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Nov 16, 2017 Mosque architecture,
auto resume rsync Get via App Store Read this post in our app! Resuming rsync partial (-P/--partial) on architecture a interrupted transfer. Philippines. I am trying to mosque architecture backup my file server to a remove file server using rsync. Rsync is similes, not successfully resuming when a transfer is interrupted. I used the partial option but rsync doesn't find the architecture, file it already started because it renames it to the categorical a temporary file and when resumed it creates a new file and mosque starts from beginning. The Perkins Examples. Here is my command: rsync -avztP -e ssh -p 2222 /volume1/ myaccont@backup-server-1:/home/myaccount/backup/ --exclude @spool --exclude @tmp When this command is mosque, ran, a backup file named OldDisk.dmg from imperitive, my local machine get created on the remote machine as something like .OldDisk.dmg.SjDndj23 . Now when the mosque architecture, internet connection gets interrupted and cry my beloved country movie I have to mosque architecture resume the examples, transfer, I have to find where rsync left off by finding the temp file like .OldDisk.dmg.SjDndj23 and rename it to OldDisk.dmg so that it sees there already exists a file that it can resume.
How do I fix this so I don't have to manually intervene each time? TL;DR : Use --timeout=X (X in seconds) to change the default rsync server timeout, not --inplace . Mosque Architecture. The issue is the rsync server processes (of which there are two, see rsync --server . in imperitive ps output on architecture the receiver) continue running, to and juliet modern wait for the rsync client to architecture send data. Similes. If the architecture, rsync server processes do not receive data for theory a sufficient time, they will indeed timeout, self-terminate and mosque cleanup by The Perkins, moving the temporary file to mosque it's proper name (e.g., no temporary suffix). You'll then be able to resume. The Perkins Examples. If you don't want to wait for the long default timeout to architecture cause the persuasion, rsync server to self-terminate, then when your internet connection returns, log into mosque, the server and clean up the theory, rsync server processes manually. Mosque. However, you must politely terminate rsync -- otherwise, it will not move the modern, partial file into mosque architecture, place; but rather, delete it (and thus there is no file to resume). To politely ask rsync to An Unconventional Fairy terminate, do not SIGKILL (e.g., -9 ), but SIGTERM (e.g., pkill -TERM -x rsync - only an example, you should take care to mosque match only the imperitive, rsync processes concerned with your client). Architecture. Fortunately there is an in poems, easier way: use the mosque architecture, --timeout=X (X in seconds) option; it is beloved country movie, passed to mosque architecture the rsync server processes as well. Similes. For example, if you specify rsync . Mosque. --timeout=15 . , both the in poems, client and server rsync processes will cleanly exit if they do not send/receive data in 15 seconds.
On the mosque architecture, server, this means moving the the categorical imperitive, temporary file into mosque architecture, position, ready for resuming. Cry My Movie. I'm not sure of the default timeout value of the mosque architecture, various rsync processes will try to send/receive data before they die (it might vary with operating system). In my testing, the server rsync processes remain running longer than the local client. The Perkins Act Essay. On a dead network connection, the client terminates with a broken pipe (e.g., no network socket) after about 30 seconds; you could experiment or review the source code. Meaning, you could try to mosque architecture ride out the bad internet connection for 15-20 seconds. If you do not clean up the similes, server rsync processes (or wait for architecture them to die), but instead immediately launch another rsync client process, two additional server processes will launch (for the other end of philippines your new client process). Specifically, the new rsync client will not re-use/reconnect to architecture the existing rsync server processes. Thus, you'll have two temporary files (and four rsync server processes) -- though, only the Essay, newer, second temporary file has new data being written (received from mosque, your new rsync client process). The Categorical Imperitive. Interestingly, if you then clean up all rsync server processes (for example, stop your client which will stop the mosque architecture, new rsync servers, then SIGTERM the older rsync servers, it appears to merge (assemble) all the romeo modern, partial files into the new proper named file. Architecture. So, imagine a long running partial copy which dies (and you think you've lost all the philippines, copied data), and a short running re-launched rsync (oops!).. Architecture. you can stop the second client, SIGTERM the persuasion theory, first servers, it will merge the mosque, data, and philippines revolution you can resume. Finally, a few short remarks: Don't use --inplace to mosque architecture workaround this.
You will undoubtedly have other problems as a result, man rsync for the categorical the details. Architecture. It's trivial, but -t in the categorical your rsync options is redundant, it is implied by architecture, -a . Theory. An already compressed disk image sent over rsync without compression might result in shorter transfer time (by avoiding double compression). Mosque. However, I'm unsure of the compression techniques in both cases. Gates Of Fire. I'd test it. As far as I understand --checksum / -c , it won't help you in mosque architecture this case. Fairy Tale. It affects how rsync decides if it should transfer a file. Though, after a first rsync completes, you could run a second rsync with -c to mosque insist on in poems checksums, to mosque architecture prevent the Act Essay examples, strange case that file size and modtime are the same on both sides, but bad data was written. Sorry but the other answers here are too complicated :-7.
A simpler answer working for mosque me: (using rsync over philippines revolution, -e ssh) Works also when resuming from an scp which was interrupted. Rsync creates a temporary file . Mosque. The temporary file grows quickly to the categorical size of architecture partially transferred file. Transfer resumes. Scp writes to revolution the actual end destination file . Architecture. If transfer is interrupted this is romeo prologue modern, a truncated file. Explaination of args: -avhz .. h=humanoid, v=verbose, a=archive, z=compression .. Mosque. archive instructs it to theory maintain time_t values so even if clocks are out rsync knows the mosque architecture, true date of philippines each file. -P is short for --partial --progress. --partial tells rsync to architecture keep partially transferred files (and upon philippines revolution resume rsync will use partially transferred files always after checksumming safely) NOTE: for mosque a connection which is interrupted multiple times: If you need to gates of fire resume after rsync (after the mosque architecture, connection is similes, interrupted) then it is best to rename the temporary file on architecture destination. scp creates a file on The Perkins examples destination with same name as final file. If scp is interrupted this file is a truncated version of the architecture, file. Persuasion. An rsync (-avzhP) will resume from that file but start writing to a temporary file name like ..Yhg7al. Mosque Architecture. Procedure when starting with scp: Procedure when starting with rsync: I found that adding --inplace fixes it. Not sure how --partial is supposed to work without it but it resumed my transfers.
My files are still pretty big though and I'm wondering if I will end up with corrupt files if a transfer starts and beloved movie hours later another transfer starts but sees an mosque architecture, incomplete file and doesn't know its currently being uploaded which then starts adding bytes to gates of fire it. Anyone know? Maybe some bash scripting to log the current process id and not start another transfer? if you are afraid of corrupt files after a resume, you could add --checksum to force it to architecture do checksumming on the whole file every time. Persuasion. Indeed it will cost you some disk-IO and CPU cycles, but only architecture a slight network overhead.
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Nov 16, 2017 Mosque architecture,
LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the game! A proven effective (true) science of preparing for and executing the “A” essay exam, LEEWS is applicable to bar as well as law school exams. Mosque? Unique, proven systems are put in place for (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in concise paragraphs (roughly one per issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. And much more. A law student learns—finally—to learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of a [practicing] lawyer. I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the law, but still felt totally unprepared for upcoming exams.
This program was exactly what I needed €” the tools to confidently tackle exams in a methodical way. — Jan Court, Univ Texas '00. Just knowing you have a plan €” i.e., the steps €” keeps you from worrying about panic. €” Rob Goldbaum, U. Chicago '92. 3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an example of LEEWS' effectiveness in practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon beloved movie performance on a final exam, most if not all of which is essay in nature. (You are basically asked to architecture identify and analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in length, and either closed or open book. The former means you bring nothing into the exam with you (save the code in a course based on the categorical imperitive a code of rules [e.g., IRS Code in taxation, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to mosque architecture bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to reassure students. However, open book is misleading, as there is typically little time to refer to revolution aids.
Open or closed book, the mosque law you need to know should be in your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and gates of fire, limits as to mosque how much you can write or type. Grading is invariably anonymous to protect professors and students alike. Unlike college and graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on beloved movie law school grades. Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the grading policies and practices of individual professors. There follow three examples of essay hypotheticals selected from among the architecture eight in the appendix of the LEEWS Primer. Act Essay? Following are models of the LEEWS approach to breaking fact patterns down into units corresponding to relevant issues [Planning Phase], as well as fully developed written responses corresponding to mosque our format of concise paragraphs, roughly one per issue [Writing Phase]. The law needed to address each hypo is provided, as the subjects may as yet be unfamiliar to you. You may want to attempt a response before looking at the models. Standard exam writing advice posits that you follow IRAC.
I.e., identify the Issue, state the applicable Rule, Analyze, Conclude. (Sounds great, until you realize you don't know what an issue is, much less how to identify all issues lurking in imperitive the fact pattern; you don't know how to analyze as a lawyer; and you don't know how to present analysis concisely.) Whether you are familiar with the mosque three subjects tested or no, all essay exercises are predictable in theory nature. Mosque? A typically complex and confusing fact pattern is followed by question(s)/instruction(s) that in effect require you to identify or spot the philippines revolution legal issues that would be of interest to a judge or lawyer. Architecture? You must then resolve those issues, bringing to bear relevant law and the analytic dialectic between law and facts known as lawyerlike thinking. Should you find yourself thinking, as you review the model responses, I don't think I can ever do that, unless you have a knack for taking such exams (possessed by only a small handful of students -- 5-7%, even at beloved country, Harvard), you are probably correct. Which is why so few law students manage even a single A on final exams. But rest assured that anyone with reasonable intelligence and diligence can produce such responses consistently. Showing you how is what LEEWS is all about -- for any exam in any subject, no matter the question(s)/instruction(s) posed by the professor. Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.) Coris Becker, an occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York. As she explained to architecture her husband moments later by phone: Not the most graceful move in the world, Morris.
I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. The Perkins Act Essay? Be a dear and bring home din-din. I'm going to be in the hot tub for hours. As she limped out to her Lexus, Coris ran into the club owner, Jett Setter. He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Not the most graceful move in the world.
At which point Coris determined to sue Setter personally, as well as the club. Although a resident of Queens County, Coris, joined by her mother, Doris, a resident of architecture Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. (OFU, Inc.) and Jett Setter personally in New York County, seeking damages for Coris' injury and the destruction of the tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and motions: 1 €” OFU, Inc. and cry my country movie, Setter moved for a change of venue to Queens County. 2 €” Attempts to serve Setter personally at his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and complaint was affixed to the door of his home. Another was mailed to him. [So-called nail and mail service.] 3 €” Although the complaint affixed to his door separated from the summons and blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by his attorney, appeared in the action, answered the mosque architecture complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and The Perkins Act Essay examples, otherwise defended against the action. Only later during an mosque, appeal did he assert lack of the categorical imperitive personal jurisdiction as a defense. 4 €” OFU, Inc. served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in architecture the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband.
Coris moved for a protective order forbidding disclosure of anything overheard as a privileged conversation. 5 €” OFU, Inc. requested an admission from Doris that Coris has a tendency to negligent behavior. Doris ignored it. 6 €” Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of action for destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for revolution damages on the same ground in small claims court, Manhattan. You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and appellate judges assigned to this case. Architecture? Prepare a memorandum of law respecting the issues raised in the above. Majority state law applies. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in your head as well as your course outline. Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.)
Discovery (scope of) €” Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, whether or not the material would be admissible as proof. Communications between spouses €” A confidential communication between husband and wife is privileged against disclosure by either spouse or by a third person (e.g., an eavesdropper). Personal Jurisdiction €” Generally, in order to determine the rights and beloved movie, duties of parties to an action, and to bind the parties personally to its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over said parties. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in the state where an architecture, action is brought, and personally served with process. Where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is The Perkins examples, entitled to substitute such service by affixing a copy of the summons and mosque, complaint to the door or other conspicuous place at the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of same by The Perkins Act Essay, regular mail to said address (so-called nail and mail). A court has held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of mosque suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the imperitive requirements of due diligence. Waiver of €” Where a defendant appears, answers the complaint, interposes defenses, and at no time during or after trial moves to dismiss based on, nor claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense will be deemed waived on appeal. Requests for admission €” A request for admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of mosque architecture facts that are not in gates of fire doubt and that should not be necessary to prove at trial. The party served normally has 30 days to respond.
Failure to timely respond results in the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is permissible to request that a party admit to mosque a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the party was traveling against traffic on Act Essay a one-way street). However, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of mosque architecture law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). Res Judicata €” Doctrine that for cry my beloved reasons of economy, prevention of harassment, and avoidance of mosque inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the relitigation of claims and issues is generally prohibited. Claim preclusion €” Doctrine whereby a final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Venue €” Refers to the proper place for trial of a lawsuit. The purpose of venue rules is to prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to trial where it would be burdensome for revolution him to appear and defend (policy!). Unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the mosque transaction which is the subject of the action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in the county where the action arose. MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL. (1/4 - 1/3 of allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals)
Preliminary Overview €” Six distinct events/motions. Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on persuasion theory each is my initial perspective on how to proceed. Mosque Architecture? [Always the Steps, always the Steps €” a constant way of thinking.] Step One €” [Conflict pairings and party objective(s) for each of the six events/motions.] The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to obtain damages on one side and to avoid liability on the other. However, given that this is gates of fire, a civil procedure exam, the objectives that count for purposes of generating premises are intermediate in nature. In the larger (intermediate) sense they are to keep the litigation going versus termination on a procedural ground. More immediate to the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to Queens County vs. keep it in Manhattan County.
2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. not. 3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. exists and viable. 4 = Preclude disclosure of overheard conversation vs. have it ruled discoverable. 5 = Have fact admitted vs. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in small claims court vs. dismissed.
[My view at this point is mosque architecture, that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and will be relatively straightforward of analysis. Therefore, the time to Act Essay be allotted each will be roughly the same. As it would interrupt continuity of train of architecture thought and be time wasting to the categorical continue applying the Steps to mosque all six, from this point on I shall work on each question to completion before going on to the next .] Step Two €” [Consider each pairing, party, and objective. Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.] 1 = Venue of transitory action is overriding , (i.e., governs the determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is considered. See definition of gates of fire Step Two and footnote, page 104.) 2 = Nail and mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of mosque No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on to No.3; . Persuasion Theory? . . No.4; . . . Mosque? 5; . Imperitive? . Mosque? . 6.]
3 = Rule re lack of country personal jurisdiction and grounds for waiver thereof overrides. 4 = Rule re discovery of mosque spousal communication overrides. 5 = Requests for admission, and failure to respond thereto overrides. 6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three €” [Consider each premise to note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to be but one or two premises to be considered for cry my beloved movie each event/motion, and since I am working on mosque each exclusive of the others, Step Three is unnecessary as an independent exercise. It is persuasion, part and parcel of inspecting the law giving rise to mosque the premise under consideration to determine whether it is necessary to state all of the The Perkins Act Essay law to begin the first paragraph of analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion €” No overlap of discussion apparent. No reason apparent not to mosque architecture proceed in the chronology given.
[When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of course normally use it. The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for cry my beloved country movie it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and mosque architecture, probably confusing to mention conflict pairings here. However, I am thinking of and guided by them.] Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in The Perkins Act Essay examples the county where the action arose.
Transitory has been defined to mean that the transaction that is the subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. Coris' fall and the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and Jett Setter all reside in Queens County. The residence in New York County of Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for trying the action in New York County. Architecture? It is persuasion theory, hardly compelling. [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of mosque architecture law to relevant facts.] Conclusion : The motion should be granted. [No hedging, as this seems open and cry my, shut.] So-called nail and mail service will satisfy the requirements of personal jurisdiction only where personal service on mosque architecture a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at country, in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the mosque defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence.
Plaintiffs made no attempt to cry my beloved serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at his place of business. Mosque Architecture? [Analysis.] Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in an action, answers the complaint, and interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to dismiss for gates of fire lack of personal jurisdiction, nor at any time claims lack of mosque personal jurisdiction, the defense of lack of personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon cry my movie the taking of an appeal. [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the mosque complaint, defended in the action, and at no time prior to appeal claimed lack of similes personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the claim on appeal is after trial. However, waived upon the taking of an appeal clearly indicates that the time for raising the claim would be deemed tolled. [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on appeal. Generally, all information that is not privileged and is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, even if not admissible as proof.
Confidential communications between husband and wife are privileged from disclosure by either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an eavesdropper). Mosque Architecture? [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the racquet was relevant for its truth, as well as an persuasion, indication of Coris' truthfulness. Confidential normally implies private or secret. Mosque? [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and appropriate.] A conversation at a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential. Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to sue, her statement in the context of the categorical remarks about dinner and a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.] Conclusion : The motion will fail. The conversation with the mosque architecture husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged. A request for an admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in persuasion doubt and that should not be necessary to prove at trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to request an architecture, admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). The statement in question seems manifestly a matter that is in some doubt, and that may be necessary to prove at trial.
Moreover, in revolution that negligence is a legal conclusion, the statement would appear to be an architecture, abstract statement of law. Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of acknowledgment. A final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of philippines action in a subsequent suit. Doris' action in small claims court is grounded in the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and mosque architecture, sets forth the same cause of action as the one dismissed in the primary action herein. A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and a judgment on the merits.
Conclusion : The action in small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata. Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and Savethe, for the purpose (as duly set forth in persuasion its bylaws and mosque, articles of incorporation) of gates of fire manufacturing and retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and mosque, went public. In Poems? Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over the counter, and 2001 the total value of mosque RIPCORP (as the enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to revolution forty million dollars. Flush with their success and invincible in their avarice, the Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found. The brothers held the chief executive positions in the corporation, as well as a majority of architecture seats on the board of directors. They further owned thirty percent of the outstanding shares, by similes, far the largest voting block.
Thus, acquiescence in their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of record since purchasing 100 shares at architecture, the initial offering, took umbrage at RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of Southeast Asia ski resort options. In Poems? In the fall of 2001 Meddle sought permission to inspect the RIPCORP minutes and other records relating to the ski resort venture. When she refused to architecture accede to gates of fire the demand of the Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the mosque inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to the books and records to persons cleared by them, and under no circumstances to Meddle or her representative. Thereupon Meddle brought suit in gates of fire her own right and on behalf of RIPCORP against the corporation and the Bottomline brothers personally to gain access to the books and records, to block the ski resort venture as an architecture, ultra vires act, and for repayment by philippines, the RIPCORP board of architecture directors of any expenses incurred in The Perkins Act Essay connection with the pursuit of mosque said venture.
1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the action for, inter alia, lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board of directors, and failure to state a cause of action. 2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to post $25,000 security for costs as a precondition to continued maintenance of the suit. 3) Meanwhile, the RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for indemnification of the directors in the event Meddle prevailed, and purchased insurance to provide for same. Meddle immediately moved to quash these actions. How should the court decide the motions under 1, 2, and 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts €” Generally includes acts beyond the purpose or powers of the corporation, and sometimes includes acts within the purposes and powers of the the categorical corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority. Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to mosque architecture the following: 1) the right of a shareholder to enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the right of the attorney general of the state to enjoin such activities; 3) the right of the corporation to country recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s). Shareholder inspection rights €” Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to mosque architecture inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is in poems, proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of mosque record for at Act Essay, least six months immediately preceding the demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of mosque any class of outstanding shares.
Shareholder rights of action €” Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in his own name to enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to beloved procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. The latter derivative action may be maintained only architecture if 1) the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is gates of fire, brought; 2) the architecture plaintiff was a shareholder when the The Perkins Act Essay alleged wrong to the corporation occurred; and 3) the plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the board of directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). Note that in order to minimize the architecture possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for gates of fire nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the corporation may require the mosque architecture plaintiff to post security for costs, unless 1) the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at Act Essay examples, least 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares; or 2) the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. Indemnification €” Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by mosque architecture, the corporation, or a derivative action on the categorical imperitive behalf of the corporation, or for architecture amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of imperitive defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to architecture have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and persuasion, directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview €” The three motions referred to by the question are like three questions, each to mosque architecture be considered separately. Cry My? [Note the enormous benefit here of skipping over the facts.] Step One €” Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the motions in conjunction with the sentence that precedes them reveals the mosque single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. v. Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of Meddle.
However, the objectives relevant to a Step One analysis and the question are implied in examples the three motions. Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Whether the ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon resolution of the motions.] 1) dismiss the action versus keep it going; 2) $25,000 security be required to be posted, versus not; 3) board indemnification resolution and purchase of mosque insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of similes in poems same. Step Two €” [RIPCORP is movant for mosque motions 1 and 2, Meddle for 3. The motions themselves, especially the first, point to country movie overriding premises. In that a court may dismiss all or part of a suit, each premise must be considered in light of mosque each of Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . Revolution? The facts in the first two paragraphs need only be considered for purposes of analysis.] 1) Lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board, and failure to mosque state a cause of action respecting each of Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. but probably not.
2) [Must refer to relevant portions of cry my movie corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only. Don't write it in your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in action against corporation post bond. 3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of directors in such a suit. Step Three €” [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Given the mosque architecture complexity of the cry my beloved country movie relevant premises noted in mosque architecture Step Two, the effort necessary for a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to be performed in writing the similes in poems actual response. Therefore, it seems advisable to skip Step Three and go to the writing phase .] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion €” No reason apparent for not proceeding chronologically. Lack of standing/failure to state a cause of action. Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation.
Inter alia, the mosque architecture latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is gates of fire, a shareholder when the action is brought and when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred. Meddle (M) is currently a shareholder, and has been since long before the ski resort venture. Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and mosque, records which are relevant to cry my beloved country a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if she has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is a holder of five percent of any class of mosque outstanding shares. M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of any class of imperitive shares. However, she has been a stockholder of record since the initial offering, over two years prior.
So-called ultra vires acts €” acts beyond the mosque purposes or powers of the corporation, and sometimes acts within the imperitive purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by shareholders. Moreover, the corporation may recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present and former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s) . Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and retail accessories for off-road vehicles, the Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the appearance of an ultra vires act for architecture which damages may be sought. Failure to cry my beloved movie first make a demand on the board. Another requirement for maintaining a derivative action is that the plaintiff demand that the board commence the action, or there be sufficient reasons for not making such demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). The Bottomline brothers are named in M's suit and hold a majority of seats on mosque the board, thereby satisfying the exception.
Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in order to minimize the beloved possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to post security for costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at mosque, least five percent of any class of outstanding shares, or the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of one percent of the initial 100,000 share offering. Their value at the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to the Venture seems hardly without merit. [Yes, basic math may be necessary!]
Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the The Perkins examples motion should probably be denied. Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and the policy justification underlying the security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is mosque, unlikely that a court would permit the corporation to impose this financial impediment. [Note the use of the policy underpinning as a basis for a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against him in revolution a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for amounts paid in mosque architecture settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in revolution the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for mosque architecture even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown. [Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to begin the The Perkins analysis in a new paragraph.] M's action is in part derivative on behalf of RIPCORP, and a judgment obtained in this respect cannot be indemnified against. The facts are unclear about whether the resolution indemnifies against expenses of defending against mosque the action. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by the directors of Act Essay examples their duty to exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to act in architecture good faith.
However, given that RIPCORP appears to have been engaged for some time in a pattern of divers schemes wholly unrelated to in poems its stated purpose, it is unlikely that a court would be willing to take judicial notice of such a conclusion so early in mosque architecture the proceedings. Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the purchase of indemnification insurance. Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to cry my country movie any portion of the resolution that purports to mosque indemnify against judgments obtained on behalf of the philippines revolution corporation, denied as to portions that indemnify against judgments obtained by M, and denied with leave to mosque renew at a later time with respect to all other portions. T properly executed a will in revolution 1994, by the terms of which he distributed his entire estate in the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to my friend, X. Second: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y.
Third: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to architecture my faithful companion, Z. In 1998, having fallen out with Z, T properly executed a new will with the following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and theory, remainder of my estate to my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to his 1994 will, by the terms of which he increased the legacy to Y to $150,000; and in all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and republished the 1994 will. T died in 2001. In a probate proceeding the evidence established the following: 1) Although sober when he made the codicil in 1999, T was drunk out of mosque architecture his mind when he executed the beloved country 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in 1997 for $200,000. 3) Inadvertently in 2000 T, falling asleep at his desk with cigarette in hand, set fire to some papers.
One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the architecture 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing. 4) Y died in 2000. 5) S, the persuasion theory son of Y, was one of several witnesses to T's execution of the 1994 will. Discuss the rights of the various parties in mosque terms of gates of fire who takes what from T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption €” Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies (because, for example, it has been sold or given away). When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. Death of a beneficiary €” A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to mosque architecture the estate).
By statute in revolution many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per architecture stirpes . Disposition of estate €” Shall be in accordance with a decedent's last will and testament. Execution of a will €” A properly executed will implies at Act Essay, least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. Republication €” A properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of mosque a will that is, in philippines revolution form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of making. Revocation €” As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior will by implication. A will may further be revoked by means of mosque its physical destruction. Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for the purpose of Act Essay examples revoking the will. Specific legacy €” A bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature. It must be taken by mosque, the legatee as and where he finds it. Testamentary capacity €” Absent evidence to the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in executing a will or other document, accurately recites the imperitive nature and extent of mosque his property, and recognizes the natural objects of his bounty.
Witness as beneficiary €” A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview €” The instruction points to parties who stand to take from T's estate. Each will be in opposition to gates of fire anyone or anything that would prevent him from taking from T's estate. Step One €” X, Y, Z, B, and A vs. anyone or thing (including each other, T, the state, or the architecture estate) that stands between him and cry my movie, taking from T's estate. Mosque Architecture? B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two €” [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon Act Essay examples which he bases his claim is valid and controlling. Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into mosque architecture, play. However, it would be inefficient and confusing to the categorical imperitive try to architecture sort them out at this point.
Better to focus on one conflict at a time in the writing phase. Possibly there will be overlap of the categorical imperitive premises/discussion.] Step Three €” [Having declined to set forth the mosque premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response. My impression is that once the controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of a per stirpes witness, S, to persuasion theory take may be an mosque, interesting discussion. Preview of a logical sequence of discussion €” Resolving which instrument controls seems the the categorical imperitive obvious first step. Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to make sense. B and Z's rights [This label conforms to architecture the instruction. B v. Z might confuse. But I'm thinking B v. Z!]
As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to The Perkins examples have revoked the prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and architecture, made a complete disposition of gates of fire T's property, thereby revoking the architecture 1994 will and gates of fire, Z's legacy. However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the mosque codicil moots any effect of gates of fire T having been drunk when making the 1994 will. There being no evidence to architecture the contrary, the fact that T in executing the codicil accurately recited the nature and extent of gates of fire his property and recognized the natural objects of his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in making the codicil. Although a will may be revoked by means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the architecture intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. The circumstance that the original copy of the codicil was destroyed inadvertently in 2000 is Act Essay examples, thus of no avail to mosque B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and B takes nothing. Z takes the persuasion rest, residue, and remainder of T's estate under the 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will.
An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature) is not in architecture existence or not in the possession of the in poems testator when he dies. When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. Mosque? The racehorse, Swayback, appears to be such a particular, individualized chattel. In that Swayback was sold prior to theory T's death, the republication of the 1994 will is of no avail to X. Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed. A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses. By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to architecture beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Cry My Movie? Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by having witnessed the now republished 1994 will. A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will.
S was one of several witnesses to the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the will. Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to architecture prove the will in probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the 1994 will per stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to the will. The rationale for not allowing a witness necessary to probate to in poems take under the will being probated is presumably the mosque architecture conflict of interest posed. The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in having the revolution will probated is compromised. Architecture? Y, however, not S stood to take under the persuasion 1994 will. Had there been any consideration of Y predeceasing T, and therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to witness the will. However, it could also be contended that that was then, and now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is not necessary. However, it demonstrates the kind of interest and architecture, thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and garner an A. Possibly it should be highlighted in some way, perhaps with a red star.
I might even decide to put it on the blank page left at the beginning. (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing. However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per stirpes . S's having witnessed the will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the several witnesses to the will exist to prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. In Poems? Memphis School of Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an actual exam and model response sent to us by one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Memphis class of 2009E (evening division). The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by their professors. Mosque Architecture? Richard ordered the persuasion audio CD version of LEEWS. His is the verbatim model response offered to students — with professor comments! — as what was wanted. Mosque? His response received the highest grade, one of only beloved movie two A+ grades. His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section.
Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to my success. Mosque? . The exemplar is, in fact, *my* exam essay answer, and if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well. We reiterate that the LEEWS objective for similes every response is a series of paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. . What is surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is a system whereby in structured, step-by-step fashion, the examinee knows exactly what is wanted and how to proceed and present. For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and perform Step One. A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual. Note that the average student managed less than 17 points out of mosque architecture a possible 45 on the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by merely introducing an issue statement before each paragraph, and philippines, a conclusion statement at the end. LEEWS posits that in general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the issue, and architecture, conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 (§ 11 = Prof Banks, § 12 = Prof Entman) Essays - 45 points. Average -- § 11 [17.2]; § 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6] Range -- § 11 [3 - 42]; § 12 [4 - 39]
Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions) Average -- § 11 [33.70]; § 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- § 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; § 12 [17.29 - 53.43] Total - 100 points. Average -- § 11 [50.90]; § 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- § 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; § 12 [26.29 - 83.00] Average Grade - § 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] § 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and cry my beloved country movie, above. F : 0 - 32. INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. You are responsible for following them to the letter and mosque architecture, will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for failure to beloved movie follow instructions.
Before you begin work on mosque architecture this examination, be sure that you have an examination booklet consisting of 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Part I consists of problems calling for written analysis. Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions. If your examination is incomplete, you should advise the instructor immediately. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are working with a complete examination. The exam is closed book. You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. Gates Of Fire? You may not, of course, confer with or receive assistance from any other person.
Your answers for Part I should be written on the paper provided. Be sure to identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. A.). When you have completed your answers to Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on each page, and staple all of the pages together in architecture the upper left hand corner. 1. Theory? Answer only the mosque architecture question asked and do so with organization, precision, legibility, and proper grammar and spelling. 2. If a court rule or a statute is relevant to a problem, you may identify it by The Perkins Act Essay, number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by number. 3. Write on only one side of a page and leave a left margin. Write your identification number in the space provided on mosque architecture the answer sheet for Part II and mark the appropriate corresponding circles on your answer sheet to indicate your examination number. Do not staple the answer sheet for Part II to anything.
Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for Part II, and the exam booklet in the separately designated boxes. All examination booklets must be turned in. You must write your identification number on this exam booklet at the top of the first page and return the booklet in order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the Act Essay examples correct version of the architecture answers. Do not write your name on anything. For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to cry my beloved movie the contrary, you should assume the following: 1. all states have adopted rules of civil procedure identical to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; 2. Architecture? all states have enacted statutes that authorize the cry my beloved movie exercise of mosque architecture jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to the date of its decision in International Shoe;
3. all states have also enacted the following statutes: X.C.A. § 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over philippines revolution, a person (including an individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by architecture, an agent, as to a claim for relief arising from the person€™s. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by an act or omission in this State; (c) causing tortious injury in this State by an act or omission outside this State if the gates of fire person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in architecture any other persistent course of conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of contracting. X.C.A. § 2-2-222: In any suit brought in the courts of this State, service of beloved country process may be achieved by sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by mosque architecture, registered mail, return receipt requested, to the defendant's home address, or principal place of business, wherever located. The problems in Part I are worth a total of 45 points. They are not of equal weight. A. You are now an associate attorney in a law firm.
Respond fully to the following memorandum from one of your employers. €śI Quit€ť is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec. 11, 2006. [Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and persuasion, Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business. Their shop is in the State of Swabia where most of their customers are from. Sometimes people from the nearby States of mosque Prussia and Bavaria bring repair jobs to the shop in Swabia. Isolde was raised in in poems Prussia and lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into an apartment in Swabia to see if she would enjoy living away from architecture home.
In July, 2003, a vice-president of First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [€śFirst Commercial€ť] attended a lecture on furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. Cry My Movie? He decided that Tristan and Isolde had a promising business and that the bank would do well to architecture procure their business. After receiving a letter at their shop offering the bank€™s services, Tristan and Isolde decided to borrow $150,000 from First Commercial. By telephone, they requested the persuasion theory bank send them the mosque paperwork at their shop. On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the loan papers at their shop and imperitive, Tristan immediately took them to mosque First Commercial€™s main office, located ten miles away in the State of cry my country movie Prussia. Mosque? First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of approximately $5,000. The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and validity would be governed by the categorical imperitive, the law of Prussia and that it was to be repaid in two years. Due to financial difficulties, Tristan and Isolde made only two payments on the loan. When First Commercial threatened to sue them, Tristan settled the bank€™s claim against him for $50,000. First Commercial then sued Isolde in the United States District Court for Prussia to architecture collect the in poems unpaid principal and architecture, interest.
First Commercial€™s attorney served Isolde with process by registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at the categorical, the shop in Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to respond to the complaint and summons, the court entered a default judgment against her for $100,000. On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the judgment against Isolde with the architecture United States District Court for the District of Swabia. In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in a bank account in Swabia. First Commercial also procured a writ of garnishment from the federal court in Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by one of her customers there. [Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. Please submit a memo to me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Be sure to imperitive discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and explain fully why you have rejected them. B. Mosque Architecture? The next day, you receive the following memorandum from the same partner. Again, respond fully.
To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Philippines? Isolde. Date: Dec. 12, 2006. I have now learned that Isolde was involved in an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail.
She was rendered unconscious for two days. An ambulance rushed her to the nearest hospital, which was located in Prussia. Three days after the accident, but while she was hospitalized in Prussia, a private process server acting on behalf of mosque architecture First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the summons and complaint for the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to me that the judgment of the federal district court in Prussia against examples Isolde is architecture, unquestionably valid and is enforceable in both Swabia and Bavaria. Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is valid and whether the service on persuasion theory Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is a verbatim copy of a student€™s essay that received a top grade.
Commentary by architecture, Professors Banks and Entman appears in brackets. . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in blue.] LEEWS NOTE: “IRAC” (merely a formula for organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of I ssue to precede the statement of philippines revolution R ule, and the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at mosque, the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an abrupt statement of premise (relevant law) to begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of issue unnecessary (thereby saving time). Richard's model response in LEEWS format does this. Our only suggestion is that underlining or boldfacing key words in the preamble of law — e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in cry my beloved the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in the next — to assist the mosque professor in recognizing the the categorical imperitive topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction. The federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction; they can only mosque hear certain types of claims as outlined in Article III of the US Constitution and as authorized by The Perkins Act Essay examples, Congressional Statute. First Commercial will argue that the US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on the diversity of citizenship of the parties. Mosque? First Commercial is a citizen of Prussia. Isolde has been living in Swabia for in poems one month. Mosque? [The facts do not give sufficient information to Act Essay know how long Isolde had been living in Swabia at the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the time at which jurisdiction must either exist or not.
At most, one can deduce that the mosque architecture suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005. Consequently, Isolde must have been living in Swabia for more than one month, but not the two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to June of 2003, because she only moved to Swabia temporarily, to see €śif she would enjoy€ť life on her own. If Isolde is found to persuasion theory be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is mosque, not diversity of citizenship and thus no subject matter jurisdiction. The Categorical Imperitive? However, if Isolde is found to have relocated to Swabia with the intent of staying for architecture the indefinite future, then the parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the amount in controversy to exceed $75,000.
The $100,000 judgment against Isolde satisfies this requirement. N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under €śfederal question€ť jurisdiction because breach of contract is cry my beloved country movie, a state common-law claim. Therefore nothing in the plaintiff€™s complaint arises under the mosque architecture Constitution and laws of the United States. Subject-matter jurisdiction is never waived, and in this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on collateral attack. However, it is more likely than not that the court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the The Perkins intent to stay indefinitely, so the District Court in Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction.
In the alternative, Isolde can argue that the rendering court in Prussia lacked jurisdiction over mosque architecture, the person. Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on collateral attack in the enforcing court. [We would have preferred a discussion at this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in the first action. Most of you could have improved your answers by making better use of the similes facts to support your analysis. Architecture? The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is because she did not appear at all in similes in poems the original action. Since she did not appear, there is no reason to discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for establishing jurisdiction over her in Prussia. N.B. The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the state in which they are situated, so the District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of state defendant only if the mosque state court could do so.
Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Because it is necessary that she be domiciled in Swabia to establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to personal jurisdiction on the basis of domicile. Even though the contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the laws of Prussia to possible disputes, that is not the same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of revolution students referred to this as a forum selection clause. At least one student referred to it as a forum selection clause in part of the answer and a choice of mosque law provision in another part of the gates of fire same answer. Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and mosque, not a choice of law provision. Mistakes of this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the The Perkins examples facts but they are also a strong indication of a serious lack of preparation. Architecture? Failure to devote sufficient time to study of the assigned materials frequently manifests itself in a person€™s demonstrated obliviousness to important distinctions. Others simply didn€™t know what to similes do with the fact, thus reflecting a failure to study the Burger King opinion and to pay attention to mosque our class discussions of persuasion theory it.] Statutory basis.
First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over Isolde on the basis of the first of the enumerated acts: €śa) transacting any business within the State.€ť The claim for relief, the $100,000 breach of contract, arises from the defendant€™s act of entering into the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on Tristan€™s delivery of the loan documents to the Bank€™s main office in Prussia. Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at the furniture shop in Swabia. Mosque Architecture? This is a valid argument so long as the court reads the statute literally and narrowly. However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. American Radiator) it might find that the statute reaches the out of state act, the signing of the contract, which causes an in state result, the execution of the contract. [It is probably not necessary to stretch the construction of the in poems statute as the court did in Gray to mosque architecture hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the facts of this problem. The statute covers transacting business in the forum state €śdirectly or by an agent.€ť Like McShara in gates of fire Burger King, Tristan was acting on architecture behalf of the Act Essay partnership (thus as an agent) in delivering the papers to the bank. The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the papers and mosque, that he immediately took them to the bank. You should never, as many of you did, overlook the statement that Isolde signed the papers or speculate that she may not have read them.
There is simply no basis in the facts for speculating that Isolde didn€™t know what she was signing. Indulging in speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard. The Fourteenth Amendment to gates of fire the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of architecture life, liberty or property without due process of beloved movie law. The U.S. Supreme Court defined the due process standard as it relates to imposing personal jurisdiction on an out of state defendant in International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the cause of action arises from the defendant€™s minimum contacts with the forum, such that the mosque assertion of jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of beloved country movie fair play and substantial justice. Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of words like arguendo -- because they are useful and add a lawyerly caste to the presentation.] that the long-arm statute is sufficient to provide a statutory basis of architecture jurisdiction over Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the Shoe standard? [While it is implicit in the answer that the constitutional hurdle becomes important only if the court first accepts the argument that the persuasion theory statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the contact which gives rise to the claim, the signed loan contract, was brought into the forum by the unilateral actions of a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the privileges of conducting activities in the forum, Prussia. First Commercial will counter that Tristan and Isolde were operating together to secure the loan. They reached into architecture, the forum when they called First Commercial.
Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by many students in these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the contract would be executed there, and she could reasonably anticipate being haled into court in Prussia over any disputes to beloved movie the contract. (See Denckla, Worldwide VW). While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the facts seem to favor First Commercial. In the alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the fairness factors, defining €śfair play and substantial justice,€ť articulated in the US Supreme Court€™s Burger King decision? In weighing the relative burden on Isolde compared to the interest of First National in litigating in Prussia, it does not seem unfair to require Isolde to travel to a nearby state where she lived most of her life and architecture, where she sometimes appears to give lectures. The interest of the forum state in adjudicating the dispute would be well served because of the gates of fire choice of law provision; Prussia has an interest in adjudicating its own laws. The interest of the several states in efficiency and architecture, public policy do not seem to enter the picture, so the fairness factors do not point to Prussia as an unfair forum for Isolde. Conclusion. Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on similes in poems a defense of lack of personal jurisdiction.
[Many of you neglected altogether most of the issues about validity of the Prussia judgment treated in the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and service of process in the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Such discussions reflect a lack of knowledge of architecture our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to read the Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and a failure to study the problems following that opinion in the casebook.]
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Nov 16, 2017 Mosque architecture,
43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for mosque, the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and gates of fire, tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on mosque, it.
Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about gates of fire what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in architecture and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on examples, your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only architecture, sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of revolution a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. Architecture? In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and imperitive, accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading.
So focus on mosque, putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an philippines objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of mosque architecture different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the Act Essay, good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the mosque, bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to philippines, force yourself to do this.
If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to architecture, see how you can organize your resume to fit more in movie less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on mosque, one page, or want to gates of fire, be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to architecture, have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in beloved country order to mosque architecture, stand out in gates of fire a minute. But the most basic principle of architecture good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. The Perkins Act Essay Examples? Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Mosque? Make your resume easy on revolution, hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and mosque, 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page.
You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and The Perkins, keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out architecture from the cry my beloved, sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome.
10. Architecture? Make Your Contact Info Prominent. Act Essay Examples? You don’t need to include your address on mosque, your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and beloved country, professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on architecture, the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference.
Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. Persuasion Theory? This is arguably the architecture, most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. In Poems? Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of mosque your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. Philippines? And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. Mosque? If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to).
14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of persuasion theory why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to mosque architecture, get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to persuasion theory, throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to architecture, be understandable to gates of fire, the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them.
Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and architecture, add in what the similes in poems, benefit was to your boss or your company.
By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Mosque? Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of similes in poems meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume.
So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in mosque your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is gates of fire this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to mosque architecture, the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in philippines revolution applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Architecture? Experience First, Education Second.
Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the persuasion theory, most recent or advanced degree first, working in architecture reverse chronological order.
But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the The Perkins examples, reviewer’s attention. Mosque Architecture? Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. Cry My Movie? If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. Mosque Architecture? 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. The Categorical Imperitive? Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for mosque architecture, your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and theory, Adobe Creative Suite and architecture, any industry-related certifications. Gates Of Fire? Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy.
If you have lots of skills related to architecture, a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on philippines revolution, its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and mosque architecture, detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for gates of fire, skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to mosque, the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it.
But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Beloved Country Movie? Zhang explains here how to mosque, weigh the decision of whether to include them or not.
Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Cry My Beloved Country Movie? Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the mosque, proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. Cry My Beloved? If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. Architecture? According to the categorical, The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about mosque your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the philippines revolution, usual start and mosque architecture, end dates for theory, each position. Use years only mosque, (2010-2012), or just the number of philippines revolution years or months you worked at mosque architecture, your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to gates of fire, each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to mosque, new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an cry my beloved country movie issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for architecture, a summary statement at philippines, the top, outlining your best skills and mosque architecture, accomplishments.
Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. Persuasion Theory? See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in mosque architecture gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out The Perkins there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to mosque, take this section of philippines your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is architecture interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). Similes? It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of mosque typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to The Perkins Act Essay examples, take a look at mosque architecture, it for persuasion, you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc.
That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and mosque, Word, and philippines revolution, then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the mosque, hiring manager has to take. Similes In Poems? Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape.
Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and mosque architecture, content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for philippines, help making your content better—or you just want to go out to mosque, tea—get in persuasion theory touch at eringreenawald.com. Mosque Architecture? Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for cry my beloved country movie, this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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essay on primitivism No one should ever work. Work is the source of nearly all the misery in the world. Almost any evil you'd care to name comes from mosque architecture working or from movie living in a world designed for work. In order to stop suffering, we have to stop working. That doesn't mean we have to mosque architecture, stop doing things. It does mean creating a new way of life based on play; in other words, a *ludic* conviviality, commensality, and maybe even art. There is more to play than child's play, as worthy as that is. I call for examples a collective adventure in generalized joy and freely interdependent exuberance. Play isn't passive.
Doubtless we all need a lot more time for sheer sloth and mosque architecture, slack than we ever enjoy now, regardless of income or occupation, but once recovered from employment-induced exhaustion nearly all of similes us want to act. Oblomovism and Stakhanovism are two sides of the same debased coin. The ludic life is architecture, totally incompatible with existing reality. So much the philippines worse for reality, the gravity hole that sucks the vitality from the architecture little in revolution, life that still distinguishes it from mere survival. Curiously -- or maybe not -- all the old ideologies are conservative because they believe in architecture, work. Some of them, like Marxism and most brands of anarchism, believe in work all the more fiercely because they believe in so little else. Liberals say we should end employment discrimination.
I say we should end employment. Conservatives support right-to-work laws. Imperitive? Following Karl Marx's wayward son-in-law Paul Lafargue I support the right to be lazy. Architecture? Leftists favor full employment. Like the gates of fire surrealists -- except that I'm not kidding -- I favor full *un*employment. Trotskyists agitate for permanent revolution. I agitate for permanent revelry.
But if all the ideologues (as they do) advocate work -- and architecture, not only because they plan to make other people do theirs -- they are strangely reluctant to say so. They will carry on endlessly about wages, hours, working conditions, exploitation, productivity, profitability. They'll gladly talk about anything but work itself. Cry My Beloved Movie? These experts who offer to do our thinking for mosque us rarely share their conclusions about work, for all its saliency in the lives of all of us. Among themselves they quibble over the details. Unions and management agree that we ought to sell the time of our lives in exchange for The Perkins survival, although they haggle over the price. Marxists think we should be bossed by bureaucrats.
Libertarians think we should be bossed by businessmen. Mosque? Feminists don't care which form bossing takes so long as the bosses are women. Clearly these ideology-mongers have serious differences over how to divvy up the spoils of power. Just as clearly, none of them have any objection to power as such and all of them want to keep us working. You may be wondering if I'm joking or serious. I'm joking *and* serious. To be ludic is not to be ludicrous. Play doesn't have to be frivolous, although frivolity isn't triviality: very often we ought to take frivolity seriously. I'd like life to The Perkins, be a game -- but a game with high stakes.
I want to play *for* *keeps*. The alternative to work isn't just idleness. To be ludic is not to be quaaludic. As much as I treasure the pleasure of torpor, it's never more rewarding than when it punctuates other pleasures and pastimes. Nor am I promoting the managed time-disciplined safety-valve called leisure; far from it. Architecture? Leisure is nonwork for the sake of persuasion work. Leisure is the time spent recovering from work and in the frenzied but hopeless attempt to mosque, forget about work. Many people return from vacation so beat that they look forward to returning to work so they can rest up. Revolution? The main difference between work and leisure is that work at architecture least you get paid for your alienation and cry my country, enervation. I am not playing definitional games with anybody.
When I say I want to abolish work, I mean just what I say, but I want to mosque, say what I mean by defining my terms in non-idiosyncratic ways. My minimum definition of work is persuasion, *forced* *labor*, that is, compulsory production. Architecture? Both elements are essential. Work is similes in poems, production enforced by economic or political means, by the carrot or the stick. Mosque Architecture? (The carrot is just the stick by in poems other means.) But not all creation is work. Work is never done for its own sake, it's done on account of some product or output that the worker (or, more often, somebody else) gets out of it. Mosque? This is what work necessarily is.
To define it is to despise it. But work is gates of fire, usually even worse than its definition decrees. The dynamic of domination intrinsic to work tends over time toward elaboration. Mosque Architecture? In advanced work-riddled societies, including all industrial societies whether capitalist of Communist, work invariably acquires other attributes which accentuate its obnoxiousness. Usually -- and this is gates of fire, even more true in mosque architecture, Communist than capitalist countries, where the state is almost the only employer and everyone is an employee -- work is employment, i. The Perkins Examples? e., wage-labor, which means selling yourself on the installment plan. Thus 95% of Americans who work, work for somebody (or some*thing*) else. In the mosque USSR or Cuba or Yugoslavia or any other alternative model which might be adduced, the corresponding figure approaches 100%. Only the embattled Third World peasant bastions -- Mexico, India, Brazil, Turkey -- temporarily shelter significant concentrations of in poems agriculturists who perpetuate the architecture traditional arrangement of most laborers in the last several millenia, the payment of taxes (= ransom) to the state or rent to parasitic landlords in return for philippines being otherwise left alone.
Even this raw deal is mosque, beginning to look good. Philippines Revolution? *All* industrial (and office) workers are employees and under the sort of surveillance which ensures servility. But modern work has worse implications. People don't just work, they have jobs. Mosque? One person does one productive task all the gates of fire time on an or-else basis. Even if the task has a quantum of intrinsic interest (as increasingly many jobs don't) the monotony of mosque its obligatory exclusivity drains its ludic potential.
A job that might engage the energies of some people, for a reasonably limited time, for the fun of it, is just a burden on those who have to similes in poems, do it for forty hours a week with no say in how it should be done, for mosque the profit of revolution owners who contribute nothing to the project, and with no opportunity for mosque sharing tasks or spreading the work among those who actually have to do it. This is the the categorical real world of work: a world of bureaucratic blundering, of sexual harassment and architecture, discrimination, of bonehead bosses exploiting and scapegoating their subordinates who -- by any rational-technical criteria -- should be calling the shots. But capitalism in the real world subordinates the rational maximization of productivity and theory, profit to the exigencies of organizational control. The degradation which most workers experience on the job is the sum of assorted indignities which can be denominated as discipline. Foucault has complexified this phenomenon but it is simple enough. Discipline consists of the totality of totalitarian controls at the workplace -- surveillance, rotework, imposed work tempos, production quotas, punching -in and -out, etc.
Discipline is what the mosque factory and the office and the store share with the prison and the school and the mental hospital. It is something historically original and horrible. It was beyond the the categorical capacities of such demonic dictators of yore as Nero and Genghis Khan and Ivan the Terrible. For all their bad intentions they just didn't have the machinery to mosque, control their subjects as thoroughly as modern despots do. Discipline is the distinctively diabolical modern mode of gates of fire control, it is an innovative intrusion which must be interdicted at the earliest opportunity. Such is work. Play is just the opposite. Play is always voluntary. What might otherwise be play is mosque, work if it's forced. This is philippines revolution, axiomatic.
Bernie de Koven has defined play as the suspension of consequences. This is unacceptable if it implies that play is inconsequential. The point is not that play is without consequences. This is to demean play. The point is that the consequences, if any, are gratuitous. Playing and giving are closely related, they are the behavioral and mosque, transactional facets of the same impulse, the play-instinct. They share an aristocratic disdain for results. The player gets something out of playing; that's why he plays.
But the core reward is the experience of the activity itself (whatever it is). Some otherwise attentive students of play, like Johan Huizinga (*Homo* *Ludens*), *define* it as game-playing or following rules. I respect Huizinga's erudition but emphatically reject his constraints. There are many good games (chess, baseball, Monopoly, bridge) which are rule-governed but there is much more to play than game-playing. Conversation, sex, dancing, travel -- these practices aren't rule-governed but they are surely play if anything is. And rules can be *played* *with* at least as readily as anything else. Work makes a mockery of philippines revolution freedom.
The official line is that we all have rights and live in architecture, a democracy. Other unfortunates who aren't free like we are have to beloved movie, live in police states. Mosque Architecture? These victims obey orders or-else, no matter how arbitrary. Gates Of Fire? The authorities keep them under regular surveillance. State bureaucrats control even the smaller details of everyday life. The officials who push them around are answerable only to higher-ups, public or private. Either way, dissent and disobedience are punished. Informers report regularly to the authorities. All this is supposed to mosque, be a very bad thing.
And so it is, although it is nothing but a description of the modern workplace. The liberals and conservatives and libertarians who lament totalitarianism are phonies and hypocrites. There is more freedom in similes in poems, any moderately deStalinized dictatorship than there is in the ordinary American workplace. Mosque? You find the same sort of hierarchy and discipline in an office or factory as you do in a prison or monastery. Gates Of Fire? In fact, as Foucault and others have shown, prisons and factories came in at architecture about the same time, and their operators consciously borrowed from each other's control techniques. A worker is a par-time slave. The boss says when to show up, when to leave, and revolution, what to do in the meantime. He tells you how much work to do and architecture, how fast.
He is theory, free to carry his control to humiliating extremes, regulating, if he feels like it, the clothes you wear or how often you go to the bathroom. With a few exceptions he can fire you for any reason, or no reason. Architecture? He has you spied on by snitches and supervisors, he amasses a dossier on philippines every employee. Talking back is called insubordination, just as if a worker is a naughty child, and it not only gets you fired, it disqualifies you for mosque architecture unemployment compensation. Without necessarily endorsing it for revolution them either, it is noteworthy that children at home and in school receive much the same treatment, justified in their case by mosque architecture their supposed immaturity.
What does this say about their parents and teachers who work? The demeaning system of domination I've described rules over half the waking hours of a majority of women and the vast majority of men for decades, for most of their lifespans. For certain purposes it's not too misleading to call our system democracy or capitalism or -- better still -- industrialism, but its real names are factory fascism and office oligarchy. Country? Anybody who says these people are free is lying or stupid. You are what you do. If you do boring, stupid monotonous work, chances are you'll end up boring, stupid and monotonous. Work is a much better explanation for the creeping cretinization all around us than even such significant moronizing mechanisms as television and education. People who are regimented all their lives, handed off to work from school and bracketed by the family in the beginning and the nursing home at the end, are habituated to heirarchy and psychologically enslaved. Their aptitude for autonomy is so atrophied that their fear of freedom is among their few rationally grounded phobias. Their obedience training at work carries over into the families *they* start, thus reproducing the system in more ways than one, and into mosque architecture, politics, culture and everything else.
Once you drain the vitality from philippines revolution people at work, they'll likely submit to heirarchy and expertise in everything. They're used to mosque architecture, it. We are so close to the world of work that we can't see what it does to us. We have to rely on outside observers from gates of fire other times or other cultures to appreciate the extremity and the pathology of our present position. Architecture? There was a time in our own past when the work ethic would have been incomprehensible, and perhaps Weber was on persuasion theory to something when he tied its appearance to a religion, Calvinism, which if it emerged today instead of four centuries ago would immediately and appropriately be labeled a cult.
Be that as it may, we have only to draw upon the wisdom of antiquity to put work in architecture, perspective. The ancients saw work for what it is, and their view prevailed, the Calvinist cranks notwithstanding, until overthrown by industrialism -- but not before receiving the endorsement of its prophets. Let's pretend for a moment that work doesn't turn people into stultified submissives. Let's pretend, in persuasion, defiance of any plausible psychology and the ideology of its boosters, that it has no effect on mosque architecture the formation of character. And let's pretend that work isn't as boring and similes in poems, tiring and humiliating as we all know it really is. Even then, work would *still* make a mockery of architecture all humanistic and democratic aspirations, just because it usurps so much of our time. Examples? Socrates said that manual laborers make bad friends and bad citizens because they have no time to fulfill the responsibilities of friendship and citizenship. He was right.
Because of work, no matter what we do we keep looking at out watches. The only mosque, thing free about Act Essay so-called free time is mosque, that it doesn't cost the boss anything. Free time is mostly devoted to getting ready for philippines work, going to work, returning from mosque work, and recovering from work. The Perkins Examples? Free time is a euphemism for the peculiar way labor as a factor of production not only transports itself at its own expense to and from the workplace but assumes primary responsibility for its own maintenance and repair. Coal and steel don't do that. Lathes and typewriters don't do that. But workers do. No wonder Edward G. Robinson in one of his gangster movies exclaimed, Work is for mosque saps! Both Plato and Xenophon attribute to Socrates and obviously share with him an awareness of the destructive effects of gates of fire work on the worker as a citizen and a human being. Herodotus identified contempt for work as an attribute of the classical Greeks at the zenith of their culture. To take only one Roman example, Cicero said that whoever gives his labor for mosque money sells himself and the categorical, puts himself in the rank of slaves.
His candor is now rare, but contemporary primitive societies which we are wont to look down upon architecture have provided spokesmen who have enlightened Western anthropologists. The Kapauku of West Irian, according to the categorical imperitive, Posposil, have a conception of balance in life and accordingly work only mosque architecture, every other day, the day of rest designed to regain the lost power and health. Theory? Our ancestors, even as late as the eighteenth century when they were far along the path to our present predicament, at architecture least were aware of what we have forgotten, the underside of industrialization. Their religious devotion to St. Monday -- thus establishing a *de* *facto* five-day week 150-200 years before its legal consecration -- was the persuasion theory despair of the earliest factory owners. They took a long time in submitting to the tyranny of the bell, predecessor of the time clock. In fact it was necessary for a generation or two to replace adult males with women accustomed to obedience and children who could be molded to fit industrial needs.
Even the exploited peasants of the *ancien* *regime* wrested substantial time back from their landlord's work. According to Lafargue, a fourth of the French peasants' calendar was devoted to Sundays and holidays, and Chayanov's figures from villages in Czarist Russia -- hardly a progressive society -- likewise show a fourth or fifth of peasants' days devoted to repose. Controlling for architecture productivity, we are obviously far behind these backward societies. The exploited *muzhiks* would wonder why any of similes us are working at all. So should we. To grasp the mosque architecture full enormity of our deterioration, however, consider the earliest condition of humanity, without government or property, when we wandered as hunter-gatherers. Hobbes surmised that life was then nasty, brutish and short. Others assume that life was a desperate unremitting struggle for subsistence, a war waged against a harsh Nature with death and disaster awaiting the unlucky or anyone who was unequal to the challenge of the struggle for existence. Actually, that was all a projection of fears for the collapse of government authority over communities unaccustomed to doing without it, like the England of Hobbes during the Civil War. Hobbes' compatriots had already encountered alternative forms of society which illustrated other ways of life -- in imperitive, North America, particularly -- but already these were too remote from their experience to be understandable. (The lower orders, closer to the condition of the Indians, understood it better and often found it attractive. Throughout the seventeenth century, English settlers defected to Indian tribes or, captured in war, refused to architecture, return.
But the Indians no more defected to white settlements than Germans climb the Berlin Wall from the west.) The survival of the fittest version -- the imperitive Thomas Huxley version -- of Darwinism was a better account of economic conditions in Victorian England than it was of natural selection, as the anarchist Kropotkin showed in architecture, his book *Mutual* *Aid,* *A* *Factor* *of* *Evolution*. (Kropotkin was a scientist -- a geographer -- who'd had ample involuntary opportunity for fieldwork whilst exiled in Siberia: he knew what he was talking about.) Like most social and political theory, the story Hobbes and persuasion, his successors told was really unacknowledged autobiography. The anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, surveying the data on contemporary hunter-gatherers, exploded the architecture Hobbesian myth in an article entitled The Original Affluent Society. They work a lot less than we do, and their work is persuasion theory, hard to distinguish from mosque architecture what we regard as play. Sahlins concluded that hunters and Act Essay examples, gatherers work less than we do; and rather than a continuous travail, the food quest is intermittent, leisure abundant, and there is a greater amount of sleep in the daytime per capita per year than in any other condition of society. They worked an average of four hours a day, assuming they were working at all. Their labor, as it appears to mosque, us, was skilled labor which exercised their physical and intellectual capacities; unskilled labor on any large scale, as Sahlins says, is impossible except under industrialism.
Thus it satisfied Friedrich Schiller's definition of play, the only occasion on similes in poems which man realizes his complete humanity by giving full play to both sides of his twofold nature, thinking and feeling. As he put it: The animal *works* when deprivation is the mosque mainspring of theory its activity, and it *plays* when the fullness of its strength is architecture, this mainspring, when superabundant life is its own stimulus to activity. (A modern version -- dubiously developmental -- is Abraham Maslow's counterposition of deficiency and theory, growth motivation.) Play and freedom are, as regards production, coextensive. Even Marx, who belongs (for all his good intentions) in the productivist pantheon, observed that the realm of freedom does not commence until the point is passed where labor under the compulsion of architecture necessity and external utility is revolution, required. He never could quite bring himself to identify this happy circumstance as what it is, the abolition of work -- it's rather anomalous, after all, to be pro-worker and anti-work -- but we can. The aspiration to go backwards or forwards to mosque, a life without work is evident in every serious social or cultural history of pre-industrial Europe, among them M. Dorothy George's *England* In* *Transition* and gates of fire, Peter Burke's *Popular* *Culture* *in* *Early* *Modern* *Europe*. Also pertinent is Daniel Bell's essay, Work and its Discontents, the mosque first text, I believe, to refer to the revolt against work in so many words and, had it been understood, an similes in poems important correction to the complacency ordinarily associated with the volume in which it was collected, *The* *End* *of* *Ideology*. Neither critics nor celebrants have noticed that Bell's end-of-ideology thesis signaled not the end of social unrest but the beginning of a new, uncharted phase unconstrained and uninformed by mosque ideology. The Perkins Act Essay Examples? It was Seymour Lipset (in *Political* *Man*), not Bell, who announced at the same time that the fundamental problems of the Industrial Revolution have been solved, only a few years before the mosque post- or meta-industrial discontents of college students drove Lipset from UC Berkeley to the relative (and temporary) tranquility of Harvard. As Bell notes, Adam Smith in *The* *Wealth* *of* *Nations*, for all his enthusiasm for the market and similes in poems, the division of mosque labor, was more alert to (and more honest about) the seamy side of work than Ayn Rand or the Chicago economists or any of Smith's modern epigones. As Smith observed: The understandings of the greater part of men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments. Cry My Beloved Country? The man whose life is spent in performing a few simple operations. Mosque Architecture? has no occasion to exert his understanding.
He generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become. Here, in a few blunt words, is my critique of work. Bell, writing in 1956, the Golden Age of revolution Eisenhower imbecility and American self-satisfaction, identified the unorganized, unorganizable malaise of the 1970's and since, the one no political tendency is able to harness, the architecture one identified in HEW's report *Work* *in* *America*, the one which cannot be exploited and so is ignored. That problem is the revolt against work. It does not figure in any text by any laissez-faire economist -- Milton Friedman, Murray Rothbard, Richard Posner -- because, in their terms, as they used to say on *Star* *Trek*, it does not compute. If these objections, informed by the love of liberty, fail to persuade humanists of a utilitarian or even paternalist turn, there are others which they cannot disregard. Theory? Work is hazardous to your health, to borrow a book title. In fact, work is mass murder or genocide. Directly or indirectly, work will kill most of the people who read these words. Between 14,000 and 25,000 workers are killed annually in this country on the job. Over two million are disabled.
Twenty to mosque architecture, twenty-five million are injured every year. And these figures are based on a very conservative estimation of what constitutes a work-related injury. Thus they don't count the half million cases of imperitive occupational disease every year. I looked at one medical textbook on occupational diseases which was 1,200 pages long. Even this barely scratches the surface. The available statistics count the obvious cases like the 100,000 miners who have black lung disease, of whom 4,000 die every year, a much higher fatality rate than for AIDS, for instance, which gets so much media attention.
This reflects the unvoiced assumption that AIDS afflicts perverts who could control their depravity whereas coal-mining is a sacrosanct activity beyond question. What the statistics don't show is that tens of millions of people have heir lifespans shortened by work -- which is all that homicide means, after all. Consider the doctors who work themselves to death in architecture, their 50's. Consider all the other workaholics. Even if you aren't killed or crippled while actually working, you very well might be while going to work, coming from work, looking for work, or trying to forget about work. The vast majority of victims of the automobile are either doing one of the categorical these work-obligatory activities or else fall afoul of those who do them.
To this augmented body-count must be added the victims of auto-industrial pollution and work-induced alcoholism and drug addiction. Both cancer and mosque, heart disease are modern afflictions normally traceable, directly, or indirectly, to work. Work, then, institutionalizes homicide as a way of life. People think the the categorical imperitive Cambodians were crazy for exterminating themselves, but are we any different? The Pol Pot regime at mosque least had a vision, however blurred, of an egalitarian society. We kill people in the six-figure range (at least) in order to sell Big Macs and Cadillacs to the survivors. Our forty or fifty thousand annual highway fatalities are victims, not martyrs.
They died for gates of fire nothing -- or rather, they died for work. But work is nothing to die for. Bad news for mosque architecture liberals: regulatory tinkering is philippines revolution, useless in this life-and-death context. The federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration was designed to police the core part of the mosque problem, workplace safety. Even before Reagan and the Supreme Court stifled it, OSHA was a farce. At previous and (by current standards) generous Carter-era funding levels, a workplace could expect a random visit from an OSHA inspector once every 46 years. State control of the economy is no solution. Work is, if anything, more dangerous in the state-socialist countries than it is here. Thousands of Russian workers were killed or injured building the The Perkins examples Moscow subway.
Stories reverberate about covered-up Soviet nuclear disasters which make Times Beach and Three-Mile Island look like elementary-school air-raid drills. On the other hand, deregulation, currently fashionable, won't help and will probably hurt. From a health and mosque, safety standpoint, among others, work was at its worst in the days when the economy most closely approximated laissez-faire. Historians like Eugene Genovese have argued persuasively that -- as antebellum slavery apologists insisted -- factory wage-workers in gates of fire, the Northern American states and in Europe were worse off than Southern plantation slaves. No rearrangement of relations among bureaucrats and businessmen seems to make much difference at the point of production.
Serious enforcement of even the rather vague standards enforceable in theory by OSHA would probably bring the economy to a standstill. The enforcers apparently appreciate this, since they don't even try to crack down on most malefactors. What I've said so far ought not to mosque architecture, be controversial. Many workers are fed up with work. Act Essay Examples? There are high and mosque architecture, rising rates of absenteeism, turnover, employee theft and sabotage, wildcat strikes, and overall goldbricking on the job. There may be some movement toward a conscious and not just visceral rejection of work. And yet the persuasion prevalent feeling, universal among bosses and their agents and also widespread among workers themselves is that work itself is inevitable and necessary. I disagree. It is architecture, now possible to philippines, abolish work and replace it, insofar as it serves useful purposes, with a multitude of new kinds of free activities. To abolish work requires going at it from two directions, quantitative and mosque architecture, qualitative. The Categorical? On the one hand, on the quantitative side, we have to mosque architecture, cut down massively on the amount of similes in poems work being done.
At present most work is useless or worse and we should simply get rid of it. On the architecture other hand -- and philippines, I think this the crux of the mosque matter and the revolutionary new departure -- we have to in poems, take what useful work remains and transform it into a pleasing variety of game-like and craft-like pastimes, indistinguishable from other pleasurable pastimes, except that they happen to yield useful end-products. Surely that shouldn't make them *less* enticing to architecture, do. Then all the artificial barriers of power and property could come down. Creation could become recreation. And we could all stop being afraid of each other.
I don't suggest that most work is salvageable in this way. Philippines? But then most work isn't worth trying to save. Only a small and diminishing fraction of work serves any useful purpose independent of the defense and mosque, reproduction of the work-system and its political and legal appendages. Twenty years ago, Paul and Percival Goodman estimated that just five percent of the work then being done -- presumably the figure, if accurate, is lower now -- would satisfy our minimal needs for food, clothing, and shelter. Theirs was only an educated guess but the main point is quite clear: directly or indirectly, most work serves the unproductive purposes of commerce or social control. Right off the bat we can liberate tens of millions of salesmen, soldiers, managers, cops, stockbrokers, clergymen, bankers, lawyers, teachers, landlords, security guards, ad-men and everyone who works for them. There is a snowball effect since every time you idle some bigshot you liberate his flunkeys and underlings also. Thus the economy *implodes*. Forty percent of the workforce are white-collar workers, most of whom have some of the most tedious and idiotic jobs ever concocted. Entire industries, insurance and The Perkins Act Essay, banking and real estate for instance, consist of nothing but useless paper-shuffling. Architecture? It is theory, no accident that the tertiary sector, the service sector, is growing while the secondary sector (industry) stagnates and the primary sector (agriculture) nearly disappears.
Because work is unnecessary except to those whose power it secures, workers are shifted from relatively useful to relatively useless occupations as a measure to architecture, assure public order. Anything is the categorical imperitive, better than nothing. That's why you can't go home just because you finish early. They want your *time*, enough of it to make you theirs, even if they have no use for most of it. Otherwise why hasn't the average work week gone down by mosque more than a few minutes in imperitive, the past fifty years?
Next we can take a meat-cleaver to production work itself. No more war production, nuclear power, junk food, feminine hygiene deodorant -- and above all, no more auto industry to speak of. An occasional Stanley Steamer or Model-T might be all right, but the auto-eroticism on which such pestholes as Detroit and Los Angeles depend on is out of the question. Already, without even trying, we've virtually solved the energy crisis, the environmental crisis and assorted other insoluble social problems. Finally, we must do away with far and away the largest occupation, the one with the longest hours, the lowest pay and some of the most tedious tasks around. Mosque Architecture? I refer to *housewives* doing housework and child-rearing. Gates Of Fire? By abolishing wage-labor and achieving full unemployment we undermine the mosque architecture sexual division of labor. The nuclear family as we know it is an inevitable adaptation to the division of labor imposed by modern wage-work.
Like it or not, as things have been for the last century or two it is economically rational for persuasion the man to bring home the bacon, for mosque architecture the woman to do the shitwork to provide him with a haven in similes in poems, a heartless world, and for architecture the children to be marched off to youth concentration camps called schools, primarily to keep them out of cry my beloved Mom's hair but still under control, but incidentally to acquire the mosque architecture habits of obedience and punctuality so necessary for workers. If you would be rid of examples patriarchy, get rid of the nuclear family whose unpaid shadow work, as Ivan Illich says, makes possible the work-system that makes *it* necessary. Bound up with this no-nukes strategy is the abolition of childhood and the closing of the mosque schools. There are more full-time students than full-time workers in this country. We need children as teachers, not students.
They have a lot to contribute to persuasion, the ludic revolution because they're better at mosque architecture playing than grown-ups are. Adults and children are not identical but they will become equal through interdependence. Only play can bridge the generation gap. I haven't as yet even mentioned the possibility of cutting way down on gates of fire the little work that remains by automating and cybernizing it. All the scientists and engineers and technicians freed from mosque architecture bothering with war research and planned obsolescence would have a good time devising means to eliminate fatigue and tedium and danger from activities like mining. Undoubtedly they'll find other projects to revolution, amuse themselves with. Perhaps they'll set up world-wide all-inclusive multi-media communications systems or found space colonies.
Perhaps. I myself am no gadget freak. I wouldn't care to live in a pushbutton paradise. I don't what robot slaves to do everything; I want to do things myself. There is, I think, a place for labor-saving technology, but a modest place. The historical and pre-historical record is not encouraging. Mosque Architecture? When productive technology went from gates of fire hunting-gathering to agriculture and on to industry, work increased while skills and self-determination diminished. The further evolution of industrialism has accentuated what Harry Braverman called the degradation of work. Intelligent observers have always been aware of this. John Stuart Mill wrote that all the labor-saving inventions ever devised haven't saved a moment's labor. Karl Marx wrote that it would be possible to write a history of the inventions, made since 1830, for the sole purpose of supplying capital with weapons against the revolts of the working class.
The enthusiastic technophiles -- Saint-Simon, Comte, Lenin, B. F. Skinner -- have always been unabashed authoritarians also; which is to mosque, say, technocrats. Gates Of Fire? We should be more than sceptical about the promises of the mosque computer mystics. *They* work like dogs; chances are, if they have their way, so will the rest of us. But if they have any particularized contributions more readily subordinated to human purposes than the run of high tech, let's give them a hearing. What I really want to see is work turned into play. A first step is to discard the notions of a job and an occupation.
Even activities that already have some ludic content lose most of examples it by being reduced to jobs which certain people, and only those people are forced to do to the exclusion of mosque architecture all else. Is it not odd that farm workers toil painfully in country, the fields while their air-conditioned masters go home every weekend and putter about in their gardens? Under a system of architecture permanent revelry, we will witness the Golden Age of the dilettante which will put the Renaissance to shame. There won't be any more jobs, just things to do and people to do them. The secret of turning work into play, as Charles Fourier demonstrated, is to arrange useful activities to take advantage of whatever it is that various people at various times in fact enjoy doing. To make it possible for some people to do the things they could enjoy it will be enough just to eradicate the irrationalities and distortions which afflict these activities when they are reduced to work. I, for instance, would enjoy doing some (not too much) teaching, but I don't want coerced students and I don't care to suck up to pathetic pedants for tenure.
Second, there are some things that people like to do from time to time, but not for too long, and certainly not all the time. You might enjoy baby-sitting for a few hours in order to share the company of kids, but not as much as their parents do. The parents meanwhile, profoundly appreciate the time to themselves that you free up for gates of fire them, although they'd get fretful if parted from their progeny for too long. Architecture? These differences among individuals are what make a life of free play possible. The same principle applies to many other areas of activity, especially the primal ones. Imperitive? Thus many people enjoy cooking when they can practice it seriously at architecture their leisure, but not when they're just fueling up human bodies for work. Third -- other things being equal -- some things that are unsatisfying if done by yourself or in unpleasant surroundings or at the orders of an The Perkins Act Essay overlord are enjoyable, at least for a while, if these circumstances are changed. Mosque Architecture? This is probably true, to some extent, of all work. Persuasion Theory? People deploy their otherwise wasted ingenuity to make a game of the least inviting drudge-jobs as best they can. Activities that appeal to some people don't always appeal to all others, but everyone at least potentially has a variety of interests and an interest in variety.
As the saying goes, anything once. Fourier was the master at speculating how aberrant and perverse penchants could be put to use in post-civilized society, what he called Harmony. He thought the mosque Emperor Nero would have turned out all right if as a child he could have indulged his taste for bloodshed by working in a slaughterhouse. Small children who notoriously relish wallowing in The Perkins Act Essay, filth could be organized in Little Hordes to clean toilets and architecture, empty the garbage, with medals awarded to the outstanding. I am not arguing for these precise examples but for imperitive the underlying principle, which I think makes perfect sense as one dimension of an overall revolutionary transformation. Mosque Architecture? Bear in Act Essay examples, mind that we don't have to take today's work just as we find it and match it up with the proper people, some of mosque whom would have to philippines revolution, be perverse indeed. If technology has a role in all this it is less to automate work out of existence than to architecture, open up new realms for re/creation. To some extent we may want to return to handicrafts, which William Morris considered a probable and The Perkins Act Essay examples, desirable upshot of communist revolution. Art would be taken back from the snobs and collectors, abolished as a specialized department catering to architecture, an elite audience, and gates of fire, its qualities of beauty and creation restored to integral life from which they were stolen by work.
It's a sobering thought that the mosque architecture grecian urns we write odes about and showcase in museums were used in their own time to store olive oil. I doubt our everyday artifacts will fare as well in the future, if there is one. The point is that there's no such thing as progress in the world of work; if anything it's just the persuasion opposite. We shouldn't hesitate to pilfer the past for what it has to offer, the ancients lose nothing yet we are enriched. The reinvention of daily life means marching off the edge of our maps. There is, it is mosque architecture, true, more suggestive speculation than most people suspect. Besides Fourier and Morris -- and even a hint, here and there, in Marx -- there are the writings of Kropotkin, the syndicalists Pataud and Pouget, anarcho-communists old (Berkman) and new (Bookchin). The Goodman brothers' *Communitas* is exemplary for illustrating what forms follow from given functions (purposes), and there is something to be gleaned from the often hazy heralds of alternative/appropriate/intermediate/convivial technology, like Schumacher and Act Essay examples, especially Illich, once you disconnect their fog machines. The situationists -- as represented by Vaneigem's *Revolution* *of* *Daily* *Life* and in the *Situationist* *International* *Anthology* -- are so ruthlessly lucid as to mosque architecture, be exhilarating, even if they never did quite square the endorsement of the rule of the worker's councils with the abolition of work. Examples? Better their incongruity, though than any extant version of leftism, whose devotees look to architecture, be the last champions of work, for if there were no work there would be no workers, and without workers, who would the left have to organize?
So the abolitionists would be largely on their own. No one can say what would result from unleashing the creative power stultified by theory work. Anything can happen. Architecture? The tiresome debater's problem of freedom vs. necessity, with its theological overtones, resolves itself practically once the production of use-values is coextensive with the consumption of delightful play-activity. Life will become a game, or rather many games, but not -- as it is now - -- a zero/sum game. An optimal sexual encounter is the similes paradigm of productive play, The participants potentiate each other's pleasures, nobody keeps score, and everybody wins. The more you give, the more you get. In the ludic life, the best of sex will diffuse into the better part of daily life. Generalized play leads to the libidinization of life. Sex, in turn, can become less urgent and desperate, more playful. If we play our cards right, we can all get more out of life than we put into it; but only if we play for keeps.
No one should ever work. Workers of the world. *relax*!
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Free Essays on mosque architecture, My Favorite Food Is Pizza. 1. Similes In Poems? Topic sentence: My favorite food is pizza . 2. Support detail one: Pizza has a unique taste. Mosque? 3. Support detail two: Each pizza has many ingredients. 4. Support detail three: There are many types of imperitive pizza . 5. Conclusion: I wished I had a slice of pizza now! . Food: Happiness and Comfort on a Plate. Food is the most important thing for architecture, all people around the world, there are different types of food eaten In different type of the world according to Act Essay examples, the diversities in architecture cultures, traditions and philippines revolution as well as the region in Which person lives, people always try to search the recipe that make the food. ? PACS Pizza and Health The aroma of pepperoni and melting cheese overwhelm my senses like a high tide wave as I enter the Round Table. Suddenly, memories of my tenth birthday party rush to mosque architecture, the forefront of my mind; I still remember the savory pepperoni mingling with the sweet tomato sauce tantalizing. Ever since I was a little boy, pizza has always had a special place in my heart.
From pizza day in the school cafeteria to pizza parties at sleep away camp, there was nothing more exciting than when that cardboard box was opened to reveal a round pie with eight delicious slices waiting to be devoured. My Favourite Food Nutritious, inexpensive, and delectable, pizza has been my favorite food for years. Baked in the oven, pizza is a healthy food that is made mainly of flour. Topped with cheese, vegetables, and meat, pizza provides calcium from The Perkins examples, cheese, vitamins from vegetables, and protein from mosque, meat. Pizza Hut Pizza Hut History The legacy of the categorical imperitive Pizza Hut began in 1958, when two college students from Wichita, Kansas, were approached by mosque, a family friend with the idea of opening a pizza parlor. Although the the categorical, concept was relatively new to many Americans at that time, the brothers quickly saw the potential. My top seven favorites Everyone has to mosque architecture, have a favorite thing. I have ten favorite things and some people say half of them are pretty stupid.
I do not listen to people that say these things, because I know what my favorite things are and why they are my favorite . My 7th favorite thing is the categorical imperitive Spaghetti. Topic- Food Focus- family togetherness, Deep dish pizza , New York style pizza and architecture homemade pizza , Purpose – to inform Audience – single parents with small children Tone – excited Who- bonding over pizza What – promotes bonding with your children Why – continue or create family experiences When. Experience During My Clinicals Hours. Student Success for Health Professionals Made Incredibly Easy, 2e Playing for Real Follow-up Case Studies Chapter 3 Changing My Diet For the life of country me, I couldn’t figure out why I had been feeling so tired and architecture irritable lately. I have a hectic schedule with school and work, but I have always. Food Intake 3-Days SCI/220 Food Intake 3-Days During my three day food intake I discovered that I only consumed 88 grams of beloved country movie protein. In these three meals I spent almost 40 dollars and I was short almost 100 grams of protein required for architecture, my weight.
Four slices of pizza , and two double cheeseburgers. Popular Culture What do you like to beloved country, eat? For me and my group of mosque friends it is a burger, fries and a coke. You might not agree being the fact that it may not be the revolution, safest thing to eat, but this is the type of food that brings me closer to my friends. The student union here is the heart of the architecture, campus. General Purpose: To Inform Outcome Statement: By the cry my beloved, end of my speech the class will know more about the history of mosque pizza and a few fun facts. Thesis: Pizza has a vast and interesting history few know of revolution Attention Getter: Loved by many pizza has a rich heritage and has been around since the mosque architecture, beginning. Marketing Strategies of Domino's Pizza Delivery Service. Faculty of Business and Information Technology Programme: Bachelor of Applied Business Studies A report on marketing Strategies of Domino’s pizza delivery service TABLE OF CONTENTS Topic page no. Executive Summary --------------------------------------------------. Top 10 Foods That Burn Fat (by: Tom from MuscleStenght)
Here’s one good answer: Eat a wide variety of high nutrient density, low calorie density foods that you enjoy which still fit within healthy, fat-burning, muscle-building guidelines! Here are the in poems, lists of foods I choose to architecture, achieve these three outcomes. Persuasion? This eating plan is architecture not difficult to gates of fire, stick with. can be even more exciting. This summer I had a lifetime experience traveling to the Bahamas on a big beautiful cruise ship. On the mosque, cruise the food was always hot, fresh, and ready to serve. The malls were so big and had many stores to choose from it that it was unbelievable.
There were many. Food Intake 1 Day Wilna Prochet SCI/ 220 July 13, 2011 Janet Barber Paper The science of philippines nutrition goes beyond eating to survive. Nutrition is life, without a good and healthy eating habits people can develop diseases which will result in high medical bills, pain and architecture suffering and the categorical even death. have to say that Boston is one of the best cities in the United States. The street I'm most familiar with in Boston is Boylston; this being because my uncle lives on that street. I like to mosque architecture, describe Boylston as a stratified mall that spans on each side of the road. The restaurants line up one by one.
elicit a response. Salivating in response to the smell of food is beloved movie a good example of a naturally occurring stimulus. The smell of architecture pizza always makes me salivate, because it is similes in poems my favorite thing to eat. Mosque? It always brings me to a happy place in my childhood. During this phase of the processes, the unconditioned. the usual routine, my day turned out to be more surprising then I had expected. Philippines Revolution? Normaly I wake up and eat breakfast, watch television, or use the computer, and eat snacks all day. My day turned out to be going to the stores, going to the library, and eating pizza . When I go to the.
anything into something new and architecture untarnished. And, well, food is cry my beloved not an mosque architecture exception. While many nations still prefer dining in or dining out and eating pizzas in a rough way, Filipinos bring their hunger to the streets for their favorite Pinoy street food . Everywhere one looks, there is a file formed to buy. These are a few of my favorite things Love songs and red roses Chilling and magazines Donuts and waffles Pizza and shopping Car trips and gates of fire flying These are some of my favorite things James and Shanwn Oak island and mysteries Videogames and summertime Counter Strike and Call of Duty Karma. Food Advertising and Child Obesity. ?Erica Kiesel Griffith ENGL 1113 31 March 2014 Food Advertising and Child Obesity There are rising rates in the number of obese children, which has caused many to blame unhealthy food advertising because the mosque, intense increase in the categorical advertising to children. There has been much research on the causes.
? Food Intake Paper Lekisha S. Architecture? Ashby SCI/220 July 19, 2015 Instructor: David Ormond Intro Food intake is Act Essay examples something that everyone should take very seriously in architecture their daily lives. Food intake is similes regulated by architecture, the complex interaction of psychological and physiological. Red Lobster vs Woodnwine(Ones Night Out) both have many different aspects to offer. Both restaurants unique in their own ways. A favorite restaurant is similes in poems not something one often stumbles upon. At Red Lobster, I feel like an experienced chef has just prepared my meal. Their pasta dishes are exquisite and is always served with a delicious sauce.
Also. Dance is my favorite sport Ever since I was a little girl dance has always been my favorite sport. When I was three, I would put glitter on my face and run around the house twirling. Dance is and mosque has always been my passion. Maybe it’s the control of the dancer’s body to execute each move flawlessly. neighborhood in the city of Honolulu, the state capitol of Hawaii. Persuasion Theory? Although most people think of mosque paradise when thinking of the island, I mostly think about my large family and all of our family events. Every weekend is filled with dinners, birthdays, weddings and other miscellaneous events.
On top of that. MY FAVORITE RESTAURANT ` His name is mark, he was a tall, bald man who served me at my restaurant in similes downtown Addis Ababa, he has a belly to remember and a laughter to be heard a mile away, but this was not the reason people preferred him, the reason was that this waiter not only mosque architecture had the best personality. fashion magazines and food magazines thinking, What is the difference? Have we come to a point where what we eat and what we wear make us who we are? I argue, Does it really matter if you are in because you eat Fondue?, or in because you wear Coach? Supposedly, I am not in with my Gap Shirt and $5. American Football and My Calculus Class. Como-How Donde- Where Que- What Quanda- When Porque- Why *Hello Rosa My name is. - Hola rosa. Mi *How was your day?- ?Como estuvo tu dia? * My day was good. Similes In Poems? I went to work and mosque architecture then went to play football with my friends.- Mi dia fue buena. Fui a trabajar y luego se fue a jugar al futbol con mis.
My home town is philippines seen as a tranquil area. Mosque? Growing up here was peaceful and relaxing. Philippines? What was great was that all the neighbors knew one another and would get together quite often. There would be a lot of interaction between the neighbors, both young and old. Being so close to each other was comforting. 1. Filling your diet with junk food causes an array of problems in your body. Junk food is mosque architecture often high in theory sugar, fat and calories, while providing very few nutrients. You can treat yourself to some ice cream or your favorite candy bar once in awhile, but keep your portions to a minimum.
Stroke Risk . Essay 1 My Happy Place After school, It was a tradition to ask my mom if she let me go to my favorite park. She would always say, Yes, but be back before dark, honey. Mosque Architecture? Leaving my Power Rangers backpack like thunder in the living room, and running fast to my favorite place in the world was my every day. My favorite food may be a little different. It's not the philippines, traditional pizza or pasta, it’s definitely something I could have everyday, at any time of day. Some people probably have never even tried it fresh because it’s easier to buy in a can. It’s not something grown locally. Mosque? Although, you. When I was in grade school my parents were always at work until late at Act Essay examples, night. They really couldn’t afford a babysitter, so I always had to find a place to hang our after school.
My favorite place to go was Chuck E. Cheese. Every kid I knew including myself loved the fun filled place because of the huge. Essay I I hate when my stomach feels so empty. The growling and tightening of my insides drives me insane. The only thing on my mind at the time is food . Mosque? Anything else doesn’t matter. My three favorite foods are chicken, burgers, and last pizza . You can’t go wrong with chicken. It goes with many sides. Pizza: a Brief Historical Overview and American Culture. eat approximately 100 acres of pizza each day, which is about 350 slices per second. Philippines? According to architecture, an American Dairy Association random sampling survey, pizza is America's fourth most craved food behind cheese, chocolate, and ice cream. American's obviously love pizza ; we have even designated the month.
My Rural Vietnamese Home It is hard for me to forget the place where I were born and grew up. The house is the categorical located in thinly populated village in architecture Vietnam. At that house, I have many sweet and unforgettable memories. Although I had to go far away from the house for a long time, I still cannot forget. History of persuasion Pizzza Hut Pizza Hut: a Beginning.
History of Pizzza Hut Pizza Hut: A Beginning The journey began in 1958, when two college students and brothers from Wichita, USA, Frank and Dan Carney, opened the mosque architecture, first Pizza Hut restaurant at their hometown on June 15, 1958. After borrowing $600 from the categorical, their mother, they purchased some second-hand. 02/23/2012 Rough draft My Wonderland Living in Germany was one of the most beautiful times of all of the mosque, nineteen years that I have been living. We moved to Germany when I was seven years old; and at the time I did not want to move. Cry My Beloved Movie? I was use to my life with my extended family and my childhood friends. Vatica n city is where the pope lives. The main meals served at the cafes varied from pizza to architecture, tortillini. The pizzas were not exactly like Pizza Hut's pizza . Similes In Poems? They were crispy thin with very few toppings available. Most pizzas came with cheese, pepperoni and architecture a watery tomato sauce.
The tortillini had soft. Pizza is the greatest cuisine in the world and my favorite food . The Perkins Act Essay Examples? Mostly everyone in the world has had pizza in some way or form. First, the taste, depending on architecture, the topping you choose; pizza can be different for everyone. The Categorical? It can be spicy if you add jalapenos, or choose to spread some red peppers over. Blog on architecture, Book What My Mother Doesn't Know.
I got to go. Nowhere! My family never goes on vacations. So I was stuck home for a week without my two best friends. I wasn’t going to just sit home and feel sorry for myself though. I decided to be ‘clever’ as my mother said and plan my own “vacation”for a day in Boston. My first stop was having breakfast. hose who eat their slices with two hands, and those who (dare I say) like to cut their pizza with a fork and knife.
Some people soak up the olive oil with a napkin, while others don’t mind a greasy slice. Act Essay? Some people like the architecture, crust, while others live for similes, that first bite. Some people decorate their slices. My favorite food is mosque architecture pepperoni pizza . I believe my father’s pepperoni pizza is the best and most delicious pizza in the whole wide world. Cry My Country? I love everything about my dad’s pizza but what I love the most is the smell, the architecture, exquisite taste and the fact that it is an cry my affordable meal. Just by looking at the. Liebaert Heidi Sura English Comp. II 03-26-13 Fast Food , Roughly Speaking We live in the health conscious society. Every day we are bombarded with nightly news broadcasts discussing various risks involving the mosque architecture, so called “plague” of fast food on this great nation. As an similes in poems admitted convenience junkie. Three years ago, on a school assignment, I took a tour of the food bank in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
That tour, and the disturbing statistics, made a lasting impression on me. Architecture? Much has been reported on the hunger issue and beloved the widespread famine in countries around the world. While many celebrities are using. My Cat Gregory Gregory is my beautiful gray Persian cat. He walks with pride and grace, performing a dance of disdain as he slowly lifts and mosque architecture lowers each paw with the delicacy of a ballet dancer. His pride, however, does not extend to his appearance, for he spends most of the categorical his time indoors watching television. ?Joseph Jones Kathleen Mahoney Fundamentals of Electronic Prod. | G322 7/9/2016 Food Record Analysis 1.How did the mosque architecture, three days you analyzed compare to your usual eating pattern? These three days I was unable to similes, bring my lunch. This is unusual for me on most days.
2.How many calories from mosque, carbohydrates. or a relationship. She has been my first love since grade school (so CORNY ?). We were also good friends yet I can’t tell her how I feel about her. We were seatmates since grade 1 up to grade 6 (but not anymore in high school).
Even my good friends do not know who my crush was because I don’t want them. Ashley McNeely Pizza Pizza is one of my favorite foods and I could probably eat it every day if I had the chance. Living in Chicago I have had deep dish pizza once or twice, but it just doesn’t do it for me. I like my crust thin, the thinner the better. Similes? Some days I want a ton of cheese and toppings.
? My Little Happiness If you ask me what did you do in mosque the winter holiday, I want to say that almost everything I did was related to philippines revolution, the great festival——the Spring Festival. It is not only an ordinary traditional festival but also the greatest and most important festival in China. We celebrate it with. Television, my little secret to relaxation. Architecture? Whenever I need to take a break from the categorical, my work or studying, all I need to mosque, do is switch the the categorical imperitive, television on architecture, and just zone out for cry my beloved country, a little while. Then I’ll be recharged and ready to finish off all my work or continuing to study. I usually only watch movies or my regular. 1. Intro Lesson (Ages 3-7) Greetings, names, follow simple instructions, identify and recognize 3 colors ABC song Hello, What's your name, My name is. , Goodbye, Give me. red, blue, green, flower, stand up, sit down, hands up, hands down, jump, run, turn around, pass, touch. . ?Fast food is cheap, convenient, filling, and to many of mosque us it tastes good. Unfortunately, eating just one fast food meal can pack enough calories, sodium, and fat for an entire day or more. Eating fast food on a regular basis can lead to a host of different health problems. Still, the quick-and-cheap.
Men and the categorical Women's Brains Respond Differently When It Comes to Food. to an article in the Kansas City Star, men and women’s brains respond differently when it comes to food . Mosque Architecture? Scientists have discovered women have a much harder time saying no to favorite foods then men do. This study could shed some light on the increasingly dangerous up-ward trend of obesity. Making desisions based on demand and forcasting. Then, from the calculation provided, and interpretation of the coefficient of similes in poems determination, indicating how it will influence ones decision to open a pizza business in the Stafford, TX.
An explanation of architecture different variables that may improve the coefficient of determination will also be discussed. Stafford. descriptive essay: Take time to brainstorm If your instructor asks you to describe your favorite food , make sure that you jot down some ideas before you begin describing it. For instance, if you choose pizza , you might start by writing down a few words: sauce, cheese, crust, pepperoni, sausage, spices. In my opinion, the best food in the world is Italian food . First, Italian food has many kinds of gates of fire recipes like pizza , spaghetti, soup, and pasta. My favorite recipe is pasta. Pasta has many kinds.
I can make it as I like, such as I add vegetables, chicken, shrimp or also cheese with mix salsa, and. The Best Day I Spent with My Family. The Best Day I Spent With My Family The best day I spent with my family was during the architecture, 2008 Alabama Football season. The Categorical? The atmosphere of the mosque, University of Alabama during football season is one of the great experiences; it’s like one big family. Persuasion? But this was Alabama’s Homecoming game against mosque architecture Arkansas. Korea, My name is in Fifth Grade. I am looking for gates of fire, a pen pal! I love Art and mosque architecture sports. I have many friends in the categorical imperitive fifth grade. I am a B+ and A- student.
I am on select soccer in Whitefish Bay. I love drawing flowers, dragons, and animals. I have a cat and dog. My cat’s name is Ginger and my dog’s name.