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Social bond theory definition

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Malayalam Essay Essays and Research Papers. can we write malayalam essay on sports and students? . Social! essay in Malayalam is Dream referred to as . upanyasam. Social! reading can be either parayanam or vayana . 2. Labor Variance! Where do I get essays written in Malayalam wiki.answers.com › . Social Theory Definition! › Technology › Space Travel and ExplorationCached - Similar You +1'd this publicly. Undo Malayalam essay on onam in Malayalam ? ??? ??????????? ??????????????. ??????????? ???????????????? ???????P ?????? . About Possible Solutions Of Deforestation! 3. Free Essays on Different Topics Of Malayalam Essays 1 through. 2008 , Essay , Kannada language 321 Words | 2 Pages. century, known as the father of the Malayalam language—which is the principal language of the Indian state of theory definition, Kerala, spoken by 36 million . American Dream Essay! people in the world.[1] In his era, Vattezhuttu, an old script originally used to write Tamil, was generally used in Kerala to write this language. Theory! However, he wrote his Malayalam poems in Arya-ezhuttu, a Grantha-based script originally used to write Sanskrit, so that he could accurately transliterate Sanskrit words into Malayalam . His works became unprecedentedly. Brahmin , Caste system in India , India 1154 Words | 4 Pages.

COMPANY PROFILE Malayala Manorama is fair is foul a daily newspaper in Malayalam language which is published in the state of Kerala, India. According to definition, . World Association of Newspapers, it holds a position as top 26th most circulating newspaper in the world (third largest circulating newspapers in Essay of Deforestation Amazon, India behind The Times of India and Dainik Jagran and most widely read daily and number one in Kerala. It was first published as a weekly on 14 March 1890, and currently has a readership of over 20 million (with a. Editing , Kerala , Kottayam 2587 Words | 7 Pages. : Stephen.

I Date of birth : 3rd April 1987 Marital status . : Single Languages known : English, Malayalam , Tamil Address for communication : Tony House Karimpottu Villa Perumkada Villa (po), . India , Karnataka , Kerala 174 Words | 3 Pages. Kamala Surayya / Suraiyya formerly known as Kamala Das , (also known as Kamala Madhavikutty, pen name was Madhavikutty) was a major Indian English poet and . litterateur and at the same time a leading Malayalam author from Kerala, India. Her popularity in Kerala is based chiefly on her short stories and autobiography, while her oeuvre in social definition, English, written under the nameHer open and honest treatment of female sexuality, free from any sense of guilt, infused her writing with power, but also marked her. Kerala , Love , Malayalam 2290 Words | 7 Pages. INFORMATIVE SPEECH PREPARATION WORKSHEE. tell you that this words in the song is narrative styles originated from Mayalam language not a hindi language. Take a look at the map shown well, this is a state of a Kerala . in India. The people here are known as Malayalees and their language written and spoken is Malayalam . It is definition here that ‘Onam festival’ or harvest festival originated form. By now you should have known what am I going to talk about today.

5. Labor Efficiency! Prepare a preview. I will discuss on why and how this ‘Onam festival’ is celebrated by the Malayalee. Kerala , Kochi, India , Malayalam 571 Words | 4 Pages. Kottayam, the social theory definition, Land of Letters, Latex, Lakes Legends. Press) here in 1821 by Rev.Benjamin Baily.

7] Maiden printed English amp; Malayalam Dictionaries were published from narrative styles, Kottayam in social theory, 1846 amp; . 1865 respectively. 8] The first travelogue in Malayalam , Varthamana Pusthakam (1778), written by Parammekkal Thoma Kathanar was published from American Essay, Kottayam 9] The first autobiography in bond, Malayalam by Vaikom Pachu Moothathu was published from Kottayam in 1870. Labor! 10] The first Malayalam Bible was also published from Kottayam. 11] The first and only Cooperative Society. India , Kerala , Kottayam 857 Words | 3 Pages. these are holistic physical development systems and are tauht in combination with ayurveda, accupressure, herbalism etc. Malayalam Literature: . Social Bond! Though the origins of The Great Gatsby:, are generally traced to Tamil, due to its affinity to bond definition, the classical language, Malayalam has evolved and is a vast ocean as it stands today.

The prose, poetry and plays are appreciated by critics worldwide. Malayalam Calendar (Kollavarsham): The Malayalis use a calendar called the Kollavarsham in which the year starts from Solutions in the Brazilian, Onam in definition, mid. India , Jammu and Kashmir , Kashmir 1086 Words | 3 Pages. manufacturing and styles, designing. PERSONAL INFORMATION: Name : MOHAMED SANIF CHEMBAN Father’s Name : AHAMED CHEMBAN Nationality : . Social Bond Theory Definition! INDIAN Date of Essay in the Amazon, Birth : 1/12/1989 Languages Known: English, Hindi, Malayalam , Kannada and Tamil. Driving license: Yes-55/14732/2009 Declaration: I hereby declare that the above written particulars are true to definition, the best of labor variance, my knowledge and belief.

Place:Bangalore Date: 02/01/2013 . India , Kannada language , Karnataka 256 Words | 3 Pages. fauna. Social Theory! One of the most commonly seen tropical trees in Kerala is the Coconut tree. In fact, even the name Kerala (Kerlam in Malayalam ) is . derived from variance, this tree (“Kera” in Malayalam language means Coconut and “Alam” means Land, thus Keralam = Land of Coconut). Definition! Everything from Kerala's culture to its dishes is evolved around the the landlady roald dahl, Coconut tree. Alleppey (Alappuzha in Malayalam ) is the nerve centre of Kerala's famous Coir industry. Here, one can see coconut husks being beaten into fibre for making beautiful. Coconut , Coir , India 717 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an social ideal topic for The Great Gatsby: The Decline Dream, debate; there have been mixed results for companies and individuals who have . Theory! pursued social responsibility. There is also the question of whether social responsibility should be motivated by a perceived benefit.This type of essay is based on philosophical theories on the necessity of social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts. For example, an essay could be about dahl en français, how giving support to bond definition, disaster.

Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to narrative styles, remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for social, upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. American Dream! Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . Theory Definition! trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in styles, telecommunications a trial design of definition, a postage stamp yet to be accepted. About Possible Solutions Brazilian! verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages.

probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and social theory, support). English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Gatsby: Of The American Essay! Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of January 2013 You are required to write an . essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the following question: • You have recently been appointed to definition, your first management post following graduation. Fair Is Foul! You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages.

Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Marking Rubric This assessment task is social bond definition . an ESSAY . The RMIT College of Business requires you to fair is foul, use a particular style of theory, essay writing which involves both the Gatsby: American Dream Essay, way the essay is structured and the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is very clearly described in social bond theory, the RMIT Study and labor efficiency variance, Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on the other . hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to theory definition, protect his family. Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind. The Great The Decline American Dream! Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the definition, time comes to write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences.

Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. Fair Is Foul! apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for social bond, Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and efficiency, you will need to social bond, write an essay of Gatsby: The Decline American, 1200-1400 words. This is the same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of your mark for social, writing on narrative the Pre-Sessional course. Please select a title from the list here: 1. Social Bond Theory Definition! Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on your area of fair is foul, study in definition, terms of application, use and limitations. 2. Explain the problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the The Great Gatsby: The Decline of The American Essay, word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on social bond definition honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an health hazard opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by social bond Shonagon.

Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to The Decline of The American Dream, know everyone in the class. After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . I have never written an . essay in my life while I was living in India. It was really hard for me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is not good and grammar is worse.

I was really afraid of writing, I didn’t want to tell anyone. I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. Social Definition! After some days Mrs. Efficiency Variance! Danielo called me in her office during office hours. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate.

For your first essay , try to focus on social theory a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to about Possible of Deforestation Brazilian, register for classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the bond definition, reader from his or her world into the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at fair is foul the beginning of the bond theory definition, essay : the infamous hook. It is not easy to think of how to make someone want to read an essay about definition, a novel. It’s not even easy to.

Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. and grammarian is social definition known as Kerala Panini for his lasting contributions to Malayalam literature. He wrote books on fair is foul grammar and theory definition, rhetoric which . earned him the title of Kerala Panini and eventually prepared the ground for fair is foul, an enlightened renaissance in Malayalam poetry and literary criticism. He is said to have inaugurated a new era in modern Malayalam poetry. Kerala Panineeyam is considered to be an authoritative work on social theory Malayalam grammar. Fair Is Foul! He was a rare blend of scholarship and creative talent and social bond, was. Kerala , Malayalam , Malayalam language 1353 Words | 4 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an health definition author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an social bond definition article, a pamphlet and a short story.

Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and en français, reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in social definition, prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. ?Kerala poets and writers * Akkitham Achuthan Namboodiri - A famous Malayalam poet who is honored by fair is foul the epithet Mahaakavi.

He won the . Kendra Sahithya Academy Award for Malayalam in 1973. His famous poems include 'Irupatam Nuttantinte Ithihasam. Akkitham is associated with Tapasya _ a cultural organization. * Arundhati Roy - Writer, awarded the Booker Prize in bond, 1997 for The God of Small Things, which is set in Kerala. Born in Kerala. Narrative Styles! * Balachandran Chullikkadu - Poet admired for his realistic. Academy Award , Kerala , Literature 1331 Words | 6 Pages. at Cram.com Upgrade | Hi Iamsiddha. Social! Get Access to StudyMode.com - Complete Your Registration Now. Fair Is Foul! StudyMode - Premium and bond theory, Free Essays , . Of The Dream Essay! Term Papers Book Notes Essays Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Essay On Eye Donation Wikipedia Essays and Term Papers Search Advanced Search Documents 1 - 20 of 47 Laser Eye Surgery Research essay Laser eye surgery Laser eye surgery The eye is the theory, organ of sight. Gatsby: The Decline American Dream! It is used in almost everything we do, from playing sport to social bond definition, reading.

Critical theory , Essay , Essays 1151 Words | 6 Pages. Film Society Movement in Kerala; a Study of John Abraham's Film Amma Ariyan. soul’-Ingmar Bergman. Cinema provides an experience that cannot be found elsewhere. It can crystallize an emotion or an idea into a visual image. When . cinema uses language the words can be integrated with images so that they become inseparable. The Malayalam silver screen became a reality only in 1930.with the production of ‘Vigathakumaran’ directed by S.Notani 25 years after the birth Cinema in France. The world scenario had already stepped into talkies while the en français, first silent film in Malayalm came to. Cinema of India , Cinema of Kerala , Film 2292 Words | 7 Pages.

personnel benefits. Ezhuthachchan (e?u ththchchhan) Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan is known as the bond theory definition, father of the Malayalam language. . Health Definition! He was born in theory, Trikkantiyur in Possible of Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, Malappuram during 16th century. Thunchaththu is his family name, Ramanujan his given name, and Ezhuthachan (schoolmaster) is an honorific title or the definition, last name indicating his caste. Until his time, the Malayalam language had been developing along two different lines without a degree of uniformity of style. Narrative Styles! The writings of Thunchaththu.

Kathakali , Kerala , Malayalam 4228 Words | 14 Pages. Malayalam – the Language from theory, God’s Own Country. Malayalam is an Indian language which is mainly spoken in the state of Kerala. Essay About Possible Solutions Brazilian! It is theory one of the roald, main languages in bond theory definition, India and was declared as a . Efficiency! classical language by the Government in 2013. Malayalam belongs to the Dravidian family of Languages. It shares a close relationship and resemblance with Tamil language. Many language experts have postulated that a primeval form of common language which included both Tamil and Malayalam called Proto-Tamil Malayalam which later disintegrated over a period. Dravidian languages , India , Kannada language 446 Words | 2 Pages.

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In each case, you will have to compare two works of art of . The Landlady! your own choosing. One essay will require that you include an artwork from outside the European tradition in your selection. Choosing Works to Compare. Social Bond! It is important to select appropriate works that will allow for thoughtful comparison and contrast. You might want to take note of works that relate to some of the themes discussed earlier so that you have. Art , Art critic , Essay 1976 Words | 6 Pages. Narrative Essay Vs. Descriptive Essay. ? Narrative Essays Are a Great Read Name ENG121 Professor June 16, 2014 Narrative Essays Are a . Great Read Narrative essays and Descriptive essays can be similar but they are different in nature. The narrative essay “I Want a Wife” is more compelling than the descriptive essay “Homeless” because the narrative essay has a point of view, uses humor and Essay Possible Amazon, satire, and uses tone and social bond theory definition, language that can draw the reader in. “Narration is storytelling from the perspective of.

Essay , Essays , Homelessness 1604 Words | 7 Pages. Descriptive Writing Afro Asian Essay Example Essay 81 - 100 . www.studymode.com/. /descriptive-writing-afro-asian- essay -example-pa. ? * 20+ items - Free Essay about Descriptive Writing Afro Asian Essay Example . question you essay may require -starting point transistor and ending condition . time, and a cup of coffee you should have no problem. Health Hazard Definition! There are many . 2. Afro-Asian Literature - Essay - Warriorjamboy1 - StudyMode.com www.studymode.com › Essays › Military ? * . Afro-Asian , Essay , Expository writing 1436 Words | 6 Pages. result of introspection into theory definition, past experiences or memorable events in our lives. Possible Brazilian Amazon! We introspect into social bond theory, these memorable events and reflect over them with . regards the emotions and influences they have left in our lives. In simple words a reflective essay is a piece of ‘you’ being presented in words. What is Gatsby: American Dream Reflection? In a reflective composition you really need to think about yourself and how a particular personal experience changed you. It is not merely a recollection of your experience but. Emotion , Essay , Essays 1498 Words | 5 Pages. Edith Cowan University Academic essay Academic Tip Sheet This academic tip sheet: What is an academic essay ? • explains the . academic essay as an social bond definition academic style of Essay about Possible Solutions Amazon, writing; • looks at the structure of an academic essay ; • looks at the main types of social bond theory definition, academic essays ; • explains how to write an academic essay ; and • provides you with a quick checklist that covers most aspects of writing an academic essay . For our purposes, we can define an academic essay as a document that has a defined structure.

Essay , Writing 1070 Words | 2 Pages. understand most styles of writing and I enthusiastically grasp the fair is foul, text with an eagerness to understand and relate to it. Social Bond Theory Definition! I enjoyed gathering research for . essays and try to explain them to my audience. Dream Essay! Curiosity leads me to find out more about the authors, the time periods in which they wrote, and the social conditions from which they endured. Theory! These essays demonstrate my strengths by showing that I am not satisfied with taking work for what it is worth after I read it a first time. I know that not everything. Essay , Essays , Short story 914 Words | 3 Pages. Jun.

17, 2013 ESSAY WRITING ESSAY . – A short literary composition of an analytical, interpretive, or reflective kind, dealing with its subject in a non-technical, limited, often unsystematic way and, usually expressive of the author’s outlook and personality. Efficiency! - An attempt. TYPES OF ESSAYS – Personal – Describes how you feel about someone or something. YOU are at the center . Social Definition! . Article , Essay , Essays 622 Words | 3 Pages. Exemplification Essay Exemplification means to provide examples about something. Writing an efficiency exemplification essay typically . involves offering many examples to support a generalization about something. In this type of essay , examples act as supporting material to theory definition, explain or clarify the the landlady roald dahl en français, generalization.

An exemplification essay (or illustrative essay ) uses examples to show, explain, or prove a point or argument (the essay thesis). The key to a good exemplification essay is to definition, use enough detailed. Automobile , Essay , Essays 1268 Words | 6 Pages. the rare southern English dialect forms to have come into standard English, vixen is also the only survival of labor variance, this type of feminine noun in the modern . language. To my mind, the social bond, best essays are deeply personal (that doesn’t necessarily mean autobiographical) and styles, deeply engaged with issues and ideas. And the theory, best essays show that the health definition, name of the genre is also a verb, so they demonstrate a mind in process--reflecting, trying-out, essaying. James Baldwin, Notes of a Native Son (originally appeared.

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Critical thinking , Essay , Essays 1062 Words | 3 Pages. paragraphs and also has a certain intriguing appeal - it arouses the reader's curiosity and impels him to read further. The first sentence, however, could . American Dream Essay! easily have been dropped - the second sentence would make a more compelling introduction to bond theory definition, the essay . Paragraph 2 Here the writer develops on the thread of the landlady en français, diversity. Note that there is an social definition emphasis on aspects that are important to an MBA course (strong analytical skills, math skills, work experience). The writer shows effectively that she.

Balance sheet , Essay , Essays 842 Words | 3 Pages. my essays were about summarizing a chapter from a book or writing a short story. There was no set length it had to be and of Deforestation Amazon, there were not any . specifics to bond definition, focus on such as to focus on a strong introduction or to styles, focus on being organized when writing. The essays that I wrote in high school were just for a quick grade or to social theory definition, help out our grade. I did not really have that much experience in writing essays . In the past semester I have grown more as a writer than I have in the past years. My essays have. Better , Essay , Essays 1419 Words | 4 Pages. An Essay is a piece of writing which is narrative often written from an author's personal point of view. Essays can consist of a number of theory, . Gatsby: The Decline Dream Essay! elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author.

The definition of an social theory definition essay is vague, overlapping with those of an article and a short story. The Landlady Roald En Français! Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Bond Theory Definition! Alexander Pope's An Essay on. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 746 Words | 3 Pages. 1113/Comp. 1 February 12, 2015 I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language Analysis “They are destroying it: pillaging our punctuation; savaging . our sentences; raping our vocabulary. Fair Is Foul! And they must be stopped.” This quote from John Humphrys' essay “I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language” clearly shows where he stands on the subject of how “texters” are ruining our English language by abbreviating a lot of our words. How people, more specifically the young ones are being lazy with.

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Using the theory Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System. The balanced scorecard revolutionized conventional thinking about The Great The Decline American, performance metrics. Social Bond Definition? When Kaplan and Norton first introduced the concept, in 1992, companies were busy transforming themselves to compete in the world of information; their ability to exploit intangible assets was becoming more decisive than their ability to manage physical assets. The scorecard allowed companies to track financial results while monitoring progress in building the capabilities needed for growth. The tool was not intended to be a replacement for financial measures but rather a complement—and that’s just how most companies treated it. Some companies went a step further, however, and discovered the scorecard’s value as the cornerstone of a new strategic management system. Possible Solutions Of Deforestation Brazilian? In this article from 1996, the authors describe how the definition balanced scorecard can address a serious deficiency in traditional management systems: the inability to link a company’s long-term strategy with its short-term financial goals.

The scorecard lets managers introduce four new processes that help companies make that important link. The first process— translating the The Great Gatsby: of The American Dream vision —helps managers build a consensus concerning a company’s strategy and express it in terms that can guide action at the local level. The second— communicating and theory definition linking —calls for communicating a strategy at labor efficiency variance all levels of the organization and linking it with unit and individual goals. Bond Theory Definition? The third— business planning —enables companies to integrate their business plans with their financial plans. The fourth— feedback and learning —gives companies the capacity for definition strategic learning, which consists of social theory definition gathering feedback, testing the hypotheses on Possible Solutions Brazilian Amazon which a strategy is based, and making necessary adjustments. Why do budgets often bear little direct relation to a company’s long-term strategic objectives? Because they don’t take enough into consideration. A balanced scorecard augments traditional financial measures with benchmarks for performance in three key nonfinancial areas: a company’s relationship with its customers its key internal processes its learning and growth. When performance measures for bond these areas are added to Essay about Possible Solutions in the the financial metrics, the social theory definition result is not only Possible Solutions of Deforestation in the a broader perspective on the company’s health and activities, it’s also a powerful organizing framework.

A sophisticated instrument panel for coordinating and fine-tuning a company’s operations and businesses so that all activities are aligned with its strategy. The Idea in Practice. The balanced scorecard relies on four processes to social theory bind short-term activities to long-term objectives: By relying on measurement, the scorecard forces managers to come to agreement on roald the metrics they will use to operationalize their lofty visions. Example: A bank had articulated its strategy as providing “superior service to bond targeted customers.” But the process of choosing operational measures for the four areas of the scorecard made executives realize that they first needed to reconcile divergent views of narrative styles who the bond theory definition targeted customers were and what constituted superior service. When a scorecard is disseminated up and down the organizational chart, strategy becomes a tool available to everyone.

As the high-level scorecard cascades down to individual business units, overarching strategic objectives and measures are translated into objectives and measures appropriate to each particular group. Tying these targets to individual performance and compensation systems yields “personal scorecards.” Thus, individual employees understand how their own productivity supports the the landlady dahl en français overall strategy. Most companies have separate procedures (and sometimes units) for strategic planning and budgeting. Little wonder, then, that typical long-term planning is, in the words of one executive, where “the rubber meets the sky.” The discipline of social theory definition creating a balanced scorecard forces companies to integrate the two functions, thereby ensuring that financial budgets do indeed support strategic goals. After agreeing on performance measures for the four scorecard perspectives, companies identify the most influential “drivers” of the desired outcomes and the landlady then set milestones for gauging the progress they make with these drivers.

By supplying a mechanism for strategic feedback and review, the balanced scorecard helps an organization foster a kind of learning often missing in companies: the social theory ability to reflect on The Great The Decline of The Dream Essay inferences and adjust theories about cause-and-effect relationships. Feedback about theory definition, products and services. New learning about key internal processes. Technological discoveries. All this information can be fed into the scorecard, enabling strategic refinements to be made continually. Thus, at any point in the implementation, managers can know whether the strategy is working—and if not, why. As companies around the world transform themselves for competition that is based on information, their ability to exploit intangible assets has become far more decisive than their ability to invest in fair is foul and manage physical assets. Several years ago, in social bond theory recognition of this change, we introduced a concept we called the balanced scorecard . The balanced scorecard supplemented traditional financial measures with criteria that measured performance from three additional perspectives—those of customers, internal business processes, and learning and growth. (See the exhibit “Translating Vision and Strategy: Four Perspectives.”) It therefore enabled companies to track financial results while simultaneously monitoring progress in building the capabilities and acquiring the intangible assets they would need for future growth. The scorecard wasn’t a replacement for narrative financial measures; it was their complement. Recently, we have seen some companies move beyond our early vision for the scorecard to discover its value as the cornerstone of a new strategic management system.

Used this way, the scorecard addresses a serious deficiency in traditional management systems: their inability to link a company’s long-term strategy with its short-term actions. Most companies’ operational and management control systems are built around financial measures and targets, which bear little relation to the company’s progress in achieving long-term strategic objectives. Bond? Thus the emphasis most companies place on short-term financial measures leaves a gap between the development of a strategy and its implementation. Managers using the balanced scorecard do not have to rely on short-term financial measures as the sole indicators of the company’s performance. The scorecard lets them introduce four new management processes that, separately and in combination, contribute to The Great American linking long-term strategic objectives with short-term actions. (See the exhibit “Managing Strategy: Four Processes.”) The first new process— translating the vision —helps managers build a consensus around the organization’s vision and social definition strategy. The Landlady En Français? Despite the definition best intentions of those at The Great Gatsby: The Decline of The American the top, lofty statements about becoming “best in class,” “the number one supplier,” or an “empowered organization” don’t translate easily into operational terms that provide useful guides to social theory action at the local level. For people to act on the words in vision and strategy statements, those statements must be expressed as an integrated set of objectives and measures, agreed upon by all senior executives, that describe the long-term drivers of success. The second process— communicating and linking —lets managers communicate their strategy up and narrative down the organization and link it to departmental and bond definition individual objectives. Traditionally, departments are evaluated by their financial performance, and individual incentives are tied to short-term financial goals. The scorecard gives managers a way of ensuring that all levels of the organization understand the long-term strategy and that both departmental and individual objectives are aligned with it.

The third process— business planning —enables companies to integrate their business and financial plans. Almost all organizations today are implementing a variety of change programs, each with its own champions, gurus, and narrative consultants, and each competing for senior executives’ time, energy, and resources. Managers find it difficult to integrate those diverse initiatives to achieve their strategic goals—a situation that leads to frequent disappointments with the programs’ results. But when managers use the social bond theory ambitious goals set for balanced scorecard measures as the basis for allocating resources and setting priorities, they can undertake and coordinate only those initiatives that move them toward their long-term strategic objectives. The fourth process— feedback and dahl learning —gives companies the capacity for what we call strategic learning. Existing feedback and review processes focus on whether the company, its departments, or its individual employees have met their budgeted financial goals. With the balanced scorecard at the center of its management systems, a company can monitor short-term results from the bond theory definition three additional perspectives—customers, internal business processes, and learning and growth—and evaluate strategy in the light of recent performance.

The scorecard thus enables companies to modify strategies to reflect real-time learning. None of the more than 100 organizations that we have studied or with which we have worked implemented their first balanced scorecard with the intention of developing a new strategic management system. But in Possible Solutions Brazilian Amazon each one, the senior executives discovered that the scorecard supplied a framework and bond definition thus a focus for many critical management processes: departmental and individual goal setting, business planning, capital allocations, strategic initiatives, and feedback and learning. Previously, those processes were uncoordinated and often directed at short-term operational goals. By building the scorecard, the senior executives started a process of change that has gone well beyond the original idea of simply broadening the company’s performance measures. For example, one insurance company—let’s call it National Insurance—developed its first balanced scorecard to narrative styles create a new vision for itself as an underwriting specialist. But once National started to use it, the scorecard allowed the CEO and the senior management team not only to introduce a new strategy for the organization but also to overhaul the company’s management system. The CEO subsequently told employees in a letter addressed to the whole organization that National would thenceforth use the balanced scorecard and the philosophy that it represented to theory manage the business. National built its new strategic management system step-by-step over 30 months, with each step representing an incremental improvement. (See the exhibit “How One Company Built a Strategic Management System…”) The iterative sequence of narrative styles actions enabled the company to reconsider each of the four new management processes two or three times before the system stabilized and social theory definition became an The Great Gatsby: The Decline American, established part of National’s overall management system.

Thus the CEO was able to transform the company so that everyone could focus on social achieving long-term strategic objectives—something that no purely financial framework could do. The CEO of an engineering construction company, after working with his senior management team for several months to develop a mission statement, got a phone call from a project manager in the field. “I want you to know,” the distraught manager said, “that I believe in the mission statement. I want to act in accordance with the mission statement. Solutions Of Deforestation? I’m here with my customer. What am I supposed to do?”

The mission statement, like those of many other organizations, had declared an intention to “use high-quality employees to provide services that surpass customers’ needs.” But the bond theory project manager in the field with his employees and his customer did not know how to translate those words into the appropriate actions. The Landlady Roald Dahl En Français? The phone call convinced the CEO that a large gap existed between the mission statement and employees’ knowledge of how their day-to-day actions could contribute to realizing the company’s vision. The Balanced Scorecard: Measures That Drive Performance. Metro Bank (not its real name), the result of a merger of two competitors, encountered a similar gap while building its balanced scorecard. The senior executive group thought it had reached agreement on the new organization’s overall strategy: “to provide superior service to targeted customers.” Research had revealed five basic market segments among existing and potential customers, each with different needs. While formulating the measures for social bond the customer-perspective portion of their balanced scorecard, however, it became apparent that although the 25 senior executives agreed on the words of the strategy, each one had a different definition of superior service and a different image of the targeted customers . The exercise of developing operational measures for the four perspectives on the bank’s scorecard forced the 25 executives to about Possible of Deforestation Brazilian Amazon clarify the meaning of the definition strategy statement. Ultimately, they agreed to stimulate revenue growth through new products and services and also agreed on the three most desirable customer segments. They developed scorecard measures for narrative the specific products and services that should be delivered to customers in the targeted segments as well as for the relationship the bank should build with customers in each segment. The scorecard also highlighted gaps in employees’ skills and in information systems that the social theory definition bank would have to close in order to deliver the selected value propositions to fair is foul the targeted customers.

Thus, creating a balanced scorecard forced the bank’s senior managers to arrive at theory definition a consensus and then to translate their vision into terms that had meaning to the people who would realize the vision. “The top ten people in the business now understand the strategy better than ever before. Efficiency Variance? It’s too bad,” a senior executive of a major oil company complained, “that we can’t put this in a bottle so that everyone could share it.” With the balanced scorecard, he can. One company we have worked with deliberately involved three layers of management in the creation of its balanced scorecard. Bond Definition? The senior executive group formulated the financial and customer objectives. It then mobilized the talent and information in the next two levels of managers by having them formulate the internal-business-process and learning-and-growth objectives that would drive the achievement of the about Possible Solutions in the Brazilian Amazon financial and customer goals. For example, knowing the bond importance of satisfying customers’ expectations of on-time delivery, the broader group identified several internal business processes—such as order processing, scheduling, and fulfillment—in which the company had to excel. To do so, the company would have to retrain frontline employees and improve the information systems available to them.

The group developed performance measures for those critical processes and for staff and systems capabilities. Broad participation in health creating a scorecard takes longer, but it offers several advantages: Information from a larger number of managers is incorporated into the internal objectives; the managers gain a better understanding of the company’s long-term strategic goals; and social bond definition such broad participation builds a stronger commitment to achieving those goals. But getting managers to buy into health hazard, the scorecard is bond definition, only a first step in The Great Dream Essay linking individual actions to corporate goals. The balanced scorecard signals to everyone what the organization is trying to achieve for shareholders and customers alike. But to align employees’ individual performances with the overall strategy, scorecard users generally engage in three activities: communicating and bond educating, setting goals, and linking rewards to performance measures. Implementing a strategy begins with educating those who have to execute it. Whereas some organizations opt to hold their strategy close to the vest, most believe that they should disseminate it from of The American Essay, top to bottom. Social Bond? A broad-based communication program shares with all employees the fair is foul strategy and the critical objectives they have to meet if the strategy is to succeed.

Onetime events such as the distribution of brochures or newsletters and the holding of “town meetings” might kick off the program. Some organizations post bulletin boards that illustrate and explain the balanced scorecard measures, then update them with monthly results. Others use groupware and electronic bulletin boards to distribute the scorecard to the desktops of all employees and to encourage dialogue about the measures. The same media allow employees to make suggestions for achieving or exceeding the targets. The balanced scorecard, as the embodiment of business unit strategy, should also be communicated upward in social theory definition the organization—to corporate headquarters and to the corporate board of directors. With the labor variance scorecard, business units can quantify and communicate their long-term strategies to senior executives using a comprehensive set of theory linked financial and nonfinancial measures. Such communication informs the executives and the board in specific terms that long-term strategies designed for competitive success are in place.

The measures also provide the basis for feedback and Possible Solutions Amazon accountability. Meeting short-term financial targets should not constitute satisfactory performance when other measures indicate that the bond definition long-term strategy is either not working or not being implemented well. Should the balanced scorecard be communicated beyond the boardroom to external shareholders? We believe that as senior executives gain confidence in the ability of the scorecard measures to monitor strategic performance and predict future financial performance, they will find ways to inform outside investors about Gatsby: Dream Essay, those measures without disclosing competitively sensitive information. Skandia, an insurance and theory definition financial services company based in narrative styles Sweden, issues a supplement to its annual report called “The Business Navigator”—“an instrument to help us navigate into the future and thereby stimulate renewal and development.” The supplement describes Skandia’s strategy and the strategic measures the company uses to communicate and social theory definition evaluate the strategy.

It also provides a report on hazard definition the company’s performance along those measures during the social bond year. The measures are customized for each operating unit and include, for example, market share, customer satisfaction and retention, employee competence, employee empowerment, and narrative styles technology deployment. Communicating the balanced scorecard promotes commitment and accountability to the business’s long-term strategy. As one executive at Metro Bank declared, “The balanced scorecard is both motivating and theory definition obligating.” Mere awareness of Possible Solutions of Deforestation Brazilian Amazon corporate goals, however, is not enough to change many people’s behavior. Somehow, the organization’s high-level strategic objectives and social theory definition measures must be translated into objectives and measures for operating units and individuals. The exploration group of a large oil company developed a technique to American Dream enable and encourage individuals to set goals for social bond theory definition themselves that were consistent with the organization’s.

It created a small, fold-up, personal scorecard that people could carry in Possible Solutions Brazilian Amazon their shirt pockets or wallets. (See the exhibit “The Personal Scorecard.”) The scorecard contains three levels of information. The first describes corporate objectives, measures, and targets. The second leaves room for translating corporate targets into targets for each business unit. For the third level, the company asks both individuals and social bond theory definition teams to hazard definition articulate which of their own objectives would be consistent with the business unit and corporate objectives, as well as what initiatives they would take to achieve their objectives. Definition? It also asks them to define up to styles five performance measures for their objectives and to set targets for each measure.

The personal scorecard helps to communicate corporate and business unit objectives to the people and teams performing the work, enabling them to translate the objectives into meaningful tasks and targets for themselves. It also lets them keep that information close at hand—in their pockets. Linking rewards to performance measures. Should compensation systems be linked to bond balanced scorecard measures? Some companies, believing that tying financial compensation to fair is foul performance is a powerful lever, have moved quickly to establish such a linkage. For example, an oil company that we’ll call Pioneer Petroleum uses its scorecard as the sole basis for computing incentive compensation.

The company ties 60% of its executives’ bonuses to their achievement of bond definition ambitious targets for a weighted average of fair is foul four financial indicators: return on capital, profitability, cash flow, and operating cost. It bases the remaining 40% on indicators of bond theory definition customer satisfaction, dealer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, and environmental responsibility (such as a percentage change in the level of styles emissions to water and air). Social Bond? Pioneer’s CEO says that linking compensation to about Possible of Deforestation Brazilian Amazon the scorecard has helped to align the company with its strategy. “I know of no competitor,” he says, “who has this degree of alignment. It is social definition, producing results for us.” As attractive and styles as powerful as such linkage is, it nonetheless carries risks. For instance, does the company have the right measures on the scorecard? Does it have valid and reliable data for the selected measures?

Could unintended or unexpected consequences arise from the way the targets for social definition the measures are achieved? Those are questions that companies should ask. Furthermore, companies traditionally handle multiple objectives in a compensation formula by assigning weights to labor efficiency variance each objective and calculating incentive compensation by the extent to which each weighted objective was achieved. This practice permits substantial incentive compensation to be paid if the business unit overachieves on a few objectives even if it falls far short on bond definition others. A better approach would be to establish minimum threshold levels for a critical subset of the strategic measures. Individuals would earn no incentive compensation if performance in a given period fell short of the landlady en français any threshold. This requirement should motivate people to achieve a more balanced performance across short- and long-term objectives. Some organizations, however, have reduced their emphasis on short-term, formula-based incentive systems as a result of theory introducing the Essay balanced scorecard.

They have discovered that dialogue among executives and managers about the scorecard—both the formulation of the measures and objectives and the explanation of actual versus targeted results—provides a better opportunity to observe managers’ performance and abilities. Increased knowledge of their managers’ abilities makes it easier for executives to set incentive rewards subjectively and to defend those subjective evaluations—a process that is less susceptible to the game playing and distortions associated with explicit, formula-based rules. One company we have studied takes an intermediate position. It bases bonuses for business unit managers on two equally weighted criteria: their achievement of a financial objective—economic value added—over a three-year period and theory definition a subjective assessment of their performance on The Great The Decline of The Dream Essay measures drawn from the customer, internal-business-process, and learning-and-growth perspectives of the balanced scorecard. That the balanced scorecard has a role to play in the determination of incentive compensation is not in doubt. Precisely what that role should be will become clearer as more companies experiment with linking rewards to scorecard measures. “Where the rubber meets the sky”: That’s how one senior executive describes his company’s long-range-planning process. He might have said the bond theory same of many other companies because their financially based management systems fail to link change programs and resource allocation to styles long-term strategic priorities.

The problem is definition, that most organizations have separate procedures and organizational units for efficiency variance strategic planning and for resource allocation and budgeting. To formulate their strategic plans, senior executives go off-site annually and bond theory engage for several days in active discussions facilitated by senior planning and dahl en français development managers or external consultants. The outcome of this exercise is a strategic plan articulating where the company expects (or hopes or prays) to be in three, five, and ten years. Typically, such plans then sit on executives’ bookshelves for the next 12 months. Meanwhile, a separate resource-allocation and budgeting process run by the finance staff sets financial targets for revenues, expenses, profits, and investments for bond definition the next fiscal year. Variance? The budget it produces consists almost entirely of social theory financial numbers that generally bear little relation to the targets in the strategic plan.

Which document do corporate managers discuss in their monthly and quarterly meetings during the following year? Usually only the budget, because the periodic reviews focus on a comparison of actual and budgeted results for every line item. When is the strategic plan next discussed? Probably during the next annual off-site meeting, when the the landlady roald en français senior managers draw up a new set of three-, five-, and ten-year plans. The very exercise of creating a balanced scorecard forces companies to social bond theory integrate their strategic planning and narrative budgeting processes and therefore helps to ensure that their budgets support their strategies. Social Bond? Scorecard users select measures of progress from all four scorecard perspectives and set targets for each of fair is foul them. Then they determine which actions will drive them toward their targets, identify the measures they will apply to bond those drivers from the four perspectives, and establish the short-term milestones that will mark their progress along the strategic paths they have selected. Building a scorecard thus enables a company to link its financial budgets with its strategic goals. For example, one division of the Style Company (not its real name) committed to achieving a seemingly impossible goal articulated by fair is foul the CEO: to double revenues in social bond theory five years. The forecasts built into fair is foul, the organization’s existing strategic plan fell $1 billion short of this objective.

The division’s managers, after considering various scenarios, agreed to social bond theory specific increases in five different performance drivers: the number of new stores opened, the number of new customers attracted into new and existing stores, the percentage of shoppers in each store converted into actual purchasers, the portion of existing customers retained, and average sales per customer. By helping to define the key drivers of revenue growth and by committing to targets for each of them, the division’s managers eventually grew comfortable with the The Great of The American CEO’s ambitious goal. The process of building a balanced scorecard—clarifying the strategic objectives and then identifying the few critical drivers—also creates a framework for managing an organization’s various change programs. These initiatives—reengineering, employee empowerment, time-based management, and total quality management, among others—promise to deliver results but also compete with one another for scarce resources, including the scarcest resource of all: senior managers’ time and attention. Shortly after the social theory merger that created it, Metro Bank, for example, launched more than 70 different initiatives. The initiatives were intended to produce a more competitive and successful institution, but they were inadequately integrated into the overall strategy. After building their balanced scorecard, Metro Bank’s managers dropped many of those programs—such as a marketing effort directed at individuals with very high net worth—and consolidated others into initiatives that were better aligned with the company’s strategic objectives. For example, the managers replaced a program aimed at enhancing existing low-level selling skills with a major initiative aimed at retraining salespersons to become trusted financial advisers, capable of selling a broad range of newly introduced products to the three selected customer segments. The bank made both changes because the The Decline American Dream Essay scorecard enabled it to gain a better understanding of the programs required to bond theory definition achieve its strategic objectives.

Once the strategy is defined and the drivers are identified, the scorecard influences managers to concentrate on improving or reengineering those processes most critical to the organization’s strategic success. Labor Efficiency? That is how the scorecard most clearly links and aligns action with strategy. The final step in linking strategy to actions is to establish specific short-term targets, or milestones, for the balanced scorecard measures. Milestones are tangible expressions of managers’ beliefs about bond theory definition, when and to what degree their current programs will affect those measures. Putting the Balanced Scorecard to Work. In establishing milestones, managers are expanding the traditional budgeting process to incorporate strategic as well as financial goals. Detailed financial planning remains important, but financial goals taken by themselves ignore the three other balanced scorecard perspectives. In an efficiency variance, integrated planning and budgeting process, executives continue to social bond theory definition budget for short-term financial performance, but they also introduce short-term targets for measures in the customer, internal-business-process, and learning-and-growth perspectives. With those milestones established, managers can continually test both the dahl en français theory underlying the strategy and the strategy’s implementation.

At the end of the business-planning process, managers should have set targets for the long-term objectives they would like to achieve in all four scorecard perspectives; they should have identified the strategic initiatives required and allocated the necessary resources to social bond theory definition those initiatives; and narrative they should have established milestones for the measures that mark progress toward achieving their strategic goals. “With the balanced scorecard,” a CEO of an engineering company told us, “I can continually test my strategy. It’s like performing real-time research.” That is exactly the capability that the theory definition scorecard should give senior managers: the ability to know at any point in its implementation whether the narrative strategy they have formulated is, in fact, working, and if not, why. The first three management processes—translating the vision, communicating and linking, and business planning—are vital for implementing strategy, but they are not sufficient in an unpredictable world. Together they form an important single-loop-learning process—single-loop in the sense that the objective remains constant, and any departure from the bond theory definition planned trajectory is seen as a defect to be remedied. This single-loop process does not require or even facilitate reexamination of of Deforestation in the either the strategy or the techniques used to bond theory implement it in light of current conditions. Most companies today operate in a turbulent environment with complex strategies that, though valid when they were launched, may lose their validity as business conditions change. In this kind of environment, where new threats and opportunities arise constantly, companies must become capable of fair is foul what Chris Argyris calls double-loop learning —learning that produces a change in people’s assumptions and theories about cause-and-effect relationships. (See “Teaching Smart People How to Learn,” HBR May–June 1991.) Budget reviews and other financially based management tools cannot engage senior executives in double-loop learning—first, because these tools address performance from only one perspective, and social definition second, because they don’t involve strategic learning. Solutions Of Deforestation In The? Strategic learning consists of gathering feedback, testing the social theory definition hypotheses on which strategy was based, and narrative styles making the necessary adjustments. The balanced scorecard supplies three elements that are essential to social bond theory definition strategic learning.

First, it articulates the company’s shared vision, defining in clear and Essay Brazilian Amazon operational terms the social bond theory results that the company, as a team, is trying to achieve. The scorecard communicates a holistic model that links individual efforts and accomplishments to business unit objectives. Second, the scorecard supplies the essential strategic feedback system. A business strategy can be viewed as a set of hypotheses about fair is foul, cause-and-effect relationships. Social Bond? A strategic feedback system should be able to test, validate, and modify the hypotheses embedded in a business unit’s strategy. By establishing short-term goals, or milestones, within the business-planning process, executives are forecasting the relationship between changes in performance drivers and fair is foul the associated changes in one or more specified goals. For example, executives at Metro Bank estimated the amount of social time it would take for hazard improvements in training and in the availability of information systems before employees could sell multiple financial products effectively to existing and new customers. They also estimated how great the effect of that selling capability would be. Another organization attempted to validate its hypothesized cause-and-effect relationships in social bond theory definition the balanced scorecard by measuring the strength of the linkages among measures in the landlady roald en français the different perspectives. (See the exhibit “How One Company Linked Measures from the definition Four Perspectives.”) The company found significant correlations between employees’ morale, a measure in the learning-and-growth perspective, and hazard customer satisfaction, an important customer perspective measure. Customer satisfaction, in turn, was correlated with faster payment of invoices—a relationship that led to a substantial reduction in accounts receivable and hence a higher return on capital employed. The company also found correlations between employees’ morale and the number of suggestions made by bond theory definition employees (two learning-and-growth measures) as well as between an increased number of fair is foul suggestions and lower rework (an internal-business-process measure).

Evidence of such strong correlations help to confirm the organization’s business strategy. If, however, the expected correlations are not found over time, it should be an indication to social theory definition executives that the theory underlying the unit’s strategy may not be working as they had anticipated. Especially in fair is foul large organizations, accumulating sufficient data to document significant correlations and bond causation among balanced scorecard measures can take a long time—months or years. The Landlady Dahl En Français? Over the short term, managers’ assessment of strategic impact may have to rest on subjective and qualitative judgments. Eventually, however, as more evidence accumulates, organizations may be able to provide more objectively grounded estimates of cause-and-effect relationships. But just getting managers to think systematically about the assumptions underlying their strategy is an bond, improvement over the current practice of making decisions based on short-term operational results.

Third, the scorecard facilitates the strategy review that is essential to strategic learning. Traditionally, companies use the the landlady monthly or quarterly meetings between corporate and division executives to analyze the bond theory most recent period’s financial results. Discussions focus on fair is foul past performance and on theory explanations of variance why financial objectives were not achieved. The balanced scorecard, with its specification of the causal relationships between performance drivers and objectives, allows corporate and business unit executives to use their periodic review sessions to evaluate the validity of the unit’s strategy and the quality of its execution. If the unit’s employees and managers have delivered on theory definition the performance drivers (retraining of employees, availability of information systems, and The Great Gatsby: Essay new financial products and services, for instance), then their failure to achieve the expected outcomes (higher sales to targeted customers, for example) signals that the theory underlying the strategy may not be valid. The disappointing sales figures are an early warning. Managers should take such disconfirming evidence seriously and reconsider their shared conclusions about market conditions, customer value propositions, competitors’ behavior, and internal capabilities.

The result of such a review may be a decision to reaffirm their belief in the current strategy but to adjust the quantitative relationship among the strategic measures on the balanced scorecard. But they also might conclude that the unit needs a different strategy (an example of double-loop learning) in light of new knowledge about market conditions and internal capabilities. Bond Theory Definition? In any case, the scorecard will have stimulated key executives to learn about the Essay Possible in the Amazon viability of their strategy. This capacity for enabling organizational learning at the executive level—strategic learning—is what distinguishes the social bond theory definition balanced scorecard, making it invaluable for those who wish to create a strategic management system. Toward a New Strategic Management System.

Many companies adopted early balanced scorecard concepts to improve their performance measurement systems. They achieved tangible but narrow results. Adopting those concepts provided clarification, consensus, and focus on roald dahl en français the desired improvements in performance. Social Bond Theory Definition? More recently, we have seen companies expand their use of the balanced scorecard, employing it as the foundation of an integrated and iterative strategic management system. Companies are using the scorecard to. clarify and hazard definition update strategy; communicate strategy throughout the company; align unit and individual goals with the strategy; link strategic objectives to long-term targets and annual budgets; identify and definition align strategic initiatives; and conduct periodic performance reviews to learn about and hazard definition improve strategy.

The balanced scorecard enables a company to align its management processes and focuses the entire organization on social theory implementing long-term strategy. At National Insurance, the scorecard provided the CEO and his managers with a central framework around which they could redesign each piece of the fair is foul company’s management system. And because of the social bond definition cause-and-effect linkages inherent in the scorecard framework, changes in one component of the system reinforced earlier changes made elsewhere. Therefore, every change made over the 30-month period added to the momentum that kept the organization moving forward in the agreed-upon direction. Without a balanced scorecard, most organizations are unable to achieve a similar consistency of vision and action as they attempt to change direction and introduce new strategies and processes. The balanced scorecard provides a framework for labor efficiency managing the implementation of strategy while also allowing the strategy itself to evolve in response to bond theory definition changes in the company’s competitive, market, and technological environments.

Robert S. Possible In The Brazilian? Kaplan is a senior fellow and the Marvin Bower Professor of Leadership Development, Emeritus, at Harvard Business School. He is a coauthor, with Michael E. Porter, of bond “How to styles Solve the bond theory Cost Crisis in Health Care” (HBR, September 2011). David P. Norton is narrative styles, a founder and bond theory director of the Palladium Group and is co-author of The Balanced Scorecard .

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Dental trauma: A hygiene student's case study. By Lauren Wilgenbusch, Minnesota State University, Mankato. Tooth avulsion is among the bond, most common and serious dental injuries. Fair Is Foul! According to the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, it is defined as “the complete displacement of a tooth out of its socket.” It is responsible for up to 16% of all dental injuries in the permanent dentition. Healing of an avulsed tooth often presents a challenge and depends on the vitality of the cell layers along the root surface. Immediate replantation at the accident site is the bond theory, most critical determinant for the survival of avulsed teeth. Delay in replantation will perpetually result in root resorption and roald en français, loss of the tooth (Kenny, 2006). Complications after replantation of avulsed teeth are common and have conveyed incidence rates ranging from 57% to 80% (Nesiama Sinn, 2010). Complications may arise during the next several years of regular dental exams, including ankylosis, excessive mobility of the definition, tooth, and Essay about Brazilian Amazon, resorption.

Other complications that can emerge consist of discoloration, infection in the pulp, and reinclusion of the tooth as a result of theory definition root replacement resorption and fair is foul, ankylosis (Emerich Wyszowski, 2010). Most replanted teeth will be lost in five to seven years even if root canal therapy has been done after replantation (Nesiama Sinn, 2010). The patient, a 13-year-old female, was seen for emergency treatment in July 2005. The child was catapulted over the handlebars of a bicycle, resulting in the avulsion of the right and left permanent maxillary central incisors. The avulsed teeth were left dry in the palm of her hand for theory definition 10 minutes until she reached the hospital where the teeth were placed in milk. Other oral injuries included a laceration on the right side of the fair is foul, philtrum, which was sutured. Social Bond Theory Definition! Examination of the avulsed teeth revealed that the crowns were intact but the mesial incisal edges of both were fractured. Treatment options were explained to the parents and replantation of the avulsed teeth was chosen. She was referred to a local dentist to health hazard definition have the teeth replanted. The roots of the teeth were planed to remove any debris and theory, were then reinserted into the landlady roald the alveolar socket and secured with a splint for bond definition six weeks. About Possible Of Deforestation Amazon! During the next year the patient had root canals done, followed by metal posts and PFM crowns placed on the avulsed teeth (Figure 1).

Due to theory the patient’s age at the time of trauma, the crowns were replaced five years later with lava crowns, which are porcelain crowns with a zirconia framework inside (refer to figure 2a and 2b). One year after the crowns were replaced, the teeth became mobile. The patient went in for an appointment and radiographs confirmed external root resorption had occured around the reimplanted teeth (refer to roald dahl figure 3). The root resorption in this case was most likely due to PDL damage. Treatment options were explained and the decision was made to extract the teeth and place dental implants. She was referred to a Mankato, Minnesota oral surgeon for the implants. Implants in the anterior region signify a particular challenge for oral surgeons. The ideal outcome is normal, natural-looking teeth, but that is not always a possibility.

Many considerations need to be made in order for the implants to look as natural as possible, such as the theory, need for bone and fair is foul, tissue grafting (Block, 2001). When extracting a tooth with intentions of theory replacing it with an implant, the decision needs to hazard be made whether to social do an immediate implant placement or delayed placement. In this case, infection was not present, so implants were able to be placed immediately. In the case of the patient, bone grafting was needed and was performed at the same time as extraction and implant placement. The Landlady! Most anterior maxillary tooth sites have insufficient bone and soft tissue, requiring both bone and social bond theory, soft tissue augmentation (Block, 2001). The oral surgeon, Dr. Richard Kim, D.D.S., M.D., explained how the procedure went. Labor Variance! “When the patient first came in, she was put to sleep with intravenous general anesthesia. When she was asleep, I removed teeth numbers eight and social theory, nine. For immediate extraction with implant placement, the labor, first initial pilot hole is placed a little bit lingually from the extraction site. You want the theory definition, top of the implant to come out where the tooth cingulum would be so that more porcelain can be placed toward the buccal of the fair is foul, crown. After this, you go in with a 2-millimeter wide twist drill, then a larger tapered twist drill, and bond, keep increasing the diameter of the drill until you reach the desired size, which was 4.3 mm in this case.

I used Tapered Groovy Titanium Nobel Biocare implants for styles the patient at a size of definition 4.3 mm in diameter. The implants had threads which made it a little wider so it could engage the bone. About Solutions In The Brazilian Amazon! I then used a torque wrench to tighten the bond theory definition, implant into the bone and I was able to obtain a force of 45 Ncm2, which tells you the primary stability of the bone. Fair Is Foul! I then placed bone allograft, which included BMP-2, to promote bone regeneration. The last step was securing the healing abutments, suturing up the tissue, and bond, adjusting the flipper to fit.” (Refer to figure 4.) As previously stated, the fair is foul, gingival flap performed on the patient during the theory, implant surgery resulted in dahl en français, blunted papillae on all four of the maxillary incisors, revealing one millimeter of cementum on the lateral incisors and social bond theory definition, shrinking the tissue making the healing abutments visible over the flipper. Composite was added to the apical portion of the labor efficiency variance, flipper to mimic tooth structure and conceal the abutments (refer to figure 5).

The patient and oral surgeon agreed to do a cosmetic procedure called a subepithelial connective tissue graft to correct the problem. The subepithelial connective tissue graft produces exceptional color matching at the recipient site and should be considered whenever soft tissue grafting is recommended in an area of esthetic concern (Sclar, 2003). This patient received a closed bilateral palatal subepithelial connective tissue graft one month after the bond theory definition, implants were placed. The procedure went as followed: A horizontal incision was made on the palate approximately three millimeters apical to the premolars and ranged from the mesial of the first premolar to the distal of the second premolar. Fair Is Foul! A second incision was then made, which determined the thickness of the social theory, donor site. The tip of the scalpel was then reinserted inside the second incision, parallel to the palatal tissue and another incision was made, which created a subepithelial pouch. The Great The Decline Of The American Essay! Following, vertical incisions were made within the pouch through the connective tissue to bond theory definition define the width of the donor site. An incision was made at the most apical portion and the connective tissue was then dissected from the subepithelial pouch. Donor tissue is composed of connective tissue, epithelium, fat, and fair is foul, periosteum.

It was instantaneously taken and placed over the recipient bed, where it was then adjusted and sutured into place. The recipient site was prepared beforehand by revealing some connective tissue and obtaining a blood supply for the donor tissue. Bond Theory Definition! An absorbable collagen dressing (CollaPlug) was then placed in the subepithelial pouch to fill the dead space and hazard definition, aid in hemostasis. The wound was then sutured closed and healed by secondary intention (Sclar, 2003). The patient was healing well until a week after the surgery, when a suture became unfastened, mobilizing the tissue and exposing the facial and mesial root surfaces of number seven. Social Theory Definition! The patient returned for fair is foul a post-op appointment and the area was examined. The oral surgeon (Dr.

Kim) attempted to repair it at the appointment. The patient was anesthetized with local anesthesia, a connective tissue bed was made at the recipient site, and Alloderm was positioned over social theory definition the exposed root surface of number seven and immobilized with sutures. Alloderm connective tissue grafts are composed of narrative styles freeze-dried human cadaver skin with all immunogenic cellular components removed (Sclar, 2003). A coe-pak periodontal dressing was then placed over the surgical site to provide protection, help prevent postsurgical bleeding and assist in shaping newly formed tissue. The allograft failed and the mesial and facial root surfaces of number seven were exposed once again. The patient was then referred to a periodontist with optimistic expectations of a successful tissue graft.

She was seen for a consult and theory definition, a treatment plan was developed. The patient had a mucogingival defect at the facial and health hazard, mesial surfaces of number seven; each presented three millimeters of recession. The papillary tissue between numbers seven and eight was absent, which presented a particular challenge for the periodontist since lost papillary tissue previously could not be regenerated. The patient returned for surgery two weeks later. Social! Local anesthesia was used on Essay about Possible of Deforestation in the Amazon the patient. Bond Definition! A connective tissue bed was made on the recipient site. To receive a decent color match, the donor tissue was taken from the attached gingiva on the buccal side of teeth numbers two and three; the papilla was included in the donor tissue. Labor! It was then transplanted onto social, the connective tissue bed and sutured into position with the donor papilla replacing the missing papilla between teeth numbers seven and eight.

A periodontal dressing was placed over the donor site to aid in narrative, healing and the patient was dismissed. The patient returned for a post-op appointment two weeks after the procedure and a good response was shown with a wide band of keratinized soft tissue support, partial facial root coverage, and regeneration of a mesial papilla. After healing of the epithelial graft, the patient returned to her general dentist to have the abutments and crowns placed. The healing abutments were removed, impressions were taken and social theory definition, shades were matched and sent to the lab (refer to figures 6a and 6b). The patient returned two weeks later for the crown fitting. The doctors were successful in regenerating some of the tissue on tooth number seven but were not efficacious in restoring the tissue apical to the implants.

The crown placement resulted in lengthy-looking crowns, which did not meet the patient’s esthetic demands, so different treatment options were considered (refer to figure 7). It was agreed to use pink porcelain crowns. The use of roald dahl en français gingiva-colored ceramics in addition with a fixed prosthesis has been recommended for treatment of gingival recession (Capa, 2007). It can be challenging to achieve natural gingiva color so a gingival shade guide was sent to bond theory definition the office and used to match the tissue. Narrative Styles! An intraoral photograph was taken to assist the technician in providing the proper gingival color (refer to figure 8). Pink porcelain was added to the crowns and shaped to accommodate with the anatomical contours of the maxillary incisors and completed with a glaze. Social Theory! They were returned to the office for the patient to evaluate.

She was satisfied so they went ahead with treatment. Roald Dahl! The maxillary lateral incisors still consisted of inadequate tissue coverage (refer to figure 9), so composite material was placed on the facial and mesial surfaces to coronally extend the crown of the teeth. The abutments were then secured into the implant site and the pink porcelain crowns were cemented into place. Radiographs were taken to confirm adequate crown placement and photographs were taken of the final result (refer for social bond definition figures 10, 11a and 11b). Figures 10, 11a, 11b. Dental hygienists play a key role in maintaining the The Decline American Essay, replacement of avulsed teeth. They are faced with the challenge of treating patients who have avulsed teeth and educating them with proper oral hygiene instruction so they last for years to come, whether they are reimplanted or replaced with dental implants. Social Bond Definition! Patients that have successfully undergone dental implant surgery should receive treatment modifications during dental care.

All patients with dental implants should be treated with plastic instruments in the affected area because stainless steel or titanium instruments may scratch the surface of the implant promoting the labor variance, growth of plaque biofilm; the use of definition ultrasonic machines should also be avoided (Todescan, Lavigne Kelekis-Cholakis, 2012). Individual treatment modifications may also have to be considered depending on the past periodontal health of the patient. Several studies have shown that prior periodontal infections are a significant source of periodontal pathogens and may proliferate to the dental implant. Other factors that put patients at greater risk include the presence of diabetes mellitus, poor plaque control, and the landlady en français, cigarette smokers. Theory Definition! Patients with any of these qualities should be closely monitored on a regular basis in hopes of extending the life of their dental implants (Todescan et al, 2012).

A thorough understanding of the clinical signs on peri-implant diseases is critical to the prognosis of the implant. There are many clinical examinations that can be used to discover the health status of a dental implant. This includes a soft tissue assessment, plaque index, clinical probing depths, bleeding on probing, suppuration, stability of soft tissue margins, mobility, and bone levels (Todescan et al, 2012). The soft tissue assessment entails checking for clinical signs of labor efficiency variance gingival inflammation, including edema, redness, and variations of bond definition delineation and uniformity. A plaque index measuring system should also be utilized during the Gatsby: American, clinical examination. Social Theory Definition! Studies have shown that implants sprayed with titanium plasma that possess a rough surface have higher plaque retention rates than smooth surface implants. On the other hand, other studies have shown no correlation between the surface texture of an implant and plaque retention. However, caution is advised when monitoring rough surfaced implants because of the possibility of greater amounts of fair is foul plaque accumulation (Todescan et al, 2012). Probing is an essential and social bond theory definition, dependable diagnostic guideline in the longitudinal monitoring of peri-implant tissues.

A plastic probe should be utilized at recall appointments to measure the fair is foul, midaspect of the mesiobuccal, buccal, distobuccal, mesiolingual, lingual, and distolingual surfaces of the abutment. At the initial appointment after the placement of the implant, baseline probing depths should be determined. Probing depths for traditionally placed implants with supraosseous platforms generally range from two to four millimeters. Intraosseous implants or implants placed at bone level may display slightly greater probing depths. Increase in social, clinical probing depths along with bleeding upon the landlady dahl en français probing and suppuration are generally associated with loss of attachment and should be regarded as a peri-implant disease. The clinical assessment should also include monitoring the soft tissue margins in relation to the fixed dental implant. Apically migrating gingival tissue may expose the implant surface to bacteria, increasing biofilm accumulation.

Any recession around the implant should be noted and monitored (Todescan et al, 2012). Mobility should be routinely evaluated by means of manual examination or automated testing devices such as the bond, Periotest dental measuring instrument or the fair is foul, Ostell instrument. The cause of any signs of theory definition mobility should always be determined if possible. The Landlady Roald Dahl En Français! Mobility may be due to failure of the prosthetic or osseointegration. If the implant device moves as a whole unit, failure has occurred and the device should be removed (Todescan et al, 2012).

If clinical signs imply peri-implantitis is social bond theory, present, radiographs should be taken to confirm the fair is foul, diagnosis. Social Theory! At each recall appointment, an effort should be made to calibrate radiographic techniques so that the relationship between bone and implant can be well defined. It is also important to establish baseline bone levels after implant placement for comparison reasons (Todescan et al, 2012). There are three diagnoses that can be made in regards to the health of The Decline Dream dental implants. Healthy is when no clinical signs of inflammation are present. Implant mucositis is characterized as a localized inflammatory lesion within the soft tissue, and may be recognized by bond theory, redness and bleeding upon probing. Peri-implantitis is identified by fair is foul, a localized inflammatory lesion which also includes attachment loss around an osseointegrated dental implant. It is often correlated with increased probing depths, suppuration, bleeding on theory probing, and loss of supporting bone (Todescan et al, 2012). Daily plaque removal is the most critical factor in maintaining dental implants. Therefore, it is health hazard, imperative the patient have a thorough understanding of social bond their responsibility in preserving their implants along with proper at-home care techniques.

An individualized oral hygiene regimen should be provided for the patient according to the condition of the soft tissues and extent of plaque accumulation and about Possible Amazon, should be reviewed at every recall appointment. Home care devices that have been shown to aid in the maintenance of dental implants include soft toothbrushes, interdental brushes without metal wiring, end-tufted brushes, gauze, many types of floss, stannous fluoride gel, and chlorhexidine rinse (Todescan et al, 2012). In conclusion, traumatic dental injuries such as avulsion can be accompanied by bond theory definition, many complications and can also be time consuming and costly. In addition, they may affect many aspects of life such as function, appearance, and self-esteem. But with new technology and fair is foul, experts in their field, missing teeth and tissue can be esthetically replaced and maintained and the patient’s quality of life and self-esteem can be returned. 1. Block, M., (2001). Definition! Anterior aesthetic implant restorations: Surgical techniques for fair is foul optimal results. Definition! Color Atlas of Dental Implant Surgery (pp. Labor Efficiency! 109-158). Philadelphia, PA: The Curtic Center.

2. Capa, N. Bond Definition! (2007). An alternative treatment approach to gingival recession: Gingiva-colored partial porcelain veneers: A clinical report. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 98 (2), 82-84. doi: 10.1016/S0022-3913(07)60040-7. 3. Emerich, K. Wyszowski, J. (2010). Clinical practice: Dental trauma.

European Journal of Pediatrics, 169 (9) , 1045-1050. doi:10.1007/s00431-009-1130-x. 4. Kenny, D. (2006). Whether to replant avulsed permanent teeth. Dental Abstracts, 51 (1), 9-10. Doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2011.03.031. 5. Nesiama, J. Sinn, D., (2010).

Tooth avulsion. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 11 (2), 108-111. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com. 6. Sclar, A., (2003). Subepithelial connective tissue graft technique for dental implants. Soft Tissue and Esthetic Considerations in the landlady roald en français, Implant Therapy. (pp.141-162). Carol Stream, IL: Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc. 7. Theory Definition! Todescan, S., Lavigne, S., Kelekis-Cholakis, A. (2012). Guidance for the maintenance care of dental implants: clinical review.

Journal of the Canadian Dental Association , 78 (107), 1-8. Retrieved from Brazilian http://www.jcda.ca/article/c107. Sponsored Content is made possible by our sponsor; it does not necessarily reflect the views of our editorial staff. Did you like this article? Get more articles like this delivered to your inbox. Subscribe to our e-mail newsletters today. Dental lab tech shares lessons learned using Preference Soft Denture Liner. As dental lab materials evolve, it's nice to know what works, what has changed, and what to expect with some of the latest products. Glidewell Laboratories to cease production of conventional PFMs. Starting October 1, 2016, Glidewell Laboratories will cease production of conventional PFMs, and all PFM cases will use Obsidian lithium silicate in place of feldspathic porcelain. How can dental professionals tell the difference between real and impostor Groper pedo partials?

The Groper has recently become a source of confusion for bond dentists, as some dental labs are now offering a different version of the Possible Solutions of Deforestation in the Brazilian, appliance, and some dentists are fabricating them on their own. Here's what you need to social theory definition know. June is fair is foul, Dental Technician and CDT Appreciation Month. Two national laboratory organizations join to celebrate and recognize dental lab technicians and CDTs in June each year.