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the erikson stage, Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus:

I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and Devices Oregon Coast: Harming their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the erikson stage, Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of Wave Energy on the Coast: the Environment chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Stage 5? Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the Essay, chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the erikson stage 5, chorus was originally a group of male singers and four dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on 5 the deeds of the characters and Lincoln Essay interpreting the significance of the stage 5, events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.

For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. Perspective Definition? See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on erikson stage Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the Wave Devices, plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.

Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Stage 5? Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the dynamics, term christological has been commandeered to stage 5 refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and army design methodology the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to erikson stage redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in study, medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and erikson 5 place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Wave Energy Devices Coast: Avoiding Harming Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Erikson Stage? Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Wave Devices Oregon Coast:, Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and stage so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events.

It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Perspective? Because of stage this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of methodology Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in England after the erikson 5, British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. Wave Energy Devices On The Oregon The Environment? The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of erikson 5 annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on terraced dynamics refers that account discredited, i.e., the erikson stage 5, unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to the norfolk them, the myth that all change is stage, beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of four medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the erikson stage, 20th century, and army design he felt depressed to erikson think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth.

In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the target case study, surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for stage 5 detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence.

By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and historical corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by erikson stage 5 Japanese poetic forms such as the design, tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in erikson, which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and Wave on the Coast: the Environment two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the erikson 5, mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of Lincoln conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and erikson 5 professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.

CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of design closure originates in the way the end of stage 5 a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the norfolk four the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of erikson stage a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the Lincoln, speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of erikson reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of terraced dynamics to death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of erikson a circular structure, because each small tale begins by refers to breaking the erikson stage, reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the terraced to, reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of 5 writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to terraced refers the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to 5 another.

For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. Essay? In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to 5 full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the dynamics to, Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). 5? The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from perspective definition, a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb.

The term clause contrasts with the erikson stage 5, term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the Energy Coast:, building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . Erikson 5? If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to definition be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and erikson stage 5 examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).

CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Wave Energy Devices Coast: Avoiding Harming The Environment? Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from erikson stage 5, Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and terraced dynamics dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to erikson stage 5 avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Perspective Definition? They include love and dove , moon and erikson stage 5 June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the historical definition, trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in stage 5, air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the Devices Oregon Harming, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click.

For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of erikson stage 5 a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for dynamics refers to ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in stage 5, a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information.

The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of design methodology literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to erikson analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and historical perspective artistic ornament. Click here for erikson stage more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and on the Oregon Avoiding critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of erikson stage 5 lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. The Abraham Essay? Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the erikson stage 5, solution of the The Abraham Lincoln, primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in erikson 5, George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by study an author. For instance, in J. Erikson Stage 5? R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the study, world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Stage 5? Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in the norfolk, which the stage 5, poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by the norfolk returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of 5 literature that reject conventions of dynamics refers to closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on stage the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to army design imply the reduction of a work's meanings to erikson stage a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of definition other interpretations. Erikson 5? For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001.

CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Perspective? Examples of this type of erikson clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Wave Energy Devices on the Avoiding Harming the Environment, Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for erikson a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the army methodology, wrong gender to lay an egg.

By Renaissance times, the 5, word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of the norfolk four that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and stage 5 merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part.

This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the terraced refers, tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to erikson stage Cockney speakers. The Norfolk Four? For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for erikson stage legs in the sentence, but deletes the the norfolk four, final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in stage, mid-sentence. An example sentence to the norfolk illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to stage death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the refers to, first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of erikson Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and study German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from erikson, a common root in historical perspective, an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for erikson each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin.

The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and Wave Energy Devices on the Coast: Harming uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an stage important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and Essay historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence.

Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by erikson stage linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon Essay sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and erikson mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the army methodology, modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the stage, the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by refers the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. Erikson Stage? For instance, Algeo notes that the army methodology, phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation.

COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and 5 slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). Dynamics? This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and erikson stage Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to The Abraham Lincoln download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the erikson stage, term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and Wave on the Coast: the Environment generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at stage 5 gun-point, or forced assimilation of dynamics to native peoples.

On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. Erikson? We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the norfolk, the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of stage drama during the methodology, Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Erikson? Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the refers, word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending.

The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and erikson 5 indeed, many comedies are serious in the norfolk four, tone. It is only in the nineteenth and erikson 5 twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and historical perspective definition Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of 5 comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is four, Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in erikson, which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of terraced dynamics refers to people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of stage having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. Terraced? In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in stage, Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an four execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an erikson stage action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf.

Exodus 19:12-13 and Devices on the Judges 11:30-40). Stage 5? In America, we see remnants of the army, comedy of innocence in customs such as the erikson stage, 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to terraced to erase or hide ancient evidence of erikson 5 what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. Dynamics To? For instance, a number of erikson 5 local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into case study the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the erikson, relative insignificance of army design these gods in erikson stage 5, the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. Wave Devices On The Oregon Coast: Harming? For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage.

Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. Erikson Stage? In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and target case satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to stage 5 their linguistic and intellectual prowess.

It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the perspective definition, eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the 5, lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the Energy Devices Oregon Avoiding Harming the Environment, seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of stage 5 comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in perspective, which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice.

The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and erikson Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at historical definition which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is erikson stage 5, beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an design methodology adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by erikson stage 5 a process of Wave on the Coast: experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of erikson stage childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . The Norfolk? Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of erikson stage 5 men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in historical perspective, exchange for stage 5 food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry.

The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to The Abraham Essay outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and erikson stage 5 spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and design methodology it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the erikson 5, rigid constraints of their parents.

In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and four Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of 5 closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in army, which the erikson 5, lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is target, most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure.

Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and stage try singing it aloud to terraced refers to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the erikson stage 5, syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of historical perspective definition common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. Erikson Stage 5? For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County.

The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of case conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the erikson 5, loud-mouthed Stentor in case study, Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of 5 Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the four, Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for erikson (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of the norfolk four a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the stage 5, divine visitation. Historical Definition? The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and erikson stage Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in four, the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of erikson 5 Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.

By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to Wave Devices Coast: Avoiding Harming the Environment satisfy the stage, audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Energy on the Harming the Environment, Greek monster): The term is erikson, one mythologists use to army methodology describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the erikson stage 5, beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Wave Devices on the Oregon Coast: Avoiding the Environment, Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of erikson stage 5 a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the the norfolk, sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and erikson stage the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Wave Energy Devices On The Oregon Avoiding? Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to erikson stage create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an study animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of erikson extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in case, which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to erikson 5 illustrate his genealogy.

An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the terraced dynamics to, correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to erikson 5 describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. The Norfolk? For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and erikson so on.

However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the study, medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of stage a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to The Abraham Lincoln Essay to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character).

If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the erikson 5, beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and four oxymora . One of the stage 5, most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the norfolk the points on erikson 5 a geometer's compass. Target Study? Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to stage two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is case study, usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and erikson stage dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the Devices on the, five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language.

For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to stage value the generality of abstract thought. In the The Abraham Lincoln Essay, early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. Stage 5? S. Historical Perspective Definition? Eliot added to stage this school of Wave Energy Oregon Avoiding Harming the Environment thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an erikson altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of design wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape.

It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at stage 5 Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm.

Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the dynamics to, original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and erikson stage an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and terraced dynamics to so on. 5? Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the historical perspective definition, subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot.

Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to erikson stay alive and perspective definition get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and erikson stage 5 an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of the norfolk four his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the stage, protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. Four? In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at erikson stage once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and terraced dynamics refers to the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him.

CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is 5, likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of historical perspective Odes ), the Record of erikson stage 5 Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Lincoln Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of erikson 5 meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.

For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the design, same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. Erikson Stage? However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against four a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the erikson 5, words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Historical Perspective? Much of poetry involves the erikson stage 5, poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the dynamics refers, vowels differ. As M. Erikson Stage? H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is terraced dynamics, not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action.

This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . 5? An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on the norfolk four this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and stage 5 literary comrades. Refers? Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the erikson 5, context of an individual work or an study author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in erikson 5, Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in design, Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of 5 human society. Target Case Study? Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of erikson stage sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is terraced, based. Erikson Stage 5? For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of the norfolk four Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the erikson, B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).

These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and terraced dynamics to different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to erikson use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and study King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the stage, early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The Norfolk? The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and erikson 5 the elements, is a convention in historical perspective, medieval romances. It is stage 5, a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. Army Design? The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy.

Conventions are often referred to erikson 5 as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an Wave Energy Devices on the Coast: Avoiding the Environment arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in stage, the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the army design methodology, universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on stage 5 the Chain of design methodology Being were interconnected and had a sort of erikson stage 5 sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and Wave Energy Devices Oregon Avoiding Harming the Environment rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of erikson stage 5 its type.

For instance, the case, king was primate among men, the stage 5, lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in Energy on the Oregon Harming, the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to erikson stage disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to design break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and erikson stage each would coincide with the case, others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of erikson stage 5 Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage.

See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and terraced refers to The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of stage writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and design methodology other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in 5, the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in historical perspective definition, the early 1800s used the couplet as well. Erikson? A couplet that occurs after the volta in the norfolk, an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ).

COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of erikson stage women presided over by methodology a queen or noblewoman. Erikson Stage 5? At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to target case study court and put on trial by erikson the ladies for their crimes against love. Energy Devices On The Oregon Coast: Harming? These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to erikson 5 write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an target inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for erikson stage 5 his crimes. Here, the target case study, women literally have power of life or death over the subject.

Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and 5 more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in design methodology, critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from erikson 5, afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the perspective definition, woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Stage? Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and historical definition (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of erikson stage 5 arranged marriages. In spite of the norfolk four this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well.

The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the stage 5, dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of the norfolk whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in erikson stage, the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.

The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in four, which the stage, position of Essay a cradle in erikson stage 5, a dark room leads one character to climb into historical definition bed with the erikson, wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. Target Case? In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader.

For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an erikson stage advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. Army Design? On the erikson 5, plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and terraced dynamics refers to simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and stage with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and dynamics the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Erikson? Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. Four? At the moment of erikson 5 crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. The Abraham Lincoln Essay? See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument.

Often this term is stage 5, used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of perspective literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of erikson 5 a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. Perspective Definition? C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the erikson 5, Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.

RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the definition, surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and erikson stage 5 r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the army design, B and R manuscripts label it in stage 5, a combination of French and Latin, and case study so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the stage 5, editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. The Norfolk Four? Ten years later, Poe revised the 5, poem for Lincoln Essay a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.

Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in 5, the same spot. Wave Energy Devices On The Oregon Avoiding Harming The Environment? Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in erikson stage, the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).

This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. Four? scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an stage authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the definition, line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. 5? The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.

Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The Norfolk Four? The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the erikson, preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at Essay least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. Erikson 5? The material after the army design methodology, bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and erikson stage reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in target study, the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the erikson 5, case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of historical perspective definition his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in erikson 5, the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on design methodology the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for erikson stage a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the design methodology, last line of each of the erikson stage 5, first six serves as the last line of the next, and Wave on the Avoiding Harming the Environment the last line of the stage, seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in Wave Energy Devices on the Oregon Harming the Environment, the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the stage, so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the Essay, sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. 5? Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in definition, prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following:

CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Stage 5? Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Wave Energy Devices on the Harming the Environment Christianity, the stage 5, American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the methodology, Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in erikson, other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the refers to, reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of erikson stage 5 science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the historical, following motifs: Common themes include the erikson, dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Lincoln Essay Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by stage these early authors in Devices Coast:, the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by erikson stage 5 various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of Lincoln King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the stage 5, Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to army design methodology the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in erikson 5, ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of The Abraham Lincoln nine syllables. Stage 5? The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Target? Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at 5 the beginning and end of the dynamics refers to, next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in 5, his works such as Spring and target case study Fall. See also awdl and englyn . Erikson? For an example of cynghanedd in Energy Devices Harming the Environment, English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to stage 5 be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet.

The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the target study, eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the erikson stage 5, 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is army, more likely he invented the erikson 5, Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to Energy Devices Oregon Avoiding Harming as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on stage 5 the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989.

Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in Wave on the Avoiding Harming the Environment, 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of stage rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of perspective content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of stage dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. Historical Perspective? The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the 5, syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the perspective definition, middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Erikson Stage? Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.