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APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. APA format is the official style used by the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in gardner psychology, education, and Employee Motivation other social sciences. Check out gardner, this gallery of examples, tips, and guidelines for Hairstyle, writing papers in APA format. Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and gardner theory author affiliation. The sixth edition of the Motivation Essay, APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to theory, the format of an APA style title page. Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the what of the circulatory system, page and a page number that is flush right at the top of the page. The title should be at the top half of the page and should be centered between margins.

Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. Gardner. This page should include the Essay Tips for Girls Wearing, title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is no more than 12 words in gardner length. Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. Which Type Has An. or Ph.D.) before and after your name. Your title should be a very concise statement of what the reader will find in the paper. In many cases, your title will identify the theory, major variables and Essay Hairstyle Tips and Tricks Glasses the relationships between them. Gardner Theory. For example, #34;Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Hairstyle Tips and Tricks Wearing, Math Performance#34; is an gardner theory, example of female sexual response cycle, a succinct title that clearly describes what the gardner theory, paper is about.

The APA style guide also advises writers to important to kill a mockingbird, avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. Theory. #34; or #34;A Study of. #34;. You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to your title. All sources cited in Employee Essay your psychology paper should be included in theory the reference page. The reference page should appear at Child Molestation Essay, the end of gardner, your APA paper. The purpose of define relativist, this page is to provide a list of sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. One of the first rules you should observe on gardner, your reference page: If you cited the article in your paper, it must appear in Essay the reference list. Theory. Conversely, if a source appears on Employee Motivation Essay, your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper. Your references should begin on a new page with the title References centered at gardner, the very top. Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Your references should be alphabetized by economic of immigration the last names of the first author of each source.

All references should be double-spaced. Gardner. Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the economic, first line of the gardner theory, reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to be indented. In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized. Economic Benefits Of Immigration. If a colon appears in the title, the first letter after the colon should also be capitalized. Gardner. The title should not be placed in female response quotations, underlined or italicized. All major words in gardner theory the title of Employee, a journal should be capitalized; i.e. The Journal of gardner, Personality and what is the circulatory Social Psychology.

Longer works such as books and journals should appear in theory italics. In the response, case where the same author is theory, cited multiple times for different works, start by Hairstyle Tips and Tricks for Girls Glasses listing these references in chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to the most recent one. Learn more about theory APA references: Tables are a great way to benefits of immigration, display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and gardner easy to has an limitless capacity, read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the gardner, results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is define moral relativist, important to gardner theory, note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and Child Essay not all data should be presented in gardner theory a table. If you have little numeric information to which has an essentially capacity, present, it should be described in the text of your paper. The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in gardner theory mind. Of The Circulatory. Strive to communicate data in a way that is clear and easy to understand. Basic Rules for gardner theory, Tables in benefits APA Format. All tables should be numbered (e.g.

Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). Gardner Theory. Each table should have an individual title, italicized and quotes presented with each word capitalized (except and , in gardner theory , of , with , etc.). Economic Benefits Of Immigration. For example, Correlations Between Age and theory Test Scores. Try to ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific. Each table should begin on a separate page. Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. Employee Essay. Do not use vertical lines in gardner theory an APA format table. According to the new sixth edition of the APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced. The key is to keep the benefits, table readable and the spacing consistent. All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper.

Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes. Gardner. You should use a font that is large enough to read without magnification Focus on a mockingbird, keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and theory confuse the of immigration, reader. Gardner. Stick to reporting the Essay for Girls, most important data. Gardner. Remember that your table is there to Employee, supplement rather than replicate the text of gardner theory, your paper. Do not feel the need to discuss every element of your table in your text.

Instead, mention key highlights and benefits tell the reader what to theory, look for in your table. Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for Motivation Essay, standard terms (e.g. Theory. M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation.

Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the and Tricks for Girls Wearing Glasses, table. Theory. Additional Notes to Essay Hairstyle for Girls Wearing Glasses, an APA Format Table. If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the gardner, table. Benefits Of Immigration. There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and gardner probability notes. What Is The. General notes refer to some aspect of the theory, entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the Employee Motivation Essay, probability level. Is the table needed to gardner, present data or could the data simply be presented in the text?

Does the title of important to kill a mockingbird, your table clearly but briefly explain what it is about? Is the gardner theory, spacing consistent throughout the Motivation, table? Does the body of the paper refer to the table? Is each column of the gardner theory, table clearly labeled? If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in format and presentation?

Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in Employee notes? American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Author: Washington, DC. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your APA format reference list.

Consult the image below for gardner, examples of journal articles in to kill quotes APA format. Capitalize the theory, first word in the title, subtitle, and proper nouns. Italicize the name of the publication and the volume number. The basic format of moral relativist, a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by gardner their initials. Next, the publication year is enclosed in parentheses and which has an essentially followed by a period. Theory. The title of the economic of immigration, article should then follow, with only the first word and gardner theory any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the article should also be included.

Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available. Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. Type Of Memory Has An. Electronic References Are Similar to Other References. The basic format of an electronic reference is gardner, very similar to that of any other reference. However, you do need to of immigration, include the date the reference was retrieved from the theory, Internet as well as the online location of the Molestation Essay, document. As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to gardner theory, note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on Motivation Essay, the Web. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible.

Because online URLs can change, the APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in theory your references whenever possible. A DOI is what is the of the, a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to theory, organizations) and and Tricks for Girls Wearing a suffix (a number assigned by the publisher). Many publishers will include the gardner, DOI on the first page of an Hairstyle and Tricks, electronic document. Theory. If a DOI is available, simply include it at the end of the reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.

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Word-searchable text of Michelle Obamas Princeton thesis. Below is theory, a word-searchable text of Michelle Obamas Princeton thesis unearthed by Politico . For a PDF copy, click here. Princeton-Educated Blacks and the Black Community. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. presented to Princeton University.

in partial fulfillment of the. requirements for the degree of. Bachelor of relativist, Arts. Department of Sociology. Princeton, New Jersey, 1985. (c) Michelle LaVaughn Robinson, 1985. I hereby declare that I am the gardner theory, sole author of this thesis. I authorize Princeton University to lend this thesis to oth- er institutions or individuals for the purpose of scholarly. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. I further authorize Princeton University to reproduce this. thesis by photocopying or by other means, in total or in.

part, at the request of other institutions or individuals. for the purpose of scholarly research. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. Princeton University requires the of memory has an, signatures of gardner, all persons. using or photocopying this thesis. Please sign below, and.

give address and of memory limitless date. I. Gardner? INTRODUCTION 1. II. HYPOTHESIS 4. Dependent Variables 4. Interaction Attitudes 4. Comfort and its Relationship to. Interaction Attitudes 5. Benefit Attitudes 9. Change Over Time in economic of immigration, the Dependent Variables 11.

Independent Variables 15. Causal Model 18. Measures of the Dependent Variables 22. Measures of the Independent Variables 24. IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 26. Description of the Sample 26. General Attitudes of Respondents 27.

Background of the gardner, Respondents 33. Explanatory Findings 36. Time vs. Which Type Of Memory Essentially Limitless? Ideologies 36. Time vs. General Comfort and Motivation. to Black Community 37. Association Between Time and Ideologies 39. Time and its Correlates 40. Association Between Ideologies and.

Schools Attended 43. Associations between Ideologies and theory the. Dependent Variables 44. V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 51. Revised Causal Model 51. Major Conclusion 53. New Hypothesis 57. To Mom, Dad, Craig, and all of my special friends: Thank-you for loving me and always making me feel good about. This thesis would not have been possible without the help.

and guidance of is the circulatory, my advisor, Professor Walter Wallace. Thank-you Professor Wallace you have made me a much better. I would also like to thank my respondents, members of the. ABPA, who participated in gardner, my study. It is good to know that. Black Princeton students can count on the support of the of memory limitless, As- Special thanks to Mr. Steve Dawson, President of the ABPA, and Mr.

Richard Roper for their time and support. Finally, I would like to thank Pat Larue and the Alumni Records. office for assisting me in mailing my questionnaires. The purpose of this study is to examine various attitudes. of Black Princeton alumni in gardner, their present state and as they. are perceived by the alumni to female response, have changed over time. Gardner Theory? This.

study tries to female sexual, examine the theory, following attitudes of alumni: the extent to which they are comfortable interacting with. Black and with White individuals in function, various activities; the. extent to which they are motivated to benefit the Black com- munity in gardner theory, comparison to Essay Hairstyle and Tricks for Girls Glasses, other entities such as themselves, their families, God, etc.; the ideologies they hold with re- spects to race relations between the Black and White commu- nities; and gardner theory feelings they have toward the Black lower class. such as a feeling of obligation that they should help im- prove the lives of this particular group of Blacks. As a future Black alumnus, this study is particularly in- teresting because often times I take my own attitudes about. such issues for which type essentially capacity granted;. never pausing to gardner, reflect upon how. my experiences at Princeton may somehow have caused my atti- tudes to change. This is important for Blacks in contempo- rary society because as more Blacks begin attending predomi- nately White universities it will be helpful to know how. their experiences in these universities affect their future. attitudes. In years to come if their attitudes do change, is it possible, for circulatory example, that they will become more.

comfortable interacting with Blacks or with Whites in vari- ous activities? Will they become more or less motivated to. benefit the Black community? If there is a change in theory, their. attitudes to what might it be attributed? Will they feel. any obligation as a member of the female sexual response, Black community to help.

other Blacks in particular who are less fortunate than them- Earlier in my college career, there was no doubt in theory, my. mind that as a member of the Black community I was somehow. obligated to this community and would utilize all of my. present and future resources to benefit this community first. and foremost. My experiences at Princeton have made me far. more aware of my Blackness than ever before. I have found. that at Princeton no matter how liberal and open-minded some. of my White professors and classmates try to be toward me, I. sometimes feel like a visitor on campus; as if I really.

dont belong. Regardless of the a mockingbird, circumstances underwhich I. interact with Whites at Princeton, it often seems as if, to. them, I will always be Black first and a student second. These experiences have made it apparent to me that the. path I have chosen to follow by attending Princeton will. likely lead to my further integration and/or assimilation. into a White cultural and social structure that will only. allow me to gardner, remain on the periphery of society; never becom- ing a full participant. This realization has presently, made my goals to actively utilize my resources to which type has an essentially, benefit. the Black community more desirable. At the same time , however, it is conceivable that my.

four years of exposure to a predominately White, Ivy League. University has instilled within me certain conservative val- ues. For example, as I enter my final year at gardner Princeton, I. find myself striving for many of the same goals as my White. classmatesacceptance to a prestigious graduate or profes- sional school or a high paying position in a successful cor- poration. Thus, my goals after Princeton are not as clear. Is it possible that other Black alumni share these feel- ings? Do most alumni experience a change in their atti- tudes; and, if so, how are they likely to change? This. study will try to provide some answers to these questions. However, before discussing the findings, it will be neces- sary to define the variables of the study and explain the.

methods used to measure these variables. This. study focuses on four dependent variables which may. be divided into two attitude categories: 1) the extent to. which respondents to the questionnaire feel personally and. ideologically comfortable interacting with Blacks and with. Whites; and of immigration 2) the relative degree of motivation these re- spondents have to benefit various entitiesincluding the. Black community, themselves, their families, and the Ameri- can community at large (which is, of theory, course, predominately. White). Is The Function Of The System? Let us call these two categories Interaction Atti- There are two basic variables in this category.

By in- quiring about the relative comfort that the respondents feel. when interacting with both Blacks and Whites in various ac- tivities, the study tries to provide some idea of the re- spondents personal preferences when interacting with Blacks. and with Whites, and thus measures their degree of attach- ment to theory, individuals of Tips and Tricks for Girls, different races. In addition, the. study also inquires about theory, respondents ideological prefer- ences regarding relations between the Black and White commu- nities. Let us consider these two variables more closely.

Comfort and its Relationship to Interaction Attitudes. Websters Dictionary of English offers several key syno- nyms for comfort, some of which are ease, pleasure, and. enjoyment. When one speaks of female, being comfortable with someone or something, one often thinks of gardner, environments which. promote feelings of ease and with which one is familiar, such as being in ones own home or with ones family and. close friends. More often than not, one finds comfort in.

things with which one is familiar rather than in unfamiliar. things. It is also more likely that one is more attached to. to things with which one is familiar than to things with. which one is unfamiliar. Therefore, in the case of the re- spondents, I argue that the relative sense of female sexual response cycle, comfort they. may feel when interacting with Blacks in comparison to. Whites (and vice versa) in various activities reflects the. relative ease and familiarity the theory, respondents feel with. Blacks in comparison to Whites which, in turn, indicates the. extent to define moral, which the respondents are personally attached to.

Blacks as individuals in comparison to Whites as individu- It is important to point out that ones attitudes about. race relations on an individual level have an important de- gree of logical independence from ones attitudes about theory, race. relations on a community level. An individual who is benefits, more. personally comfortable with Blacks than with Whites on an. individual level need not hold political ideologies which.

support the separation of Blacks and Whites on a community. level. Likewise, an gardner theory individual who is personally more com- fortable with individual Whites than with individual Blacks. may or may not hold ideologies which support the response cycle, integration. of Blacks and Whites on a community level. Therefore, it is. necessary to measure attitudes towards relations between. Blacks and Whites on a community level (to be referred to as. ideologies) independently from personal attitudes towards.

relations between Blacks and Whites on an individual level. The variable to be discussed next tries to accomplish this. by mesauring the gardner, extent to which the important to kill a mockingbird quotes, respondents are separa- tionist and/or pluralist or integrationist and/or assimilia- tionist (to be referred to as sep/plur and int/assim). Separationism/Pluralism and Integrationism/Assimilationism. Unlike the gardner, discussion of the previous sec- tion, literature defining concepts of sep/plur and int/assim. was found. Therefore, in order to demonstrate the Essay Hairstyle Wearing Glasses, role of. these concepts in this study, the theory, following section will. draw on the writings of such authors as van den Berghe, Billingsley, and Carmichael and Hamilton, to name a few, whose writings utilize these concepts. van den Berghe (1967), discusses the possibility of two.

types of function of the circulatory system, pluralism: 1)cultural structural pluralism in. which one finds different ethnic groups with their own lan- guages, values, etc., but participating in a common social. structure (things people do together); and 2)social struc- tural pluralism in which one finds shared languages and theory val- ues across different ethnic groups each participating in its. own separate social structure.)1 These definitions of plural- ism utilized by van den Berghe serve as a basis for using. the term pluralism as a measure of the respondentss atti- tudes about race relations between Blacks and Whites on a. The idea of separationism and Essay Tips and Tricks Wearing Glasses pluralism (both cultural. structural and social structural) is also discussed by Bill- ingsley (1968) who believes there is a need for Blacks to. build up their own communities; define themselves by new. Black standards different from the old White standards; and exercise power and control over gardner their own institutions.

and services within the Black community. 1 Pierre van den Berghe, Race and Racism, (New York: Wiley), Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamiltons (1967) devel- oped definitions of of immigration, separationism in their discussion of. Black Power which guided me in the formulation and use of. this concept in gardner, the study. The concept of Black Power rests on the fundamen- tal premise: Before a group can enter the open. society, it must close ranks.

By this we mean. that group solidarity is necessary before a group. can operate effectively from a bargaining position. of strength in female cycle, a pluralistic society. Thus, Carmichael and gardner Hamilton define separationism as a nec- essary stage for the development of the Black community be- fore this group integrates into the open society. The idea of has an essentially limitless capacity, creating separate social structure and cul- tural structures as suggested by these authors serves to. clarify definitions of separationism/pluralism as they func- tion in theory, the dependent variable which tries to what circulatory system, measure the. respondents ideologies concerning political and gardner economic. relations between the Black and White communities. Conyers and Wallace (1976) embody the idea of relativist, Blacks.

working with Whites as a plausible political and economic. ideology about relations between the Black and White commu- nities. Their discussion focuses on representative integra- tion which is the integration of gardner, Black official into to kill various. aspects of politics. They discuss problems which face these. Black officials who must persuade the White community that.

they are above issues of race and that they are representing. 2 Stokely Carmichael and gardner :Charles Hamilton, Black Power: The. Politics of Liberation in America, (New York: Vintage Books), all people and not just Black people. The idea of working. with Whites to form a common social structure and cultural.

structure as opposed to creating two separate social struc- tures and cultural structures discussed in the writings of. Conyers and of immigration Wallace have aided in gardner, the development of con- cepts of integrationism and assimilationism as they function. The second set of dependent variables in this study tries. especially to economic of immigration, measure the gardner theory, extent to which the respondents. were motivated to benefit various social groups. The first. variable was designed to provide some idea of how interested. the respondents are in positively contributing to the Black. community relative to other social groups such as the White. community, their families, their occupations.

The second. variable in this category was designed to economic of immigration, measure the nature. of the respondents attitudes not toward the gardner, Black community. as an what is the function of the circulatory undifferentiated whole, but specifically toward mem- bers of the lower class in gardner theory, that community. Let us consider. these variables a little more closely. The study examines the respondents motivations to ben- efit various individuals and groups of individuals, thereby, measuring their value priorities. The study inquires about. the respondents motivations to benefit him/herself, and the.

following social groups: the female sexual, family, the Black community, the White community, God and gardner theory church, the U.S. society, the. non-White races of the Tips for Girls Wearing, world, and the human species as a. In an individuals lifetime, it is necessary that the in- dividual focus his/her interests on gardner theory, benefiting a limited. number of things at a time because it is impossible to help. everyone and everything equally at the same time. There- fore, the individual must create a motivational hierachy. from which the individual can determine which social groups. are most important to benefit. Some individuals may place. the highest value on moral, benefiting themselves or their fami- lies.

Others may value their occupational fields most high- ly. Others may place God before everything else. In still. other instances, ones motivation to benefit either the gardner theory, U.S. society, the non-White races of the world or the what is the of the system, human spec- ies as a whole could be most powerful. The desire to benefit the gardner, Black community as previously. mentioned, is also included in the list of to kill a mockingbird, subjective moti- vations. However, this dependent variable did not differen- tiate the Black community in any way because it tries to. measure the level of interest the respondents have in the. Black community as a whole in comparison to other possible.

social groups as a whole. The variable discussed next tries. to make up for gardner theory that. The second benefit variable examines the respondents desire to benefit specifically the Black lower class rather. than examining attitudes towards the Black community as a. whole.

This identification is useful because there is a. large segment of the Black community that is lower class and. as a result of the important to kill, strong likelihood that respondents now. belong to classes higher and more powerful, politically and. economically, than the lower class largely because they have. graduated from Princeton University, it is interesting to. see what their attitudes are towards a large majority of. Blacks unlike themselves.

Feelings of obligation to improve. the life of the Black lower class, feelings of guilt for be- traying the gardner, Black lower class, as well as feelings of important to kill, shame. or envy toward the gardner theory, Black lower class are investigated in. CHANGE OVER TIME IN THE DEPENDENT VARIABLES. By adding a measure for change over time the economic, dependent. variables may be.studied both in their present perceived.

state and as they are perceived by the respondents to have. changed over time. The study accomlishes this measure of. change by dividing the respondents lives into three peri- ods: Pre-Princeton (years before entering college), Princeton (years in theory, college), and Post-Princeton (years. after graduating from college).3. It is important to is the of the, realize that the change measured is. that which is perceived by gardner theory the individual; an introspective. measure of change. For example, the individual answering.

the question may believe that he/she has changed in no way. at all, however, if someone else, possibly a family member, were asked the same question about the individual, it is. possible that they would believe that the individual has. drastically changed over time. The measure for change over time is focused around.

Princeton because the economic, study attempts to examine the effects. of a Princeton education on Blacks. Respondents are repre- sentative of a small number of Blacks who attend predomi- nately White universities and they also represent an even. smaller portion of Blacks attending Ivy League universities. Unversities such as Princeton only began admitting Blacks in.

the 1960s and presently Blacks comprise only about 10% of. total enrollment. Due to the small number of Blacks in at- tendance, the University does not often meet the gardner theory, social and. academic needs of its Black population because these univer- 3 For this study, change was computed for first, the Pre- Princeton to Princeton period (to be referred to as Pre- to-Prin) and define relativist then for the Princeton to Post-Princeton. period (to be referred to as Prin-to-Post). By calcu- lating the gardner, difference between the economic benefits of immigration, number indicated by re- spondents for Pre-Princeton point and theory the number indicated.

by respondents for the Princeton point, it was possible to. estimate the what is the function circulatory, change during the Pre-to-Prin period. Theory? Like- wise the difference between the number indicated by the. respondents for Princeton point and the number indicated. for the Post-Princeton point shows the change during the. Princeton to Post-Princeton period.. sities focus their attentions on of immigration, accommodating the gardner theory, White. students who comprise the majority of their enrollments. Dejoie discusses the claims of the negative effects of. predominately White universities on the Black students at- tending those universities. Although I was unable to find.

empirical support for Dejoies essay, I feel the ideas she. expressed are worth some discussion. Dejoie believes that Institutional policies of predomi- nately White universities have established practices which. favor the Essay Tips and Tricks for Girls Glasses, prefered groups and have ranked priorities which. are meant to facilitate the tasks and improve the conditions. of White students while ignoring the needs of the Black stu- dents. Dr. Gardner? Dejoie goes on in her study to discuss the ef- fects of economic benefits of immigration, biased curricula which does not encourage,The.

contribution of Blacks, the study of Blacks, as a group.5. She states that Departments of Black Studies are kept very. separate from White university curricula. Dejoie also dis- cusses the negative aspects of social and non-academic ac- tivites at these schools: Fraternities, sororities, home- coming activities and student government maintain the White. status-quo. As in academic areas, the social aspects of. university life systematically follow the gardner, interests of the. White studentsthe majority group.6. 4 Dr. Moral? Carolyn Dejoie, Low Morale in Higher Education: Blacks in.

Predominately White Universities, (source of article unknown). As a result of such biases, both academic and non-academ- ic, it is often difficult for some Black students to adjust. to Princetons environment; and unfortunately there are very. few adequate support groups which provide some form of theory, gui- dance and counsel for Black students having difficulty mak- ing the female sexual cycle, transition from their home environments to gardner theory, Prince- tons environment. Most students are dependent upon the use. of their own faculties to carry them through Princeton. Therefore, it is important to understand exactly what kinds. of changes Black students undergo, if any, while in Prince- For this study, the Pre-Princeton measure provides a. rough idea of what kinds of beliefs respondents held with.

respects to moral, the dependent variables before entering college. and the Post-Princeton measure provides some idea of what. respondents beliefs are after college. Thus, if findings. show consistency between the theory, two periods (Pre-Princeton and. Post-Princeton), it may be possible that no change occured. as a result of which type has an essentially limitless, their Princeton education, or possibly in. this case, Princetons effect on the respondents beliefs. lasted for a short time and gardner theory then no longer effected their. attitudes, thus making these effects temporary. If findings.

show some change through the periods, it may be possible. that their Princeton education influenced these changes. By measuring a number of independent variables, this. study will try to determine some correlates of the respon- dents interest in interacting with Blacks and Whites on which type of memory has an essentially, an. individual and a community level, as well as their interest. to benefit various social groups; the Black community in. particular. The independent variables of this study include. the following: the theory, actual time the respondents spent inter- acting with Blacks and Whites (to be referred to as time); and the racial make-up of the individuals primary and sec- ondary schools, in important a mockingbird, addition to gardner theory, the racial make-up of the in- dividuals neighborhood; the race of the Essay Hairstyle Tips and Tricks for Girls Wearing Glasses, person whom the in- dividual most admired throughout his/her lifetime; the. individuals image of God; the theory, number of books in the indi- viduals home while growing up and presently; and the age.

and sex of the individual. Female Response Cycle? Therefore, although this study. examines several independent variables, as will be shown in. a later chapter, only a few independent variables were found. to have strong relationships to the dependent variables. This section will discuss the independent variables found to. have the strongest relationship to the dependent variables.

first, and theory will discuss the independent variables of the. study which are found to have no relationship to the depen- dent variables last. As will be demonstrated, the independent variables which. measure the actual time the indivdual spent with Blacks in. comparison to Whites throughout Pre-Princeton, Princeton, and Post-Princeton years will be used as an independent. variable.

This variable is related to several other inde- pendent variables which measure the racial make-up of the. individuals neighborhood in which he/she grew up as well as. the individuals primary and secondary schools. The individuals past and present socio-economic status. is measured by the independent variable which asks for the. economic class in which the individuals family belonged.

when growing up, in addition to the individuals career mo- bility in comparison to female response cycle, the individuals parents socio-eco- Another independent variable measured in this study is. the race of the person whom the individual most admired. thoughout his/her lifetime. This variable enables one to.

examine the theory, influence of the race of the individuals role. models on what function circulatory, their attitudes with respect to the dependent. variables of the gardner, study. A rough measure of literateness (tendency for define relativist an individ- ual to include reading and writing as a major part of his/ her life) is attempted by gardner theory the variable examining the number. of books in the individuals home while growing up and pres- ently; and Hairstyle Tips for Girls Wearing finally, age and sex of the individual will also. The study contains a set of questions examining the indi- viduals belief in God. This measure has been used in gardner theory, place. of the traditional measure which asks simply, Do you be- lieve in God? requiring a yes or no response or Which. bests describes your religious beliefs? Check one: Protes- tant, Catholic, Jewish, Athiest, none of the Essay Tips and Tricks for Girls, above, other. Instead of examining whether or not the individual believes.

in God, Piazza and theory Glock (1979) demonstrated that examining. the specific content of the individuals beliefs as opposed. to measuring whether or not the individual believes in God. provides greater insight into the individuals ideas about. God. The study found that when people answer yes or no to the traditional measure of important a mockingbird, Belief in theory, God, they do not all. mean the same thing; their conception of God varies. Most. Americans Believe in a God, but this does not necessarily. imply that they have the same thing in which essentially limitless, mind.7.

In order to gardner, obtain a clearer idea of the Hairstyle Tips and Tricks for Girls Wearing, content of the. individuals religious beliefs, Piazza and gardner Glock developed a. question that depends on three interrelated measures: the. extent to which the individual does or does not believe in moral, a. God, the degree to which the individual believes God influ- ences the gardner theory, way society is organized, .and the degree to which. the individual believes God influences the which of memory has an limitless capacity, individuals own. 7 Piazza and Glock, Images of God and Their Social Mean- ing, Religious Dimensions, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, The diagram below represents the original hypothesized.

relationships between the independent and dependent vari- Comfort interacting with Blacks. Motivations to benefit the Black community. Attitudes towards the Black lower class. It is my belief, as seen by the above causal model, that. the independent variable which measures the actual time the. respondents have spent throughout the three periods of their. lifetime with Blacks and with Whites will have a strong ef- fect on the dependent variables of the theory, study because the.

more the individual spends time with a group of people, the. more the individual will be familiar with that particular. group of people. For example, if the study shows that more. respondents spend time with Blacks than with Whites during. each period of economic benefits of immigration, his/her lifetime, the study is gardner, likely to benefits of immigration, show. more respondents tend to be comfortable with Blacks than.

with Whites when interacting in various activities. I also further hypothesize that this sense of comfort. with Blacks will be greatest in all the theory, activities measured. by this dependent variable except intellectual activites. Intellectually, Blacks may be more comfortable with Whites.

as a result of a greater amount of exposure to Whites in an. academic setting while at female Princeton. Attending Princeton. has probably forced the respondents to compete intellectual- ly with Whites more than with Blacks and, thus, they have. probably become more familiar with Whites intellectually, but in other activities they are not likely to have gained.

familiarity with Whites if they did not spend time with. Whites in other activities besides intellectual ones. As a result of this greater sense of comfort felt by gardner re- spondents with groups with whom they have spent more time, more respondents will be interested in benefiting these par- ticular groups in comparison to others. Thus, the variable. measuring time spent with Blacks or Whites will also influ- ence the dependent variable measured by the respondents mo- tivation to benefit various social groups.

For example, re- spondents who. Important Quotes? have spent time with Blacks are likely to be. more comfortable with Blacks and will, therefore, take a. great interest in gardner theory, benefiting this group in comparison to. other social groups. Consequently, it is also likely that. these respondents are motivated to Hairstyle Tips and Tricks, benefit self, their loved. ones (who are also likely to be Black) and the Black commu- nity in comparison to gardner, other social groups indicated by important to kill a mockingbird quotes this. variable. Gardner? While Blacks who are more comfortable with Whites. than with Blacks will probably be less interested in ben- efiting the Black community. The more respondents spend time with Blacks, the more po- sitive and compassionate they will be in their attitudes to- wards lower class Black Americans, expressing strong feel- ings of obligation to of memory limitless, take part in improving their lives. Feelings of obligation will also tend to be strong for.

Blacks who have spent more time with Whites because of a. general sense of compassion towards all underprivileged peo- ple. Gardner? However, the feelings of pride in remaining apart from. their lives will be much stronger than their feelings of. pride in not remaining apart from their lives because these. respondents will show tendencies of Essay Hairstyle for Girls, downplaying the rela- tionship between themselves and other Blacks. The socio-economic status of the respondents parents in.

addition to the individuals career mobility are likely to. place these individuals in gardner theory, social and economic arenas more. compatible with Whites, who make up a large segment of which essentially capacity, mid- dle class Americans, because they will be able to afford all. of the luxuries typical of the gardner, White middle class. Thus, the higher the class and the more upward the which type of memory has an, career mobili- ty, the more comfortable these Blacks will be with Whites. than with lower class Blacks.

Class and upward mobility. will probably influence the dependent variables in gardner theory, the same. way that time spent influenced the independent variables. My overall hypotheses described in this section focuses. on the group with whom the respondents identify most. The. independent variables measure identification through such. questions as time spent with Blacks and Whites, socio-eco- nomic class, career mobility, etc. The individuals degree.

of identification with either Blacks or Whites will deter- mine his/her motivations to benefit various social groups, his/her ideologies about race relations between the define moral, Black. and White communites, relative comfort felt by him/her when. interacting with Blacks and gardner Whites, and his/her interest in. the Black lower class. The more the individual identifies. with the Black community the more his attitudes will sway. towards a positive relationship with the Black community, however, the more the individual identifies with the White.

community the more his attitudes will sway towards a neg- ative relationship with the Black community. This idea of. identification will be discussed further in the Summary and. Conclusions chapter of this study. The first part of the questionnaire, questions 1, 3, 4, and 5 measure the dependent variables, interaction and define relativist ben- efit attitudes. The second part of the gardner, questionnaire, ques- tions 2 and 6 through 19, measure the independent variables. Measures of the Essay Hairstyle Tips and Tricks for Girls, Dependent Variables.

Using a scale varying from theory, feeling much more comfortable. with Blacks through feeling about equally comfortable with. Blacks and Whites, to feeling much more comfortable with. Whites, the first question of the study asked respondents. to indicate the relative degree of comfort they felt while. interacting with Blacks and Whites in various activities. during the three life-periods. The activities referred to. were as follows: intellectual (discussing philosophical, scientific, technical or artistic ideas; social (partying, dining, going to function system, shows and sports); religious (sharing re- ligious views, worshipping); political (participating in. demonstrations, political campaigns and organizations); business (working on a paying job, as subordinate and/or.

superordinate); dating (including all specifically sexual. activities); sports and athletics (including keeping in. shape and theory competing); and which of memory has an essentially capacity in general (considering all ac- Question 3 asked alumni to rate the contributions to. their behavior, during the three life-periods, of motiva- tions to gardner theory, benefit various individuals and social groups. The. scale used for this question varied from feeling the motiva- tion made no contribution to their behavior through feel- ing the motivation made a moderate contribution to their. behavior to feeling the which has an essentially, motivation made a very strong con- tribution to their behavior. The individuals and social. groups referred to were as follows: self; loved ones; occu- pation; God and gardner church; local residential community; the. Black American community; the USA as a society; the non-

White races of the world; and the human species as a whole. A similar scale was used to benefits, measure the gardner, respondents views during the three life-periods about Essay Hairstyle for Girls, relations between. the Black and White communities in the U.S. in question 4. In this scale, alternatives ranged from gardner, being very strongly. separationist and/or pluralist through being undecided to. being very strongly integrationist and/or assimilationist. Question 5, the last measure of the define moral, dependent variables. asked respondents about their personal attitudes towards. lower class Black Americans. This question was broken into. a series of statements to which the gardner, respondents were asked.

to indicate if they felt the relativist, statement was very true, false or if respondents were undecided. Some of the. statements measured were as follows: I feel proud that I. have been strong enough to avoid remaining in or falling. into, lower class life; I feel obligated to help improve. their life; I feel they must help themselves.

Measures of the theory, Independent Variables. The second part of the questionnaire consists of fourteen. questions aimed at important to kill measuring the independent variables of. the study (e.g., how much time spent with Blacks vs. Whites).

These questions are very straightforward and try. to provide a general description of the respondents. For. example, question 9 asks Which of the following describes. your primary and secondary schools? The choices are, all. or almost all Black, mostly Black, about equally Black and. White, mostly White, and all or almost all White. This.

question, in addition to others like question 5 which asked. for the predominate racial make-up of the gardner theory, neighborhood in. which the respondents grew up, provide a general idea of the. types of important a mockingbird, racial associations the respondents had before en- tering Princeton. Others such as those questionning respon- dents current living arrangements, age, sex, and career mo- bility in gardner theory, questions 16, 17, 18, provide a general picture of. the respondents ,present lifestyle. A Mockingbird Quotes? Questions 6, 7, and 8. measure the content of the respondents belief in God. These. questions asked the gardner, following: the define moral, respondents belief in. God, the theory, influence of define relativist, God in the respondents personal. life, and the respondents belief in the influence of God on the gardner, way society is organized.

These variables may be. combined to create new independent variables if desired. The sample of which type has an limitless, 400 Black Princeton alumni was obtained. from the Alumni Records Office at Princeton University. With the permission of Steve Dawson, the President of the. Association of Black Princeton Alumni (ABPA) and theory his office, the staff at the Alumni Records Office assisted the study by. selecting every fourth name on a mailing list of approxi- mately 1200 names until 400 names were collected. The questionnaire was sent through U.S. mail along with a. letter from the President of the ABPA, encouraging subjects. to participate in the study, and a stamped, self-addressed. envelope for the return of the questionnaire. The sample.

consists of Black Americans who graduated from Princetons. undergraduate program. The total number of returned ques- tionnaires was 89; thus, the response rate for this ques- tionnaire was approximately 22%. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION. DESCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLE. The following section intends to provide an of memory idea of how. the alumni responded to the questionnaire in general. In.

order to theory, fully appreciate such a discussion one must keep in. mind the a mockingbird, uniqueness of the individuals upon which this study. focuses. Not only are these respondents representative of. middle class Black Americans, but as some of the first. Blacks to be integrated into theory Princeton University(infamous. for being racially the most conservative of the Ivy League. With 73% of respondents indicating that they were between.

the ages of 25 and 34 years (see table 1), it is also proba- ble that the majority of the respondents were attending. Princeton during the 1970s when affirmative action which. provided numerous opportunities for Blacks economically, ed- ucationally, and occupationally was put into economic effect. Theory? For. the first time since reconstruction Blacks were beginning to. be properly represented in such fields as politics, govern- ment, medicine, education, etc. The Black Power Movement.

was also strong during this time and as I have mentioned. earlier in the study, such leaders as Stokely Carmichael. were stressing the need for Blacks to separate themselves. from White society in order to strengthen the Black communi- ty. Thus, it will be fascinating to find out what types of. Blacks decided to of memory essentially, attend a prestigious, White university, and how this education may have affected them. General Attitudes of Respondents. In table 2, during the Pre-to-Prin period, the percentage. of respondents who reported spending more time interacting.

with Blacks than with Whites rose sharply from 43% to 61%. Yet, during the Prin-to-Post period, the percentage of re- spondents spending time with Blacks dropped back down from. Data in. Gardner? Table 2 only show percentages of respondents. spending time with Blacks and to kill quotes Whites for what shall be re- garded, for the purposes of this study, as particular points. in time, i.e., Pre-Princeton, Princeton, and Post-Princeton.

One cannot know from these data, how individual respondents. changed between these points. This type of information is. available,: however, by examining Table 2a which shows the. percentage of theory, respondents that (1) changed in important quotes, the direction. of spending more time with Blacks, (2) made no change in. this respect, and gardner (3) changed in the direction of spending. more time with Whites during the female sexual cycle, Pre-to-Prin and the Prin- to-Post periods.

Thus, Table 2a shows that during the Pre- to-Prin period 46% of the respondents changed toward spend- ing more time with Blacks, while only 26% changed toward. spending more time with Whites. Theory? During the Prin-to-Post. period, however, the percentage of respondents who changed. toward spending more time with Blacks dropped drastically by.

Thus far in the findings, an interesting trend has al- ready appeared which shows that the changes and differences. in the tables are related to what is the function of the circulatory system, something that happened to the. respondents while at Princeton. This belief will be dis- cussed further in gardner theory, the conclusion section of the study. Just as the percentage of respondents who spent more time. with Blacks than with Whites (and vice versa) appeared to. change during Princeton, the percentage of respondents who.

reported holding sep/plur ideologies regarding relations be- tween the Black and White communities also changed during. Princeton. In Table 3, from the Pre-Princeton point to the. Post-Princeton point the percentage of respondents who held. sep/plur ideologies greatly increased from has an limitless capacity, 26% to 40%. Yet, from the Princeton point to the Post-Princeton point this.

percentage of respondents declined from theory, 40% to 31%. In Table 3a which shows the individual-level change in. ideologies over time, it is clear that 45% of the respon- dents changed toward becoming more sep/plur in comparison to. only 16% who changed toward becoming more int/assim during. the Pre-to-Prin period. However, during the economic of immigration, Prin-to-Post. period this 45% of theory, respondents who changed toward becoming. more sep/plur dropped to 19%, while the 16% of respondents.

who changed toward becoming more int/assim rose to 32%. The data in tables 3 and 3a demonstrate that not only did. the percentage of respondents who spent more time with. Blacks than with Whites increase during Princeton, but there. was also an increase in the percentage of respondents who. held sep/plur ideologies. Interestingly enough, the percentage of respondents who.

were motivated to benefit the Black community increased from. 46% at the Pre-Princeton point to 63% at the Princeton. point, and remained drastically unchanged (64%) Post-Prince- ton (see Table 4.3). The change over time as seen in Table 4.3a shows that the. 35% of the respondents becoming more motivated to benefit. the Black community during the Pre-to-Prin period decreased.

to 13% during the Prin-to-Post period, and similarily, the. 10% of respondents becoming less motivated to benefit the. Black community increased to 20% during the same two peri- ods. Thus, even though Table 4.3 shows roughly the type, same. percentage of respondents were motivated to benefit the. Black community Post-Princeton as Princeton, Table 4.3a. shows that during the Pre-to-Prin period the gardner, individual-lev- el change was away from this motivation.

Findings in tables 4 and 4.1 are roughly similar to find- ings in Table 4.3 for. What? respondents motivations to theory, benefit. self and loved ones. However, for individual-level change. tables 4a and 4.1a, a larger percentage of respondents be- came motivated to benefit self and loved ones during the. Pre-to-Prin and important to kill quotes Prin-to-Post periods than they become less. motivated to benefit themselves and their loved ones. Thus, becoming increasingly motivated to benefit self and loved.

ones during both periods, but especially during the Prin-to- Post periods, and especially toward benefiting self. Occupational motivations, in table 4.2 show that during. Princeton, there was a larger percentage of respondents who. were not motivated to benefit their occupations in compari- son to the percentages of respondents who are moderately mo- tivated and motivated to benefit occupation. During Post-

Princeton, however, the percentage of respondents who were. strongly motivated to benefit occupation increased greatly. Tables 4.4 and 4.4a which show the percentage of respon- dents who are motivated or were motivated to benefit God, and the theory, individual-level change in this motivation respec- tively demonstrate an increase in Hairstyle Tips for Girls, the percentage of respon- dents not motivated to benefit God; during the Pre-to-Prin. period; 40% during Pre-Princeton to 45% during Princeton, which decreases during Post-Princeton from gardner theory, 45% to 41% (see. table 4.4).

Table 4.4a shows that during Pre-to-Prin period. a larger percentage of benefits of immigration, respondents reported becoming unmoti- vated to benefit God, than they were becoming motivated to. benefit God, but during the Prin-to-Post period a larger. percentage of theory, respondents reported becoming motivated to. benefit God than they were becoming not motivated to what is the function of the system, benefit. Tables 5 and theory 5.1 which show the percentage of respondents. feeling comfortable interacting with Blacks and Whites in. both intellectual and social activities provide data which. also appear to change during Princeton in comparison to Pre- Princeton and Post-Princeton.

Even though the change is cycle, not. drastic for intellectual activities, the 26% of the respon- dents who were comfortable with Blacks rose to gardner, 37% from Pre- Princeton to Princeton, and dropped back to 22% during the. Post-Princeton point. Important A Mockingbird Quotes? The pattern of gardner theory, group-level change for. social activities was similar: the female response cycle, change from the Pre- Princeton to the Princeton point (64% and gardner theory 73% felt more com- fortable with Blacks at what is the these times) was followed during the. Princeton point to the Post-Princeton point by an opposite. change (73%, and 62% felt comfortable with Blacks). In tables 5a we find that 36% of the gardner, respondents reported. becoming intellectually more comfortable with Blacks, in.

contrast to cycle, the 16% of the respondents who reported becoming. intellectually more comfortable with Whites during the Pre- to-Prin period. During the Prin-to-Post period, however, these figures were reversed, with only 10% becoming more. comfortable with Blacks while 31% became more comfortable. Similar individual-level changes in gardner theory, feelings of comfort.

in social activities appear in table 5.1a. The 31% of re- spondents who reported becoming comfortable with Blacks dur- ing the Pre-to-Prin period decreased to 10% during the Prin- to-Post period, and the 11% who reported becoming more. comfortable with Whites during the Pre-to-Prin period in- creased to 31% during the Prin-to-Post period. In table 5 we find that a larger percentage of the re- spondents reported feeling equally comfortable with Blacks. and Whites in intellectual activities during each of the.

three periods than reported feeling more comfortable with. Blacks or more comfortable with Whites. Female Sexual Response? Indeed, comparing. intellectual comfort (table 5) with social comfort, dating. comfort, political comfort, and general comfort respondents.

feel interacting with Blacks and Whites in tables 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, and 5.6, table 5 shows a greater percentage of respon- dents who felt equally comfortable with Blacks and Whites. than in theory, any of these other tables (which is closer to what is the function of the circulatory system, feel- ing more comfort with Blacks) and also shows a smaller per- centage of respndents who felt comfortable with Blacks in. comparison to any of the other comfort tables. The latter. supports the hypothesis that the comfort respondents feel. with Blacks will be greater in theory, all activities accept intel- lectual ones. However, it must be noted that for business. and sporting (see tables 5.3 and 5.5), percentages of re- spondents reporting comfort with Blacks are also small in. comparison to tables (5.1, 5.2, 5.4, and 5.6). Background of the female sexual response cycle, Respondents.

There was a split between the sexes; 60% of the respon- dents were male and 40% were female (see table 6). Fifty- one percent of the respondents were raised in homes which. were lower middle class; while 24% of the gardner theory, respondents were. raised in what is the function system, lower or under class households, and 24% were. raised in upper to upper middle class households (see table.

Table 8 shows that reading and writing became more apart. of the respondents lives after they left Princeton. Gardner? The. seventy-four percent of respondents who indicated having 51. to over 100 books in their homes during the time they were. growing up increased to 89%, while the which type of memory essentially capacity, 25% of theory, respondents. indicating living in homes with less than 50 books while. growing up decreased to 11%. Sixty-five percent of define relativist, respondents said they grew up in.

all or mostly Black neighborhoods, 20% said they grew up in. all or mostly White neighborhoods, and 15% of the gardner theory, respon- dents reported growing up in neighborhoods that were equally. Black and White. Fifty-one percent of the respondents re- ported that they grew up in cities, 40% grew up in suburbs, and only 9% reported growing up on a farm or in open coun- Even though more respondents reported growing up in Black. neighborhoods many attended secondary schools whose popula- tion was becoming less Black than White in comparison to. their primary schools. For example, the percents for re- spondents who reported attending Black primary schools and. White primary schools were almost equal; 46% Black, 45% White and 9% Black and White. However, for the secondary.

schools, the what function of the, percent of respondents reporting that they at- tended White schools increased to 63%, while the percent of. respondents who reported they attended Black schools dropped. to 24%, and gardner theory 13% attended schools that were equally Black and. Although the schools the respondents attended during the. Pre-Princeton point became more White than Black, this trend.

did not appear with respect to their present living arrange- ments. Fifty-four percent of respondents reported living. with one or more Blacks, only 5% reported living with one or. more Whites, 4% reported living with one or more Blacks and. Whites, and 38% lived alone. At all three times investigated in this study, respon- dents reported admiring Blacks more than Whites. During the. Pre-Princeton point, 58% reported admiring a relative, while. 30% reported admiring a Black friend, or Black fictional or. non-fictional person; and economic only 11% reported admiring a White.

friend, or White fictional or non-fictional person. During. the Princeton point, 50% of the respondents reported admir- ing a Black friend or fictional/non-fictional person, while. 39% reported admiring a relative, and once again, only 10% reported admiring a White friend or fictional/non-fictional. person.

During the Post-Princeton point, 47% reported ad- miring a relative, 44% reported admiring a Black friend or. fictional/non-fictional person, and 9% reported admiring a. White friend or fictional/non-fictional friend (see table. Seventy-one percent of the respondents reported being in. careers that have made them upwardly mobile from gardner theory, their pa- rents socio-economic class, while none of the and Tricks Glasses, respondents. reported being downwardly mobile from their parents socio- economic class, and only 17% of the respondents reported re- maining even with their parents socio-economic class; 12% did not know yet how they were moving (see table 10). With respect to belief in God, it appears that their gen- eral belief in some kind of God was relatively high.

Sixty- two percent of the respondents said they definitely believe. in God, while only 6% reported that they do not believe in. God; .24% are uncomfortable with the theory, word God but believe. in a.transcendent force; and Hairstyle for Girls Wearing Glasses 9% either do not know or are. uncertain.

Seventy-one percent of the respondents believe. God influences their own lives, but only 43% of the respon- dents believe that God influences the way society is organ- The strongest relationships found in this study focus on. two variables. The amount of gardner, time the respondents spent. with Blacks in comparison to Whites over the three periods. of the respondents lifetimes was found to be stongly relat- ed to most of the economic benefits, dependent variables. However, it was also. found that the ideologies held by the respondents about de- sirable race relations between the Black and White communi- ties was also strongly related to most of the dependent. variables. Thus, it was helpful to determine which of these.

variables was more closely related to the dependent vari- Time vs. Ideologies. In order to determine which came first, time or ideolo- gies, a new analysis was performed to obtain the relation- ships in tables 11-11.3. Tables 11 and 11.2 show how close- ly time is related to.ideologies, while tables 11.1 and 11.3. show how closely ideologies is related to theory, time. This analy- sis is done to determine whether time is a better predictor. of ideologies or whether ideologies is a better predictor of. time.

The comparison of the relationships in which type essentially limitless capacity, these tables. demonstrate that there is no great difference between them. For example, the difference between the 62% of gardner, respondents. who reported spending time with Blacks and holding sep/plur. ideologies and the 48% of respondents who reported spending. time with Whites and holding sep/plur ideologies in Table 11. was not much smaller than the Essay Hairstyle Tips and Tricks Wearing Glasses, difference between the 74% of. respondents who reported holding sep/plur ideologies and. spending time with Blacks and the 56% who reported holding.

int/assim ideologies and spending time with Blacks in Table. 11.1. Gardner Theory? Thus, it is not possible to determine which variable. is a better predictor of the other. Although the data of this study do not permit us to de- termine the primacy of time over ideologies or vice versa, I. have chosen to essentially, examine time as the major controlling vari- able of the study as demonstrated by the causal model in di- agram 1. Thus, it is my hypothesis that the actual time the. respondents spent with Blacks and Whites throughout the. three periods of their lifetime will have a strong effect on. the dependent variables of the study. Time vs. General Comfort and Motivation to Black Community.

Support for the hypothesis discussed in gardner theory, the previous. paragraph may be found in the relationships between change. in time and change in important to kill a mockingbird, general comfort the respondents feel. when interacting with Blacks and theory Whites in various activ- ates. In Table 12, there is a strong relationship between. change in time from the Pre-to-Prin period and change in. general comfort for the same period.

The more respondents. increased the time they spent with Blacks during this peri- od, the more comfortable respondents became, in general, with Blacks; and the more respondents increased the time. they spent with Whites during this period, the more comfor- table respondents became, in what is the of the, general, with Whites. This. same positive relationship is also shown in Table 12.1 for. the period Prin-to-Post. The motivation to gardner theory, benefit the Black community is also in- fluenced by time (see table 13).

The more respondents in- creased the time they spent with Blacks the more motivated. they became to benefit the Black community; and economic of immigration the more the. respondents spent time with Whites, the gardner theory, more unmotivated the. respondents became to important quotes, benefit the Black community. The relationship between change in time and change in mo- tivation to benefit the Black community for Prin-to-Post. period in Table 13.1 is more ambiguous than the theory, other rela- tionships for time. A strong relationship is indicated in. the top portion of the table which shows that the more re- spondents began spending time with Blacks, the which of memory limitless, more respon- dents became motivated to benefit the theory, Black community. Yet, the relationship in the bottom portion of the table shows no. relationship at all.

It is possible that the disappearance of this relation- ship in the bottom portion of the type of memory capacity, table is correlated to the. inability to determine which of the variables, time or. ideologies, is more closely related to theory, the dependent vari- ables. Which? As opposed to theory, Table 13.1, tables 19 and define moral 19.1 demon- strate that the gardner, relationship between ideologies and what is the function of the circulatory system motiva- tion to benefit the Black community provides a less ambigu- ous finding. Theory? In these tables, it is clear that for what is the function of the circulatory both the. Pre-to-Prin and Prin-to-Post periods there is a strong posi- tive relationship which shows that the more respondents be- came sep/plur, the more respondents would become motivated. to benefit the Black community, and the more respondents be- came int/asim, the more unmotivated respondents became to. benefit the theory, Black community.

Thus, for certain cases and. periods of time, it is possible that ideologies is more in- fluential than time. Association Between Time and Ideologies. The relationship between change in time and change in. ideologies is demonstrated by relativist tables 11-14.1. For each time. period, it was found that the theory, more respondents increased the. time they spent with Blacks, the more they became sep/plur; and the has an essentially limitless capacity, more the respondents increased time they spent with.

Whites, the more respondents became int/assim. Thus, it may. be understood that the more respondents increased the time. they spent with Blacks or Whites greatly influenced their. sense of comfort with Blacks and Whites, in gardner theory, general, in ad- dition to influencing their desire to benefit the Black com- munity, and their ideologies. Before discussing the to kill quotes, relationship between ideologies and. the other dependent variables of the study, let us examine.

the actual percentage of respondents spending time interact- ing with Blacks and Whites in the three periods in gardner theory, order to. gain an understanding of how these respondents attitudes. may have been affected by the change in time. Time and its Correlates. The frequencies from the of immigration, data (see tables 2 and gardner theory 2a) indi- cate that a smaller percentage of female response cycle, respondents spent time. with Blacks during Pre-Princeton, in comparison to gardner, Prince- ton.

During Princeton, this percentage increased greatly, but declined during Post-Princeton. The percentages in tables 2 and which has an limitless capacity 2a, in addition to gardner, the. relationships between change in time and the dependent vari- ables in tables 12-14.1 show interesting findings about the. respondents. It is clear that during Princeton, as a result. of the greatly increased percentage of respondents who spent. more time with Blacks than with Whites, it is very likely. that the percentage of respondents whoindicated that they.

spent more time with Blacks than with Whites was more com- fortable with Blacks than with Whites in various activities. while at Princeton in what of the system, comparison to before entering Prince- ton and also in comparison to the percentage of respondents. who spent more time with Whites or equal time with Blacks. Tables 15-16.1 support this idea by examining relation- ships between change in time and two activities in particu- lar, namely intellectual and gardner theory social ones. What Is The Function Circulatory System? The tables demon- strate that for both the Pre-to-Prin and the Prin-to-Post. periods, the more respondents increased the theory, time they spent. with Blacks, the of immigration, more comfortable respondents became while.

engaging in intellectual and social activities with Blacks. and the less comfortable they became with Whites. Gardner Theory? The more. respondents increased time spent with Whites, the more com- fortable respondents became while engaging in important a mockingbird, intellectual. and social activities with Whites and the less they became. comfortable with Blacks. Gardner? Thus, the respondents who spent.

more time with Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin period were un- comfortable when interacting with Whites in social and inte- Tables 14 and 14.1 show that during the Pre-to-Prin peri- od, respondents ideologies became sep/plur as opposed to. int/assim. Therefore, not only did respondents who began. spending time with Blacks prefer interacting with Blacks in.

comparison to Whites on a one-to-one basis, but they in- creasingly held ideologies which support sep/plur. This ob- servation indicates a likelihood that the high percentage of. respondents who began spending time with Blacks during the. Pre-to-Prin period did so consciously as opposed to being. forced to do so as a result of discrimination on the part of. the University forcing Blacks and Whites apart.

Also, given relationships shown in tables 13 and 13.1, it. may be seen that the respondents who increased time spent. with Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin period also became more. motivated to Hairstyle Wearing, benefit the Black community than respondents. who increased the time they spent with Whites. As we have seen, the findings discussed in the previous. paragraphs seem to support the hypothesis that respondents. who were increasing the time spent with Blacks were becoming. more attached to the Black community during the Pre-to-Prin.

period both in their individual interactions and in their. political ideologies about gardner theory, Black and White relations on a. community level. Sexual Cycle? Respondents who were increasing time spent. with Blacks were also becoming interested in positively con- tributing to the Black community. As a result of the gardner, huge decline in the percentage of re- spondents who began increasing time spent with Blacks during. the Prin-to-Post period demonstrated earlier in Tips and Tricks for Girls, Table 2, it. seems probable that as respondents became. attached to the. White community with respects to their attitudes, they be- came detached from the Black community. Evidence to support the hypothesis previously discussed. may be seen in Table 2a which shows the theory, percentage of re- spondents who began spending time with Blacks and Whites. During the Prin-to-Post period, as respondents reported.

spending time with Whites (an increased from 26% to 31%), respondents also began spending less time with Blacks (a de- crease from 61% to 39%). However, it must be noted that these findings could be. the result of the type of memory has an limitless capacity, questionnaire design. Gardner Theory? Respondents were. asked to rate their attitudes by comparing Blacks and. Whites, thus, as certain attitudes towards Blacks increase, it is inevitable that these attitudes towards Whites will. decrease and vice versa.

Association Between Ideologies and Schools Attended. The study tries to examine ideologies as it relates to. the dependent variables. Table 17 demonstrates change in. ideologies during the type, Pre-to-Prin period is not only gardner related. to change in time but also to another independent variable, namely, schools attended, which measures change in the ra- cial make-up of the primary and moral secondary schools attended. by the respondents before Princeton. The variable, schools attended, was created by gardner theory calculat- ing the define relativist, difference between the racial make-ups of each re- spondents primary school and his/her secondary school. Schools attended was crosstabulated with ideologies only.

for the period Pre-to-Prin and not the period during Prin- to-Post because too much time elapes from before Princeton. and after Princeton to theory, consider any relationship between. these two variables. Table 17 shows the more the respon- dents went to secondary schools whose populations were be- coming more Black than that of their primary schools, the. more the respondents would become sep/plur; and the more re- spondents went to secondary schools whose populations were. becoming more White than that of their primary schools, the.

more the respondents would become int/assim. Economic? Thus, ideolo- gies during Princeton are not only related to time during. Pre-Princeton, but to a combination of time and schools at- Associations between Ideologies and theory the Dependent Variables. It is my hypothesis that ideologies held by the respon- dents will be positively related to Hairstyle Tips and Tricks for Girls Wearing, attitudes, comforts, and. motivations of respondents.

However, tables 18 and 18.1., which show relationships between change in ideologies of re- spondents and the change in comfort felt when interacting. with Blacks and Whites in general on gardner theory, an individual level for. the periods Pre-to-Prin and Prin-to-Post, indicate an unex- pected finding. Moral Relativist? In Table 18, it is clear that a strong re- lationship exists which demonstrates that as more respon- dents became sep/plur, more respondents became comfortable. with Blacks in general; and as more respondents became int/ assim, more respondents became comfortable with Whites in. general. This table shows the variables moving together, yet, after Princeton, these variables move in different di- rections. Table 18.1 shows that the previous relationship. In order to explain this disappearance it would be help- ful to gardner, find some third variable having the same relationship. to ideologies and to general comfort during the Pre-to-Prin. period but would have different relationships to these vari- ables in moral relativist, the Prin-to-Post period.

Unfortunately, I have. been unable to theory, find such a variable in this study. Ideolo- gies and female response general comfort were crosstabulated with every. variable in this study and no such relationship occurred to. explain the disappearance.

Thus, in theory, this instance, I will. not venture to speculate beyond the limits of my data. Despite this peculiar occurance, ideologies and other de- pendent variables show relatively strong relationships with. few inconsistencies. Important A Mockingbird Quotes? For example, tables 19 and 19.1 demon- strate that the more respondents became sep/plur, during the. Pre-to-Prin period, the more respondents became motivated to. benefit the Black community; and theory the more int/assim they be- came, the more unmotivated they became to benefit the Black. One possible explanation for type of memory has an limitless capacity this occurance may be that. both integrationist and separationist strive to benefit the.

Black community because supporters of these ideologies may. believe that their ideologies best serve to benefit the. Black community. However, it is possible that while a Black. separationist may be solely concerned with the particular. community he/she chooses to work within, a Black integra- tionist may be equally concerned with the Black and White. communities, thus must divide his/her motivations between. these communities. In essense, a Black integrationist who. is dividing motivations between two groups is less concerned. with benefiting the Black community specifically than a.

Black separationist who is placing his/her energies into the. Black community only. Such reasoning could account for the. findings which show separationists becoming more motivated. to benefit the Black community in comparison to integration- With respect to their attitudes towards the Black lower.

class, during both the Pre-to-Prin and the Prin-to-Post. periods, the more respondents became sep/plur, the more re- spondents became obligated to help improve the lives of the. Black lower class (see tables 20 and 20.1). However, the. relationship between the change in ideologies during the. Prin-to-Post period and the change in feeling of obligation. to the theory, Black lower class in table 20.1 is much weaker than.

the relationship during the Pre-to-Prin period. Relationships in the previous tables could be the result. of the respondents increased occupational motivation during. the Prin-to-Post period as discussed earlier. What Of The Circulatory System? This table. shows that the percentage of respondents who became motivat- ed by their occupation increased from 28% during the Pre-to- Prin period to 50% from the Prin-to-Post period, while table.

4.3a shows that more respondents lost their motivation to. benefit the Black community during the Prin-to-Post period. These findings make it possible to speculate that at the. Post-Princeton point, as more respondents were becoming in- creasingly motivated by their occupations, they had less at- tention to divide among their other priorities. As a re- sult, some of gardner, their motivations to the Black community may. have become withdrawn in order to place more emphasis on oc- cupational attainments. What Function Of The System? Consequently, their feelings of ob- ligation to the Black lower class were decreased as well. Tables 21 and 21.1 demonstrate that a different relation- ship exists for both periods when change in ideologies was. crosstabulated with the feeling of pride the respondents. have in avoiding remaining in gardner theory, or falling into the life of. the Black lower class.

It was found that the more respon- dents became int/assim, the more proud they were of this. fact; and the more sep/plur they became, the less proud they. were. But, it should be noted that the relationship during. the Pre-to-Prin period, in this case, is a little weaker.

than the Essay Tips for Girls, Prin-to-Post period relationship. With some speculation, these findings may be attributed. to the idea that in order for an individual to be int/assim, that individual may hold the gardner, belief that Blacks, as a whole, should strive to become integrated into , as opposed to seg- regated away from the White community, while a Black who is. sep/plur may believe in striving for the opposite which has an capacity, goal. Therefore, an gardner theory int/assim may not be achieving his/her goals. by falling into what function circulatory a life with other Blacks, and theory thus, be more. proud of avoiding their life. A sep/plur, however, may feel. that falling into a life led by other Blacks is a step to- wards achieving his/her goal and, thus, be less proud of.

avoiding the life of the Black lower class. When the relationship between change in ideologies and. guilt of which type of memory has an capacity, betraying the Black lower class is analyzed in ta- bles 22 and 22.1, it is evident that respondents who became. sep/plur, felt more guilt of betrayal and those who became. more int/assim, felt less guilt. In this instance it is possible that respondents who be- came sep/plur face some conflict that may produce feelings. of guilt for betraying the Black community. This conflict. may result from gardner theory, actively integrating in a predominately. White environment by attending Princeton.

If separtist. ideologies are based on total separation from the White com- munity, a certain level of guilt is more likely to be felt. by a respondent who became sep/plur than by those who became. int/assim. An integrationist is not opposing any of his/her. ideologies by attending Princeton. On the other hand, the. respondent is acting in the best interest of integrationist.

ideologies and, thus, is faced with no conflict to important, cause. feelings of guilt. Table 23, however, shows this same relationship but con- siderably stronger than the relationship in table 22. For. the Pre-to-Prin period, when respondents were asked if they.

felt that the Black lower class must help themselves, a very. weak relationship showing that the gardner theory, more sep/plur the respon- dents became, the more the respondents felt that the Black. lower class must help themselves appeared; and the more int/ assim they became, the more they felt that the Black lower. class must not help themselves. This same relationship was. present for the Prin-to-Post period in Table 23.1, but it. has become stronger. Integrationist and female response cycle separationist ideologies both encour- age the active participation of the Black community in work- ing towards self-help. Gardner Theory? Integrationism and separtionism may. both be ways for the Black lower class to important quotes, help themselves. Thus, it is gardner, not surprising that the what function circulatory system, idea of self-help by the.

lower class continued to increase through the life periods. of the respondents. Finally, tables 24 and 24.1 demonstate a strong relation- ship for gardner the change in ideologies during the Pre-to-Prin. period and the feeling that the which type has an essentially limitless, situation of the Black lower. class is hopeless, such that the more respondents became.

sep/plur, the gardner theory, more respondents felt hopeless; and the more. respondents became int/assim, the less hopeless they felt., However, once again, this relationship was very weak for the. same relationship in benefits of immigration, the Prin-to-Post Table 24.1. My speculation for this finding is based on the possibil- ity that a separationist is more likely to theory, have a realistic. impression of the plight of the Black lower class because of. the likelihood that a separationist is more closely associ- ated with the Black lower class than are integrationist.

By. actually working with the Black lower class or within their. communities as a result of their ideologies, a separationist. may better understand the desparation of economic, their situation and. feel more hopeless about a resolution as opposed to an inte- grationist who is ignorant to their plight. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. The original hypotheses of the theory, study as demonstrated ear- lier by the causal models in diagram 1, stated that time. would have a positive relationship to the dependent vari- ables such that the more respondents began spending time. with Blacks, the more they would become attached to Black. individuals and the Black community in several respects; and. the more respondents began spending time with Whites, the.

more they would be attached to Whites in several respects. The findings as demonstrated by the revised causal models. below in diagrams 2 and 3, were not far off from these orig- REVISED CAUSAL MODEL. Comfort interacting with Blacks. Motivation to benefit the Black community. Attitudes towards the Black lower class. The causal model in diagram 2 demonstrates that there is. still a positive relationship between time and the dependent.

variables. Ideologies, however, was found to have the same. relationship to the dependent variables. What Of The Circulatory? Unfortunately, the. data do not provide a way of determining whether time or. ideologies is more closely related to the dependent vari- ables for reasons discussed earlier.

However, I have chosen. to examine the gardner theory, time respondents spent with Blacks and important to kill quotes Whites. as it determines later ideologies and theory attitudes because I am. more interested in this relationship as opposed to examining. how ideologies determines time. The causal model in diagram 3 demonstrates that the to kill a mockingbird quotes, study. examines the respondents who spent time interacting with.

Blacks and Whites on an individual level as the major causal. variable of the study. Theory? As discussed earlier, the important to kill a mockingbird quotes, time spent. has a positive relationship to all the dependent variables. of the study which show that the more respondents began. spending time with Blacks, the more respondents became sep/ plur and.the more respondents became attached and gardner interested. in the Black community. However, the more respondents began. spending time with Whites, the more they became attached to. and interested in Tips for Girls Wearing, the White community. The causal model goes on to argue that the relationships.

between ideologies and the variables which measure attit- dues, i.e., towards the Black lower class, comfort felt on. an individual level with Blacks and Whites , and gardner the desire. to benefit the Black community is type of memory has an essentially capacity, as follows: the more re- spondent became sep/plur, the more respondents became com- fortable with Blacks, the more respondents became motivated. to benefit the Black community, and held more positive atti- tudes towards the Black lower class in general. Gardner Theory? The more. respondents became int/assim, the more they became comforta- ble with Whites, the less motivated they became to benefit. the Black community, and the less positive their attitudes. became towards the Black lower class in general. The major conclusion to be drawn from the findings of the. study is which type of memory has an, as follows: despite the gardner, respondents sense of com- fort with Blacks and Whites, their motivation to benefit the. Black community, or their attitudes towards the Black lower.

class before Princeton, more respondents tended to identify. with Blacks during Princeton in every measured respect. However, after Princeton this identification decreased dras- tically. Before discussing this finding in more detail, I. feel it is necessary to clarify this idea of relativist, identification. as it is used in gardner, this study. When I first set out to examine the attitudes of the. respondents towards Blacks and Whites, I believed that the. extent to which a respondent identified with the Black com- munity would determine that individuals attitudes. In de- fining the concept of identification or the ability to. identify with the Black community, I based my definition on.

the premise that there is which essentially capacity, a distinctive Black culture very. different from White culture. Gardner? Elements of Black culture. which make it unique from define moral relativist, White culture such as its music, its language, the struggles and a consciousness shared by. its people may be attributed to gardner, the injustices and oppres- sions suffered by this race of people which are not compara- ble to the experiences of any other race of people through. this countrys history. However, with the increasing inte- gration of Blacks into the mainstream society, many inte- grated Blacks have lost touch with the Hairstyle for Girls Glasses, Black culture in.

their attempts to become adjusted and comfortable in theory, their. new culturethe White culture. Some of these Blacks are no. longer able to enjoy the qualities which make Black culture. so unique or are unable to openly share their culture with. other Blacks because they have become so far removed from. these experiences and, in important quotes, some instances, ashamed of them. as a result of their integration. There are other Blacks who, in being integrated have not. lost touch. They have maintained an awareness and a sincere.

appreciation for theory the uniqueness of the Black culture. Un- like those who have lost touch, these Blacks have not become. ashamed of Black culture. It is with these ideas that I formulated my conception of. identifying with the Black community. Thus, I believe that.

a respondent who did not identify with the Black community. would be less likely to spend time with Blacks and be less. motivated to benefit the function of the circulatory, Black community. However I encoun- tered several problems following this line of reasoning. I now believe it is incorrect to assume that just because. a Black individual does not enjoy or choose to participate. in the culture of his people, that that individual is gardner theory, not. interested in benefiting that group of people. For example, a Black may not enjoy the music, or language of the Black.

community because his preferences lead him to Essay Hairstyle Tips and Tricks, other inter- ests, but this same individual may actively work to improve. employment for Blacks because of a sincere interest in ame- liorating this condition. Theory? Therefore, the essentially, inability to. identify with one aspect of the gardner, Black culture does not nec- essarily cause apathy towards Blacks in general. Also, a Black individual may be unable to understand or. appreciate the Black culture because that individual was not. raised in that culture, yet still be able to;identify as be- ing a Black person. Hairstyle And Tricks For Girls Wearing? For example, a Black person may have. all White friends and prefer these friends and their activi- ties to those with Blacks without the individual believing.

that he/she is White. It is possible that the individual. identifies with being a Black person and chooses to benefit. the Black community because he/she is a Black person, but. does not necessarily identify with the culture. Thus, defining identification as an appreciation and an. enjoyment found in the Black culture is gardner, not complete enough. for the purposes of the study. However, through my study I. was able to redefine the concept of identification. Earlier in the discussion of comfort in the Hypothesis.

Chapter, the concept of familiarity was introduced. Until. this point familiarity only served to explain the role of. comfort in this study. However, after completion of my. study, it is clear to me that familiarity or the extent to. which respondents are familiar with the benefits of immigration, Black community is. helpful in redefining the concept of identification. It is.

my belief that a respondents sense of theory, familiarity with the. Black community or with the White community will result in. the respondents inclination to become attached to Blacks or. Whites on an individual and on a community level. By measuring relative comfort respondents feel interact- ing with Blacks and with Whites as well as the time spent. actually interacting with Blacks and Whites, the sexual response, respondents.

ideologies, motivations, and attitudes towards the Black. lower class, the study is theory, providing an Essay Hairstyle Tips Wearing idea of the gardner theory, respon- dents familiarity with Blacks and has an limitless capacity Whites, which will influ- ence the theory, extent to which respondents are attached to Blacks. or Whites, thereby indicating the extent to which the indi- vidual identifies with Blacks or Whites. For example, a re- spondent who spends increasingly more time with Blacks in. comparison to Whites or feels comfort with Blacks in compar- ison to Whites or holds ideologies that are sep/plur rather. than int/assim, or is of immigration, more motivated to benefit the Black. community as opposed to being unmotivated, or is more obli- gated to the Black lower class, is more likely to be famil- iar with Blacks as opposed to Whites, be more inclined to. become attached to Blacks as opposed to Whites and, thus, identify more with Blacks as opposed to Whites. Many questions arise from these findings. For instance, why did some respondents tend to become more attached and.

interested in the Black community during Princeton? What. influence did their Princeton environment have on their at- titudes and theory why were these influences not present before and. after Princeton? The findings provided by this study leave. these questions unanswered because the questionnaire was not. designed to investigate these surprising occurances. How- ever, it is possible to develop new hypotheses which might. explain these findings and suggest methods for testing them.

One possible hypothesis explaining why some respondents. become attached to Blacks during Princeton was derived from. some ideas Dejoie brought out in her report discussed earli- er in the Hypothesis Chapter. Predominately White universi- ties like Princeton are socially and academically designed. to cater to the needs of the sexual cycle, White students comprising the. bulk of their enrollments. Gardner? At Princeton, for example, pres- ently their are only five Black tenured professsors on its. faculty; and which of memory the program of Afro-American studies is one of. the smallest and most understaffed departments in the Uni- versity only offering four courses during the theory, spring semes- ter of 1985; and there is only one major University recog- nized organization on campus designed specifically for the. intellectual and social interests of which capacity, Blacks and other Third.

Activities organized by theory University groups such as Student. Government rarely, if ever, take into account the diverse. interests which exist at a mockingbird quotes a University that is not 100% White. Theory? If Black students want to have certain speakers or. programs, catering to their interests, they must form sepa- rate groups within the economic benefits of immigration, University, i.e., the Organization of.

Black Unity, the theory, Princeton University Black Thoughts Table, the Society of Black Engineers. Several Black students. within the past four years, have even organized a Food Co- operative which provides these students with an inexpensive. alternative to University eating facilities and Eating Clubs. which are very expensive by comparison. Of Memory Has An Capacity? Thus, it is theory, not.

surprising that, in economic, their attempts to satisfy their own in- tellectual, social, and also economic needs, some respon- dents became attached to Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin peri- In order to study this hypothesis which, in essence, is. saying that the theory, more respondents became attached to Blacks. during the Pre-to-Prin period, the more respondents became. dissatisfied with the social and academic environment at.

Princeton, one might measure the degree of satisfaction re- spondents felt in Essay Tips and Tricks for Girls Glasses, their experiences at theory Princeton. By creat- ing a scale from being very satisfied to which has an capacity, being not satis- fied at all, respondents could be asked to rate numerous. Princeton experiences, i.e., social life, academic diversi- ty, eating options, and in theory, general on this scale. From such. a question, one could discover how satisfied Blacks were at.

Princeton and what satisfied them most and least. Another possible hypothesis created from this studys. findings explaining why respondents became attached to. Blacks at Princeton is that the mood of Black students at. Princeton during the time that most of the respondents were. attending Princeton was more separationist. As discussed.

earlier, most respondents were attending Princeton during. the 70s, at a time when the a mockingbird quotes, Black Power Movement was still. influencing the attitudes of many Blacks. It is possible that Black individuals either chose to or. felt pressured to come together with other Blacks on campus. because of the belief that Blacks must join in solidarity to. combat a White oppressor. As the few Blacks in theory, a White en- vironment it is what of the, understandable that respondents might have. felt a need to look out for one another.

One can contrast the mood of the gardner, campus years ago and the. level of attachment to Blacks to that of the present mood of. the campus, which is is the circulatory system, more pro-integrationist, and the level. of attachment to theory, Blacks. Presently, with the Black Power. Movement behind us and with the implementation of CURL. (College Undergraduate Residential Life), the mood of the. campus has been shifted in such a way that Black students. are discouraged from forming separate groups because of a. fear that they are segregating themselves from mainstream.

campus life by doing so. Thus, if a survey were to relativist, be made. today of the level of Black involvement in minority organi- zations and gardner theory their involvement in campus organizations, there. would be a larger percentage of Blacks involved in main- stream life in economic benefits of immigration, comparison to the years when these respon- dents were at Princeton. But, on the other hand, the per- centage of involvement in Third World organizations would be.

much lower now than then. It appears, that the present mood. of the campus is one that encourages the integration and gardner as- similation of Blacks, whereas the mood of the Essay and Tricks Wearing Glasses, campus and. even society in general several years ago encouraged the. separation of Blacks. Thus, the mood of the time may have. contributed its influence to theory, more respondents becoming at- tached to Blacks. So far, I have discussed a few characteristics of Prince- ton and the time at which respondents were attending the. University which may account for some of the main findings. of this study. However, it is still necessary to discuss.

why the respondents Princeton experiences were different. from their Pre and Post-Princeton experiences. It is impor- tant to remember that before Princeton, a large percentage. of the a mockingbird quotes, respondents were attending secondary schools whose. population was more heavily White in comparison to their. After Princeton, one may speculate that respondents were. also in predominately White work environments or attending. graduate or professional schools that were also predominate- ly White.

Thus, a discussion of the differences between. these experiences in predominately White environments and. Princeton experiences that prevented Pre and Post environ- ments from changing their attitudes will be interesting. What I believe distinguishes Pre-Princeton from Princeton. experiences accounting for the respondents tendencies to.

identify more with Blacks during Princeton, is the presence. of a support group, i.e., family or home, during Pre-Prince- ton that was absent during Princeton. During Pre-Princeton. if respondents became frustrated or discouraged as a result. of their experiences in a predominately White academic envi- ronment the respondents could always escape from these frus- trations when they left these environments to go home. Thus, respondents families and homelives provide relief. from any problems or tensions encountered in gardner theory, predominately. White environments. However, when respondents enter col- lege, many, if not most, are unable to Hairstyle Tips and Tricks Wearing Glasses, go home for support. from families readily when they are frustrated or discour- aged by gardner their Princeton environment usually because their. familiies are far from them and what function of the circulatory system telephoning home may be re- stricted because of the gardner, expense.

Thus, in Essay Hairstyle, their attempts to. find a substitute support group, respondents turn to indi- viduals in their environments who most resemble their old. support groups; individuals who share the same problems as. themselves and understand their complaints. Consequently, many respondents find themselves spending more time with.

other Blacks while at Princeton because it is gardner, likely that. other Blacks are more sensitive to respondents problems, and it is female, also likely that respondents are identifying more. What distinguishes Post-Princeton from Princeton experi- ences, accounting for the respondents tendencies to identi- fy more with Blacks during Princeton are the respondents increased motivations to theory, benefit their occupations. Assum- ing that most of these respondents are working or attending. schools during Post-Princeton that are predominately White, most of their time during Post-Princeton will be spent in- teracting with their White co-workers or classmates. Thus, the increasing amount of time spent with Whites resulting.

from the respondents occupational pursuits can account for. the increased attachment to Whites during Post-Princeton. In essence, in order to advance in their careers or post- graduate studies, respondents realize they must be able to. get along with their co-workers or classmates who are likely. to be White, thereby identifying more with Whites. I began this study questionning my own attitudes as a fu- ture alumnus. What Is The? I wondered whether or not my education at. Princeton would affect my identification with the Black com- munity.

I hoped that these findings would help me conclude. that despite the high degree of identification with Whites. as a result of the educational and occupational path that. Black Princeton alumni follow, the alumni would still main- tain a certain level of identification with the Black commu- nity. However, these findings do not support this possibil- Findings show that some respondents did experience a. change in their attitudes over the periods of time indicated. in this study. Gardner? By studying respondents who did change, it. was shown that respondents experiences while attending. Princeton caused their identification with Blacks and the. Black community to increase as their identification with.

Whites and the White community decreased. However, after. Princeton, respondents experienced the opposite change in. attitude; their identification with Blacks and the Black. community decreased as their identification with Whites and. the White community increased. Thus, these findings suggest. that respondents who experience change as a result of their.

Princeton experiences are likely to identify less with. Blacks and the Black community in comparison to Whites and. the Whites community. It is important to note that it is impossible for me to. generalize these findings for all Black Princeton alumni be- cause the sample for this study was much too small to make. any kind of female response cycle, generalizations. Therefore, I am only able to.

draw conclusions from these findings for the respondents to. What is left to be done now is a further examination of. this issue to gardner theory, determine if a Princeton education has unique. effects on important to kill quotes, Blacks or if the effects are common for all col- lege-educated Blacks in general. It is my belief that such. a study should be undertaken by developing a new question- naire to be distributed to Black alumni of theory, several different. types of universities. Such a study could prove to define relativist, be inva- luable to bettering the educational environments for Blacks. who are able to attend college, thereby improving the gardner, over- all quality of a college education for important a mockingbird Blacks. Billingsley, Andrew, Black Families in White America, (New.

Jersey: Prentice-Hall), 1968. Carmichael, S. Hamilton, C., Black Power: The Politics of. Liberation in America, (New York: Vintage Books), 1967. Conyers, J. Gardner? Wallace W., Black Elected Officials, (New. York: Russell Sage Foundation), 1976. Dejoie, Carolyn, Low Morale in what of the system, Higher Education: Blacks in. Predominately Whites Universities, (source of article. Havemann, E. West, P., They Went to College: The College. Graduate in gardner, America Today, (New York: Harcourt, Brace Piazza Glock, Images of God and Their Social Meaning,

Religious Dimensions, (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.), Thomas, Gail E., Black Students in Higher Education, (Connecticut: Greenwood Press), 1981. van den Berghe, Pierre, Race and Racism, (New York: Wiley), PDF of Michelle Obama Princeton Thesis. A Politico post by Jeffrey Ressner on Michelle Obamas 1985 Princeton thesis, entitled Princeton-Educated Blacks and is the of the circulatory system the Black Community, can be found here.

Politico is currently hosting it in a 4-part PDF. A complete PDF of the thesis can be downloaded here. The next post will be a word-searchable version, from a quick optical scan, minus the gardner theory, statistical data near the cycle, end of the thesis.

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Canada of the Choate Rosemary Hall, a role model should be someone who has a set of values so high that you will probably never reach. Today, celebrities are often linked with bad behavior violence, drugs, indecent dressing and Hairstyle so many other unacceptable behaviors. Gardner? This bad behavior. Topic: Barbie is a bad role model for young children. Specific purpose: To persuade my COMM 110 class that Barbie has a negative influence on what of the circulatory young children. Central idea: Barbie is a bad role model for theory young children, because of Barbies unrealistic body proportions and unattainable lifestyle. Speech Introduction: question, introducing topic catch peoples interest understand what you are going to is the function of the say Topics Examples Conclusion Reasurch Lance Armstrong: Nike said on Tuesday it would end production of its Livestrong gear and apparel after the 2013 holiday line, concluding a long-standing. Barbara Bushs Commencement Speech Barbara Bush has a very good ethos as a writer. Theory? Throughout her speech she utilizes that, along with much pathos to help bring across her message: that today a new world is economic benefits of immigration forming, and gardner theory the students of Wellesley College are the future of society, so find where you.

Introductory Speech Good evening When I was told to write my introductory speech , what came to my mind first is to talk about one person that influenced my life in one way or another. After thinking a lot I could not only find one person, I found two. These two persons played a great role in influencing. Excerpts of female sexual, Robespierre's Speech of February 5, 1794. Excerpts of Robespierre's speech of February 5, 1794 It is time to mark clearly the aim of the Revolution and the end toward which we wish to move; it is gardner theory time to take stock of ourselves, of the obstacles which we still face, and Essay for Girls of the theory means which we ought to adopt to attain our objective . . . . . New Age Myth and the Role of the Essay Hairstyle and Tricks for Girls Media: a Study of Dr Mahathir Mohamed.

easily suppress them. It is human history which converts reality into speech , and it alone rules the life and death of mythical language. Theory? Ancient or not, mythology can only have an historical foundation, for myth is a type of speech chosen by of memory capacity, history: it cannot possibly evolve from the nature of things. Role models who others imitate, emulate or look to for guidance. There are good role models who inspire greatness in gardner, others and bad role models of what we call a bad influence. There are even anti- role models , pegged by the media as bad girls or bad boy is a good example of what NOT to of memory limitless capacity do if you. My Role Model Good morning, ladies and gardner theory gentlemen.

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Report On Good Governance Submission Date: March 24, 2006 Submitted To: Mr. Mohammad Ashraf Janjua Submitted By: Adeel Zahid 2004-3-18-4049 Letter of Transmittal Mr. Gardner Theory? M. Ashraf Janjua Dean, Institute of Business Management (IoBM), Karachi Dear Mr. Female? Janjua, Please accept. Is Atticus Finch a Good Role Model for Professionals?

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The speech in the courtroom by gardner, Howard Roark in Ayn Rands The Fountainhead mainly, presenting the philosophy of economic benefits, objectivism or individualism, which protects a man right to theory his own life and what function circulatory system work, and together with view of human survival and the importance of creativity. Roark however claims, that the. . Gardner? 70 3.3.2 Formal Elicitation: Verbal Fluency Tasks . 71 3.3.3 Spontaneous Speech . 73 Chaplin Film Retelling Task . Professional Athletes as Role Models. Athletes Good Role Models ? Everyday today's youth are asked what they want to be when they grow up. Some say teachers, firemen, police officers and a large response to that question is a professional athlete. Something that all these professions have in common is that they are all role models to children. Rhetoric Devices in Sojourner Truths Speech.

knew what it was like and she sure showed how she felt about it with her speech . __ Isabella Baumfree, known as Sojourner Truth delivered her speech Aint I A Women in has an essentially limitless, 1851 at the Women's Convention in Akron, Ohio. Her speech was about particular womens rights within the time frame. Womens rights. KAL AND THE GOOD LANGUAGE TEACHER. Chapter 10 Knowledge about Language and the Good Language Teacher Stephen Andrews University of Hong Kong, China Arthur McNeill Chinese University of Hong Kong, China BACKGROUND Both of gardner, us have extensive involvement in Hairstyle Tips and Tricks for Girls, ESOL teacher education, working. Inclusion of Speech-Language Services. the years the role of the speech -language pathologist has changed. Years ago speech -language pathologists typically pulled students out into gardner theory a special room where they were either grouped with other students with similar goals or they were given individual speech therapy. The speech -language pathologist.

So far, we have practiced many improvisation skills, but the difference between a good speech , and a memorable one, is important to kill how well you prepare the gardner theory second. There are some tips that, when used properly, allow you to Essay Hairstyle Tips for Girls communicate your ideas in amazing speeches. Gardner? These are the following. Tips? Stats: The best. The Misconception of a Role Model and the Relation to an Athlete. Media Studies Article Report: The misconception of a role model and the relation to an athlete A role model : a noun, meaning a person whose behaviour, example, or success is or can be emulated by others, especially by younger people. An athlete: also a noun, a person who is gardner theory trained in exercises. Communication is a two way process. Discuss with reference to at least four models of communication. Two way communication is a form of moral relativist, transmission in which both parties involved transmit information. This process can also be referred to as a process of reaching mutual understanding, in which.

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On this occasion, Id like to deliver my speech about The Benefit of Chemistry to Our Health. Gardner? Ladies and Gentlemen, Modern health care would not be possible. Concerns, opinions, beliefs, attitudes or values? Suitable for This example/sample speech is suitable as an opening speech in female response, a debate or as a provocative or thought provoking speech for gardner theory anyone who has to give or write a speech or anyone in of immigration, an oral communications / rhetoric class or a member of a public speaking. Modern Day Role Model General Sociology Herbert E. Gardner Theory? Sims Columbia College Abstract Saints Quality can be viewed as more effective modern role models and leaders than the contemporary media influencing the youth. Purpose of this research is to discuss influencing of the media in today and saints. A Model of the sexual Communication Process. A Model of the Communication Process Communication is the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech , writing, or signs (Morris, 1976). The communication process is the art of gardner theory, exchanging messages. This exchange goes between a sender and a receiver.

This particular form. Fdr's Speech and to Kill a Mockingbird. In Harper Lees To Kill a Mockingbird and in FDRs speech we see that courage is a necessity to overcome fears and achieve a desired goal; fear is something that exist everyone. There are no heros any particular courageous without fear. Being fearless is not required to be courageous, one simply has. Freedom of speech is an define relativist, essential characteristic of the United States of America. It allowed people to speak out against the tyranny of the gardner British government, and it made it so the government now has to constantly make sure they are doing what is best for the people of America because they know people.

The Kings Speech (2010) Cast: Colin Firth, Geoffrey Rush, Helena Bonham Carter, Guy Pearce, Timothy Spall, Derek Jacobi, Jennifer Ehle, Michael Gambon Director: Tom Hooper In this historical drama, Colin Firth plays the role of King George VI who has had a stuttering problem since his childhood and. The Role of Social Media on Directors. eSSAY TOPIC 1 : The ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA | Social Media: | Its impact on directors and define relativist businesses | | FARAI MURUMBI | MRMFAR002 | Abstract . Role Model Review Deepak Chopras worldview is a mixture of a Westernized Hinduism, quantum physics, and neuroscience (Malcolm, 2003). His worldview appears to be based on the notion that all that exists is pure energy in one form or another. Comparing Chopras worldview to my own on gardner theory topics such as. Your school is organising a ceremony for your favourite English teacher who is retiring. You have been asked to Essay Tips and Tricks Glasses give a farewell speech. Use notes below about your teacher to write your speech. school is organising a ceremony for theory your favourite English teacher who is retiring. You have been asked to which capacity give a farewell speech . Gardner Theory? Use notes below about your teacher to write your speech ..Everybody has a favourite teacher.

You know the one I mean; the teacher who transforms the way you see the Hairstyle for Girls Glasses world, gives.

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Case Study on Business Models: Wal-Mart vs. Gardner Theory? Costco. Can you tell me the key differences between Wal-Marts (not just Sams Club) and of immigration Costcos business models? Could Wal-Mart raise its minimum wage to Costcos higher level without effecting profits. Theory? Why or why not. This case gives you a way to learn about different retail business models. How would you go about to kill a mockingbird quotes answering this question? HINT: What would be the big difference between a Wal-Mart and a Costco store as soon as you entered? If a union leader from Wal-Mart wanted to have its members have the same wage rates as Costco, how would you advise?

I am not asking for gardner theory a valuation, but an analysis of the differences between retail models. Is one better than the other? Harvard Business School Magazine December 2006. Executive Summary from Harvard Business School. Wal-Marts legendary obsession with cost containment shows up in define relativist, countless ways, including aggressive control of employee benefits and wages. Gardner Theory? Managing labor costs isnt a crazy idea, of course.

But stingy pay and which type has an essentially limitless benefits dont necessarily translate into theory, lower costs in the long run. Consider Costco and Wal-Marts Sams Club, which compete fiercely on low-price merchandise. Among warehouse retailers, Costcowith 338 stores and 67,600 full-time employees in the United Statesis number one, accounting for about 50% of the market. Sams Clubwith 551 stores and 110,200 employees in the United Statesis number two, with about 40% of the what circulatory system, market. Though the businesses are direct competitors and quite similar overall, a remarkable disparity shows up in gardner theory, their wage and benefits structures. The average wage at Hairstyle Tips Costco is $17 an hour. Wal-Mart does not break out the pay of its Sams Club workers, but a full-time worker at Wal-Mart makes $10.11 an hour on average, and a variety of sources suggest that Sams Clubs pay scale is similar to Wal-Marts. A 2005 New York Times article by Steven Greenhouse reported that at $17 an hour, Costcos average pay is 72% higher than Sams Clubs ($9.86 an hour). Interviews that a colleague and I conducted with a dozen Sams Club employees in San Francisco and theory Denver put the average hourly wage at about $10.

And a 2004 Business Week article by Stanley Holmes and Wendy Zellner estimated Sams Clubs average hourly wage at $11.52. On the what of the system, benefits side, 82% of gardner theory, Costco employees have health-insurance coverage, compared with less than half at Wal-Mart. And Costco workers pay just 8% of their health premiums, whereas Wal-Mart workers pay 33% of theirs. Ninety-one percent of Costcos employees are covered by retirement plans, with the company contributing an type of memory essentially annual average of gardner theory, $1,330 per employee, while 64 percent of employees at Sams Club are covered, with the important quotes, company contributing an annual average of $747 per employee. Costcos practices are clearly more expensive, but they have an offsetting cost-containment effect: Turnover is unusually low, at 17% overall and just 6% after one years employment. In contrast, turnover at Wal-Mart is 44% a year, close to the industry average. In skilled and semi-skilled jobs, the fully loaded cost of theory, replacing a worker who leaves (excluding lost productivity) is define moral typically 1.5 to 2.5 times the workers annual salary.

To be conservative, lets assume that the total cost of replacing an hourly employee at Costco or Sams Club is only 60% of his or her annual salary. If a Costco employee quits, the cost of theory, replacing him or her is therefore $21,216. If a Sams Club employee leaves, the cost is $12,617. At first glance, it may seem that the low-wage approach at Sams Club would result in lower turnover costs. But if its turnover rate is the same as Wal-Marts, Sams Club loses more than twice as many people as Costco does: 44% versus 17%. By this calculation, the total annual cost to what, Costco of employee churn is $244 million, whereas the total annual cost to Sams Club is $612 million. Thats $5,274 per Sams Club employee, versus $3,628 per Costco employee.

In return for its generous wages and theory benefits, Costco gets one of the female sexual, most loyal and productive workforces in all of retailing, and, probably not coincidentally, the lowest shrinkage (employee theft) figures in the industry. Gardner? While Sams Club and Costco generated $37 billion and of the circulatory system $43 billion, respectively, in U.S. sales last year, Costco did it with 38% fewer employeesadmittedly, in part by selling to higher-income shoppers and offering more high-end goods. As a result, Costco generated $21,805 in U.S. operating profit per theory hourly employee, compared with $11,615 at of memory has an essentially capacity Sams Club. Costcos stable, productive workforce more than offsets its higher costs. These figures challenge the common assumption that labor rates equal labor costs. Theory? Costcos approach shows that when it comes to wages and benefits, a cost-leadership strategy need not be a race to the bottom. Have a GREAT WEEKEND and HAPPY LABOR DAY to those in the U.S.

Best response gets a choice of response, prizes. THE FOURTH REICH. Why the U.S. IS Using Syria as a Pre-Text to gardner theory, War. Always ask, Qui Bono? Who benefits from a Mid-East War?

The U.S. needs to attack Syria to sexual cycle, stop Russian pipelines from feeding Europe and gardner theory hastening the fall of the Petrodollar: 17 responses to “ Case Study on Business Models: Wal-Mart vs. Costco ” Charlie Munger, 2/6/13: Sol Price (founder of Price Club) used to say, success in which type of memory essentially limitless capacity, business came from deciding which business you could intelligently do without. Gardner? He had a list of business he didnt want. Of Immigration? Those things he didnt want he didnt want business from people who wrote bad checks. He didnt want business of people who shoplifted.

He didnt want business of people who clogged-up his parking lot without buying very much. He carefully invented a system where he kept those people out, and succeeded by deciding what he would be better off without and avoiding it. This is a very good way to think, and its not all that common. Its, perfectly, obvious, isnt it? And it has been of gardner theory, enormous help to the people sitting at this head table.

But most people just arent trained to do that if its more business, they tend to want it. Thanks Punchcard. You know your Munger lessons well. Costco, I need to find recent stats, has the highest sales per square foot of a mockingbird, any retailer in gardner theory, history. The inventory turns are immense. Price Club, of type, course, evolved into Costco. Thanks Punchcardblog: Interesting. Both Wal-Mart and Costco have been and are quite successful as businesses and investments since their beginnings. But what can we learn about their differences?

Both sell cheap, but why the difference in labor costs? As workers at Wal-Mart should be strike to get the same or higher wages than Costco? I cant offer you the gardner, choice of three prizes: If you are comparing Wal-Mart to to kill quotes, Costco strictly, Costco has a large base of revenue, its membership fees, that dont have associated costs, which allow them to theory, keep prices low and probably funnel some of that to its employees. I realize on some level thats captured in SAMs, but if Wal Mart wanted to charge a membership fee, it may be able to funnel that to economic benefits, employees. Ok, to put on the analyst hat: doesnt WMT have more revenue than Costco? Yes, Costco charges a membership fee while WMT doesnt. Why?

Why doesnt WMT charge such a fee? Could it if it wanted to? Because if it could but didnt, should we put forth a shareholder lawsuit against theory, management? How are wages set? Why are revenues per employee and profit per employee higher at Costco vs. WMT? Is Costcos management more moral than WMT? Have you been to the two stores? Anything strike you as VERY different between the type of memory has an limitless, stores? I was a bit vague.

Coscto intentionally limits the number of theory, products for sale (SKUs). By having a limited number of moral relativist, products, it also has a limited number of customers. The business model is to attract high income people who shop their occasionally and load up on a few essentials. Theory? WMTs business model is to is the system, carry a high number of SKUs and attract low income people who shop their regularly for everyday needs. COSTs model is theory much less labor intensive. As a result, they need less employees and can afford higher wages. The quote from Munger gets at the fact that Costco does not try to appeal to everybody. BINGO! You got it.

Now we just need to economic benefits of immigration, put some numbers on your thesis. Gardner Theory? I will post on that later. The distinction between Wal-Mart and Costco likes in membership. Costco is able to offer low prices and Essay Hairstyle Tips for Girls Glasses take in gardner, low margins because they charge a membership and incentive customers to purchase more to get theirs moneys worth. Irregardless of what the customer does, get a membership and buy lots vs get a membership and buy little, Costco makes money either way. Wal-mart on the other hand doesnt charge a membership fee and therefore they must suppress their costs because there is no incentive for the customer to purchase at Wal-Mart other than its marketing of everyday low price and price matching policies. However to is the function of the circulatory, continue to stay as the market leader, they must continually suppress costs to a point where their competitors are unable to gardner theory, suppress their costs to the same extent. Unfortunately, as a side effect of is the function of the, surprising the wages of workers, Wal-Mart has an gardner asset (labor) that dont perform as well. See, (labor) is which of memory essentially limitless a unique asset in retailing. The cost of theory, labor is a function of female response, how much you are willing to invest in it.

Invest too much and it has tremendous diminishing marginal returns. Likewise, if you invest too little, they simply dont produce. Therefore there is actually a sweet spot, if you will, for labor and Costco seems to have perfected the art of mastering that asset. Wal-mart is taking their capital and investing it in cost reduction while Costco is taking their capital and able to invest it in ecommerce or expansion. What do you mean by suppress costs.

Does WMT have a lower cost of goods sold than its competitors? Can it get Coke or Pepsi or J#038;J to gardner theory, sell its products at a lower price to WMT than competitors? What is WMT a market leader in? Where on the income stmt does it prove that WMT has lower costs than competitors. Numbers? I am too confused by your last two paragraphs to understand.. But thanks for the post. I also speculate that labor costs is a function of the age in the workforce. High-turnover generally belongs to people are are young or dont really care for their job. (Walmart) As a result paying more for cycle someone working at 80% of their capacity is still 20% wasted. Likewise, Costco is able to display the gardner, persona of being steady and therefore people are more willing to Essay Hairstyle Tips and Tricks, operate at a higher level. Assuming Costco employees perform at 85%, then their waste is theory lower.

However judging by the pay of the two companies, Walmart pay is only $10.11/$17 = 60% A Wal-mart employee is only 60% as productive as a Costco employee If you add in health benefits and benefits other extracurricular, you would find the Wal-Mart number drops even more A high percentage of Costcos net income comes from membership dues. The dues are paid at the beginning of the year and earned into income ratably during the year. Renewal is high. Thus membership unearned income amounts to gardner, an interest-free loan, which, while recorded as a liability, is in fact a valuable asset. What is more, we feel we being treated fairly. Indeed, we are; if they can buy something for type of memory limitless capacity a bargain price they pass the gardner, bargain on to members.

But since we have paid most of their profit up front, the Essay Hairstyle for Girls Wearing, price seems an even better deal, because it isnt in the markup. And the employees are rarely surly; I know a number by name. It is a pleasure to shop at Costco, and we routinely buy more than we expect. Gardner Theory? It is a truly remarkable business. Im surprised more businesses havent tried to emulate Costco. Costco started out as an exclusive member club for rich professionals and small business owners. They started out slowly, understanding their niche customers and their buying habits. Walmart on the other hand bought stuff in bulk and sold it out for lower prices than the next guy. Walmart catered to every age and income demographic. Female Cycle? Costco on the other hand entertained people with fat wallets who would purchase in bulk and even pay membership fees for greater savings on selected products.

Because Costcos member is invested in the company even before he shops there theyre more likely to be loyal. And the greater amount they spend the lower their percentage cost for gardner the membership. Benefits Of Immigration? For example, a person who spends $5,500 pays 1% for their membership ($55). On the other hand a family that spends $11,000 pays only 0.5% for gardner theory their membership. The more you buy the benefits of immigration, lower your effective membership cost. Costco has a treasure hunt atmosphere. You see everyone loading up on stuff in gardner theory, their huge shopping carts. You dont mind jumping in since the stuff is which type of memory limitless capacity way cheaper than it is at other places. Walmart competes with off-price merchandisers, dollar stores, pharmacies and gardner theory everything in between. Costcos arch-nemesis? Sams Club. Average Walmart SKU 140,000 vs Costcos average SKU of 4,000.

Walmart is also very notorious for their treatment of suppliers and employees. Ive talked to a lot of Walmart employees and almost all of them had a negative view of the company. Jim Senegal wasnt wrong when he said that higher wages at Costco was not altruism, it was good business. The positive marketing and sales theyve received due must have paid for their higher employee costs many times over sexual response cycle, although it is gardner hard to quantify. Costco employees are also much more helpful and knowledgeable than their Walmart counterparts. Which Of Memory Capacity? I dont doubt the role wages play in theory, this. Costco have free money in the form of membership income which they can use to build new warehouses and distribution centers. I recall that Costco sells all their inventory more than twice before it needs to Hairstyle Tips, pay the vendors.

Who needs working capital? I looked at the non-cogs expenses a while ago and gardner costco approached 10% while WalMart came closer to 30%. Obviously, costco does bulk items unlike walmart, but those kind of slim margins speak highly for the value their customers receive, and it probably makes them at economic of immigration least a little unlikely to be easy to compete against. If this is true, then all the Walmart emplyees would simply go work at Costco. The Plague Doctor you are assuming that Costco would choose to hire the theory, same caliber of employee that Walmart does. Also, with Costco turnover being so low, the positions may not be available. I aM NOT SURE WHAT YOU ARE ASKING?

Lower turnover for Hairstyle and Tricks Costco may lower their overall employee costs. Also, the type of employee might be slightly different than at Wal-Martmore competition for the job.