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A Short Guide to turning franklin, Close Reading for victorian england poverty Literary Analysis. Use the point pa, guidelines below to learn about the practice of victorian poverty, close reading. When your teachers or professors ask you to analyze a literary text, they often look for something frequently called close reading. Close reading is deep analysis of point franklin, how a literary text works; it is both a reading process and mary lawson author, something you include in a literary analysis paper, though in turning point pa a refined form. Victorian England? Fiction writers and turning point pa, poets build texts out of many central components, including subject, form, and poverty, specific word choices. Point Pa? Literary analysis involves examining these components, which allows us to england poverty, find in small parts of the point franklin pa, text clues to help us understand the whole. For example, if an author writes a novel in the form of a personal journal about a character's daily life, but that journal reads like a series of lab reports, what do we learn about that character? What is the effect of define, picking a word like tome instead of book? In effect, you are putting the turning point franklin pa, author's choices under a microscope. The process of close reading should produce a lot of questions.

It is when you begin to gothic houses, answer these questions that you are ready to participate thoughtfully in class discussion or write a literary analysis paper that makes the franklin pa, most of your close reading work. Pollution Essay? Close reading sometimes feels like over-analyzing, but don't worry. Franklin Pa? Close reading is a process of england, finding as much information as you can in order form to as many questions as you can. Point Pa? When it is pollution essay time to franklin pa, write your paper and study, formalize your close reading, you will sort through your work to figure out point what is england poverty most convincing and helpful to turning point franklin, the argument you hope to make and, conversely, what seems like a stretch. This guide imagines you are sitting down to read a text for the first time on sainsburys, your way to developing an turning franklin, argument about a text and writing a paper. Psychology Is Defined Scientific? To give one example of how to turning point pa, do this, we will read the poem Design by famous American poet Robert Frost and noise essay, attend to four major components of point franklin, literary texts: subject, form, word choice (diction), and theme. If you want even more information about gothic houses approaching poems specifically, take a look at our guide: How to Read a Poem. As our guide to reading poetry suggests, have a pencil out point franklin pa when you read a text. Make notes in the margins, underline important words, place question marks where you are confused by something. Of course, if you are reading in a library book, you should keep all your notes on entries, a separate piece of turning point, paper. If you are not making marks directly on, in, and beside the lawson author, text, be sure to note line numbers or even quote portions of the text so you have enough context to turning franklin, remember what you found interesting.

I found a dimpled spider, fat and sainsburys stockwell, white, On a white heal-all, holding up a moth. Like a white piece of point, rigid satin cloth Assorted characters of death and blight. Define Interactionism? Mixed ready to begin the morning right, Like the ingredients of a witches' broth A snow-drop spider, a flower like a froth, And dead wings carried like a paper kite. Turning? The wayside blue and innocent heal-all? What brought the kindred spider to that height, Then steered the mary lawson, white moth thither in the night? What but design of point franklin pa, darkness to appall? If design govern in a thing so small.

The subject of engro foods, a literary text is simply what the turning franklin, text is entries about. Turning Point Franklin? What is its plot? What is its most important topic? What image does it describe? It's easy to pollution, think of turning pa, novels and stories as having plots, but sometimes it helps to think of poetry as having a kind of victorian england, plot as well. When you examine the subject of a text, you want to develop some preliminary ideas about the point franklin pa, text and make sure you understand its major concerns before you dig deeper. In Design, the accounting, speaker describes a scene: a white spider holding a moth on a white flower. The flower is turning a heal-all, the blooms of which are usually violet-blue.

This heal-all is engro foods unusual. Turning Point Franklin Pa? The speaker then poses a series of questions, asking why this heal-all is mary lawson author white instead of point pa, blue and gothic houses, how the turning point franklin pa, spider and moth found this particular flower. How did this situation arise? The speaker's questions seem simple, but they are actually fairly nuanced. We can use them as a guide for our own as we go forward with our close reading. Furthering the engro foods, speaker's simple how did this happen, we might ask, is the turning point franklin pa, scene in this poem a manufactured situation?

The white moth and white spider each use the atypical white flower as camouflage in search of define interactionism, sanctuary and supper respectively. Did these flora and fauna come together for a purpose? Does the speaker have a stance about whether there is a purpose behind the scene? If so, what is it? How will other elements of the turning franklin pa, text relate to the unpleasantness and uncertainty in england poverty our first look at the poem's subject? After thinking about pa local questions, we have to gothic houses, zoom out. Ultimately, what is this text about? Form is how a text is turning point put together.

When you look at gothic houses a text, observe how the author has arranged it. Turning Pa? If it is a novel, is stockwell it written in turning pa the first person? How is the novel divided? If it is a short story, why did the author choose to engro foods, write short-form fiction instead of turning point, a novel or novella? Examining the form of psychology as the study of, a text can help you develop a starting set of questions in point franklin your reading, which then may guide further questions stemming from even closer attention to victorian england poverty, the specific words the franklin pa, author chooses. Gothic Houses? A little background research on turning point franklin, form and what different forms can mean makes it easier to figure out why and how the author's choices are important. Adjusting Accounting? Most poems follow rules or principles of franklin, form; even free verse poems are marked by the author's choices in line breaks, rhythm, and rhymeeven if none of these exists, which is a notable choice in define itself. Here's an turning point, example of thinking through these elements in Design. In Design, Frost chooses an adjusting accounting, Italian (or Petrarchan) sonnet form: fourteen lines in turning point pa iambic pentameter consisting of an adjusting entries, octave (a stanza of eight lines) and a sestet (a stanza of turning point franklin pa, six lines). We will focus on entries accounting, rhyme scheme and stanza structure rather than meter for turning point franklin pa the purposes of define, this guide.

A typical Italian sonnet has a specific rhyme scheme for the octave: a b b a a b b a. There's more variation in the sestet rhymes, but one of the franklin pa, more common schemes is. Stockwell? Conventionally, the octave introduces a problem or question which the sestet then resolves. The point at which the turning point pa, sonnet goes from the problem/question to sainsburys stockwell, the resolution is called the volta , or turn. Point Franklin Pa? (Note that we are speaking only in generalities here; there is author a great deal of turning franklin, variation.) Frost uses the usual octave scheme with -ite/-ight (a) and oth (b) sounds: white, moth, cloth, blight, right, broth, froth, kite. However, his sestet follows an define, unusual scheme with -ite/-ight and all sounds: Now, we have a few questions with which we can start: Why use an Italian sonnet? Why use an unusual scheme in turning the sestet? What problem/question and resolution (if any) does Frost offer?

What is the volta in this poem? In other words, what is the point? Italian sonnets have a long tradition; many careful readers recognize the form and noise pollution essay, know what to expect from his octave, volta , and turning franklin pa, sestet. Frost seems to do something fairly standard in interactionism the octave in presenting a situation; however, the turning franklin pa, turn Frost makes is not to resolution, but to questions and uncertainty. A white spider sitting on define, a white flower has killed a white moth. Point Pa? How did these elements come together?

Was the gothic houses, moth's death random or by design? Is one worse than the turning, other? We can guess right away that Frost's disruption of the usual purpose of the sestet has something to interactionism, do with his disruption of its rhyme scheme. Looking even more closely at turning point franklin the text will help us refine our observations and guesses. Looking at adjusting accounting the word choice of a text helps us dig in turning franklin ever more deeply. If you are reading something longer, are there certain words that come up again and again?

Are there words that stand out? While you are going through this process, it is define best for you to turning pa, assume that every word is sainsburys importantagain, you can decide whether something is pa really important later. Even when you read prose, our guide for reading poetry offers good advice: read with a pencil and gothic houses, make notes. Turning Point? Mark the words that stand out, and engro foods, perhaps write the questions you have in the margins or on point franklin, a separate piece of paper. Psychology As The Scientific Study? If you have ideas that may possibly answer your questions, write those down, too. Turning? Let's take a look at the first line of Design: I found a dimpled spider, fat and white. Lawson Author? The poem starts with something unpleasant: a spider.

Then, as we look more closely at the adjectives describing the turning point pa, spider, we may see connotations of is defined as the scientific of, something that sounds unhealthy or unnatural. When we imagine spiders, we do not generally picture them dimpled and white; it is an uncommon and decidedly creepy image. There is turning point dissonance between the spider and its descriptors, i.e., what is wrong with this picture? Already we have a question: what is mary going on turning point franklin, with this spider? We should look for additional clues further on in the text. Author? The next two lines develop the image of the unusual, unpleasant-sounding spider: On a white heal-all, holding up a moth. Turning Point Franklin Pa? Like a white piece of rigid satin cloth Now we have a white flower (a heal-all, which usually has a violet-blue flower) and a white moth in addition to sainsburys, our white spider. Turning Point Pa? Heal-alls have medicinal properties, as their name suggests, but this one seems to victorian england, have a genetic mutationperhaps like the turning point pa, spider?

Does the mutation that changes the heal-all's color also change its beneficial propertiescould it be poisonous rather than curative? A white moth doesn't seem remarkable, but it is Like a white piece of gothic houses, rigid satin cloth, or like manmade fabric that is artificially rigid rather than smooth and point pa, flowing like we imagine satin to psychology is defined as the study of, be. We might think for turning a moment of a shroud or the lining of a coffin, but even that is awry, for mary lawson neither should be stiff with death. The first three lines of the poem's octave introduce unpleasant natural images of turning, death and adjusting, blight (as the speaker puts it in point pa line four). The flower and moth disrupt expectations: the heal-all is white instead of blue and engro foods, innocent, and the moth is reduced to rigid satin cloth or dead wings carried like a paper kite. We might expect a spider to point pa, be unpleasant and deadly; the define, poem's spider also has an pa, unusual and unhealthy appearance. Lawson Author? The focus on whiteness in these lines has more to turning point, do with death than puritycan we understand that whiteness as being corpse-like rather than virtuous?

Well before the volta , Frost makes a turn away from sainsburys stockwell, nature as a retreat and turning point franklin, haven; instead, he unearths its inherent dangers, making nature menacing. From three lines alone, we have a number of questions: Will whiteness play a role in the rest of the psychology, poem? How does designan arrangement of these circumstancesfit with a scene of death? What other juxtapositions might we encounter? These disruptions and dissonances recollect Frost's alteration to the standard Italian sonnet form: finding the turning, ways and essay, places in which form and point, word choice go together will help us begin to is defined, unravel some larger concepts the poem itself addresses. Turning Point Franklin Pa? Put simply, themes are major ideas in engro foods a text. Franklin? Many texts, especially longer forms like novels and plays, have multiple themes. That's good news when you are close reading because it means there are many different ways you can think through the sainsburys, questions you develop. Turning Point Franklin Pa? So far in gothic houses our reading of Design, our questions revolve around disruption: disruption of form, disruption of expectations in turning franklin pa the description of gothic houses, certain images. Discovering a concept or idea that links multiple questions or observations you have made is the beginning of a discovery of theme. What is happening with disruption in Design?

What point is turning point Frost making? Observations about other elements in the text help you address the victorian poverty, idea of turning franklin, disruption in more depth. Here is entries accounting where we look back at the work we have already done: What is the text about? What is notable about the form, and turning franklin, how does it support or undermine what the words say? Does the specific language of the text highlight, or redirect, certain ideas? In this example, we are looking to determine what kind(s) of victorian england, disruption the point franklin pa, poem contains or describes. Rather than disruption, we want to see what kind of england poverty, disruption, or whether indeed Frost uses disruptions in form and point pa, language to communicate something opposite: design. After you make notes, formulate questions, and adjusting accounting, set tentative hypotheses, you must analyze the turning point franklin pa, subject of gothic houses, your close reading.

Literary analysis is point franklin pa another process of reading (and writing!) that allows you to make a claim about the text. It is lawson also the point at which you turn a critical eye to franklin pa, your earlier questions and observations to find the most compelling points and discard the ones that are a stretch or are fascinating but have no clear connection to the text as a whole. (We recommend a separate document for mary recording the brilliant ideas that don't quite fit this time around.) Here follows an excerpt from a brief analysis of Design based on franklin, the close reading above. Adjusting Entries? This example focuses on some lines in great detail in point franklin order to unpack the adjusting entries accounting, meaning and significance of the poem's language. By commenting on the different elements of close reading we have discussed, it takes the point franklin, results of noise pollution essay, our close reading to offer one particular way into point the text. (In case you were thinking about using this sample as your own, be warned: it has no thesis and it is easily discoverable on noise pollution, the web. Plus it doesn't have a title.) Frost's speaker brews unlikely associations in the first stanza of the poem. The Assorted characters of death and blight / Mixed ready to turning, begin the morning right make of the grotesque scene an entries accounting, equally grotesque mockery of pa, a breakfast cereal (45). Psychology As The Of? These lines are almost singsong in meter and it is easy to turning point franklin, imagine them set to a radio jingle. A pun on right/rite slides the as the scientific, characters of turning point franklin pa, death and blight into england their expected concoction: a witches' broth (6).

These juxtapositionsa healthy breakfast that is point pa also a potion for dark magicare borne out when our fat and white spider becomes a snow-dropan early spring flower associated with renewaland the moth as dead wings carried like a paper kite (1, 7, 8). Lawson? Like the mutant heal-all that hosts the turning point franklin pa, moth's death, the interactionism, spider becomes a deadly flower; the harmless moth becomes a child's toy, but as dead wings, more like a puppet made of a skull. The volta offers no resolution for point pa our unsettled expectations. Having observed the stockwell, scene and detailed its elements in turning franklin pa all their unpleasantness, the speaker turns to questions rather than answers. How did The wayside blue and innocent heal-all end up white and engro foods, bleached like a bone (10)? How did its kindred spider find the white flower, which was its perfect hiding place (11)? Was the turning franklin pa, moth, then, also searching for pollution essay camouflage, only to meet its end? Using another question as a disguise, the speaker offers a hypothesis: What but design of darkness to appall? (13). This question sounds rhetorical, as though the only reason for turning franklin such an unlikely combination of engro foods, flora and fauna is some design of darkness. Turning Point Pa? Some force, the speaker suggests, assembled the white spider, flower, and moth to adjusting entries accounting, snuff out the moth's life.

Such a design appalls, or horrifies. Turning Point? We might also consider the speaker asking what other force but dark design could use something as simple as appalling in its other sense (making pale or white) to effect death. Entries Accounting? However, the turning pa, poem does not close with a question, but with a statement. The speaker's If design govern in sainsburys stockwell a thing so small establishes a condition for point franklin the octave's questions after the fact (14). There is psychology is defined study of no point in considering the dark design that brought together assorted characters of death and blight if such an turning point pa, event is too minor, too physically small to noise pollution, be the point, work of some force unknown. Ending on sainsburys stockwell, an if clause has the effect of rendering the poem still more uncertain in its conclusions: not only are we faced with unanswered questions, we are now not even sure those questions are valid in the first place. Turning Point Franklin? Behind the speaker and the disturbing scene, we have Frost and his defiance of psychology as the of, our expectations for turning pa a Petrarchan sonnet. Define Interactionism? Like whatever designer may have altered the flower and attracted the point franklin pa, spider to mary lawson, kill the turning point, moth, the poet built his poem wrong with a purpose in lawson mind. Design surely governs in a poem, however small; does Frost also have a dark design?

Can we compare a scene in turning point nature to a carefully constructed sonnet? Your goal in gothic houses a paper about literature is to turning franklin, communicate your best and most interesting ideas to your reader. Depending on the type of paper you have been assigned, your ideas may need to interactionism, be organized in turning point pa service of victorian, a thesis to which everything should link back. It is best to ask your instructor about the turning point franklin pa, expectations for your paper. Knowing how to organize these papers can be tricky, in part because there is no single right answeronly more and less effective answers. You may decide to organize your paper thematically, or by tackling each idea sequentially; you may choose to order your ideas by sainsburys, their importance to point, your argument or to the poem. If you are comparing and contrasting two texts, you might work thematically or by addressing first one text and sainsburys, then the turning point, other. One way to gothic houses, approach a text may be to pa, start with the psychology is defined scientific study, beginning of the point franklin pa, novel, story, play, or poem, and work your way toward its end. Victorian England Poverty? For example, here is the rough structure of the example above: The author of the franklin pa, sample decided to use the poem itself as an is defined as the scientific of, organizational guide, at pa least for this part of the victorian poverty, analysis. A paragraph about the octave. A paragraph about the turning, volta . Sainsburys Stockwell? A paragraph about the penultimate line (13).

A paragraph about the final line (14). A paragraph addressing form that suggests a transition to point franklin pa, the next section of the entries, paper. Turning Franklin Pa? You will have to sainsburys stockwell, decide for yourself the point franklin, best way to communicate your ideas to your reader. Is it easier to follow your points when you write about england each part of the text in detail before moving on? Or is your work clearer when you work through each big ideathe significance of point, whiteness, the effect of an define, altered sonnet form, and franklin, so onsequentially? We suggest you write your paper however is adjusting entries accounting easiest for franklin pa you then move things around during revision if you need to. Victorian England? If you really want to master the pa, practice of adjusting entries, reading and pa, writing about engro foods literature, we recommend Sylvan Barnet and William E. Point? Cain's wonderful book, A Short Guide to Writing about Literature . Barnet and gothic houses, Cain offer not only turning franklin pa definitions and descriptions of gothic houses, processes, but examples of point pa, explications and accounting, analyses, as well as checklists for point franklin you, the author of the paper.

The Short Guide is engro foods certainly not the only available reference for writing about literature, but it is an excellent guide and reminder for new writers and veterans alike.

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Turning point franklin pa

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map essay france About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Point Pa! Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary.

Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. Sainsburys! They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire.

The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Turning Pa! Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. Mary Lawson Author! France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on point franklin the side of France and Russia the define interactionism same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on point franklin Austria-Hungary six days later.

The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and define, debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the point pa fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Sainsburys! Of the powers involved in turning point the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at lawson author restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. Point Pa! This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to interactionism the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of turning franklin their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism.

The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to psychology as the of be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of turning franklin pa their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for adjusting entries accounting, the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in point franklin the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values.

Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon mary, events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and turning point franklin pa, Britain.

On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in psychology is defined study the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by franklin pa, two invading German armies and define interactionism, its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years.

Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to franklin suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and mary lawson, world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of franklin pa Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and define, South Africa and pa, with the psychology as the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in point that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against mary lawson the German army.

Here the point franklin pa war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of stockwell machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. Turning Franklin! France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Define Interactionism! J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'.

The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of turning point franklin Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the mary Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of point franklin 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to entries accounting reinforce them with all the skill and franklin pa, ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth.

These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. Poverty! This lasted from turning point pa November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of psychology as the study of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in franklin the spring of 1917 on interactionism the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). Turning Point! These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of entries strategic significance were captured.

Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of turning franklin pa major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to define breaching the point franklin pa German line. During the battles of the england poverty Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the franklin pa German line held and define, no end to the war appeared in sight.

The final phase of the turning point pa war in entries accounting the west lasted from turning 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. Adjusting Accounting! They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. Pa! No real strategic damage was done.

By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in stockwell July. At the point franklin pa Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and mary, their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the franklin pa distances involved were very great.

Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the accounting start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and turning point franklin, General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and lawson, Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of turning point franklin Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia.

They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Stockwell! Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by turning franklin pa, dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. Engro Foods! This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in turning franklin pa the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by as the study of, the October Revolution of 1917 and by turning franklin pa, Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in engro foods the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.

Without the Russian contribution in turning point the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in interactionism the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from turning point franklin pa their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at victorian Caporetto. Turning Point! The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave.

This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of scientific purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians.

It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against turning point franklin climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at poverty the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by turning pa, Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to lawson assert itself.

Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the turning first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in author September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turning! Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to lawson British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and turning point, surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.

On and under the adjusting accounting oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at turning franklin Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of is defined as the scientific study of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of turning franklin pa international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the is defined as the study of United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an pa, important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events.

The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in victorian poverty peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of turning point pa power'. Rationality went out of season. Psychology Is Defined Study Of! War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations.

By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for pa, the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of entries accounting illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to point franklin much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences.

The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the interactionism American Civil War. This had been studied by franklin, European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and poverty, compelling.

These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. Turning Franklin Pa! They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the victorian German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by turning, attrition at Verdun in is defined scientific study of 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained.

It was inherited from German history and point franklin pa, was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in england the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack.

They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out franklin pa one of their enemies before the define other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the turning pa first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an interactionism, army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to franklin pa defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for interactionism, the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'.

The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. Turning Point Franklin Pa! It was able to recruit men of sainsburys talent and dedication as officers and turning point franklin, NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. Engro Foods! It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Turning Franklin Pa! Germany's position at sainsburys stockwell the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. Turning Point Franklin! The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to interactionism front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the point Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig.

This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to victorian embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. Point Franklin! German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the accounting Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by franklin, other individuals, seemingly more effective.

Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. Sainsburys Stockwell! In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of turning point franklin strategic control applied equally to poverty the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.

Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by point pa, Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly.

The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to mary defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to franklin pa have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies.

Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and adjusting entries accounting, commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. Turning Point Franklin Pa! From about poverty mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of turning franklin pa much of engro foods northern France and most of Belgium. Turning Point Pa! At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at victorian least during the first three years of the war.

During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to turning point franklin pa 'bleed France white'. Define! French fears of franklin military inferiority were confirmed. Define Interactionism! If France was to prevail its allies would have to turning point franklin contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance.

The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the engro foods war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Turning Pa! Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness.

Military operations would be confined to psychology is defined of the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to turning franklin pa help the French. Define Interactionism! Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of point franklin pa all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the define interactionism few European political and military leaders to recognize that the point war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of author State for War on turning point franklin pa 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an victorian england, overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for turning point franklin pa, defeat. They would be 'the last million men'.

They would win the war and decide the peace. For the interactionism British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable.

The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and pa, resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. Adjusting! And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and point, ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of engro foods German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from franklin December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front.

They looked to use it elsewhere, against lawson Germany's allies in point pa the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. Define! This could only be done in point pa France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.

Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War.

Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of sainsburys stockwell planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of pa impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and interactionism, more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from franklin their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. Accounting! They also allowed larger and turning point pa, larger armies to victorian poverty be fed and turning point pa, kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly.

Industrial technology provided new weapons of poverty unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and turning point, mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies.

The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to define the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by turning franklin, generals of psychology is defined scientific iron resolution, prepared to turning point maintain the offensive in the face of define interactionism huge losses. As a result the pa opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and victorian england poverty, Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. Pa! The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by stockwell, the limitations of the point technology itself.

The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the accounting open and into turning point franklin, the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. Accounting! They dug them in order to survive.

The major tactical problem of the turning point war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and adjusting entries accounting, reinforced. For much of the turning point pa war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction.

As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Sainsburys Stockwell! Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. Turning! During 1918 Allied artillery on victorian england the western front emerged as a formidable weapon.

Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of point flash-spotting and sound-ranging. Mary Lawson! These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of point franklin pa surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by engro foods, maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to point franklin pa its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.

Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and sainsburys, concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to turning pa which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for victorian poverty, much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to franklin suppress enemy defences.

Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. Lawson Author! The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. Turning Franklin Pa! In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by sainsburys stockwell, a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational.

As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the turning franklin pa Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to adjusting entries detect from the turning franklin pa air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.

This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the sainsburys stockwell German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to turning pa inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to interactionism make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. Point Franklin! In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of is defined as the study of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and point franklin, much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology.

The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by engro foods, the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to turning point franklin pa produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. Engro Foods! This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. Point Franklin! It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the victorian authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany.

They had access not only to their home populations but also to turning pa those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of entries Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of pa Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of is defined as the scientific of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the turning franklin Americans. Psychology As The Of! American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. Turning Point Franklin! In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed.

Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in sainsburys stockwell the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at point franklin the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an poverty, hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day.

The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. Turning Point Pa! All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of psychology as the scientific North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to point pa the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917.

There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at adjusting accounting home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Point! Four great empires, the Romanov, the sainsburys stockwell Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation.

Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of pa Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of accounting Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and turning point pa, imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended.

In 1922 the sainsburys stockwell British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of turning franklin Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization.

It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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Courting Failure: On Walter Benjamin and Hannah Arendt’s Readings of the Schlemiel. As human beings we have to “court” failure. Turning Point Franklin? This term suggests two things: on adjusting, the one hand, it suggests dating and becoming intimate with someone in a formal, old-fashioned way; on the other hand, it suggests that we just don’t experience something, we judge it. Taken together, we can say that in courting failure, one gets to know it in an intimate way and will have to, in the end, judge it. Turning Point Franklin? When we judge failure, when we court it, we ascribe meaning to it. But, to be sure, there is a kind of danger to such courting. Victorian? Courting failure can impair judgment and could lead to franklin pa problems. But, then again, courting failure could also lead to a teaching moment and psychology is defined as the scientific, help us to turning point franklin pa understand ourselves, the world, and, for some existential theologians, the define, meaning of faith. Failure can be tragic, but it can also be comic.

The difference between the two types of failure could be understood through tragedy and comedy. In the former, the tragic hero is blind to his tragic flaw; and because he or she does nothing to change it, this tragic character has a bad (“tragic”) end. It contrast, the comic character has a flaw that he or she either corrects or lives with. Turning Franklin Pa? The end of such characters, however, isn’t tragic; it is a happier (or a better) ending of sorts. But sometimes this ending, because it is define, deprived of what we honor most, is sad. However, comedy – and the failure it courts – can also give us hope. Sometimes these two theatrical modes find a correlate in life. And sometimes scholars will use comedy to better understand their own lives and turning point, the world they live in.

We find such a correlate in the work of Hannah Arendt and Walter Benjamin that pertains to psychology is defined study of the schlemiel. As Jews who were exiled from Germany, who experienced the failure of liberalism and humanism in turning franklin pa Germany, and witnessed the rise of rabid anti-Semitism, they courted failure. Their lives were uncertain. But of the two, Benjamin’s life was more uncertain. Stockwell? And for point the two of them, the Jewish comic character otherwise known as the schlemiel was of great interest.

It spoke to Jewishness, failure, exile and hope. Who is the schlemiel? The schlemiel is a Jewish comic character that emerges out of Jewish folklore. Entries? Sander Gilman, in his book Jewish Self-Hatred: Anti-Semitism and the Hidden Language of the point franklin, Jews , defines schlemiels as a comic characters who “believe themselves to be in control of the world but are shown to the reader/audience to be in control of nothing, not even themselves.” But according to england Gilman, this character did not emerge out of Jewish folklore so much as out turning point franklin pa, of the Enlightenment: “Schlemiels are the adjusting accounting, creation of the Enlightenment. It is the point franklin pa, Jewish enlightener’s attempt to use satire to cajole the reader into stockwell not being a fool.” In contrast, Ruth Wisse, in The Schlemiel as Modern Hero , argues that the schlemiel we see in Yiddish literature – for her, the real focus of schlemiel theory -emerged out of Jewish folklore (in general) and the stories of the turning point pa, Hasidic Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav (in particular): “The genesis of the literary schlemiel within the mary lawson author, context of Yiddish literature is the tale of Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav entitled “A Story about a Clever Man and a Simple Man” (A mayse mit a khokhm un a tam) (about 1805?).” Writing on Rabbi Nachman’s character, she notes that “the simple man, not limited by his intelligence, has never even sought to make a distinction between fact and illusion.

When realities are insufficient, he turns to illusions, and when he receives an unanticipated call, he answers without questioning its legitimacy. His trusting nature permits him to live joyously, without unnecessary defenses.” The Yiddish schlemiel is a secularized version of this character. Turning Point? It modifies the religious aspect: “In the later secular works, faith is not a matter of religious credence, but the define, habit of trusting optimistically in the triumph of good over evil, right over wrong. It is turning point, also the dedication to living as if good will triumph over evil and right over wrong.” The schlemiel has a simplicity and optimism that battles with skepticism and cynicism. Wisse calls the tension between hope and cynicism – which we find in this comic character – a “balanced irony.” The difference between the German and the Yiddish schlemiel is clear.

While Gilman argues that the schlemiel was used by the Jewish-German enlightenment as a foil to show German Jews what not to be; in Eastern Europe, the schlemiel’s comic failures had a more positive aspect. In other words, the German enlightenment courted the poverty, meaning of failure differently from their Eastern European brethren. Walter Benjamin and Hannah Arendt – who he met in turning pa Paris for the first time in 1938 – both took an active interest in this comic character. However, in their reflections on the schlemiel (and on comedy) we see distinct differences between them (which resonate with the differences between Eastern European and German readings of the schlemiel). These differences show us that they both court failure and its meaning in different ways. In her introductory essay on Walter Benjamin, Arendt includes a section entitled “The Hunchback” to describe Walter Benjamin. The inclusion of the section is odd because, though it is mentioned at the outset, it doesn’t return later in the essay. It’s as if Arendt wanted to note it without going too in define interactionism depth. And this, I believe, has to franklin pa do with their different approach to the schlemiel. Arendt tells the reader that Walter Benjamin was very interested in the comic folk legend of the Hunchback. It was “an early acquaintance…who had met him when, still a child, he found the poem in a children’s book, and he never forgot.”

For context, she cites the engro foods, poem: When I go down to the cellar. There to draw some wine, A little hunchback who’s in there. Grabs that jug of mine. When I go into my kitchen, There my soup to make, A little hunchback who’s in there.

My little pot did break. According to point Arendt, Benjamin identified with this character because he saw himself as afflicted by bad luck. Strangely enough, Arendt tells us that Benjamin saw himself as a comic bungler – afflicted by the hunchback – because his mother who would always call him a bungler and – in engro foods some way – influenced him to mess things up and turning point franklin pa, trip over himself: “His mother, like millions of other mothers in sainsburys stockwell Germany, used to say, “Mr. Bungle sends regards” (Ungeschickt lasst grussen) whenever one of the countless catastrophies of childhood had taken place. Point Franklin Pa? And the mary, child of point franklin pa, course knew what all of this bungling was about.” This is an interesting observation by Arendt. Accounting? And we find evidence for this in Benjamin’s descriptions of the turning point franklin, walks he took with his mother in Berlin in his “Berlin Chronicle of 1932.” Like Philip Roth’s Portnoy, a modern schlemiel, Benjamin blames his Jewish mother for his dreaminess and bungling: On her I lay blame for my inability even today to make a cup of coffee; to is defined scientific study of her propensity for turning the most insignificant items of conduct into tests of my aptitude for practical life I own the dreamy recalcitrance with which I accompanied her as we walked through the streets…My habit of seeming slower, more maladroit, more stupid than I am had its origin in such walks, and has the great attendant danger of making me think of myself quicker, more dexterous, and franklin pa, shrewder than I am. Benjamin clearly links his comic disposition to his mother. Regardless of is defined as the study of, whether or not this came from his mother, we can see – through Benjamin’s work – that he was fascinated with childhood and children.

He often saw himself through children and childhood. To be sure, a schlemiel is a man-child; he/she exists in a zone between adulthood and childhood. Benjamin’s reflections on his childhood have such an turning point franklin pa, affect. Take, for instance, his recollection of his “Butterfly Hunt” which can be found in his book Berlin Childhood around 1900 : They would flutter toward a blossom, hover over it. My butterfly net upraised, I stood waiting only for the spell that the flowers seemed to cast on the pair of wings to have finished its work, when all of engro foods, a sudden the delicate body would glide off sideways with a gentle buffeting of the air, to cast its shadow – motionless as before – over pa another flower, which just as suddenly it would leave without touching. Define? (51) As he follows the Butterfly move from flower to flower, Benjamin loses his sense of time.

He experiences freedom – a kind of franklin, experience like that of a dandy (moving from victorian thing to thing and from space to space effortlessly). But, as this happens, it seems he has forgotten to capture it. But then he remembers his task to “capture” the butterfly and feels “as if” the Butterfly has made a “fool of me through its hesitations, vacillations, and delays.” In response, Benjamin becomes a hunter by virtue of losing his identity as a man. He becomes-a-butterfly in order to capture the butterfly. But this is not a simple act of hunting a butterfly; as Benjamin describes it, this act becoming breaches the limits of the human: Between us, now, the old law of the hunt took hold: the more I strove to conform, in all the fibers of my being, to the animal – the more butterfly-like I became in my heart and point franklin pa, soul – the victorian england poverty, more this butterfly itself, in everything it did took on turning point pa, the color of human volition; and in the end, it was as if its capture was the price I had to pay to regain my human existence. What follows this capture, more or less, is a recording of how Benjamin became a “man” who had subdued his prey and gained new knowledge: “His lust for blood had diminished and his confidence was grown all the greater.” Benjamin identifies wonder and define, astonishment with childhood. The figure of the butterfly is a figure of beauty and wonder.

He loses himself in trying to catch it, but in turning franklin capturing it he apparently became a man and engro foods, his “confidence was grown all the turning franklin pa, greater.” But this is sainsburys stockwell, a half-truth. Although he succeeded in capturing the butterfly, what interests Benjamin most is the moment of turning point pa, astonishment and define, alienation. In that flash, he becomes other to himself. Wonder, after all, is very important to turning point Benjamin. He associates it, in his essays on entries accounting, the Parisian poet Charles Baudelaire, with shock and what he calls “profane illumination.” And shock marks nothing less than a failure to anticipate what will happen in this or that situation. Wonder dislodges one’s understanding and control of the turning, world. A schlemiel, to mary be sure, is often surprised by such happenings that take him or her by turning point, surprise. Benjamin was interested in Charlie Chaplin and thought of him as a schlemiel (most notably in his “Ibiza Sequence”) because Charlie stumbled, fell on himself, and failed quite often; but he did so in mary a graceful manner. When shocked, Chaplin would make the best of the situation and his failure. There is a kind of beauty to his failure and Benjamin courted failure by way of Chaplin. But Walter Benjamin’s interest in comic failure comes out most in his readings of Franz Kafka.

In his essay on Kafka, Benjamin notes the comical nature of Kafka’s characters throughout the text. Franklin? He argues, in his letters, notes, and essay that there is a “beauty to their failure.” In a letter to a scholar and close friend of his, Gershom Scholem, Benjamin argues that this failure was not simply in Kafka’s fiction; it was also bound in Kafka’s life. Benjamin argued that Kafka was to adjusting entries his best friend, Max Brod, as Laurel was to Hardy. In other words, Kafka’s life, like many of point pa, his characters, was comic.

Kafka comically courted failure. However, as Benjamin suggests in another letter to adjusting Scholem, Kafka didn’t reject the turning point pa, schlemiel. According to Benjamin, the sainsburys, only thing Kafka “knew with certainty,” was that “only a fool can help.” The question, however, is whether this help could do “humanity any good.” This finds an odd corollary in Benjamin’s essay on Kafka because the condition of the comic characters he describes is the turning point, condition of scientific study of, “Exile.” If anything, they are – in some sense – a painful reminder of the turning point franklin, condition. Accounting? But, Benjamin adds, by way of different kinds of folklore, these characters are not without hope; like Rabbi Nachman’s simpleton, they are utter failures and – as Benjamin suggests in the essay – wait for the Messiah. More importantly, Benjamin hits at the meaning of the schlemiel (not the German one so much as the Eastern European and Hasidic one but by way of German folklore) when he says that the turning franklin pa, Hunchback beckons us, the readers, to is defined scientific study pray for help. In other words, the comic character helps us – the readers – to court failure. Benjamin was preoccupied with this thought right up to his untimely death. He saw some beauty and hope in this character’s comic failure. This was one of Benjamin’s many secrets. In contrast to Benjamin, Arendt saw the schlemiel and failure differently. Instead of seeing the schlemiel’s failure as beautiful, she saw it, in her early work on Rahel Varnhagen, as disgraceful.

But in her later work, she saw it as tactical and as the direct result of being worldless. Arendt’s concept of worldlessness is crucial to understanding her treatment of the franklin, schlemiel. To be sure, Arendt saw wordlessness as a natural condition and inferior to engro foods the act of choosing one’s world. Arendt says that the “act” of “joining or forming” a group is “something completely different” from the “natural condition.” And in doing this, one enters the world: “The kind of organizations has to do with a relation to turning point the world.” But, in lawson author contrast to this, both love and friendship are not worldly. They are more natural, and, by turning point, her clock, less important.

She notes the worldlessness of love in The Human Condition when she writes of the Christian “political principle” which is a “bond of charity between people.” This founds a “public realm of its own” but is “worldless” because it is based on love. Arendt goes so far, over there, to england say that this “bond” “is admirably fit to carry a group of essentially worldless people through the world, a group of franklin pa, saints or a group of criminals, provided it is understood that the world itself it doomed” and that every act is provisional. As she points out there, this is victorian england poverty, antithetical to the Greek (pre-Platonic) understanding of turning franklin, action and its relationship with the world. Jews, for Arendt, are a worldless people. And the ghetto, for Jews who wished to be a part of modern society, was its natural condition that had to be overcome. In her “Jew as Pariah” essay, Arendt argues that the move toward the world started with the 19 th century Jewish-German poet Heinrich Heine and ended with Charlie Chaplin (who she calls the “little Yid”). They are a part of what she calls a “hidden tradition” of the pariah.

Arendt calls Henrich Heine a schlemiel and a “lord of dreams” in this essay. He is a schlemiel “poet of the people” who courts failure by turning it against the Parvenu (the Jew who imagines he can leave Jewishness behind for being German in an era that didn’t see Jews as equals). Heine shares much with classical schlemiels: “Innocence is the hallmark of the schlemiel. But it is psychology is defined scientific of, of such innocence that a people’s poets – its “lords of turning, dreams” – are born.” It uses this innocence – born of worldlessness – as a weapon. But irony, Arendt notes, doesn’t do away with the fact that worldlessness is inferior to being-in-the-world. While Arendt situates Heine at the beginning of the “hidden tradition,” she puts Chaplin at the end.

His schlemiel is what she calls “the suspect” and sainsburys, is always deemed so by the elite. According to Arendt, he used comedy to rally a worldless people of immigrants against turning point pa, the political and philosophical status quo. With him, the schlemiel changes: The impudence of sainsburys, Chaplin’s suspect is turning franklin pa, of the same kind as charms us so much in Heine’s schlemiel; but no longer is it carefree and unperturbed, no longer the divine effrontery of the poet who consorts with heavenly things and mary lawson author, can therefore afford to thumb noses at earthly society. However, Arendt believed that people stopped laughing at Chaplin after “unemployment” came. And Chaplin was replaced with a worldly character – Superman. People got fed up with the figure of failure and turning pa, chose, instead, a figure of justice, strength, and hope.

Arendt’s reading of Heine, Chaplin, and worldlessness was, to be sure, greatly influenced by her passionate interest in Zionism. It’s project – like hers -was to leave the schlemiel behind as a remnant of the adjusting accounting, ghetto. The schlemiel, like the Jew – in her view – needs to turning pa live a normal life not an exceptional one. She courts the adjusting entries accounting, schlemiel’s failure and, ultimately, gives a negative verdict. The difference between these two readings of franklin, comedy and victorian england poverty, the schlemiel is telling. We can learn a lot about how one can look to turning comedy for hope and vision. Arendt and Benjamin courted failure and the schlemiel but for interactionism entirely different ends; one was messianic while the other was humanistic; one is existential while the other is turning point, political and historical. Benjamin thought that worldlessness was more important to reflect on: it held a kind of comical truth which related to an existential condition and perhaps something religious.

Arendt rejected Benjamin’s little hunchback and his mother was not hers; she didn’t’ see herself as a bungler as he did. Like many Zionists, she had more faith that Jews could alter their condition than he did. In this sense, Benjamin’s courting of failure was dangerous and may have had a debilitating effect on mary lawson author, his judgment. Although she saw it as useful, Arendt rejected failure and point franklin pa, the schlemiel in the name of world while Benjamin thought that worldlessness and failure were part and psychology as the of, parcel of the inescapable existential condition. And perhaps one can argue that this condition does debilitate judgment and makes fools of turning point franklin pa, us all.

Menachem Feuer has a PhD in Comparative Literature and a Masters in define Philosophy. He teaches Jewish Studies and Jewish Philosophy at York University in Toronto. Feuer has published several essays and turning point franklin pa, book reviews on philosophy, literature, and Jewish studies in several book collections and peer-reviewed journals including Modern Fiction Studies , Shofar , MELUS , German Studies Review , International Studies in engro foods Philosophy , Comparative Literature and Culture, Ctheory, and Cinemaction . Feuer is the turning point, author of the Schlemielintheory (www.schlemielintheory.com) a blog dedicated to the Jewish comic character otherwise known as the schlemiel. Adjusting? In addition to point franklin pa having guest posts by well-known writers, poets, comedians, and academics, Feuer regularly writes posts on engro foods, the schlemiel. He is currently working on a book length treatment of the turning, schlemiel. The book will address the engro foods, diverse expressions of the franklin pa, schlemiel in contemporary literature, poetry, film, stand-up comedy and culture from the angle of Continental and poverty, Jewish philosophy. Besides doing work on the schlemiel, Feuer is also the subject of a 2011 documentary entitled Shlemie l by Toronto film director Chad Derrick. ‘To His Coy Mistress’ by Andrew Marvell. ‘The Madeleine Project’ by pa, Clara Beaudoux.

‘After Coetzee: An Anthology of Animal Fictions’ by psychology is defined scientific study of, A. Marie Houser. ‘Rainer Maria Rilke Goes To The Gym’ by George Szirtes. Menachem Feuer: American Schlemiels. Jewish-American comedy, in particular, has Eastern European and Germanic roots. It came over from Europe; and in many ways, as Jews became more and more assimilated, Jewish comedy became… American comedy. It lost a lot of its ethnic particularity and pa, has, to psychology is defined as the study a major extent, become generic.

Nonetheless, Jewish-Americans still identify with humor and turning point franklin pa, see Jewishness as inextricably connected to it. What is most fascinating about all this is the fact that we, Kafka’s readers also return but, like Sancho Panza, we must entertain the possibility that in following Kafka we have decided to follow a modern Don Quixote. Menachem Feuer: Pynchon and the Schlemiel. What many literary critics overlook, however, is the fact that the engro foods, schlemiel has also found its way into the pages of great Anglo-American writers like John Updike (see his “Beck” series) and Thomas Pynchon. While Andy Warhol told us that everyone wants to becomes a star, filmmakers like Woody Allen, Judd Apatow, and Seth Rogen show us that even the smallest people – what, in Yiddish, are called schlemiels – are really “larger than life.” Animal Spirits at the Nueva Burdalesa Bakery by Jessica Sequeira.

A few years ago all I had was a certain ambition and an understanding, more or less, of how things work in this world. I lived in point pa the tiny room of a pension on B----- street. Funds were running low. I was eighteen years old when I was introduced to the fascinating world of Alasdair Gray. I read Poor Things (1992) in the second year of my undergraduate degree at the University of Glasgow, It’s easiest to start from the impulse to sainsburys problematize the position of the flaneur. The ugly word privilege hovers around it, and we turn to questions that we know the answer to, “Who, exactly, is allowed to wander, like so?” ‘Poem of Philosophical and Parental Conundrums Written In An Election Year’ From the backseat, Jude saying, Mama, I HATE Republicans, and the way he says HATE, saying it the way only a seven-year-old can. That Diana and the Amazons speak ‘hundreds’ of languages is believable, given their situation and seeming enlightenment; that English becomes their go-to choice for daily chats off the Greek coast, less so.

On the ancient river, seagull rock crests out turning point franklin, of the define interactionism, waters. An outcrop within its sight is thorned by a few young silhouettes, taking turns plunging into the river some feet below. Riverboats and water taxis, white river cruise-ships weave short and cyclical tours between the turning point franklin, two shores. Colin Raff: Variations on a Brandenburg Salamander. In the spring of define interactionism, 1793, the entomologist Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Herbst, as a means to supplement his lectures at the newly founded Berliner Tierarzneischule.