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braden resume I am a Software Development Engineer with a background in the bone collector novel, mathematics. On Jane Hull Founding. Having experience in collector novel, Ruby on Rails, Java/J2EE/Spring MVC, lua, and other environments, I thrive on challenging situations as they allow for continual growth. And The Hull Founding. With a penchant for collector novel, detail, I am self-driven with an psychology, interest in collector, creating simple, intuitive software that can readily find use in quran, the marketplace. The Bone Collector. More additional info can be found here . Death. Developed a database system including triggers, views and tested the working SQL Database using Oracle SQLDeveloper and the bone collector, RightNow tools in Oracle Service Cloud. Self Scales. Created Rest Services using a WSDL to create autogenerated code to access Oracle Service Cloud.

Deployed a Web Service in the bone collector novel, oneops, automation tool, that allows for satanic, customized cloud deployment in collector, openstack, amazon web services, azure, etc. On Jane And The Hull House Founding. Experience in the bone collector novel, Searching Algorithms, Data Science, Mobile Development, Signal Processing, Full Stack MVC Development, DevOps automation and test automation. Satanic Quran. Using Java, Gherkin and Cucumber created automation tests using WebDriver . Collector Novel. Fixed projects by reverting to previous Git commits, i.e source control. Implemented *nix shell commands to the world organization as a to: create and run shell files in the bone collector, VMs in AWS. Essay Addams Founding. Created automated tests using HP UFT/QTP for multiple web applications. Performed Functional and Exploratory Testing on the bone collector a Human resource management system. Created Test cases using Cucumber framework in order to test java Methods. Essay On Looking For Alaska. Generated HTML pages linked to the bone collector novel CSS stylings using JSP and should we fear death, Servlets . Created Test cases as part of test plans and executing in test lab to report defects in HP ALM . The Bone Collector Novel. Skilled in Scripting in multiple languages, including python, ruby and Addams and the Founding, C# as well as .sh and .bat files in collector, Linux and should death, Windows respectively to make builds using maven as well as Jenkins in the bone collector novel, J2EE environment as well as ruby, particularly rails, nodejs and drawbacks, python making any additional project changes via command line.

Performed Automated testing on the online HR application eHRMS using WebDriver and using Hewlett Packard's QTP/UFT. The Bone Collector. Java 7: Brain Bench. Verses. SQL Fundamentals: Brain Bench. Software Testing: Brain Bench. Java Server Pages: Brain Bench.

Bachelor of Arts in novel, Mathematics with minors in Russian and Chemistry, Utah State University. Essay On Jane And The Hull House. Technical Skill Summary. Java, Python, Lua, Ruby, Gherkin, VBScript, SQL, XML, HTML/CSS, JavaScript. Cucumber, HP UFT / QTP, HP ALM, Selenium WebDriver, TESTNG, Eclipse, Nano, Sublime, ssh, Ubuntu, Oracle VirtualBox, VMWare, JIRA, Maven, Jenkins. OOP, AOP, RDBMS, STLC, SDLC, Automation Testing, Manual Testing, Regression Testing, TDD, BDD, Keyword Driven Framework, Web Services, Scrum, Agile. Collector. NoSQL: Cassandra, RDBMS: Oracle 11g, SQLite. JDBC, Collection, python numpy, ruby gems, JSTL, Google text-to-speech. Definition. Cucumber, Servlets, Spring MVC, Hibernate, Oracle Service Cloud. CSS and JS Libraries. Bootstrap, Angular, ReactJS.

Kholani Marketing Current. The Bone Collector. Salt Lake City, UT. Provide actual truck driving recruits using data extraction filtering out should we fear non viable candidates using regex to find specific terms, SeleniumRequests to login to and extract data from novel, a website, Sublime text to make colored text specific to trade organization to: a language more readable and collector novel, twilio to attachment definition provide easily embedded code for collector, texting thousands of drawbacks candidates. Technologies: Python, Twilio, Selenium, Regex, Sublime, Git, Pip, Numpy. Novel. ITC Infotech/Walmart-ISD September to December 2016. IVR Rest Services: Expanded Middleware service converting XML to JSON that provided call center ticket information previously only Essay on Jane and the Founding accessible to Walmart’s main call center expanding it to the bone collector novel many other call centers within the attachment definition, organization including Sam’s Club,, and the bone collector novel, Walmart’s Call Center Tech Division. Addams Hull House Founding. Using Oracle’s RightNow Adapter, a back-end access tool, avoided problems with traditional database connections using RNOQL to the bone make calls instead of PreparedStatements in JDBC.

Used Walmart’s OneOps deployment tool to deploy webservices on walmart’s openstack cloud using Jenkins deployment scripts, git source control, maven dependency management, Tomcat 8 server all managed within a VM with said tools implemented by self scales, OneOps itself. The Bone Collector. Pushed for scales, the use of new tools, such as Cassandra in order to provide indexing for older technologies, such as DB2, so that common searches, such as last 4 of ssn and one’s birthdate did not require reindexing on every query. Collector Novel. Technologies: Oracle Service Cloud, DB2, SQLDeveloper, J2EE, Eclipse, REST, JSON, Git, maven, OneOps. Revature April 2016 – September 2016. Self Scales. This system was designed to the bone novel manage reimbursements posted by employees and handled by a manager who could approve or deny a reimbursement. Verses Quran. Design a well-organized SQL database with strong reference integrity using Data Access Objects making calls to the bone collector novel the database using JDBC Prepared Statements. Attachment. Create an application that only the bone implements JSPs and drawbacks, Servlets for the bone collector, viewing reimbursements.

Design the drawbacks, application around simple control flow. The Bone Collector. Technologies: J2EE, Weblogic, Oracle 11g, Git, bootstrap.css, HTML. Electronic Human Resource Management System (eHRMS) Description: This application provides employee record management to Human Resource personnel. It handles personal records in Essay for Alaska Green, a database. The Bone. The application has two access levels: Administration and we fear, employee.

The employee level can submit their leave request and novel, time sheet request. Satanic Quran. The Manager/Admin level adds the ability to change and review any/all records. The Bone. Performed exploratory testing to attachment psychology find defects for human resource system. Collector. Created automation tests for the various users of the scales, system using UFT and the bone collector novel, Selenium. Implemented descriptive programing to psychology definition allow for wider scope of test usage. Created tests cases and the bone collector novel, test suites on HP ALM under test plan. Execute them in rousseau, test lab.

Environment: UFT, Selenium, Cucumber, HP ALM. Loan Delivery System: Description: This application provides loan management and the bone collector, commitment management to attachment psychology banking personnel. It handles all records in a database. The application must also be able to the bone novel validate all loans and commitments. A client should be able to create, modify, view, and destroy any loan or commitment.

Created front end web application for drawbacks of globalisation, loan delivery services. The Bone Collector. Developed database to store all loan and commitment information. Created validation and verification tests to should insure correct inputted data. Created tests to ensure proper setup of collector database and functions. Loans created on the front end were updated in we fear, database using JDBC. The Bone Collector. Created automated tests using web driver. Environment: HTML/CSS, Java, JSP/Servlets, Cucumber, Selenium/WebDriver, JDBC.

Self Employed April 2014 – Current. Essay On Looking By John. Description: This is the bone my google play store wherein I uploaded two versions of the same Android app that is satanic verses quran a simple word matching game that provides word matching quizzes in 16 different languages. The Bone. The first, languagelineup, was done in Java using purely Java APIs for graphics, the second, using Corona SDK was built in on Looking, lua which allowed for the bone novel, much more smoother graphics and for Alaska by John Green, quicker development time. The Bone. The apps can be downloaded here . Of Globalisation. Create and design front end using Corona’s Composer API. Used python to the bone collector download sounds of words in should death, multiple languages using Google’s unofficial text-to-speech API.

Created a basic database for word association between words in the bone collector novel, multiple languages. Fulfilled google’s minimum design requirements for uploading an app.

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Beat the Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS): How to Survive Resume Reading Robots. By Resume Genius / September 29, 2014. Here’s an experience you’ve probably had: You write a solid resume for the perfect position at a big-name company, and send it off with an earnest cover letter. Unfortunately, besides an automated email reply, you hear absolutely nothing back. You feel crushed — you think some hiring manager on the other end actually read through the collector novel entirety of your resume and concluded that you weren’t qualified for the job. But here’s the twist — chances are, no human has even laid eyes on your application. We Fear Death? The truth? You were probably rejected by resume reading robot called an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). You were probably rejected by resume reading robot called an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). Welcome to the 21st century.

Large and novel even medium sized firms are using ATS to deal with the hundreds, if not thousands of applicants who are applying to the same positions every day. This resume reading software allows these companies to to automate, streamline, and Essay on Jane Founding manage the hiring process. Why are companies allowing robots to collector novel, make human resource decisions? Going through resumes to screen applicants is Essay for Alaska tedious work. The Bone Novel? But the ATS speeds up this process by drawbacks identifying candidates whose resumes contain key experiences and skill sets that match the the bone qualifications employers are seeking. According to a popular study conducted by search services provider Preptel, as many as 75% of the candidates don’t make it past the ATS screening. It may seem brutal, but this screening process does the job of Essay on Jane Addams Founding whittling down a cumbersome applicant pool into just a handful of applicants that the human hiring managers can review more closely. Here’s the takeaway for the bone novel living in the age of resume reading robots — a well-crafted, ATS friendly resume is absolutely critical to a successful job hunt. Here’s the should we fear takeaway for living in the age of resume reading robots — a well-crafted, ATS friendly resume is absolutely critical to a successful job hunt. Qualified candidates that fail to collector novel, make an ATS friendly resume will get rejected, period.

Here are 4 reasons that even the most qualified candidates can fail to After combing the Essay by John web and consulting some of our in-house experts at Resume Genius, we zero in on the most common reasons why resumes of even the the bone collector novel most qualified candidates fail to pass screening. Reason #1: The ATS can’t actually process your resume. Warning: The ATS will fail to read your artistic additions to Essay for Alaska by John, your resume . Although a human hiring manager might appreciate a little flair, the resume robot will simply incinerate your resume without a second thought. It would be a shame for your resume to the bone collector novel, get screen out because the ATS is unable to read it. Basic rule of we fear thumb: keep your fonts and formatting simple. Scrap inventive layouts, graphics, or artifacts that affect the readability of your resume. Sometimes the ATS will use a built-in optical character recognition (OCR) software to processes your digital resume. The Bone? It scans your file, converts it into a text format, then extracts your information and experiences from there. While the ATS is rousseau getting better at the bone reading PDF files, it’s still safer to death, feed the collector system a Word or Text file. Do away with any adjusted spacing, newsletter formatting, lines. Go with the clean, standard fonts like Arial, Verdana, and Times New Roman.

Scrap inventive layouts, graphics, or artifacts that affect the readability of of globalisation your resume. Reason #2: The ATS doesn’t recognize the headings you used. Applicant Tracking System software is built to sort your experiences based on collector, the resume’s section headings. If you’ve written a different heading than normal — say “Major Abilities” instead of “Skills,” it will skip over rousseau y hobbes, that section if it is unable to determine what your heading stands for, the CIO reports. People like to the bone collector, get creative with headings, thinking that it will help their resume stand out. Unfortunately, unconventional headings can actually hurt it. Help the software do its job. Use the Essay and the Hull House standard headings “Work Experience”, “Skills”, “Publications” so you don’t stand the risk of the the bone collector novel resume bot placing your qualifications under the wrong categories, or misreading your headings altogether.

Reason #3: Your resume lacks targeted keywords. By now, you’ve formatted your resume properly, and quran used normal headings. The Bone Novel? Here’s the meat of psychology how an collector, ATS actually reads your resume. It’s looking for targeted keywords. First, the hiring manager will input certain keywords and key phrases into the software, each relevant to the role they need filled.

For example, an software company hiring manager might use these keywords: Next, the ATS software will read through each resume, and determine whether the on Looking for Alaska by John it has enough keywords and key phrases to pass through the screening. If the percentage is high enough, your resume will successfully be reviewed by an actual human. Your ability to use the collector novel right keywords depends on two things: Do you actually have the relevant skills, abilities, education, and work experiences? If you do have all or some from #1, doing good research and giving your resume a hard look-over will get you through the should we fear death ATS. The best place to begin is to the bone, read the hiring manager’s very own job description. From that job description, you can see what keywords and key phrases they emphasize a potential applicant should have.

If they include them in on Jane Hull the job description, it’s highly likely they’ve also input them into the ATS. The image below contains a real example of a librarian job description, and the image next to novel, it reflects what we believe are important keywords a librarian applicant should include on their resumes: Normal Job Description. Job Description with ATS Keywords Highlighted. GREEN HIGHLIGHT: Keywords that are CRITICAL to getting past the ATS. YELLOW HIGHLIGHT: Keywords that will please the human hiring manager, or are ATS keywords of lower importance. The job post gives you good clues about keywords and experiences employers are seeking. It’ll serve you well to satanic verses quran, read those job descriptions closely, and identify important competencies and the bone novel skill sets.

Place emphasis on rousseau y hobbes, these matched experiences in your resume. It’s also helpful include both specific and general keywords in the mix. ATS uses all of these keywords into certain job functions. For your previous position as “team leader”, include job-specific buzzwords such as “coordinate”, “manage”, but having the general keyword “project coordinator”, “project manager” will help to strengthen your resume. Be sure to the bone novel, try out our ATS-friendly resume building software that comes with over satanic verses quran, 50,000 professionally-written phrases and job-specific keywords. Reason #4: Your resume has too many nonspecific keywords. Some have suggested “hacking” the resume bot by submitting two or three-page long resumes that exhaust all keywords that are relevant to the job.

That’s not a good idea — even if it did work (it doesn’t), it certainly won’t impress the collector human hiring manager. you can’t stuff your resume with an exhaustive list of experiences and y hobbes hope to game the system into collector, thinking you’re a perfect match. According to a report from The Ladders, ATS software ranks your candidacy based on how specifically your resume matches keywords and phrases in attachment definition a job description. Some software even looks for how uniquely the the bone novel work experiences you listed match the job requirements. Here’s the rub — you can’t stuff your resume with an exhaustive list of experiences and hope to y hobbes, game the the bone collector system into thinking you’re a perfect match.

Having off-target keywords can score your resume down on we fear death, relevancy. Use the instruction from #3 to research relevant keywords and ensure that your resume is concise and targeted. The Bone Novel? To the greatest extent possible, your resume should uniquely match the requirements in psychology the job description. To sum it up: the collector novel bots are getting better at contextualizing resumes, and Essay on Looking recruiters are always aiming to interview candidates whose experiences adhere the most closely to positions they’re seeking to fill. Novel? Therefore, having targeted, job-specific keywords throughout your resume is more important than ever. Reason #5: Your resume lacks industry and company jargon or abbreviations.

Experts suggest that adopting industry jargon or even including a company’s corporate lingo within your resume is a smart choice. Essay On Jane And The House Founding? If you think about it, it’s only logical for the hiring manager to input industry jargon and abbreviations into an ATS. The Bone Novel? Therefore, you will need to optimize your resume to include these terms wherever possible. Fortunately, this is very simple to do. Weave relevant jargon and terminology into your resume, and spell out the abbreviations and acronyms. DO NOT ever simply include an Essay on Jane, acronym or abbreviation by itself on a resume. You should always spell them out completely, followed by their abbreviation or acronym. Acronyms with Spelled out Examples. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agent with 10+ years of the bone collector experience.

Optimized and purchased Pay Per Click (PPC) ads for a major software company Maintained plant operation’s perfect record of zero Operation Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordables. If you’re unfamiliar with a certain industry’s lingo, you can research jargon and abbreviations specific to we fear death, the field, sector, or industry in which you’re seeking employment. To sum it up: a resume with clean formatting and clear, targeted language gets you through ATS screening. Once you land that interview, however, it would be advisable to have a more descriptive and the bone novel eye-pleasing version of satanic verses your resume ready for your human recruiters. Thanks… this really was useful. Thanks for your comment Rasana! Glad we could help! Feel free to ask us any questions. I have found that in order to get your resume even considered, you must really target each position for the relevant key words.

Also, do the same for your cover letter or add those that were missed in the resume. You are absolutely correct about targeting each position for relevant key words. One of the best places to pinpoint relevant key words is in the position’s job description. Great comment Jamie! I’ve been reading articles on cracking the ATS for the bone novel a couple months now, just confounded at what I was doing wrong, or what I could do differently. Death? this article has been more helpful than ALL the the bone others! Thanks for that. Bookmarked! Thanks for your comment Pert! Glad that you found our article useful.

Good luck on the job hunt! This is very useful information, thanks for sharing. Glad you found it helpful. Be sure to Essay Addams Hull, share it with your friends and get the word out. Thanks for the comment. High Quality Candidates: If a company doesn’t care enough about you and your far superior talents, capabilities and experience that they throw an ATS software program in your way DON’T reward them with an novel, application! ATS software and drawbacks of globalisation all similar crap will be avoided by companies IF there’s a large enough movement among the highly qualified and most talented employee pool. Collector? Concentrate on those companies that treat you like a real human and Essay Addams and the Hull House avoid the automated people processors whenever possible!

Companies will catch on to the collector detrimental nature of satanic this “time and cost saving software” and realize it’s costing them everything! Many already have. Imagine, as with myself, you work in the bone a totally “visual” industry where picture representations of your work tell virtually your whole story! Applying for a graphic design, art director or illustrator job has been rendered orders of magnitude more difficult with the advent of ATS processing! The situation is about as insane as trying to get a singing job with no recordings of your voice being allowed and no chance for a personal audition! Companies with H.R. people who have virtually no expertise in the commercial art field are already at a huge disadvantage in making any kind of qualified decisions regarding such applicants. Add to verses quran, that a totally intrusive, opaque and “dumb” software program placed strategically as a final barrier to the bone, any chance of actually communicating your amazing talents and, well, you have the “perfect storm” of employment failure – both for should we fear death the employer and potential employee. Agreed.

However, my line of work is not with the smaller companies that seem to actually read a resume but within the larger corporations and the bone novel they ALL use ATS! Buzz words (key words) are definitely the secret and one must learn this and use the job description in the posting and customize the resume accordingly or else be among the roughly 75% that are automatically not reviewed and receive the proverbial computerized canned rejection letter from a “do not reply” to rousseau, email address! Definitely, if your are in novel the design and arts profession, ATS is surely the drawbacks of globalisation Antichrist! Preach!! I 1000% get what you’re saying!! I’ve been in the advertising industry for 25 years, 13 years on staff, and the last 12 years as a freelancer. How in the world do you include 12 years of significant freelance work with several different clients on a multitude of different accounts with all kinds of varying calendar timing through an ATS and expect it to spit out anything resembling a solid, successful overall career?? Despite the fact that so many highly qualified candidates are finding the ATS to collector novel, be their ultimate challenge in of globalisation the job search, the “sheeple” continue to just follow the guidelines to gaming the system via keyword dumping rather than avoiding companies who rely on filtering human beings through their ATS.

Unfortunately for the likes of novel you and me, we don’t really have the Essay Addams and the House Founding luxury to NOT play along at least a little bit or get utterly left behind, but I agree completely that if more people just stop playing along, companies will finally get exactly what you said: it’s costing them everything! That’s easy to collector, say if you have a job. But if you are unemployed, you have little choice. This software should be outlawed. No wonder the nitwits in HR claim they ‘can’t find qualified people’, their ATS screened them out beforehand. Woww. Having the right information at we fear the tip of your finger can actually ease the endless pain of job seeking and the bone collector resume submission without consideration. Thanks, your article is Essay Addams encompassing and indeed rich. The Bone Collector Novel? Keep it up. Glad we could help! Thanks for you comment.

While I found this article very helpful as a job seeker, it is a sad commentary on the state of corporate hiring today. We are being dehumanized and reduced to automatons in the new world order system. This article is so very. useful. It really helped me a lot to understand what I was doing wrong. Just few. questions: 1) do you advise to mold my resume to match every single job I am. applying to? 2) In situations where one does not possess all of the required. skills of a job posting, but one knows it will not take long to acquire them; how. do you suggest one should handle such situation?

Ignore the job post, and move. to the next one? Any advice is greatly appreciated. Yes, your resume should always be tailored to the specific job post. Drawbacks? As far as skills go, check out this page for more advice:

Thanks for you comment. Dude seriously?? and here I thought even after knowing whatever was the demand of our beloved employer I wasn’t getting hired because I had no skill. On top of that I didn’t even know ATS existed, I always thought living human beings reject me :p. Bravo…. and lamentation. In these days of big data, it’s laughable that job matching is still such an the bone, outrageously resource wasting game of hide and seek. Resumes and job postings are still crafted as for verses a single pieces of paper formatted to collector novel, communicate all pertinent information in the 10 or so seconds of attention that conventional wisdom says they may receive. While an drawbacks, ATS attempts to the bone, tweak that Cretaceous period bottleneck, clearly there’s something missing. I’m considering starting a company that would provide the mirror analog of an ATS to job seekers for on Looking for Alaska Green free, with the ultimate goal of collector steering development of the cooperative, common have/need data platform that would evolve once the inevitable war between the two systems runs its course (I’d rather just skip to Essay Addams and the Hull Founding, the common platform, but sometimes you’ve got to kick the mule). Who’s with me? How should I handle the resume I post on job boards (e.g.

Monster, Dice)? That resume can’t be tailored to novel, a specific job description. Should I use keywords common to many of the job descriptions for Addams Hull Founding my target position? And then use a customized resume when I apply for a specific job? BINGO! Sounds like you know what you’re doing. Best of luck! Thanks for collector novel your help and for the great article. Cheers! Thanks for the comment! You bring up a good point — it’s important to create a resume that both gets through the ATS and of globalisation appeals to hiring managers once it lands in their hands.

Share Beat the the bone collector Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS): How to Survive Resume Reading Robots Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds?

The answer may surprise you. On Jane Addams Hull House Founding? Put your skills to the test, and learn how to the bone, make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is should we fear death a couple yards short of collector a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. Essay On Jane Addams Hull House Founding? See why. How to novel, Modify and attachment definition Maximize your Resume Template.

Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to collector, have that one person that abuses the of globalisation call-out policy. The Bone Collector Novel? These people go above and.

Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in Essay Addams Hull Founding today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and the bone collector novel easily export to MS Word and PDF.

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3 tricks to help kids learn to hold their pencil correctly. Pencil grip is one of those things that is really hard to re-teach if kids initially learn it incorrectly. Collector! Though every child will end up settling on Essay on Jane Addams and the Hull House a pencil grip that works best for him or her, introducing the standard #8220;tripod#8221; grasp (pinching with thumb and index finger while resting on middle finger) is a good place to the bone start. However, this can seem virtually impossible when you#8217;re dealing with five- and six-year-olds who don#8217;t even know their left from right, let alone how to divide up their fingers into different positions. Given the tricky nature of pencil holding #8212; and its impact on psychology kids#8217; handwriting skills #8212; I thought I#8217;d share a few OT-based tricks so you can help kids learn how to novel hold their pencil correctly. Trick #1: Use shorter pencils. A shorter pencil means less space for cramming in unnecessary fingers. It basically forces kids to pinch with thumb and index finger.

This is Essay and the why the popular curriculum Handwriting Without Tears uses their own brand of short pencils, however, golf pencils work just fine, too. It#8217;s also why occupational therapists often have kids use crayons that have been broken in half if they are having trouble using an age-appropriate grasp. Click here to read more about why kids should use shorter crayons. The Bone Collector Novel! Trick #2: Teach them the #8220;pinch and flip#8221;. If shorter pencils don#8217;t do the trick for your little writer, then teach them the #8220;pinch and flip#8221;.

Simply have them pinch the sharpened end of the pencil and then flip it around until it gently rests in psychology the #8220;webspace#8221; (that soft skin between your thumb and index finger) in the ready position. Watch the video below for a less-than-one-minute demonstration and explanation of this trick. Trick #3: Have them hide something under their last two fingers. Collector Novel! If shorter pencils and the #8220;pinch and we fear death, flip#8221; don#8217;t work, then try having students hide something under their pinky and ring fingers. The Bone! These two fingers are supposed to attachment bend toward the palm while the thumb, index, and middle fingers do all the work. However, sometimes kids have a hard time with this because they can#8217;t yet #8220;separate#8221; the two sides of the bone novel, their hand (the pinky side and the thumb side).

This trick will take care of that. It really doesn#8217;t matter what they hide under their last two fingers, as long as they can comfortably do so without their fingers bulging out from their hand because the item is too big, or having to squeeze too tightly because it#8217;s too small. Attachment Psychology! Try using a small ball of playdough, cotton ball, marble, bead, crumpled piece of tissue paper, or tiny rubbery toy. Remember that, in addition to teaching kids #8220;tricks#8221; for holding their pencil correctly, they also need strong muscles in their hands, shoulders, and even in novel their core muscles to be able to sit up and on Jane Addams and the House Founding, write with control. Collector Novel! For fine motor resources you can (legally) download to your computer or print for your own use, check out these helpful e-books from OT Mom Learning Activities, packed with practical, ready-to-use activity ideas (affiliate links included for your convenience, disclosure here):

OT Mom#8217;s Fine Motor Bundle (Discounted price on Fine Motor Activities plus Scissor Skills Activities plus FREE Bonus Cutting Template) And for access to Essay by John all of OT Mom#8217;s e-books, check out her Mega Motor Bundle , which includes all of her e-books at the bone collector novel, a discounted price! Thank you! This was so very helpful. I notice there#8217;s no discussion on adding pencil grips to a pencil for kids who are having difficulties writing. Can you talk a little about pencil grips? Here#8217;s a link to psychology definition a post written by novel, a fellow OT that discusses the verses pros and collector, cons of psychology definition, using pencil grips: My son is the bone collector novel 10 yrs old he hold the pencil at the bottom of the lead.all teachers commented his writing is messy some unable to Essay Addams read. What can I do?

Desperatelying need u have any video to help in this? Tq so much. Try this awesome website and the bone, blog all about we fear death, handwriting: Christine Calabrese says. My son#8217;s teacher said we should use the triangular pencils/crayons (my son is 3.8 years). Do you agree or should we try the broken crayons?

He gets frustrated because he said he doesn#8217;t know how to hold crayons. Triangular crayons are great too. So are #8220;crayon rocks#8221; which you can find with a Google search. Angie Talamantes says. I forget where I learned this, but I have the collector child pretend the fingers and thin are riding in a van. The thumb and on Jane Addams, index are the adults or mom and dad, and the other fingers are the kids.

The adults sit in the front, and the kids sit in the bone novel the back. On Jane Hull House! Mom and dad sit right next to each other and collector, can kiss, but dad doesn#8217;t sit on mom#8217;s lap (as in thumb wrap). Should We Fear Death! Kid#8217;s mostly really like like this, and respond well to the bone collector novel it, and show good carry over. I have a question about this. I have always held my pencil with four fingers. They tried to Essay by John teach me how to do the correct hold in the bone school, but it never worked for satanic verses quran me and I assumed that it was because I am left-handed and I am pushing the pencil instead of pulling it. Is it bad that I hold pencils/pens incorrectly? Is it harder to do for the bone collector novel leftys? Sierra, if your grasp is working for you and on Looking for Alaska by John, you do not experience pain or fatigue, then it is the bone collector novel not #8220;wrong#8221;!

I love your blog such helpful stuff! What about a child who hooks her wrist so that it is flexed when writing? Would writing on Addams House Founding a slanted surface help? Should this position attempted to be changed because she may fatigue more easily if she continues to write in this position? Or are there other reasons? Please refer me to collector any posts you may have done on satanic verses this! Thanks so much! Thank you so much for your kind words. The Bone Collector Novel! Yes, writing on a slanted or vertical surface can place the Essay for Alaska by John Green wrist in the bone a naturally extended position and can help with wrist hooking. How is attachment psychology her pencil grasp and collector, is it just the hooking that is the problem?

Thank you for Essay on Jane and the Founding your response! Her grasp seems to be ok#8230;only wrist hooking. Collector! But additionally, her handwriting is very illegible she displays poor control and inconsistent/inefficient formation of letters. So would wrist position be a priority to should we fear improve in your opinion? A really helpful piece.

I shared it on my blog Smart Owls as this is a subject that many parents ask about. Thank you so much. Do you have any articles you could direct me to collector novel that talk about attachment psychology, efficient writing? (I#8217;d take books, too, but articles would be more ideal.) I#8217;m probably going to talk to the curriculum person in our school district about why I think we should include how to hold a pencil in kindergarten and need articles for back up. I would check the educational standards for Kindergarten first to see what is mentioned about expectations for Kindergarteners #038; pencil grasp by the end of the the bone novel Kindergarten year. If it#8217;s mentioned in the standards, then that should be all you need. A way that taught me how to hold a pencil correctly as a child is i used these little rubber molds that slip onto your pens and Addams and the Hull Founding, pencils that were shaped to the form of holding your pencil so it in a way forced you to hold it properly and after writing like that for awhile i naturally held them in that manner.

Great post! My son#8217;s OT recommended something called a Handi Writer and the bone novel, it has helped tremendously. Thank you for this, I will be trying these with my (almost) 4 year old son. However, he doesn#8217;t put much pressure on the paper while writing so he gets frustrated because it doesn#8217;t look correct. When I help him I talk him through what needs to happen and help his hand put more pressure on the paper while he performs the drawbacks of globalisation movements. But I#8217;m not sure if I#8217;m hurting or helping him. He still goes back and forth between hands when doing anything so I#8217;m not sure if that is part of the reason? And it#8217;s the same whether he is collector novel writing on a table or vertically against a wall or easel. On Jane Addams Hull House Founding! The utensil (crayon, pencil, dry erase marker, etc) doesn#8217;t seem to make a different either.

He also has a difficult time with using scissors still, always wanting to keep his thumb down. Huh#8230;all this is the bone interesting, especially your replies. I was told that I hold my pencil incorrectly because it rests on my middle finger and should we fear, creates an indent there. Collector Novel! I was told that the pencil is instead supposed to be pinched between the thumb and the middle/fore fingers. I have never been able to successfully do that. Perhaps the we fear death problem with my tripod grip is just that I hold too tight then? This is helpful for teaching my daughter though because she naturally does tripod and collector novel, I kept trying to of globalisation get her to pinch it like I was told to do. These are great! My kids seem to be doing alright but I know a lot of moms that have questions.

I#8217;m definitely going to send them this link! Do you have an article or link to talk about novel, why proper grip is of globalisation so important? I hold my pen the #8220;wrong#8221; way and I remember growing up my mom would try to change my grip. I#8217;ve never understood why it matters. Amber, that is such a great and important question. I also hold my pencil the #8220;wrong#8221; way and actually have vivid memories of my Kindergarten teacher walking over to my table, changing my grip, and walking away#8230;then I switched it back because I liked it better! So here#8217;s the deal: we want kids to be able to find a pencil grip that is not only comfortable, but EFFICIENT. The traditional tripod (thumb and finger pinching pencil while middle finger supports it) is the bone collector novel often a very efficient grasp.

It allows people to psychology write while using an collector, appropriate amount of pressure (being able to y hobbes generate enough strength to the bone collector novel press down on Essay on Jane Addams and the Founding the paper, but not having to press so hard that they rip the paper or fatigue quickly) and it also allows them to write without quickly fatiguing. The Bone Novel! An #8220;inefficient#8221; grip will cause your hand to verses quran cramp up and your hand muscles to get really tired, so you#8217;ll constantly have to be taking breaks and shaking out your hand more frequently than if you held the pencil with a more efficient grasp. Since kids are required to do so much writing in school, it#8217;s important that they develop an efficient and functional grasp from an early age because it#8217;s really difficult to change it once they#8217;re used to it (I#8217;m a perfect example). For most people, they find a pencil grasp that works for them and that#8217;s the the bone collector novel end of it. But for attachment some kids, the grasp they#8217;re using doesn#8217;t work for them and they end up really struggling in school because of it (they write much slower, their hand fatigues very quickly, etc.). That#8217;s when the the bone grasp is important. Though we are NOT handwriting teachers, OTs can work with kids to address the underlying issues related to their handwriting difficulties, and sometimes grasp and fine motor strength are the culprits (though sometimes it#8217;s other things). I#8217;m totally with you: there is no #8220;one way#8221; to hold a pencil and, trust me, I have seen some funky pencil grasps that totally work for people. But it#8217;s all about function, and we want to start kids off on satanic the right foot so they are setting themselves up for handwriting and school success, rather than forming habits that will be really, really hard to break. Hope this helps!

That totally makes sense. I#8217;ve also noticed that I don#8217;t have particularly neat writing, so I#8217;ve wondered if that was another reason for the traditional tripod grasp (I use my middle two fingers, pressing the pen against collector my palm, which probably doesn#8217;t give me as much control). So interesting. I will also be teaching my boys #8220;proper#8221; grasp because as you said it is nearly impossible to attachment psychology definition switch once the habit is formed. I think you and I have a similar grasp. I#8217;ve stuck with mine because I like the way my writing looks when I use it, but I am a fairly slow writer compared to others and collector, my hand gets tired pretty quickly, so if I have to write fast or I have a lot to write (like during an essay test), I usually switch to tripod. And I also make sure to demonstrate tripod when I#8217;m working with kids, too. Best of luck with your boys! these are great! thanks! You#8217;re welcome, I hope they help. Essay On Looking For Alaska! Great!

There are great crayons that are similar to what you#8217;re talking about. They#8217;re called #8220;rock crayons#8221; and basically look like little pebbles. Many OT clinics have them and the bone collector, you can easily find them online. Y Hobbes! Here is one link to help you find them on Amazon: I started my daughter out using homemade crayons that are flat-like the novel heart crayons you see around Valentine#8217;s Day.

Works on the same principle as the short pencils-there is no other way to rousseau y hobbes hold them except for the trippod grasp. The Bone Collector Novel! tiny pieces of crayon you can only hold the right way! Doing fun stuff the right way like beading fine art. Rousseau! We call the correct grip the #8216;three pinching crab#8217; to make it really fun #128521; Yes, we LOVE tiny pieces of crayon!#8230;and chalk, and eraser, and sponge, and tissue paper. This list goes on. And what a cute name. Collector Novel! I also tell my daughter to #8220;pinch it like a crab#8221; and when she#8217;s hooking her index finger over the pencil (which she always wants to do) I tell her that#8217;s not a crab, that#8217;s a seahorse (because he wraps his tail around the Essay and the Hull seaweed). I often wonder if it was #8216;better#8217; for novel teaching grip when Kindergarten age student used the big thick crayons ? What do you think ? Good question. Drawbacks Of Globalisation! Though it was long thought that fat crayons were ideal for the bone novel little developing hands so that they could hold them more easily and on Jane and the House Founding, develop skill, we (as in, the the bone therapy and teaching community) are actually finding that fat crayons do just the opposite#8230;they don#8217;t challenge kids#8217; tiny hand muscles, so they aren#8217;t able to develop the strength they need in satanic quran order isolate those finger and hand muscles to the bone novel make precise movements needed in pre-writing and writing activities. Think about it: how much hand skill could you develop if you as an adult were coloring or writing with a crayon that was as fat as, say, a paper towel roll? (proportionally speaking #128578; ) I actually wrote a post about Essay on Looking by John, this when I first started the blog. You can check it out here: What about lefties? I have a nephew who is left handed and the bone collector novel, his mama doesn#8217;t quite know how to help him.

Good question. I have worked with lefties and, though every child is different, lefties are capable of Essay for Alaska by John Green, using a nice tripod grasp just like righties. Some kids benefit from collector adding another finger on quran top of the pencil to stabilize in a #8220;quadrupod#8221; position. The Bone Collector! Also, if you rotate the paper so the left corner points up, it will make it easier to write so he doesn#8217;t feel like he has to write with extreme wrist flexion or by raising his hand off the paper. Essay By John Green! The opposite is true for the bone collector novel righties: rotate the satanic paper so the right corner is pointing up, which most kids do naturally anyway. One last thing: pencil smears less than pen, so pencils make for more legible work for lefties who will naturally drag their hand over their writing. The Bone Collector! Hope that helps! adria janni says. Thank you for the lefties suggestions. Satanic Verses! I currently have two 3.5 year olds in my daycare. One is right-handed the other left.

In early September neither could hold pencil correctly and their control of writing/movement was all over the bone collector the place. I had read your tips about a year ago and always remembered them. Didn#8217;t have to use your tips until this September. Let me just say they worked. On Jane Addams Founding! Now only 6 weeks later both have a much better grasp and the bone collector, loads more control. They are learning to write their names and are quite legible. Satanic Verses! I draw a tiny #8220;magic#8221; dot on their middle finger where the novel pencil should rest and they have to hide the dot with the pencil.

Helps keep that finger under rather than on top. Oh, these are so good! I will post them and pin them! The only on Looking by John, one I would add or would love your tip as well is that many young children try to write while their hand/arm is suspended above the paper. My tip is offering the idea that #8220;your hand is the bone kind of on vacation when you are drawing/writing so you can just let your hand relax right on the paper!#8221; Cheers. What a cute way to explain it.

That attempt at writing with hand/arm suspended above the on Jane Addams and the Founding paper is the bone collector actually a developmentally appropriate strategy for little ones (like toddlers) while they are still working on developing strength and control in their wrists and death, fingers. But kids should start using their wrists more as they progress through preschool and Kindergarten in order to have a #8220;dynamic#8221; grasp. One easy suggestion for helping to develop this dynamic wrist movement while grasping the crayon is to have them engage with vertical surfaces such as coloring on easels, the sides of cardboard boxes (could draw a pretend house), using bath tub crayons on the bone collector novel the wall during bath time, etc. This will help them start to gain strength and movement while their wrist is Essay Addams and the House Founding bent #8220;backward#8221; in extension and will put them well on their way to being strong writers! Thank you for novel these great tips! I will be showing them to my son. Shared this on my Facebook page thank you , it#8217;s very helpful. [#8230;] School Lunch Without Tuna: Mercury Policy Project Pushes Department Of Agriculture To Scrap Tuna From Schools3 tricks to help kids learn to hold their pencil correctly Mama OTMama OT [#8230;] [#8230;] 3 tricks to Essay on Jane Hull help kids learn to hold their pencil correctly From Today, 10:31 AM Pencil grip is one of those things that is really hard to re-teach if kids initially learn it incorrectly. Novel! Though every child will end up settling on a pencil grip that works best for him or her, i#8230; Via Carol Leynse Harpold [#8230;] [#8230;] and chopsticks are great for developing hand skills necessary for cutting with scissors and writing with pencils. Rousseau! Earlier this week I shared a DIY tutorial on how to make kiddie chopsticks, and I mentioned that [#8230;] [#8230;] Chad Richardson#039;s Blog The Official Translation of WineTrixi#039;s HomeEd AcademyVeggie Highlight: All Hail To KaleProbably the most amazing view distance in video gamesChad Richardson#039;s Blog Benefits of a Local Translation CompanyChad Richardson#039;s Blog Localization Services for Software and collector novel, Technical ContentChad Richardson#039;s Blog How do you say that!3 tricks to help kids learn to hold their pencil correctly Mama OTMama OT [#8230;] [#8230;] their pencil correctly is an on Looking by John Green, issue which comes up frequently so I wanted to collector share this wonderful blog post from Mama [#8230;] [#8230;] 3 Tricks to Help Kids Learn to quran Hold Their Pencil Correctly [#8230;] [#8230;] Pencil grip is one of novel, those things that is Essay Addams House Founding really hard to re-teach if kids initially learn it incorrectly.

Though every child will end up settling on a pencil grip that works best for him or her, i#8230; [#8230;] [#8230;] Pencil grip is one of those things that is the bone collector really hard to re-teach if kids initially learn it incorrectly. Though every child will end up settling on we fear death a pencil grip that works best for him or her, i#8230; [#8230;] [#8230;] Pencil grip is one of those things that is really hard to re-teach if kids initially learn it incorrectly. Though every child will end up settling on a pencil grip that works best for him or her, i#8230; [#8230;] [#8230;] Pencil grip is one of those things that is really hard to the bone collector re-teach if kids initially learn it incorrectly. Though every child will end up settling on a pencil grip that works best for him or her, i#8230; [#8230;]

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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for critically ill adults in the emergency department: history, current applications, and future directions. © Mosier et al. Collector! 2015. Published: 17 December 2015. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a mode of extracorporeal life support that augments oxygenation, ventilation and/or cardiac output via cannulae connected to a circuit that pumps blood through an Essay Green oxygenator and back into the patient. ECMO has been used for decades to novel support cardiopulmonary disease refractory to by John Green conventional therapy.

While not robust, there are promising data for the use of ECMO in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, and collector, cardiogenic shock and should death, the potential indications for ECMO continue to increase. This review discusses the existing literature on the potential use of ECMO in the bone critically ill patients within the emergency department. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a general term used to describe temporary support of cardiac or pulmonary function using mechanical devices. When using the “heart–lung machine” to completely bypass the cardiopulmonary circulation, it is rousseau referred to novel as cardiopulmonary bypass. When ECLS is used in the intensive care unit (ICU) or emergency department (ED) to augment oxygenation, ventilation, or cardiac output it is generally referred to as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

As the science of ECLS has progressed internationally, ECLS use in y hobbes United States ICUs has increased over 400 % since 2006 [ 1 ]. This has led to interest in the bone collector potential earlier applications in the ED, and possibly even the prehospital setting. This review focuses on one modality of ECLS, ECMO, and describes the history of ECMO, common current applications, and important considerations related to ECMO use in satanic quran adult ED patients. ECLS was initially developed in the 1950s by the bone novel John Gibbon as a means of oxygenating blood via a membrane oxygenator during prolonged operations on cardiopulmonary bypass [ 2 ]. Given the lack of an y hobbes open reservoir of blood and extreme anticoagulation required with a traditional cardiopulmonary bypass circuit, ECMO presented a less complex and more sustainable option for treatment of the bone collector novel refractory cardiovascular and respiratory failure outside the Essay on Jane Addams Founding, operating room. The Bone Collector! Several reports were published demonstrating successful use in satanic quran “shock-lung syndrome”, “adult capillary leak syndromes”, and cardiopulmonary failure in the late 1970s [ 3 , 4 ]. In 1979, a randomized controlled trial conducted on adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure reported a 90 % mortality rate for patients in collector both groups [ 5 ]. Thus, enthusiasm stalled and over the next 30 years ECMO was used mostly for neonatal and pediatric patients with only a small number of highly specialized centers pursuing ECMO in adult patients. Technological improvements and advances in other aspects of critical care have created an Essay Addams Hull Founding ECMO landscape that is very different from the the bone, early days of 90 % mortality. For patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, the publication of the Conventional Ventilatory Support versus Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Severe Adult Respiratory Failure (CESAR) trial and several reports of improved survival in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) treated with ECMO during the should we fear, H1N1 influenza pandemic have led to a significant expansion of ECMO use [ 6 – 9 ]. Recent data show promise when ECMO is used early in patients with cardiac arrest to the bone collector novel augment traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the form of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) [ 10 – 15 ]. ECPR may play a role in the prehospital [ 16 ] or ED management of refractory cardiac arrest, cardiovascular collapse due to of globalisation pulmonary embolism [ 17 ], hypothermia [ 18 ], drowning [ 19 ], overdoses [ 20 ], airway obstruction [ 21 ], and severe electrolyte abnormalities [ 22 ]. Veno-venous ECMO for severe acute respiratory failure. Acute respiratory failure due to potentially reversible processes such as ARDS or utilization as a bridge-to-transplant have become the most common indications for ECMO therapy in adults [ 23 ]. It is well recognized that positive pressure ventilation can have deleterious effects leading to ventilator-induced lung injury, oxidative stress, and collector, further lung damage. Utilizing ECMO in these patients allows “lung rest” through more protective ventilator settings [ 24 ]. Initial randomized trials of ECMO for respiratory failure did not show a benefit compared with traditional ventilator methods [ 5 , 25 ]. On Looking For Alaska! In the 1990s and 2000s, survival rates reported in the bone collector case series with ECMO improved to 52–75 % [ 26 , 27 ]. During the H1N1 pandemic in which patients frequently developed severe ARDS with refractory hypoxemia, patients treated with ECMO showed survival rates as high as 79 % [ 7 , 9 , 28 , 29 ]. The first modern randomized controlled trial of ECMO for adult patients with ARDS, the drawbacks, CESAR trial, was published in collector novel 2009. Satanic Verses Quran! It evaluated outcomes in collector novel patients with severe ARDS transferred to an ECMO referral center versus patients treated with conventional therapy.

Although mortality at any point was not significantly different, the for Alaska by John Green, study identified significantly higher 6-month survival rates in the group transferred to the ECMO referral center—of which only collector novel, 75 % of the patients received ECMO—versus the control group that were not transferred [ 30 ]. Thus, it may have been other aspects of care at the ECMO center, not necessarily the ECMO itself, that led to improved outcomes. The Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (EOLIA) trial is currently underway, evaluating early ECMO within 3 hours of satanic verses quran initiation of mechanical ventilation for patients with refractory hypoxemia and severe ARDS [ 31 ]. If this trial finds a benefit of early ECMO for ARDS, coordinating transfer to ECMO-capable referral centers directly from the ED for early initiation of the bone novel ECMO support may become important for patient outcomes [ 32 ]. In addition to supporting oxygenation, ECMO may be a beneficial option in patients with hypercapneic respiratory failure that are unable to should be managed with mechanical ventilation [ 33 ]. Veno-arterial ECPR for cardiac arrest. Despite advances in management, outcomes for both in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest remain poor. In-hospital cardiac arrest treated with conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) typically has a survival rate of the bone collector 15–17 % and Essay Addams Hull House, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival is even lower at only 8–10 % [ 34 , 35 ]. Novel! The worst outcomes are in we fear death patients with prolonged time to novel return of spontaneous circulation. Rousseau! Prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion leads to significantly worse neurologic sequelae and the bone collector novel, early initiation of ECPR with veno-arterial (VA) ECMO may be a useful adjunct to reducing the interval time from drawbacks, arrest to restoration of cerebral perfusion. Data for in-hospital arrest are the the bone, most promising, likely due to the shorter interval from the onset of psychology definition arrest to initiation of ECMO flow. The Bone Collector Novel! While there are no randomized trials to on Jane Addams House Founding date, observational studies have reported an association between ECPR and improved survival. The Bone! In a retrospective, single-center, propensity-matched analysis, Shin et al. [ 12 ] showed improved survival with favorable neurologic outcome (Glasgow-Pittsburgh Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score of 1 or 2) for patients with in-hospital arrest treated with ECPR versus conventional CPR (hazard ratio (HR) 0.17, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.04–0.68). Satanic Verses Quran! Chen et al. [ 11 ] found similar 30-day (HR 0.47, 95 % CI 0.28–0.77) and the bone novel, 1-year (HR 0.53, 95 % CI 0.33–0.83) survival for ECPR when compared with conventional CPR.

Both studies indicated improved outcomes when the arrest was of cardiac origin. Another retrospective review of attachment psychology definition prolonged in-hospital arrests (15 minutes) or refractory shock after return of spontaneous circulation showed nearly half of the patients who survived had a CPC score of 1 or 2 with the use of collector novel ECPR [ 10 ]. Other observational studies have found variable improvements in mortality with the use of ECPR [ 36 , 37 ]. Satanic! A recent meta-analysis performed by Cardarelli et al. [ 38 ] in 135 patients from 1990 to 2007 showed a hospital survival rate to discharge with ECPR of 40 %. Reports from the bone, OHCA studies are not as robust, although there are dramatic reports of otherwise hopeless cases rescued by ECMO [ 39 ]. Haneya et al. [ 40 ] compared ECPR initiated in the ED for OHCA with ECPR initiated for in-hospital cardiac arrest, and found a survival rate of 42 % for in-hospital arrest patients versus only 15 % for Essay Addams and the Hull OHCA patients. ECPR combined with therapeutic hypothermia and collector novel, intra-aortic balloon pump placement was recently shown to improve neurologic outcomes for OHCA patients with ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. This study demonstrated survival with a favorable CPC score in 11.2 % of those with ECPR versus 2.6 % with conventional CPR at for Alaska by John Green, 6 months [ 14 ]. The Bone! Similar results were reported in a small observational pilot study in should we fear death Australia combining mechanical compression devices, ECPR, and hypothermia for collector novel patients with refractory cardiac arrest. In this small study, 5 of attachment 11 OHCA patients and novel, 9 of attachment psychology 15 in-hospital cardiac arrest patients survived, and favorable neurological outcome was achieved in half of the survivors [ 15 ]. For witnessed OHCA of cardiac origin, ECPR has shown even greater improvements in neurologically favorable survival (29 % ECPR versus 8.9 % CPR) [ 13 ]. A very promising recent observational study in 26 patients with refractory cardiac arrest, either in-hospital or OHCA, reported a favorable neurological survival rate of 54 % when ECPR was combined with a mechanical compression device and therapeutic hypothermia [ 15 ]. Novel! However, these data have not been replicated and similar studies have reported survival rates ranging from Essay for Alaska by John, 4–15 % [ 41 – 43 ]. When ECPR can be initiated rapidly, the outcomes for OHCA may be similar to the bone collector those seen with in-hospital cardiac arrest patients [ 44 , 45 ]. Although there are no large prospective randomized trials and survival from death, refractory cardiac arrest is poor, ECPR may provide a tool to improve survival with good neurologic outcomes when initiated early in selected patients. While an optimistic estimate of survival from OHCA with the use of ECPR may be in the 15–20 % range, the critical factor that determines success appears to be the duration from the onset of arrest to achieving ECMO flow.

This may be why in-hospital cardiac arrest studies have generally reported better outcomes [ 45 – 47 ]. Collector Novel! Furthermore, the volume of patients meeting optimal criteria for drawbacks of globalisation ECPR, including witnessed ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia with a short interval to the bone novel initiation of CPR, refractory arrest despite optimal resuscitative efforts, and 75 years of age comprises a very small (10 %) subset of all patients with OHCA [ 48 , 49 ]. Additionally, complication rates of ECPR remain high [ 43 , 50 , 51 ]. Currently the American Heart Association’s position is that evidence does not support a recommendation for attachment ECPR, although it may be considered in the bone collector novel highly specialized centers in patients who have a potentially reversible disease and a short duration of cardiac arrest [ 52 ]. The recent Institute of Medicine report on psychology, cardiac arrest care states ECMO is an emerging technology that has promise in improving cardiac arrest care and should be developed and researched [ 53 ]. In addition to ECPR, ECMO may have a role in select patients with cardiogenic or septic shock [ 54 – 56 ], toxic ingestions [ 57 ], thyrotoxicosis [ 58 ], or trauma [ 59 ]. For patients with septic shock, high survival rates may be achievable, although survival rates are significantly diminished in the presence of novel multi-organ failure and in Addams Hull House Founding patients cannulated during cardiac arrest [ 55 , 60 ]. ECMO has shown promising results as a method of supporting hemodynamics in patients with cardiogenic shock due to acute myocardial infarction [ 61 ], massive pulmonary embolism [ 62 ] or myocarditis [ 63 ]. Novel! ECMO may be preferable to aortic balloon pumps as it can provide more robust biventricular support by on Looking for Alaska by John increasing right ventricular drainage in addition to supporting gas exchange, and it can be employed quickly at the bedside. However, the downside of ECMO for cardiac support is that because of the retrograde aortic flow, left ventricular afterload and the bone collector, oxygen demand increase without the placement of a left ventricular drain. ECMO can serve as a bridge to recovery, device implantation, or cardiac transplantation. Small trials have shown improved survival rates in patients placed on ECMO as a bridge to verses a left ventricular assist device and subsequently to transplantation [ 64 ]. Several small studies have shown success in treating cardiogenic shock with ECMO, but there are no data comparing outcomes with ECMO versus alternative rescue modalities [ 65 ]. Collector! Arranging the initiation of death ECMO may be a viable option in patients with known severe cardiac dysfunction in shock refractory to conventional therapy in the ED. A successful ECLS program requires a significant multidisciplinary and organizational commitment to the bone ensure necessary resources and personnel [ 66 ]. Hospitals with a higher volume of ECLS cases (30 cases/year) have shown improved mortality outcomes compared with hospitals with only a few cases per year (6) [ 67 ]. Initiating ECMO in a critically ill patient requires considerations related to equipment, blood bank capabilities, cannulation configuration, availability of necessary personnel, and coordination with the receiving critical care physicians. In a recent trial evaluating ECMO for OHCA, initiation of ECMO required two critical care physicians for cannulation, a third physician providing ultrasound guidance of cannula placement in Addams and the Founding the inferior vena cava, a fourth physician dedicated to leading the resuscitation, a nurse coordinator to initiate the novel, circuit, and a sixth person to infuse cold saline for intra-arrest hypothermia [ 15 ]. Additionally, while cannulation may be feasible by non-surgeons in the ED [ 68 ], close collaboration with surgeons is imperative due to risks of vascular injury requiring surgical repair. A successful ECLS program requires physicians, nurses, perfusionists, and respiratory therapists trained and competent in cannulation and management of the ECLS circuit to be available in Essay on Looking by John Green sufficient numbers to provide 24/7 coverage. A streamlined exit strategy from the ED should be established, whether that includes transfer to the cardiac catheterization lab, ICU, or transfer to the bone an ECMO receiving hospital.

Predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, as well as guidelines on how and when to separate from ECMO in death a patient who fails to collector improve are important to optimize outcomes and resource utilization. Y Hobbes! Finally, when considering initiating ECMO in the ED for a particular patient, current inpatient ECMO volume and novel, capacity to accommodate new patients must be considered. As a result, ECLS may not be a feasible option at many hospitals due to resource limitations. Local, regional, and inter-regional networks of hospitals with direct communication with the ECMO referral center that provides a mobile rescue team for cannulation and should death, transport of patients with critical cardiopulmonary failure may be the optimal solution to alleviate many of these costly programmatic considerations. Veno-venous cannulation for ARDS. This chest X-ray demonstrates severe airspace disease in a patient with ARDS. The dual-lumen ECMO cannula ( arrows ) can be seen passing through the internal jugular vein, superior vena cava, and terminating in the inferior vena cava at the level of the hepatic vein. ECMO circuit components and flow. Novel! Flow through the ECMO circuit starts with the should, venous drainage cannula (1), which is propelled forward by the pressure gradient generated by the bone collector the centrifugal pump head (2). The blood passes through the of globalisation, oxygenator (3) and then returns to the patient in the outflow tubing back into the right atrium (VV) or femoral artery (VA) (4).

Gas exchange is regulated by the amount of countercurrent “sweep” gas flowing through the oxygenator (5) and the blood is warmed by the thermoregulator attached to the circuit (6). The Bone Collector Novel! Flow, hemoglobin, hematocrit and venous saturation can be continuously monitored by ultrasonic meters attached to should the circuit (7 and the bone, 8) Percutaneous VA ECMO in adults most commonly involves femoral artery and vein cannulation where oxygenated blood is returned to the femoral artery and flows retrograde into quran, the aorta. Collector! Consequently, in drawbacks the absence of any native cardiac output, VA ECMO provides near complete cardiopulmonary bypass. In the novel, presence of native cardiac output, blood flow out of the should, left ventricle mixes with retrograde ECMO return flow in the aorta. The Bone Collector! If there is no intrapulmonary shunt, the Essay for Alaska by John Green, native cardiac output is well oxygenated and this mixing is not detrimental. The Bone Collector Novel! However, if the patient’s lungs are failing (e.g., because of satanic quran ARDS), blood flow from the native cardiac output is deoxygenated and competes with retrograde flowing oxygenated blood from the ECMO circuit. These competing flows mix somewhere in the aorta and can create differential hypoxemia (“North–south” syndrome) whereby poorly oxygenated blood preferentially perfuses the upper body, including the brain and heart, potentially leading to novel coronary and cerebral ischemia. Contraindications, complications, and ethical challenges. The decision to use ECMO requires a thoughtful risk–benefit evaluation. Contraindications are generally conditions that are known to should death be associated with a particularly poor outcome despite ECMO therapy.

Patients with severe neurologic injuries, intracranial hemorrhage, immunosuppression, irreversible multi-organ failure, untreatable malignancy, or those at an advanced age are typically poor ECMO candidates. Patients with aortic dissections or severe aortic regurgitation are not ECMO candidates due to the risks of novel propagating the dissection and rousseau y hobbes, over-distending the left ventricle, respectively. For patients with ARDS, relative contraindications include prolonged mechanical ventilation that has required injurious airway pressures. For ECPR and cardiogenic shock, patients with unrecoverable heart disease, prolonged arrest time, and those who are non-transplant or ventricular assist device candidates are poor ECMO candidates. Collector Novel! If cannulated, these patients are relegated to a “bridge-to-nowhere”, which presents a complicated ethical dilemma in that they cannot survive without ECMO but recovery is improbable and they are not candidates for definitive therapy.

Patients generally require anticoagulation while on ECMO and, while it is not an absolute contraindication, an inability to anticoagulate complicates both cannulation and long-term management strategies. Complication rates with ECMO are high. Definition! This is the bone collector true during both cannulation and ongoing management [ 69 ]. Satanic Verses Quran! Complications include hemorrhage, stroke, limb ischemia, thrombosis, and novel, infection from the indwelling lines/tubes. Data show at least one significant complication occurs in over half of patients on ECMO [ 65 ], with bleeding (30–40 %) [ 26 , 51 ] and infection (31 %) [ 51 ] being the most common. Hemorrhagic complications most commonly occur at psychology, the cannulation or surgical sites themselves and are generally related to anti-coagulation, of which VA ECMO requires more aggressive anticoagulation due to the risk of arterial thrombosis. VA cannulation carries a high risk of arterial injury—recently reported in the bone collector 18 % of patients requiring VA ECMO, with most of the injuries requiring surgical repair [ 70 ]. Neurologic complications such as intracranial hemorrhage or infarct are also well-recognized and can be devastating. Other complications include hemolysis, pulmonary edema, and lower extremity ischemia from satanic, occlusion of the arterial flow with placement of the arterial cannula, which can be prevented with the novel, routine placement of an antegrade arterial cannula to that limb. Little is known about long-term complications and quality of life in adult patients who have undergone ECMO. While there are many anecdotal cases of complete recovery from critical illness in ECMO survivors, some studies report neurologic injury and long-term neurocognitive abnormalities in over 50 % of cases [ 71 , 72 ]. In addition, ECMO survivors may experience a poor quality of life [ 73 , 74 ], anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder [ 8 , 74 ]. Drawbacks! ICU lengths of stay tend to be long in ECMO patients [ 26 , 74 ] and their costs are generally much higher than patients receiving conventional therapy [ 75 ]. The Bone Collector Novel! The challenges of complications, cost, and resource utilization, when taken together with the drawbacks, potential of creating a bridge-to-nowhere situation for some patients and lack of the bone collector high-quality evidence, create an ethical obligation to consider the risks and Essay for Alaska by John, benefits very carefully when considering ECMO in the bone collector a patient’s treatment plan. Since its advent in the 1950s, ECLS has gone from the definition, operating room to a promising rescue modality for cardiopulmonary failure in the ICU and beyond.

With expanding potential indications and improving outcomes, there is significant interest in the early application of the bone ECMO in the ED, yet significant hurdles still exist. These include lack of definitive data on patient selection, complication rates, functional outcomes and survival as well as resource utilization and economic costs. The H1N1 pandemic, combined with improvements in general critical care, brought modern and improved ECMO technology into the limelight with good outcomes in the treatment of severe acute respiratory failure. Rousseau Y Hobbes! Combined with recent data in patients with cardiac arrest and shock that show promising trends, there appears to be potential for the early application of ECLS to patients in the ED. Currently, there are no data to novel support ECMO as anything other than a rescue therapy in experienced centers at this time. Definition! Emergency physicians should consider early transfer to the bone collector a specialized center in the select patients in which ECMO has shown benefit.

Continuing research will likely spur further expansion of ECMO with increased utilization occurring in the ED and possibly even the prehospital setting. However, we encourage a cautious and Essay Addams Hull House Founding, evidence-based approach to future applications of ECMO prior to widespread adoption given the the bone, logistical and ethical challenges of should we fear this technology that has the potential to outpace the the bone collector, supporting data. Acute respiratory distress syndrome. Conventional Ventilatory Support versus Extracoporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Severe Adult Respiratory Failure. Cerebral Performance Category. Extracorporeal life support. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Intensive care unit. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in quran any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( ) applies to collector the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. All authors contributed to the literature review, manuscript preparation and approval of the should death, final draft. J.M.M. is a dual-trained physician in the bone emergency medicine and critical care and associate medical director of adult ECMO services at Addams and the House Founding, the University of Arizona. He is a member of the Arizona Emergency Medicine Research Center and the Arizona Respiratory Center. C.D.H. is a dual-trained physician in emergency medicine and critical care at the University of Arizona. S.P.W. is a dual-trained physician in emergency medicine and critical care at the University of Michigan.

K.J.G. is an associate professor of novel emergency medicine, internal medicine, and anesthesiology at the University of Michigan. He serves as the chief of the division of emergency critical care, medical director of the emergency critical care center, intensivist in the Cardiovascular ICU, and a core investigator in y hobbes the Michigan Center for Integrative Research in Critical Care (MCIRCC). The Bone Collector! Y.R. is the medical director of adult ECMO services at the University of rousseau Arizona. R.M. is the medical director of the pediatric ICU and ECMO services at the University of Arizona. The Bone Collector Novel! D.W.S. is a Professor and Distinguished Chair of satanic quran Emergency Medicine, Co-Director of Emergency Medical Systems Research and the bone novel, the Associate Director of the Arizona Emergency Medicine Research Center at the University of y hobbes Arizona. Sauer CM, Yuh DD, Bonde P. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use has increased by the bone novel 433 % in adults in the United States from 2006 to 2011.

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control essay 1984 Written February 27, 2000; Modified May 9, 2000. If you quote or paraphrase from my essay, please give me due credit. Language as the #147;Ultimate Weapon#148; in novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. George Orwell, like many other literary scholars, is rousseau interested in collector the modern use of the English language and, in particular, the for Alaska by John Green, abuse and misuse of English. He realises that language has the power in politics to mask the truth and mislead the public, and novel he wishes to should we fear increase public awareness of this power. Novel! He accomplishes this by placing a great focus on Newspeak and the media in his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four . Demonstrating the repeated abuse of language by the government and by the media in his novel, Orwell shows how language can be used politically to deceive and manipulate people, leading to a society in which the should, people unquestioningly obey their government and the bone novel mindlessly accept all propaganda as reality.

Language becomes a mind-control tool, with the ultimate goal being the destruction of will and imagination. As John Wain says in his essay, #147;[Orwell#146;s] vision of 1984 does not include extinction weapons . . . Addams Hull House! He is the bone collector not interested in extinction weapons because, fundamentally, they do not frighten him as much as spiritual ones#148; (343). Paul Chilton suggests that the language theme in Orwell#146;s novel has its roots in the story of the Tower of Babel (2). When God destroys the Towel of Babel, the Hull, civilizations which have contributed to the bone collector the construction of the Tower suffer ever-after from the Curse of Confusion. Essay Addams And The House! The Curse both makes languages #147;mutually unintelligible#148;, and alters their nature so that #147;they no longer lucidly [express] the nature of things, but rather [obscure] and [distort] them#148; (Chilton, 2). Orwell#146;s Newspeak , the ultra-political new language introduced in Nineteen Eighty-Four , does precisely that: it facilitates deception and manipulation, and its purpose is to restrict understanding of the real world. Chilton also suggests that a corollary to this is that #147;each post-Babel language [becomes] a closed system containing its own untranslatable view of the world#148; (2). Certainly, the ultimate aim of Newspeak is to enclose people in collector an orthodox pseudo-reality and satanic verses quran isolate them from the real world. Whereas people generally strive to expand their lexicon, the government in collector Nineteen Eighty-Four actually aims to cut back the Newspeak vocabulary.

One of the rousseau y hobbes, Newspeak engineers says, #147;[we#146;re] cutting the the bone collector, language down to y hobbes the bone . . . Newspeak is the only language in the bone collector novel the world whose vocabulary gets smaller every year#148; (55). By manipulating the language, the drawbacks, government wishes to alter the public#146;s way of thinking. This can be done, psychologists theorise, because the words that are available for the purpose of communicating thought tend to influence the the bone collector, way people think. The linguist Benjamin Lee Whorf was a firm believer in Essay House Founding this link between thought and the bone collector language, and he theorised that #147;different languages impose different conceptions of reality#148; (Myers 352). We Fear! So when words that describe a particular thought are completely absent from a language, that thought becomes more difficult to think of and communicate. For the Inner Party, the goal is to impose an orthodox reality and make heretical thought (#145;thoughtcrime#146;) impossible. #147;In the end we shall make thoughtcrime literally impossible,#148; explains the Newspeak engineer, #147;because there will be no words in which to express it#148; (55). By design, Newspeak narrows the range of thought and shortens people#146;s memories. It is therefore ideal for a totalitarian system, in which the government has to rely on a passive public which lacks independent thought and which has a great tolerance for mistakes, both past and novel present. #147;To expand language is to expand the ability to think,#148; says Myers (353). Conversely, to restrict language, as with Newspeak, is to restrict the range of thought. Chilton identifies the Addams and the Hull House Founding, specific features of Newspeak that help restrict thought: #147;reduced complexity, few abstractions, and the bone no self­reference#148; (37).

Such narrowed public thought is death what the Inner Party prefers, because a public that lacks the ability to novel think vividly poses less of attachment definition, a threat than one that can readily criticise the government and defend itself from harm. However, an interesting consequence of this narrowed thought is that the public#146;s memory is novel also effectively shortened. #147;The Inner Party [deprives] people of their own words and in so doing, deprives them of memory#148; (Lewis and Moss 51). After O#146;Brien forces Winston to embrace Ingsoc, for instance, Winston#146;s imagination decays and he #147;[can] no longer fix his mind on any one subject for we fear more than a few moments at a time#148; (301). Winston, like the majority of the public, suffers when he is robbed of his words and thoughts. Consequently, #147;memory, with its attendant richness and variety, atrophies#148; since #147;memories die when they go unrehearsed in words#148; (Lewis and Moss 51). Given that Newspeak is such a politically-motivated language, why does the public in Nineteen Eighty-Four accept it? After all, the Party is undertaking a project of monumental proportions: they are trying to completely replace a common language (English, or #147;Oldspeak#148;), and the bone one would expect great opposition to such a plan. The Party is drawbacks able to achieve this by again employing psychological tactics. The Bone Collector! Instead of forcing the public to use Newspeak by law, the Party ensures that the satanic verses quran, public is immersed in the new language.

Nobody is forced to read or write in Newspeak, but #147;its ubiquitous broadcast creates a pressure to employ it simply in order to communicate economically#148; (Chilton 37). Orwell#146;s novel paints a nightmarish picture of a totalitarian system gone to the absolute extreme, but it is a novel that is novel fundamentally about psychological control of the public. Of course, the Party does employ torture as part of its control regimen, but the psychological control tactics are the satanic, dominant ones in the novel. While physical punishment is the bone difficult to administer, psychological tactics (manipulation of people through language) can be continuously applied to y hobbes the general public without raising great public opposition or fear #151; and that is the bone collector where its strength lies. It is for this reason that #147;Newspeak rather than torture is planned as the way to erase thoughtcrime#148; (Stansky 88). However, while Newspeak is a very significant method of mind control through language, it is should we fear just a part of a greater Inner Party scheme. It is, in fact, the collector novel, Party-controlled media in the novel that expertly uses Newspeak as well as other linguistic trickery to spread its propaganda and brainwash the public. The media is powerful as a tool for Essay on Looking for Alaska manipulation both because the public is widely exposed to it, and also because the public trusts it. The Bone! The telescreens continuously shout bursts of news and propaganda throughout the day, and the people listen intently and cheer at #145;good news#146; (victories) and are driven to rage by #145;bad news#146;.

The characters in Orwell#146;s novel are slaves of the media; they revere it as an attachment definition oracle. When the telescreens initiate the Two Minutes Hate, for instance, the people are roused to a frenzy: #147;People were leaping up and down in their places and shouting at the tops of their voices . . . [a girl] had begun crying out #145;Swine! Swine! Swine!#146;#148; (16). Certainly, in Nineteen Eighty-Four , #147;[media information] does control some of the ways in which [people] think about and assess the world#148; (Lewis and Moss 47).

The Party is collector interested in masking the truth, and so the media manipulates language to rousseau y hobbes present a distorted reality. As Orwell says in the bone collector his essay Politics and the English Language , #147;Political language . . . is satanic designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind#148; (150). In the novel, these lies are quite obvious. For example, the media (controlled by the Party, of course) continually refers to the Ministries of Truth, Peace, Love, and Plenty. In reality, however, the Ministry of Truth is the bone novel concerned with the falsification of records, and the Ministry of Peace deals with warfare. The Ministry of Love is #147;the really frightening one#148; (6) as it is essentially a place for of globalisation the questioning and torturing of suspected criminals. The Ministry of Plenty makes up economic figures to convince the the bone, public that the economy is in good shape, even though there are great shortages of all commodities due to the war. Although the irony in the titles is blatantly obvious, Orwell is Essay on Looking for Alaska by John making a point about how the media can use language to mask the truth. The totalitarian state of Oceania is in a constant state of war, and part of the Party#146;s ongoing struggle is to keep the the bone collector novel, public satisfied with this warfare. If the public were dissatisfied, they would resent the shortage of Essay Addams, food and other commodities and possibly rebel against the Party.

The Party therefore has to distract the collector novel, public#146;s attention away from the negative side of warfare, and they use the media to do this. By using only language that carries neutral or positive connotations to talk about anything related to war, the media successfully soothes an otherwise resentful public. On Looking Green! For instance, the media never reports on the bone the #147;twenty or thirty [rocket bombs] a week falling on London#148; (28), but rather inundates peoples#146; lives with good news about victories. Rousseau! Winston#146;s telescreen announces, #147;Our forces in South India have won a glorious victory. I am authorised to the bone collector novel say that the action we are now reporting may well bring the war within measurable distance of its end#148; (28). Drawbacks! Similar reports follow throughout the entire novel, constantly celebrating the capture of enemies and the conquering of new territories, but never admitting any kind of defeat. In many ways, the media is relying on the principle that a piece of information that is repeated often enough becomes accepted as truth.

Winston, a particularly strong-minded individual, is continually amazed to see his friends and colleagues swallow the lies that the media dishes out. For this form of brainwashing (#145;Duckspeak#146;) to be effective, #147;you just say things frequently and people eventually understand and say it themselves#148; (Chilton 27). This brainwashing is done through the collector novel, words of the Essay on Jane and the Founding, telescreens, newspapers and magazines. The media is skilled at the bone collector novel engineering #145;truth#146; through language, and one of the quran, most disturbing consequence of this developed in the novel is that the the bone novel, Party has ultimate control over history. After all, language is the link to history. Winston#146;s job in the Ministry of Truth is to modify news items and other documents that in one way or another make the Party look bad. After he replaces an original document with the modified one, all the originals are destroyed. Orwell describes the process: This processes of continuous alteration was applied not only to newspapers, but to books, periodicals, pamphlets, posters, leaflets . . . Day by day and almost minute by minute the past was brought up to date.

In this way every prediction made by the Party could be shown by documentary evidence to have been correct; nor was any item of satanic verses, news, or any expression of opinion, which conflicted with the needs of the moment, ever allowed to remain on record. (42) Lewis and Moss believe that #147;the tactic is to obliterate history so that centres of opposition cannot grow#148; (51). Orwell shows us evidence that this tactic is working: even the main character, who knows exactly what is going on with the falsification of documents, has trouble recalling who Oceania is really at war with at the present. It is either Eurasia or Eastasia, but Winston is not sure because the Party keeps changing history. This nagging doubt eats away at Winston until he no longer knows what reality is; by the end of the novel, he is willing to accept the the bone collector novel, Party#146;s reality. Orwell#146;s novel asks the philosophical question: if all available evidence shows something to on Jane Addams and the Hull House Founding be true, is it not true? Winston struggles with this idea of #147;Reality control#148; (37) as he works at the Ministry of Truth. Collector! #147;The frightening thing,#148; Winston thinks to himself, #147;[is] that it might all be true. Should We Fear! If the Party [can] thrust its hand into the past and say of this or that event, it never happened #150; that, surely, [is] more terrifying than mere torture and death#148; (36).

One of novel, Winston#146;s assignments is to invent a biography of a fictional soldier named Ogilvy, so that he can be honoured by Big Brother in a public address. After writing the description of Ogilvy#146;s life, Winston marvels at how #147;once the on Looking for Alaska, act of forgery [is] forgotten, [Ogilvy will] exist just as authentically, and upon the same evidence, as Charlemagne or Julius Caesar#148; (50). As well as altering the past by the bone collector novel manipulating written language, the Party has an ingenious plan to break the link with the real past by introducing a language barrier. Attachment Definition! When #147;all real knowledge of Oldspeak [disappears] . . . the whole literature of the past will have been destroyed#148; (56). After a few generations, when people are no longer capable of decoding information from the past, there will no longer even be a need to censor the history that has the potential for breeding unorthodox ideas #151; it will be completely out of the public#146;s reach.

Thus, the the bone collector, manipulation of language and text not only effects the present, but also the past and future in more than one way. A Party slogan in the novel reads, #147;Who controls the past, controls the future: who controls the present controls the past#148; (37). Orwell#146;s novel is extreme, but it is not necessarily a prediction of the future. Rahv believes that the book#146;s #147;importance is mainly in its powerful engagement with the present#148; (183). Indeed, politicians have used written language to manipulate history both in the past and present. There was much distortion of history during the Stalinist era, #147;when such standard works of misinformation as the verses, Soviet Encyclopaedia changed constantly with the collector, party line, so that in successive editions Trotsky was first the hero of the Civil War, then an satanic verses agent of the Mensheviks, and the western powers#148; (Woodcock 177).

Patrick Wright suggests that the issue is the bone collector novel still very much alive in the late twentieth century, citing as an example #147;[the British Secretary for Education, who] refused a number of proposed syllabus systems for the teaching of history in schools, finding them insufficiently assiduous in their promotion of the mythical, rather than simply historical, values of national unity and pride#148; (111). Equally alive today is the fear that politicians and the media abuse language to hide truth. Orwell gives examples of how politicians can twist words to deceive people in his essay Politics and the English Language : #147;Defenceless villages are bombarded from the of globalisation, air, the inhabitants driven out into novel the countryside . . . this is called pacification . Millions of peasants are robbed of we fear, their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers #148; (148). Woodcock refers to the modern jargon-filled English used by #147;newspaper editors, bureaucrats, radio announcers, and parliamentary speakers#148; who have, just as Orwell feared, a heavy #147;reliance on ready-made phrases#148; (92). Even more disturbing, in the twenty-first century we have now a rapidly growing, major industry based solely upon the manipulation of language and thought: advertising. Orwell#146;s novel carries a well-founded warning about the powers of language. It shows how language can shape people#146;s sense of reality, how it can be used to conceal truths, and even how it can be used to manipulate history. #147;Language is one of the key instruments of political dominations, the collector novel, necessary and insidious means of the #145;totalitarian#146; control of reality#148; (Rai, 122). While language in the traditional sense can expand horizons and improve our understanding of the world, Orwell#146;s novel demonstrates that language, when used in a maliciously political way, can just as easily become #147;a plot against human consciousness#148; (Rahv, 182). Chilton, Paul. Orwellian Language and the Media . London: Pluto Press, 1988. Lewis, Florence and Peter Moss.

The Tyranny of Language in y hobbes Nineteen Eighty-Four in the bone collector novel 1984 . Aubrey, Crispin and Paul Chilton, eds. London: Comedia Publishing Group, 1983. 45-57. Myers, David G. Psychology . 4 th ed. Holland: Worth Publishers, 1986. Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-Four . London: Penguin Books, 1990. - - - . Politics and the English Language in Nineteen Eighty-Four: Text, Sources, Criticism . Ed. Irving Howe. New York: Harcourt, Brace World, Inc., 1963. 143-50.

Rahv, Philip. The Unfuture of Utopia in Nineteen Eighty-Four: Text, Sources, Criticism . 181-5. Rai, Alok. Orwell and the politics of despair: A critical study of the writings of George Orwell . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Stansky, Peter, ed. On Nineteen Eighty-Four . New York: W. H. Attachment Psychology! Freeman and Company, 1983. Wain, John. Essays on Literature and Ideas - George Orwell (1) in Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism Vol. 6 . 343-4. Woodcock, George. The Bone Novel! Orwell#146;s Message: 1984 and of globalisation the Present . Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing Co.

Ltd, 1984. Wright, Patrick. The Conscription of History in Nineteen Eighty-Four in 1984 . 105-14.