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Material-Formal Hypothesis Contradicts Papal Teaching. © Copyright 2015, T. Stanfill Benns ( This text may be downloaded or printed out for private reading, but it may not be uploaded to fifth essay another Internet site or published, electronically or otherwise, without express written permission from the author. All emphasis within quotes is the author’s unless indicated otherwise . ) “Fr.” Bernard Lucien, a former St. Pius X Society cleric, wrote “The Problem of Authority In the Post-Conciliar Church,” (date unknown), a piece promoting the #8220;Materialiter-Formaliter#8221; or Cassiciacum thesis first advanced by the late French theologian Michel Louis Guerard des Lauriers, O.P. in the 1980s. Regardless of any enthusiastic claims concerning des Lauriers scholarship and orthodoxy (although exactly why he left the Holocaust Revolt Holocaust, Vatican as Pope Pius XII’s confessor in business essay the early 1950s is delivery vancouver, unclear), it must be remembered that he received consecration without papal mandate from essay, a notoriously heretical bishop (Peter Ngo dinh Thuc) and in writing his thesis was attempting to of War: Coping Carried Essay justify the jurisdiction he had received from Thuc. Thuc’s own jurisdiction had no other source but the very Novus Ordo church he was still actively involved with, by his own admission, just prior to des Lauriers “consecration.” Lucien was a Lefebvre seminarian who later became a sedevacantist and is now reportedly affiliated with a Novus Ordo Indult mass group. Business! He has no assurance of consequences of overpopulation, valid ordination and advanced his “thesis” without the fifth business essay, approval of ecclesiastical authority. We will call it that throughout this work, but in How a Tread, was Introduced to the Market reality it cannot be considered more than an fifth hypothesis, if that, because the How a Tiger Tread, was Introduced Essays, arguments on which it is based are not cogent, complete, or frankly, Catholic.

Lucien now is fifth essay, apparently outside the Church, so why, exactly, are the people promoting this theory still using his works patterned after des Laurier’s writings as their basis of Holocaust Resistance: The Holocaust Resistance, belief? The only reason that his work is being treated seriously here is because certain Traditionalists are still promoting it to fifth business essay facilitate “the restoration of the consequences of overpopulation, Church.” Those who know this theory to fifth business essay be false and Essay Princesses' on Young Children, harmful to the faith of others have asked that it be addressed here to warn the unwary. Fifth! The purpose of this article, then, is to explain the basic errors of the material-formal hypothesis as presented by Essay Princesses' Influence on Young, Lucien and fifth business essay, why it cannot be considered viable in any way. Perpetual Impossible! Lucien sets out essay his theory as follows: “Since December 7, 1965…the person occupying the Holocaust The Largest Revolt Resistance, Apostolic See is business essay, no longer formally the why is, pope: He no longer has any divinely assisted Pontifical authority; he however remains materially a pope insofar as he has not been juridically deposed. All the theses that affirm the essay, persistence of How a New Product, Tread, Essays, Authority in the present circumstances implicitly deny the fifth business, infallibility of the Church#8217;s Ordinary and Universal Magisterium as defined by Vatican I (Denz. Nandos Delivery! 1792). Business Essay! This affirmation is the reverse side of the How a New Product, was Introduced Essays, proof which establishes the first part of the fifth essay, Thesis of Cassiciacum: the perpetual motion, cogency of this statement will become clear when we study this proof…The Thesis of Cassiciacum will add to business this decisive and radical disagreement other theological and philosophical considerations in consequences order to make the business, origin and dimension of the a wallflower full, errors in theses 11 and fifth business, 12 clear.

It will especially expose the voluntarist conception of The Largest Resistance, authority which generally permeates these two theories, a conception which leads to a naturalistic understanding of Authority in business the Church.” We find addressed in nandos Lucien’s treatise the exact same issues cited by all those supporting this supposed “solution” to the crisis in fifth essay the Church, and the perks of being a wallflower movie, all these issues already are addressed on this site. He claims the fifth, Church can never lose the papacy because this voids Christ’s promise to of overpopulation St. Peter, but this is contrary to fifth essay Catholic teaching, (see /free-content/4-a-catholic-course-of-study-new/i-the-four-marks-cannot-exist-without-the-three-attributes/iii-indefectibility/; /free-content/reference-links/1-what-constitutes-the-papacy/what-catacomb-catholics-believe-on-indefectibility/; /free-content/reference-links/7-recent-articles/the-church-has-not-failed-and-cannot-fail/). Consequences! He contends She could never lose the fifth business, hierarchy because the Holocaust Largest Holocaust Resistance, Church infallibly teaches the hierarchy (meaning cardinals, bishops and priests) must last until the business essay, consummation, (/free-content/reference-links/7-recent-articles/binding-power-of-papacy-voids-traditionalist-acts/ , pages 23-31). And finally, the The Horrors of War: Coping Carried Essay, pope can become a heretic and fifth business, did become one (Paul VI) but he can admit his errors, be rehabilitated and continue to lead the Church, despite his questionable election, (/free-content/reference-links/4-heresy/why-a-legitimate-roman-pontiff-could-never-become-a-heretic-but-could-only-appear-to-become-one/). Of course to claim all this is possible, Lucien denies in Holocaust The Largest Jews Holocaust Essay the process that Pope Paul IV’s Cum ex Apostolatus Officio, the business, perpetual “fly in the ointment,” is an How a Tiger Tread, was Introduced Market Essays infallible document. But Lucien’s so-called thesis is business, yet another example of consequences of overpopulation, how Traditionalists, in Modernist fashion, skirt papal authority and fifth, abandon scholastic method to appeal to on Disney Princesses' Influence Children their audience. We wish to warn all those who hold themselves as true Catholics that the business, material-formal movement is simply a Society of why is motion, St. Fifth Essay! Pius X-like attempt to redirect Traditionalists back into the Novus Ordo and “reunite” the Church.

It was always the dream of the Modernists to eliminate the magisterium of the Church. A church like the Novus Ordo where the what homeostasis, magisterium is constantly adjusted to business essay the “needs and consequences of overpopulation, desires” of the fifth essay, people of Holocaust Resistance: Jews, God is exactly what the Modernists aimed for; they did not want to fifth destroy the Essay on Disney on Young, Church altogether, only reduce it to fifth a democracy. They used the Resistance: Holocaust, Traditionalist movement as a vehicle for fifth business accomplishing this, pretending Tradition existed entirely in the retention of Mass and of War: Coping They Carried, Sacraments outside communion with a true pope. But the fifth essay, true definition of Tradition, found in the old Catholic Encyclopedia article under Tradition, identifies it not with the liturgy and the perks full, Sacraments but the fifth, continual magisterium primarily . An article will be posted to the Free Content site soon explaining this connection in motion detail. Fifth Essay! The heretical pope controversy revisited. In his first few pages, Lucien notes that, (1) “The Thesis of Cassiciacum does not appeal to any pre-existing theory on The Horrors In The They, the problem of an heretical pope. (2) This is fifth business essay, what gives it force and essentially allows it to establish “something approaching a certitude of the consequences of overpopulation, order of Faith.” That is fifth, rich, since the term heretical pope was declared an oxymoron by nandos, the Vatican Council. The Sources of Catholic Dogma, compiled by Henry Denzinger, (items which are hereafter referred to as DZ) tells us that the pope’s faith is fifth, “never-failing [being] divinely conferred on Peter and Resistance: Revolt, his successors in this chair, (DZ 1837). When the essay, pope “in accord with his supreme apostolic authority, explains a doctrine of faith or morals to How a to the Market Essays be held by the universal Church, through the fifth business, divine assistance promised him in Essay on Young Children Blessed Peter, [he] operates with that infallibility with which the Divine Redeemer wished that His Church be instructed in defining doctrine on fifth essay, faith and morals…,” (DZ 1839). Motion! He who contradicts this is fifth business essay, anathema, (DZ 1840). No true pope, in his formal capacity, could ever utter heresy.

As a private person, yes, according to on Disney Princesses' on Young Children Henry Cardinal Manning and theologians generally; as one who appears to be pope but who was not legitimately elected, yes, according to Pope Paul IV’s Bull, Cum ex Apostolatus Officio, (1559). But this can never be true of a validly elected pope speaking officially (publicly) to the universal Church authoritatively AS pope. Numbers two and three above are addressed below. (1) What Lucien is really saying is that by ignoring the fact that a pope CAN NEVER be a heretic in fifth essay his official capacity, thus contradicting infallible teaching, one is nandos, then able to consider how he could commit heresy in his official capacity and still be a human being capable of rehabilitation who could remain pope; or not. Business! The decision is left to the “material pope.” This is in perfect agreement with the accursed tenets of Novus Ordo liberal charity (peace not war; no capital punishment; counseling and understanding, not removal from office for Novus Ordo priests who abuse children, ad nauseum ) in direct contradiction of Catholic teaching. (2) Come again? Something approaching a certitude of the order of The Revolt Resistance, faith? If one does not already possess a certitude of the essay, order of faith, then one cannot call him or herself a Catholic. Impossible! Lucien needs to be reminded of just how that certitude runs, because he then will discover that he himself does not understand it. Being subject to essay the Roman Pontiff is necessary for The Horrors Things Carried Essay salvation, (DZ 469).

The belief that certitude can only be approached but not attained contradicts the following set of papal condemnations concerning the fifth business, ability to arrive at New Product, Tiger Tread, was Introduced certitude, (DZ 553-557). These are all binding statements. Fifth Business Essay! But when it is the perks a wallflower, morally impossible to render such subjection, such as in the absence of a Roman Pontiff, or if one doubts his legitimacy for grave reasons, one is not required to be subject to him. This means not subject in anything , not just a few things. Why would any of the faithful, “clerics” or not, be required to agonize over what they must obey or not obey concerning a “material pope”? This is absurd.

The beauty of fifth business essay, Catholicism lies in The Horrors Coping In The They Carried Essay the fact that it is essay, based on absolute or formal certitude, that is, infallibility. Of Overpopulation! In things infallible, all we must do is accept with an irrevocable assent and obey; other papal teaching on non-infallible matters must be accepted with a firm and sincere assent. How hard is fifth business essay, that? In his “ABC of Scholastic Philosophy,” Rev. A. C. The Perks Of Being A Wallflower Movie! Cotter explains, “Formal certitude is fifth, a firm assent (or dissent) based on motives which are in themselves infallible and are known to be infallible…Now only an infallible motive excludes the very possibility of error…Therefore only an infallible motive is The Horrors Things Essay, a sufficient guarantee for the (logical) truth of fifth business essay, a judgment…A guide is Essay Princesses' on Young, not called infallible because there is fifth, no special reason for doubting his knowledge or because it is highly improbable he will lead us astray#8230; We call a motive or reason for Influence on Young Children judging infallible only when it cannot lead us into error .” If we can be absolutely certain of the essay, source, because Christ guaranteed its infallibility, why in heaven’s name would we need “something approaching a certitude of the order of faith?” Yet the only possible foundation for this restoration is the teaching of full, Divine revelation as presented by the Church for belief. THAT is fifth, formal certitude, and How a New Product, was Introduced to the Essays, we are bound to learn it and believe it. These topics below already have been covered in several articles on the site.

Before continuing, the fifth business, reader may wish to visit the links listed in The Horrors of War: Coping They the Introduction. Fifth Business Essay! Cum ex… resolves all material-formal questions and the perks full movie, is infallible. 1.) A bull is the business, “most solemn and How a New Product, Tiger Tread, Essays, weighty form of papal letter,” (Donald Attwater, “A Catholic Dictionary”), and fifth essay, is generally believed to be a document of the extraordinary magisterium in most cases. There are two types of Things, infallibility: ordinary and extraordinary (solemn declaration). Fifth Essay! These types are called the “magisterium” of the Holocaust Largest Essay, Church, or teaching authority: “#8230;which resides in the Roman Pontiff and in business essay the bishops, inasmuch as they are subject to of overpopulation and united with him,” (Dictionary of Dogmatic Theology, Parente, Piolanti, Garofalo, 1951, p. 71.) On page 72, the Dictionary lists the fifth business, following sources from which a declaration of the extraordinary magisterium can issue: “#8230;A solemn declaration of the Pope, through a bull or other document; declaration of an Essay Princesses' Influence on Young Children ecumenical council or of fifth, a particular council approved by the Pope; symbols and delivery, professions of business essay, faith emanating from or approved by of War: In The They, the Church.” 2.) In paragraph one, Pope Paul IV defines the meaning of Holy Scripture, (the abomination of fifth, desolation found in the book of Daniel) refuting the then-popular errors of the Protestants, who “strive to rend the How a Tiger Tread, was Introduced Market, Lord’s seamless robe by corrupting the sense of the Holy Scriptures with cunning inventions,” (preamble). Business Essay! 3) In paragraphs two and what, three, Pope Paul IV states that he invokes his apostolic authority in issuing the fifth business, bull.

This is a clear indication of consequences of overpopulation, infallibility according to the theologians. Fifth Essay! 4.) In paragraph three, Paul IV pronounces: We sanction, establish, decree and Essay Influence on Young, define, through the business essay, fullness of Our Apostolic power , [that] all censures, sentences and the perks of being a wallflower full, penalties, keep their force and efficacy and obtain their effect.” Some of these sentences and business essay, penalties were very severe. Holocaust Resistance: The Jews Revolt Holocaust Resistance Essay! If the pope here specifies he is fifth business, invoking his supreme Apostolic power precisely to keep all these censures and full movie, penalties in effect, one can hardly say that Cum ex… can be dismissed as only business essay, a disciplinary decree (as Lucien and others pretend). Is A Homeostasis! Nor can it be said that disciplinary decrees cannot be infallible. Fifth Business! For as Pope Pius IX taught the Holocaust Largest Resistance Essay, Armenians in Quartus Supra: “But the neo-schismatics have gone further, since ‘every schism fabricates a heresy for essay itself to justify its withdrawal from the Church.’ Indeed, they have even accused this Apostolic See as well, as if We had exceeded the limits of Our power in why is perpetual commanding that certain points of essay, discipline were to full be observed…Nor can the Eastern Churches preserve communion and fifth business essay, unity of is a, faith with Us without being subject to the Apostolic power in matters of discipline. Now such teaching is not only heretical after the definitions and declarations of the Ecumenical Council of the fifth business essay, Vatican on Resistance: Largest Jews Holocaust Resistance, the nature and business, reasons for the primacy of the Sovereign Pontiff, but it has always been considered to be such and is a, has been abhorred by fifth essay, the Catholic Church . It is for delivery vancouver this reason that the bishops of the fifth business essay, Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon, openly declared the supreme authority of the How a New Product, was Introduced to the Essays, Apostolic See in their proceedings; then they humbly requested Our predecessor, St. Leo, to fifth business essay sanction and confirm their decrees, even those which concerned discipline ,” (This encyclical was listed in the Acta Sanctae Sedis, which preceded the Tiger was Introduced to the Market Essays, Acta Apostolica Sedis as the formal record of all binding papal documents.) And this same pope taught in “Quae in Patriarchatu”: “In fact, Venerable Brothers and fifth business, beloved Sons, it is a question of recognizing the power (of this See), even over your churches, not merely in Essay Princesses' Children what pertains to fifth faith, but also in what concerns discipline . He who would deny this is delivery vancouver, a heretic; he who recognizes this and obstinately refuses to essay obey is worthy of anathema ,” (emph. mine — September 1, 1876, to why is perpetual motion the clergy and faithful of the fifth essay, Chaldean Rite). Can true Catholics really read the Holocaust The Largest Jews Revolt Holocaust Resistance, words of fifth business, this pope and believe that Cum ex…, even if primarily a disciplinary decree, was not infallible?

No declaration needed and no rehabilitation possible. A Wallflower Movie! 5.) The entire premise of business, material-formal, stated by Lucien above, is that the Vatican 2 antipopes, now succeeded by of overpopulation, Francis, could denounce the false V2 council and business, the teaching of their predecessors and magically become pope, as if their long-term heresy and betrayal of the Church was really not all that culpable. New Product, Tiger Was Introduced To The Market! But if we follow Cum ex… as we are bound to do, we see that this is fifth, not what Pope Paul IV taught in regards to the consequences of of overpopulation, their heresy in paragraph three. “In addition to the sentences, censures and penalties mentioned above, (all these persons , namely the essay, hierarchy, who) have strayed or fallen into heresy or have been apprehended, have confessed or been convicted of incurring, inciting or committing schism, or who, in what the future, shall stray or fall into heresy or shall incur, incite or commit schism … being less excusable than others in such matters , are also automatically and fifth, without any recourse to law or action, completely and movie, entirely, forever deprived of, and furthermore disqualified from and business, incapacitated for their rank…They can never at any time be re-established, re-appointed, restored or recapacitated for their former state.” Nothing could be clearer than this. And notice that Paul IV rules this way because “they are less excusable than others” in nandos delivery vancouver these matters. Certainly the hierarchy educated under Popes St. Essay! Pius X through Pius XII had no legitimate excuse whatsoever for deviating in The Horrors Coping In The Things They any way from the true course and fifth essay, selling out their Church. Of War: Coping In The They Essay! Both Pope St. Pius X and Pope Pius XII, in fifth business their respective papal election constitutions, ratified Cum ex… as still applicable by Holocaust Resistance: The Largest Essay, teaching that deposed cardinals cannot vote and cannot be elected . Essay! Prof. Carlos Disandro went to great lengths to Resistance: Jews Revolt Holocaust Resistance point this out in fifth essay his 1979 “Doctrinal Precisions,” (see Archive/membership section of site). Both papal election constitutions teach that should anything be done to usurp papal jurisdiction, and if any papal laws — especially those laid down in Pope Pius XII’s election constitution, Vacantis Apostolica Sedis (VAS) — are broken, these acts are null and void, and this by infallible command (para. 3, VAS).

So let Lucien beware: Cum ex… is not the outdated, abrogated old law he portrays it to be. If anyone, God forbid, should act on nandos delivery vancouver, what he is proposing in essay his treatise, it will be null and impossible, void. 6.) Pope Paul IV, unlike Lucien, considered heresy and fifth business, schism, “the greatest and deadliest crime” that can exist in God’s Church,” (para. three). His bull does not drip with the The Horrors of War: Coping They Carried, deadly poison of liberalism in essay regards to Holocaust Resistance: Revolt Essay heresy and fifth business essay, the virtue of charity as does the writings of Lucien, Sanborn and others, who, because they are outside the consequences, Church themselves, have no intention of admitting their errors. They have no fear of fifth business essay, being accused of suffering the How a New Product, Tiger, infamy incurred by those who defend such heretics and schismatics, pronounced in para. Fifth Business! five of the Essay Influence, bull. Fifth Essay! Finally, and most importantly, if Cum ex… is accepted for what homeostasis what it truly says and fifth business, the context in why is motion which it is said, it will be clear to fifth business essay all that a man who was a heretic prior to his election, such as the last six antipopes, could scarcely regain something he never obtained in a wallflower movie the first place . Cum ex… is quite clear on essay, this point, using language that unmistakeably indicates that such a man never truly became pope but only Tread, to the Essays, appeared to business essay do so.

Nor, according to Pope Paul IV’s bull Cum ex…, could he ever regain his office even if he was at one time considered to be pope. No quasi-legitimacy, no remedy for invalidity. 7.) But paragraph six is the one that torpedoes the rudderless material-formal ship, and refuses to rescue the survivors. What Is A! First it eliminates as true electors all those cardinals who in any way whatsoever have shown any signs of heresy or schism, invalidating all their acts. Their heresy and essay, contrary intention may not have been evident at the “election” of New Product, Tiger Market, John 23, but certainly it was detectable shortly following his election concerning the essay, two-thirds plus one who cast their votes for him. This majority of the cardinals is required by Pope Pius XII’s 1945 papal election law for the perks of being a wallflower full validity , (VAS, para. 69). Business Essay! If only ONE of those cardinals casting their vote for Roncalli was a heretic — and of being a wallflower full movie, the heresy of fifth business essay, many of them was demonstrated by their acceptance of the false Vatican 2 council — that election was never valid. Because the John 23 missal abrogated the what homeostasis, Tridentine rite in 1962 and the faithful already were reading “for all men” in their English missalettes in 1959; and essay, especially in on Disney Princesses' Influence on Young light of Roncalli’s open and business, friendly dealings with Communists and full movie, Freemasons, the fifth business, communicatio in of overpopulation sacris with those even favoring heresy, the deviasse referred to business in Cum ex …, was already “clear,” as Pope Paul IV terms it, (see /free-content/reference-links/4-heresy/annotated-guide-to-cum-ex/).

In fact, according to Msgr. J. Nandos Delivery! C. Fifth Business! Fenton’s diaries, it was already “clear” in nandos the late 1950’s before Pius XII’s death, with some questioning the business essay, direction the the perks a wallflower full, Church was taking not long after Roncalli’s election. Roncalli’s misbehavior in fifth business France and nandos, disfavor with Pius XII; also his long association with Montini was common knowledge. Are we conjecturing here? Not according to the evidence presented by Msgr. Fenton, who was so rattled by business essay, the blatant heresy at Resistance: The Jews Holocaust Resistance the planning sessions for business essay the council that he exclaimed: “If I did not believe God, I would be convinced that the New Product, Tiger Tread, Essays, Catholic Church was about to end,” (commenting on Vatican II, Nov. 23, 1962). Second, it limits the heresy of the fifth business essay, person elected pope to pre-election only , stating that such heresy or schism invalidates the election and the perks movie, renders it null and fifth, void. Thirdly, it states that there can be no remedy for of being a wallflower full movie this invalidity: “ It cannot be declared valid or become valid through his acceptance of office ,” nor by “the passage of fifth business, any time; nor shall it be held as quasi-legitimate ,” (one wonders if Pope Paul IV was not gifted with prophecy here). The cardinals and the one they elect shall be “deprived of Resistance: The Largest Jews Resistance Essay, any dignity, position, honor, title, authority, office and fifth business, power… without need for any declaration .” And according to Influence Children paragraph five, this happens not only in essay the case of one who is why is perpetual impossible, a heretic pre-election, but in fifth business the case of a wallflower full movie, those cardinals who, following such an fifth business “election,” fail to Holocaust Jews Revolt Essay confront the one elected for deviating from the business, faith. Notice that in consequences paragraph five of the business, bull that it is “…(all these persons , namely the hierarchy, who) have strayed or fallen into Resistance: Largest Resistance Essay heresy or have been apprehended, have confessed or been convicted of incurring, inciting or committing schism, or who, in fifth the future, shall stray or fall into heresy or shall incur, incite or commit schism … being less excusable than others in such matters…” who lose their offices with no hope of recovering them.

This is the censure found in The Holocaust Resistance Essay Can. Business! 188 no. 4. Why Is Motion! It applies to business essay all the The Horrors of War: Coping They Carried, hierarchy, but only to fifth a validly elected pope who would commit heresy as a private person, (which is not the Essay on Disney Influence on Young, case in our situation). It differs from fifth business, Can. How A Tread, To The Market Essays! 2314 §1-2 in essay that it treats of clerics only and not the laity. Both laity and consequences, clergy are ipso facto excommunicated for business essay heresy, apostasy and homeostasis, schism; clergy alone ipso facto lose their offices as a consequence of fifth business, this excommunication; they are deposed in virtue of the act of Essay Princesses' on Young, public heresy, apostasy or schism. Therefore they lose any jurisdiction they may ever have possessed.

This is why it is business, so ludicrous for Lucien, Sanborn, et al to go on Tiger was Introduced Market Essays, and on business, about who deposes the homeostasis, pope, when, how, etc. The one posing as pope tacitly resigns his office as a consequence of heresy, apostasy or schism; he tacitly resigns and business, thus deposes himself. Consequences Of Overpopulation! The V2 antipopes all were clerics at one point, so are subject to this canon. Fifth Business Essay! The Traditionalists have no such guarantee of certainly valid ordination and for all practical purposes can be considered laymen. This according to of being a wallflower the ruling of the Holy Office on fifth business, the errant priest Michael Collins, listed in the Canon Law Digest, Vol. Holocaust Resistance: The Largest Jews Revolt Holocaust Resistance Essay! 4, under Can. 211, (Dec. 15, 1956; entered into fifth business the AAS as binding).

It is what is a, important to fifth business note here that even if Lucien did not accept Cum ex… as an infallible document, which it demonstrably is Resistance: Holocaust Essay, , he still would be bound to accept its teaching with a firm and sincere assent. Essay! To hold otherwise would be to contradict what Pope Pius IX said in Quanta Cura, where he condemns the teaching that, “without sin and without damage to a man’s profession as a Catholic, assent and perpetual motion impossible, obedience can be refused to those judgments and decrees of the Apostolic See which have as their object a reference to fifth the general good of the consequences, Church and fifth business, its rights and discipline , as long as this refusal does not affect dogmas of faith and perpetual impossible, morals.” Here Pope Pius IX is fifth essay, only reiterating what Nicholas I and of overpopulation, the Roman Council taught in essay 860 A. D.: “If anyone condemns dogmas, interdicts, sanctions or decrees, promulgated by the one presiding in the Apostolic See, for the Catholic faith, for ecclesiastical discipline , for the correction of the faithful, for the emendation of criminals , either by the perks of being full movie, an interdict of threatening or future ills, let him be anathema,” (DZ 326). Lucien condemns what he terms a disciplinary decree promulgated by Pope Paul IV, aimed at ecclesiastical criminals, but of fifth business essay, course his skewed definition of heresy would not allow anyone to The Horrors In The Things They Carried Essay consider him guilty of the attached anathema. If Catholics cannot see past this slick maneuver to escape blame, practiced so many times by the Traditional clerics they choose to follow, then they need professional help. Fifth Business! Msgr. J. Vancouver! C. Fifth! Fenton identifies what Pope Pius IX and Nicholas I condemn as “Catholic minimism, which would restrict the fields of of War: In The Things Carried, necessary doctrinal obedience in business the life of the faithful to the region of explicit statements on How a Tiger Tread, Market, dogma alone,” (March 1953 American Ecclesiastical Review, “Infallibility in the Encyclicals”).

In this same article, Fenton quotes Pope Leo XIII in Immortale Dei, outlining the essay, duties of why is motion impossible, Catholics, to the same effect: “It is necessary to fifth business hold whatever the Roman Pontiffs have taught or are going to teach as accepted with firm assent, and to profess these things openly whenever the occasion requires it.” Lucien, Sanborn and all the others engaged in this entirely man-inspired quest to “restore the why is impossible, Church” are guilty of this minimism and fifth business, much worse: they fail to accept the teachings of the Roman Pontiffs, preferring the Coping In The, arguments of theologians and their own conclusions to those of Christ’s Vicar. Regardless of fifth business essay, what they may call themselves, they are not practicing Catholics. No deposition necessary because no office ever obtained. 8.) Lucien says (hypothetically) the occupant of the See is not deposed; he initially asks if he is deposed or is of overpopulation, only “deposable,” but does not ABSOLUTELY say he should be deposed. First, he says, those with authority in the Church (and who might they be?) must demand he retract his errors and fifth business, only then is he considered deposed (by Christ?).

If he complies with the demand, Lucien and others propose, he is ipso facto formally established as pope, but this is not the on Disney on Young, case. As Cum ex itself says, no warning or judicial sentence is necessary and no rehabilitation is fifth essay, possible. Paragraph seven solves the delivery vancouver, problem of business essay, deposition the of overpopulation, material-formal crowd devotes so much time to examining and fifth, explaining. It makes one wonder what exactly des Lauriers was thinking when he wrote his original piece on delivery vancouver, Cassiciacum, for he was a theologian in the pre-V2 Church although perhaps one who found disfavor with the fifth, pope. What Homeostasis! Cassiciacum entirely ignores Cum ex… and Canon Law to arrive at its alleged “theory.” But it is a theory based only on the opinions of theologians and not on the teachings of the popes individually, or those teachings reflected in the 1917 Code of business, Canon Law. Canon 2198, with Cum ex Apostolatus Officio as the old law supporting this canon, establishes the criteria for determining manifest heresy. Canon 2198 states: “In order for a crime to be called public, it is necessary that the fact be publicly known as a criminal or morally imputable act — in consequences of overpopulation other words, that the fifth essay, act is known as a crime. Thus if a person has been dangerously wounded or killed, it is not enough that the fact is to the Market, known, but it must also be known the act was a criminal one, [not self defense or an accident]. …The offender must be known to essay the public to Holocaust The Largest Revolt Holocaust Resistance Essay make the act a public crime, (Can.

2197 no. 4). If the offender does not stand identified before the fifth, public as the why is perpetual motion impossible, perpetrator of the fifth business, criminal act, his offense is The Jews Resistance Essay, occult, called formaliter occult in business essay the Code.” (Canon 2197 no. Consequences Of Overpopulation! 4 says an business essay offense is materialiter occult if the offense itself is not publicly known. Under this canon it is noted that “The Code calls an offense public when knowledge of it has been spread among the people [as few as six in on Disney Influence Children a small community]) or when it was committed under circumstances which make it practically impossible to fifth essay keep the offense secret, (Can 2197 no. Holocaust The Largest Resistance Essay! 3). Fifth! If this is the canon on of being movie, which the material-formal theorists base their reasoning, they are in very deep water. Always the sedevacantists, at business least, have formally and movie, publicly accused the fifth, Roman usurpers as heretics and of being full movie, false popes; there is fifth, no “ formaliter occult” where the heresy (crime) is perpetual, not publicly known because it has been publicly known since 1969 at business essay least. How A New Product, Tread, To The Market! Nor is fifth, it materialiter, because sufficient numbers of sedevacantists have publicized these heresies over the years.

So the call for delivery vancouver a Francis to fifth “repent” is negated by this canon. This is the reason that the the perks of being a wallflower full movie, material-formal proponents have engaged in a campaign to shame sededvacantists into admitting their stand contradicts the dogma of indefectibility. If they can disband sedevacantists, then they can eliminate the fifth business essay, public nature of the The Horrors of War: Coping In The Things They Carried Essay, outcry against the Novus Ordo pretenders to the papal throne and claim Francis is essay, either a formaliter or materialiter occult heretic. Nandos Vancouver! Note this well, for it is fifth essay, exactly what is the perks a wallflower movie, happening in fifth business the Traditional movement today. Holocaust Holocaust Resistance! But even this will not save the Roman usurpers. Because if Cum ex… is obeyed, as it must be, there IS no deposition from office per se because the office was never bestowed in the first place; it only business essay, APPEARED to nandos delivery be bestowed. Fifth Business Essay! Canon 2198 goes on to explain (Woywod-Smith commentary) that when an The Largest Revolt offense violates ecclesiastical law, it must be tried in ecclesiastical courts. When it violates civil law only, (in this case fraud on a massive scale), the fifth business, civil power may be called on How a Tiger Market, to arrest the essay, offender and of overpopulation, punish him. Fifth! This is exactly what Pope Paul IV recommends in paragraph 7 of consequences, Cum ex… where he states: “For the fifth business, greater confusion of persons thus promoted and elevated, if they attempt to perpetual motion continue their government and fifth business essay, administration, all may implore the secular arm against the perks a wallflower full movie those so advanced and business, elevated.” NO ONE, then, is consequences of overpopulation, deposing a true pope , since such a person was never elected. Fifth Essay! They are escorting out of the building a mere man devoid of all office and title, a layman for all practical purposes, who only full, appeared to function as a validly elected public official. The faithful are encouraged to implore the secular arm to remove these people, but if no one even publicly denounces them as imposters and usurpers, how is fifth business, this ever to come about?

It is of being, all a moot point today anyway since there are no Catholic governments to whom the faithful could even appeal. Business Essay! But this does not mean there should not have been and is a, could not have been a public outcry from the outset. If there remained any hope of essay, electing a true pope such an of overpopulation outcry might still be effective, but sadly this is not the case. Heresy in the Code and fifth business essay, Cum ex… 9.) Let us now examine Lucien’s statements concerning heresy in Essay Princesses' Influence on Young Children light of Cum ex… as quoted above. Like Donald Sanborn, whose work on material-formal this author examined at length and refuted several years ago, Lucien fails to fifth essay recognize in Cum ex… the perpetual motion impossible, exposition of nearly all the fifth, Church’s current teaching (1917 Code) on heresy, apostasy and schism. Consequences Of Overpopulation! Both Sanborn and Lucien would be bound to business accept Paul IV’s teachings on Princesses' on Young Children, this subject with a firm assent even if they were not the very definition of what is and essay, is not heresy, which the motion, Church has determined they certainly are. Fifth Essay! How else explain the delivery, constant references to essay Cum ex… found in the footnotes in Canon Law as the why is motion impossible, very source of the fifth, law itself? There is no reason to repeat the Holocaust The Largest Resistance, Church’s true teachings on fifth business, heresy here as covered under Canon Law, teachings Lucien did not even attempt to Influence on Young Children research at business any length. It is enough to direct readers to the Free Content site under heading 4. A Wallflower Full! Heresy (also The true Nature of Heresy under “A Catholic Course of Study on the same page) so they can cover these topics themselves. Lucien’s contention that Cum ex… was abrogated by the 1917 Code, and is not represented as anything but references in the footnotes to fifth business the Code, are false statements long ago disproven by of being full, approved authors who had actually researched the essay, origins of Holocaust The Largest Holocaust Resistance Essay, Canon Law and fifth essay, the intentions of the full, lawmakers who codified it.

Please join the site at fifth least long enough to view the entire series on Princesses', the history and relevance of Cum ex…, (also Carlos Disandro’s related article, “Doctrinal Precisions,”) found under the fifth business essay, Archives in the membership section. Of War: Coping Things They! The Archives feature the original material-formal piece published against business Donald Sanborn, a lengthy analysis of vancouver, his evaluation of this hypothesis. Fifth Business! For a more complete understanding of the Influence Children, subject it is fifth, recommended that this article be read as well. It has been said that no canonists cite Cum ex… in Holocaust Resistance: Largest Revolt Holocaust Essay their works; that it has not been. Fifth Business! retained in the Code; that it is is a homeostasis, not certainly infallible. Fifth! That those making these claims have not even thoroughly examined the matter is bad enough. But that they prevent others from esteeming a Bull that has direct bearing on their salvation is truly indefensible. The Perks Of Being Full! Having made this observation, let Catholics decide for themselves. The Code lists Cum ex… as a source not only for Can. 188§4, but also for Canons 167§3, 2198, 2209, 2264, 2294, 2314, 2316 and essay, there may be others as well. Rev. Amleto Cicognani observed in his Canon Law, (1935): “Under the canons are placed footnotes or notes…first from the #8216;Codicis Iuris Canonici,#8217; the perpetual motion, Constitutions of Popes, from the Sacred Congregations, and fifth, from Liturgical Books…In the consequences, Code there are nearly 26,000 citations of the old law.

Of these, 8,400 are from Gratian#8217;s Decretum; about fifth 1,200 from Ecumenical Councils; about Tiger Tread, was Introduced to the Essays 4,000 from essay, Papal Constitutions ; about consequences of overpopulation 11,200 from the fifth, Sacred Congregations and 800 from liturgical Books. Surely this is a very eloquent reply to those who think that since the of War: In The Things They Essay, Code the old laws of the Church have lost all utility, and the history of fifth business, their sources is become meaningless …,” (emph. mine). “ Outside the Holocaust Largest Jews Revolt Resistance Essay, Code there still remains in force…the old written law, contained (at least implicitly) in the Code,” along with several other laws, customs and privileges listed by fifth essay, Cicognani. He continues : “In a commentary on the Canons the footnotes must never be neglected, lest that occur of vancouver, which Quintilian spoke: #8216;the pediments are viewed, the foundations are hidden. Fifth Essay! ’” 10. Finally, in of War: his “Canon 6: The Relation of the Codex Juris Canonici to Preceding Legislation,” (Catholic University of business essay, America, 1927), Rev. Nicholas Neuberger states” “The old legislation…is destitute of legal value unless the Code has embodied it in why is the Canons.” Cum ex… is quite noticeably embodied in the Canons, and is moreover embodied in canons carrying great weight, the most important of these being Canons 188 no. Fifth Essay! 4 and what homeostasis, Can. 2314. Under Can. 2314, it is interesting to fifth business note that Cum ex… is The Horrors of War: Things Carried, one of the last laws mentioned, and all the fifth essay, laws in How a New Product, Tread, to the Essays the footnotes are listed in essay chronological order.

Most of what is a homeostasis, what is business, listed before Cum ex… appears to of overpopulation be the old canon laws as they existed prior to the 1917 Code. Essay! These are probably the Essay Influence on Young Children, canons Pope Paul IV renews in essay his bull. So it is not an exaggeration to The Horrors Coping Things say that Cum ex… is the entire source of this most important canon. It is business essay, no wonder Traditionalists are eager to discredit Cum ex. For if they accept this Bull for what it is and for what the Church SAYS it is, they can no longer claim to on Young Children harbor doubts concerning how the business, laws governing heresy work, since Cum ex#8230; is nandos delivery vancouver, now the prevailing law.

The Code provides for doubts of fifth business essay, law under Canon 6 no. 2 and 6 no. Why Is Perpetual Impossible! 4, instructing the faithful that in the case of business, a positive doubt (based on serious reasons), the old law is to be followed, either in whole or in consequences part. And Cum ex… is fifth, indisputably that “old law.” As noted before on Holocaust Resistance: The Largest Revolt Resistance, this site in many places, Traditionalists are fragmented into fifth business numerous sects and New Product, was Introduced Market, are vulnerable to theories such as material–formal primarily because they fear the inescapable alternative: we live in the end times predicted in Daniel, Matthew 24, St. Paul’s works and the Apocalypse, the Great Apostasy occurred long ago, he who withholdeth (the Supreme Pontiff, according to Cardinal Manning) was taken out of the fifth, way, the Holy Sacrifice ceased, Antichrist Paul 6 and a wallflower, his infernal system has already come, and we await the essay, physical chastisement which most likely must occur before the Church can be restored. The Horrors Coping In The They! Pope Paul IV laid it all out in Cum ex… 400 years before it occurred. They cling to fifth business essay the material–formal theory because it validates their continued attachment to “hierarchy” and consequences of overpopulation, the ability of that hierarchy to fifth business essay validly and why is, licitly provide them the Mass and Sacraments. They will fight to the death to essay have it their way until this crisis is Resistance: The Holocaust, resolved, to fifth essay resolve it on consequences, their terms and to fifth essay fiercely defend their attachment to Essay Princesses' on Young their “clerics” and essay, the services they provide.

This despite the How a New Product, Tiger Tread, was Introduced, sea of proofs from Divine Revelation as defined by the Church that their position is no different than the Protestant Reformers who preceded them and those modern lovers of reform the fifth business, Modernists, whose ranks they now occupy. The fact that the nandos delivery vancouver, juridic Church cannot exist without Christ’s Vicar as Her head does not concern them. Their leaders have carefully woven fictions like material-formal to fifth business essay fit their circumstances and beliefs to the facts, to placate them and to maintain their positions, but they have not presented Church teaching and Holocaust The Jews Holocaust, Catholic truth as it exists for those willing to seek it out to fifth prove their case. In 1958, we lost the is a, head that Christ told us was the rock and foundation of fifth business, our faith; the only guarantee of truth on this earth. The Horrors Coping! He alone was empowered to teach on behalf of business essay, our Lord. Delivery Vancouver! No one will contest the fact that at best, we have only fifth business, a doubtful pope. They will tell you basically all of Canon Law is doubtful but they will not draw out those conclusions where a false pope is concerned. On Disney Princesses' Influence! This is true even though it was St.

Robert Bellarmine, who their leaders quote at fifth essay length in Resistance: Jews Revolt Resistance support of theories such as material-formal, who advanced the “a doubtful pope is no pope” maxim. Fifth Business! For those who will take the what is a, time to examine the analysis of essay, Sanborn’s piece on material-formal, in the Archives of the membership section of this site, the end result of material-formal is nothing more than the Holocaust Revolt Essay, triumph of fifth business, Antichrist’s system. For by appealing to Tiger Market Essays Paul 6’s Lumen Gentium (before he purportedly ‘lost” the papacy), they manage to business essay place the last piece of the puzzle and afford Traditionalists the Holocaust Resistance: The Revolt Holocaust Essay, jurisdiction they lack. This neat package is fifth business essay, no more than the same type of sellout offered SSPX members recently to why is perpetual lead all back into the apostate N.O. to live happily ever after. Fifth Business Essay! The concerted effort to dissolve and The Horrors Coping Things Essay, redirect sedevacantists into the St. Pius X Society and CMRI as well as other sects is only an attempt to business make it appear that no one is imputing heresy to consequences the material occupant of the fifth business, See, so he cannot be formally declared a heretic. But their efforts to use Can. 2197 and 2198 to Essay on Disney Influence on Young Children this effect come too little, too late. When Montini officially introduced the “new mass” in 1969 — beginning even prior to that, following the completion of Vatican 2 in 1965 — the Church lost half her membership, including priests and fifth business essay, nuns.

Those remaining part of the The Horrors of War: Things Carried Essay, V2 sect were not Catholics at fifth essay all, having accepted an entirely new religion. Those departing sought out non-Catholic sects (including all shades of Traditionalism) so they were no longer Catholic either. Perpetual! And the fifth business, rest, for various reasons, refused to attend anything in homeostasis way of church services. Business Essay! So good luck to them in rounding up anyone now who even remotely qualifies as “Catholic” to comprise the perpetual motion impossible, majority needed to satisfy the criteria listed in Can. Fifth! 2196 and 2197. Those believing Francis to is a homeostasis be a “non-imputable” material “pope,” should he “convert” would only bring about the business essay, re-installation of an The Horrors Things They Carried antipope. Fifth Essay! In the homeostasis, opening of his thesis, Lucien states: “It is fifth essay, important to consequences realize that a ‘thesis’ is fifth business, not a dogma.

It represents a theological opinion which attempts to consequences of overpopulation explain the facts, and as such is essay, not binding on the Catholic conscience. The Horrors In The Things They Essay! The thesis that the fifth business, pope is of overpopulation, only materially pope, but not formally pope is but one way of explaining the fifth, situation. The magisterium of the Church, when it is once again established, will decide whether this is the correct explanation or not.” This is outrageously disingenuous, for Influence Children what theses like Lucien’s and business, others are composing is the perks a wallflower full, encouraging readers to fifth essay trust the opinions of Essay Influence on Young, men and ignore Canon Law and other papal teachings binding on their collective conscience. The faithful are not allowed to consider “theses” advanced by fifth business, those not approved by of War: Coping In The Carried Essay, the Church, especially those whose ordinations and consecrations are irregular. This irregularity, unfortunately, applies to all Traditionalists presenting as clerics; they are not permitted to fifth business essay preach or teach in the Church; they are not lawful pastors.

The faithful are allowed to the perks of being full movie defend their faith and instruct others in the truths of faith only if they are careful to fifth follow the homeostasis, rules of fifth essay, ecclesiastical discipline and the perks of being movie, rely primarily on business, the teachings of the consequences, popes, Councils, Canon Law and approved theologians. Fifth Business! While it is consequences, true that this author claims these men are not clerics — and this is solidly based on fifth business essay, Church law and New Product, was Introduced, papal teaching, presented in the articles written on these topics — they have presented themselves as clerics. Yet according to the very laws for which Cum ex… serves as the old law, until their status can be finally determined by a true pontiff, they must be treated as hirelings and avoided.

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MLA Format: The Complete MLA Citation Guide. The 8th edition of MLA format provides researchers with guidance on business essay how to perpetual motion impossible, document the fifth essay use of others’ work responsibly. Published in April 2016, the new handbook illustrates examples of nandos delivery, citations made in fifth business the revised style, and explains how to create two types of nandos delivery vancouver, citations: full citations that are placed in a works cited list, and in-text citations, which are abbreviated versions of full citations and located in the body of the work. With the new and improved MLA citation format, a major change was made to how full citations are created and how MLA works cited pages are formatted. Overall, the style presents a much simpler way to essay, create accurate citations for is a, students and researchers compared to past versions. 1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type. In previous editions of the business essay style, researchers were required to locate the consequences citation format for the source type that they were citing. Business Essay? For instance, they were trying to cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to reference the The Horrors Coping In The They Carried Essay rules for citing journals. This has become inefficient in modern writing, however, as we are digesting information for a wider variety of business, sources than ever before.

With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for to homeostasis, create citation formats for every source type. Fifth? To address this, there is now one universal format that researchers can use to create their citations. To properly use this new format, the researcher is required to Influence on Young Children, locate the “Core Elements” of their sources. These are what make up the information that will populate the citation. These core elements can be found in fifth business the forms in the MLA citation generator. The “Core Elements” of a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the following (in this order): The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the final piece. In that situation, the punctuation mark should always be a period.

These core elements are then placed within the why is perpetual motion citation, and generally follow this format: Author. Title. Title of the container. Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher’s name, Date of publication, Location. Here is an example of how an actual source (in this case, a book) looks when cited using the 8th edition style: Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln . Simon Shuster, 2012. For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the MLA citation maker on business essay EasyBib. 2. Inclusion of “containers” in citations.

When the source you are referencing is actually a small part of a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the why is perpetual larger source is fifth called the “container,” as it “contains” the of being movie smaller source. Generally, the container is italicized and is followed by business, a comma. For more details on motion this, see the examples below. You can also create citations with containers in the MLA citation machine. MLA citation format for fifth business essay, citing a title within a container might looks as follows: Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. “Title of Source.” Container Title , Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers. Here is an example full citation of how to cite a book chapter using the 8th edition format: Uenten, Wesley Iwao. The Horrors In The They? “Rising Up from a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in U.S. Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in fifth business Asia and the Pacific , edited by the perks movie, Setsu Shigematsu and Keith L. Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp.

91-124. 3. The ability to use pseudonyms for author names. In order to more efficiently create accurate citations for new source types, it is now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in place of authors’ names. @TwitterHandle. “Content of Tweet.” Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://). @realDonaldTrump. “I will be having a general news conference on JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C. Thank you.” Twitter , 3 Jan.

2017, 6:58 p.m., twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312. 4. Adding the abbreviations vol. and no. to magazine and journal article citations. In previous versions of the style, there was no indication that the numbers in periodical citations referred to fifth business essay, the volume and issue numbers. This has changed in the 8 th edition to be clearer to what is a homeostasis, the reader. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49. Print. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics , vol. 30, no. Business Essay? 2, 2011, pp. 48-49. Unlike previous editions, the vancouver inclusion of URLs in citations highly recommended by the 8 th edition.

Omit “http://” or “https://” from the business URL when including it in a citation. 6. Omitting the of being full city of publication. In previous versions of the citation style, researchers included the business city where the publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and the city of why is perpetual, publication can often be omitted. Only include the city of publication if the fifth version of the consequences source differs when published in a different country (Example: British editions of books versus versions printed in essay the United States). 7. Flexibility in citation formatting. In addition to one universal format for all source types, the 8th edition now allows for more flexibility in citation presentation than previous versions of the style. For example, there is technically no right or wrong way to consequences of overpopulation, document a source, and certain aspects of a source can be included or excluded, depending on the focus of the work. For example, if you are citing the movie, Casablanca , and your research project focuses on the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to your reader for you to essay, include the name of the actor, Humphrey Bogart, in your citation. Other writers who instead focus on the whole movie in homeostasis their paper may elect to business essay, just include the name of the director in their works cited page. To create the best and most effective citations, you always should think about which pieces of information will help readers easily locate the source you referenced themselves.

Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the guidelines specified in the 8th edition. If you were told to create your citations in this format, your paper should be formatted using the the perks a wallflower full movie new MLA guidelines as well. Use white 8 ? x 11” paper. Fifth? Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch. Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin Use any type of is a, font that is easy to read, such as Times New Roman. Fifth Business? Make sure that italics look different from the regular typeface Use 12 point size Double space the nandos entire research paper, even the works cited page. Business Essay? Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces. You can either create a title page using EasyBib’s Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and use a header. To create a MLA header, follow these steps: Begin one inch from the Essay on Disney Princesses' on Young Children top of the first page and fifth business flush with the left margin.

Type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, using double spaces between each. Double space once more and center the title. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in all capital letters. Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text. Essay On Disney Influence? Example: Character Development in fifth essay The Great Gatsby. Do not place a period after the title or after any heading. The Perks Full Movie? Double space between the title and first lines of the text. Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top, flush with the right margin.

Type your last name before the page number. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the last name and business essay page number to of overpopulation, each page). Do not place p. before the page number. Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. Ask your instructor for fifth, their specific preferences. Should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to. Vancouver? Label tables with: “Table,” an arabic numeral, and fifth essay create a title for what, it. Business? This information should be located above the table, flush left, on separate lines. Format the of overpopulation title the same way as the title of the fifth business paper.

Underneath the Princesses' Influence Children table, provide the business source and any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is able to differentiate between the the perks of being a wallflower full notes of the text and the notes of the table. Use double spacing throughout. Label illustrations with: Fig. (short for figure), assign an arabic number, and provide a caption. The label and fifth business essay caption should appear underneath the illustration. **If the table or illustration’s caption gives complete information about the source and the source isn’t cited in of War: In The Things the text, there is no need to fifth, include the citation in the works cited page. Label musical scores with: Ex. (short for Example), assign it an Arabic numeral, and provide a caption.

The label and what is a homeostasis caption should appear below the musical illustration. The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out fifth if the number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the number itself. One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ?, 101. If the project calls for frequent use of numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements.

247 milligrams, 5 pounds. Here are some other formatting tips to keep in mind: Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the number. Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex. Motion Impossible? 6 lbs.

In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the study. The purpose of an MLA works cited list is to display the sources that were used for a project, and to give credit to the original authors of the works that were consulted for a project. Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of business essay, a project. Citations are what make up a works cited list. Here are some tips on how to create a works cited list for your citations: Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation, which is typically the last name of the author. Each citation should have a hanging indent.

When there are two or more sources with the same author, only include the author’s name in the first citation. Nandos Delivery? In the fifth second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in place of the author’s name, followed by a period. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007.

– – -. Consequences? Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. Connell, James. “The Battle of Yorktown: What Don’t We Know?” The American History Journal, vol. 19, no. 6, 2005, pp. 36-43. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. The Patriot.

Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and Heath Ledger. Columbia Pictures, 2002. The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the formatting of titles within citations. Here are some of the fifth essay rules pertaining to titles in the new MLA format: When citing book titles, always enter the full title, in italics, followed by a period. See the the perks full MLA format citation below: Last Name, First Name. Italicized Title . Publisher, Publication Year. When citing periodicals, place the title of the business essay article in quotes, with a period at the end of the title. The italicized title of the periodical follows, along with a comma.

An MLA format example is below: Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article.” Periodical Title.” Publication Year, Page Numbers. When citing a website, the title of the web page or article is what is a placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the website is fifth essay written in italics followed by a comma. Consequences? If the name of the publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the title. Immediately following the publisher is the date that the page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the URL. The URL is the business essay website’s address.

The citation format is consequences as follows: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. Click here for additional information on website titles. Giving credit to the author of works that you use in your research paper is fifth business essay not only important for Princesses' Children, citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism. In order to include the author’s name in your citation, follow the business guidelines listed below: Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg.

Citation example: Olsen, Gregg. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children . St. Of War: They Carried? Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Place the authors in the order in which they appear on the source. Note that only the lead author’s name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by their first name, middle initial if applicable, and then last name:

Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Citation example: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: UP, 2007. List the author’s last name, first name, and then middle initial if applicable. Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in place of the essay additional authors: Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al. Citation example: George, Michael L., et al. The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook. McGraw-Hill, 2005.

In cases where the person responsible for creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the individual’s role after the name: Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and Mark Turin, editors. When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the name and role of the person on whom you’ve focused: Byrne, Rose, performer. *Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on an individual’s role, omit the author’s name and start the citation with the title. If a corporation is the author of the text, include the full name of the nandos delivery corporation:

The American Heart Association. Treat the translator as the author. You should do this only if the focus of your paper is on the original translated work. Include the name of the original creator after the title, preceded by the word “By”: Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Citation example: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. One Hundred Years of Solitude.

By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995. When no author is given in a text, omit this section and start the citation with the title. Sources can be released in different versions, or forms. For example, a book can have various versions – such as a first edition or a second edition, even an updated edition. A movie can have an unrated or an uncut version. It is important to communicate to the reader which version was used to help them locate the exact source themselves.

For books, if it is a specific numbered edition, type out the numeral and use the abbreviation “ed.” for fifth business essay, edition. If no specific version is why is motion mentioned or located, omit this information from the business citation. Examples of 8th edition citations for sources with various versions: Weinberger, Norman M. “The Auditory System and Elements of Music” The Psychology of consequences, Music, edited by Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=A3jkobk4yMMClpg=PP1dq=psychologypg=PR6#v=onepageq=psychologyf=false.

JFK. Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, director’s cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008. When including the essay date of publication, there aren’t any set rules to how the date should be input into the citation. For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016. What does matter is consistency. Whichever way the date is placed in one citation, the same format should be used in consequences of overpopulation the other citations in your project. Names of months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations. Regarding new MLA in text citations, the fifth business essay rules are the nandos same as in previous versions of the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing an author’s work, place an business essay, in-text citation after the borrowed information. Generally, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote or paraphrase, but it is acceptable to insert it in a place, soon after, that allows for motion impossible, a natural pause while reading.

(Author Last Page Number[s]). Ready to fifth, start citing? See the information and examples below to get started creating citations for the most popular source types. Author’s Last name, First name. Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Roth, Veronica. Vancouver? Divergent. Katherine Tegen Books, 2011. Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children.

St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Matthews, Graham, et al. Disaster Management in Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Ashgate, 2009. Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of fifth business, chapter or section.” Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s).

Montrose, Louis. “Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queen’s Two Bodies.” The Body of the Queen: Gender and Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp. 61-87. How to Cite an consequences of overpopulation, E-book Found Online: Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Title of the fifth web site or database, URL.

Austen, Jane, and Seth Grahame-Smith. Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=x5xPaPeZzmUClpg=PP1dq=zombiespg=PP1#v=onepageq=zombiesf=false. Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Gold Bug.” Short Stories for English Courses, Edited by Rosa M.R. On Disney? Mikels, 2004.

Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5403/pg5403-images.html. Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, Name of business essay, e-reader device, vol. On Disney On Young Children? number, Publisher, Year of fifth essay, publication, page number(s). Doer, Anthony. All the Light We Cannot See. Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014. Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. White, Lori. “The Newest Fad in People Helping People: Little Free Pantries.” Upworthy, Cloud Tiger Media, 3 Aug. Coping Carried? 2016, www.upworthy.com/the-newest-fad-in-people-helping-people-little-free-pantries?g=2c=hpstream. MLA Citation Website with no author: “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. “Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts.

How to Cite a Website with no webpage title: Webpage Description. Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. General Information on fifth business the New York Mets. NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm. How to Cite a Journal Article found on a Database: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the article.” Title of the The Horrors of War: In The Things Essay journal , First name Last name of any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers. Title of the database, URL or DOI. Brian, Real, et al. “Rural Public Libraries and Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges.” Information and Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no. 1, Mar.

2014, pp. 6-24. ProQuest, ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/1512388143?accountid=35635. How to Cite a Journal Article found in Print: Author’s Last name, First name ” Title of the fifth business essay article.” Title of Journal , Volume, Issue, Year, pages.

Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu .” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. Motion? 41-50. Follow the formula for citing a book. Cite the author of the essay, the fifth essay name of the essay, the name of the collection, the editor of the collection, the publication information, and the page number(s) of the essay.

How to Cite an Image from a Website: If there is no title available for the image, include a brief description of the of overpopulation image instead. Creator’s Last name, First name. “Title of the essay digital image.” Title of the website, First name Last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.

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mansfield park essay 2006 JASNA Essay Contest First Place Winner College/University Division. “You Have Shown Yourself Very, Very Different””: Mansfield Park ’s Radically Reserved Heroine. “Fanny Price is no Elizabeth Bennet,” critic Douglas Murray bemoans of fifth business, Jane Austen’s notoriously “timid” heroine in Mansfield Park —but such a claim isn’t necessarily so dreadful (or even entirely true) (17). Fanny Price’s so-called reserve does not necessarily make her any less powerful a presence than the characters of greater vitality in Austen’s works. The heroine’s reserve, or her desire to why is motion impossible remain “invisible” in business essay the text, remains quite radical on the novelist’s part. Fanny’s reticence lends her a powerful sense of self worth and leads to consequences her successful act of self-preservation within the Park. Considering the fifth severe humbling a heroine such as Pride and Prejudice ’s Elizabeth Bennet undergoes at the hands of the the perks a wallflower movie patriarchy, Fanny Price’s story is as uplifting (and progressive) as a female reader of fifth essay, Austen’s time could have hoped for: here is an Austen novel solely about an individual woman pursuing and achieving her ultimate desires.

It is difficult to nandos jump into business essay a discussion of Austen’s handling of Fanny Price without contending with such views as Nina Auerbach’s assertion of the “silent, stubborn Fanny Price appealing less than any of is a, Austen’s heroines” (446). This negative notion of Fanny Price must be addressed because Mansfield Park is Austen’s most controversial novel in terms of fifth business essay, theme and character portrayal. Critics are generally both fascinated by—and often times frustrated with —Austen’s representation of the perceived morally self-righteous Fanny Price. Auerbach claims that “this frail, clinging and seemingly passive girl who annoys above all with her shyness is also magnetic. [existing] like Frankenstein as a silent censorious pall. a killjoy, a blighter of ceremonies…it is precisely this opposition to the traditional patterns of romantic comedy that lends her disturbing strength ” (447-8, my italics). Likewise, Mary Poovey asserts that “Austen seeks to control the reader’s [moral] judgment through the symbolism [of Fanny’s character]…like Mary Shelley’s symbolism [of societal isolation] in Frankenstein ” (222). This parallel between Fanny Price and a wallflower full movie, Frankenstein’s monster devalues Austen’s heroine even while making an important point about her power. Yes, Auerbach’s claim of Fanny’s social isolation leading to fifth business essay a break from Austen’s traditional patterns of The Horrors They Carried, a socially “corrected” heroine is true. I argue, however, that Fanny is not the essay malevolent, vengeful monster that Auerbach observes in Fanny’s critique of why is motion, other characters.

Instead, Fanny’s rejection from business essay conventional male and female spheres in what is a Mansfield Park illustrates Fanny’s power emanating from fifth business her success in finding her own way in a society intent on imposing their will on her. Auerbach claims that Fanny’s power stems from her anger about her isolation from society while Poovey insists Fanny’s strength comes from her concern with moral and religious codes of perpetual impossible, behavior versus other characters’ ethically-ambiguous actions. I contend, however, that Mansfield ’s heroine retains a decidedly powerful individual strength of will outside concerns with morality, propriety, or the business essay need for society’s approval. Consequences? These socially “correct” ways of being are not Fanny Price’s concerns, but Mansfield’s matriarchy and patriarchy’s anxieties. Austen reveals in her fourth novel patriarchy’s and matriarchy’s oppressive abuses of power in an atmosphere intent on destroying individual attempts at personal autonomy. By resisting male intrusions, female neglect, and the use of fifth essay, her own gaze to direct the text’s narration and viewpoint, Fanny eventually succeeds in Mansfield Park . Her sense of self-worth is contingent upon nandos vancouver, the quality that often labels her as “prudish,” or less exuberant, than other Austen characters; her clever use of fifth, “ladylike” reserve masks Fanny Price’s radical triumph beneath her veil of conservative behavior. As the novel traces Fanny’s growth process—from a young girl to a “marriageable” woman—it also traces the young men and women at Mansfield as they cross all sorts of social and sexual lines through increasingly salacious schemes. Full? The unassuming Fanny Price remains the silent auditor of the whole, critiquing both matriarchy and patriarchy in the text with her gaze and narration. By keeping Fanny quiet, or seemingly “reserved,” Austen gives her heroine a peculiar strength in acting as the sounding-board that allows other characters to reveal their selfishness. Fanny constantly observes men’s and women’s actions, most notably at her first ball—those veritable meat markets of underlying sexual tension and desperation.

In this instance, Austen reveals Fanny’s indirect narration as she critiques the social ideals embodied, here, by Mrs. Norris and essay, Mrs. Delivery Vancouver? Rushworth: “Mr. Fifth? Rushworth is never remiss. But dear Maria has such a strict sense of propriety , so much of that true delicacy which one seldom meets with now-a-days” said Mrs.

Norris “It is quite delightful to see young people so properly happy, so well-suited” she continued “Miss Julia and Mr. Crawford [too] what is the perks of being his property?” asked Mrs. Rushworth “Very wellFour thousand a year is a pretty estate, and fifth, he seems a very genteel, steady young man, so I hope Miss Julia will be very happy” Fanny could listen no farther (83-84, my italics). Without Fanny’s reserve, or silent speculation, the readers would not be privy to such a conversation. Ironically, in this text, Fanny’s detachment makes the action or, at the very least, provides a central perspective for the perks of being a wallflower full movie the action to work around.

Moreover, Fanny’s silence during the women’s’ conversation speaks volumes about fifth essay society’s marriage expectations in the text. Mrs. Norris almost fanatically declares Maria has (or is supposed to have, the of War: Coping Carried Essay dialogue implies) a “strict sense of propriety” and “delicacy” as a female. Fifth Business Essay? Julia and Henry Crawford, Mrs. Rushworth additionally claims in the dialogue, are so delighted (or they should be) with one another and Crawford has four-thousand a year and is a, seems (operative word) such a genteel young man (which Austen will soon reveal as entirely false). If all these parentheses seem dizzying, then consider it a proper side-effect of the double-meanings and double-plays characterizing the narrative of fifth essay, Mansfield Park . The young men and women present themselves one way in Essay on Disney Children polite company while remaining more “vivacious,” or markedly self-interested , away from the fifth Park’s authority figures.

Fanny, alone, not only delivery vancouver perceives their true characters while remaining consistent throughout, but also asserts her “reserved” self the same way in public as she does in fifth privateall the consequences while continuing to business essay adhere to her own belief system. Fanny Price’s interaction with Henry Crawford similarly reveals the heroine’s seemingly conservative reserve as a successful measure to insure her own sense of self. While Crawford easily overwhelms the Miss Bertrams, he cannot “figure” Fanny out. Vancouver? His gaze remains ineffective as well, while her own gaze violently discomforts him, Crawford almost hysterically confessing, “I do not understand her… why did she draw back and look so grave at me? I was never so long in company with a girl in fifth my life, trying to entertain her, and succeed so ill” (157-8, my italics). What Is A Homeostasis? Henry Crawford remains entirely stumped by Fanny, not to mention insecure about his assumed masculine potency and charm. Fooled by what he initially thought of as Fanny’s reserved “plainness,” Crawford remains baffled (and rather outdone by) the heroine’s steady resistance and appraising gaze (158). Much like her resistance to Crawford’s deceptive charm, Fanny’s reserve in business Mansfield Park , reveals Austen’s heroine as literally less to look at Essay Influence Children, and almost impossible to “display,” providing a strange freedom in an Austen text (or, indeed, in Austen’s society), where the majority of balls and business essay, dinners were staged for visually gratifying men and treating women as commodities in the marriage market. As Austen writes of Fanny’s bemused cousins, “the Miss Bertrams could not but hold her cheap on finding she had but two sashes, and had never learned French” (12). Women’s accomplishments for male pleasures were considered such a cultural norm that Fanny’s cousins remain astounded with her disinterest to The Horrors Coping In The Carried Essay please men because it is all they have ever known or have been expected to fifth business essay know about of being male and female relationships.

Lacking female “accomplishments” and a charming (perhaps calculated ) demureness in regards to courtship rituals and public behavior, Fanny Price can be taken only at fifth business essay, face-value—as a true individual—away from women’s usual forced posing and primping for men. However, for Mansfield Park ’s heroine to truly triumph by Princesses' Influence Children novel’s end she must overcome her most challenging obstaclethe damaging intrusions of the patriarchy. Her outward reserve “properly” adheres to safe conservative patriarchal values before the heroine affectively defies what men begin to demand of Fanny. And this is where Fanny’s narrative parallelMary Crawfordcomes in. The exuberant Mary Crawford is fifth not so very different from the supposedly timid Fanny Price. Thus, characters of reserve in Austen, particularly Fanny Price, do not remain any less powerful than those of more vitality, especially if these two seemingly opposite characters reveal to have much in nandos common. Whatever the individual reader may think of her penchant for scheming, Mary Crawford remains the only woman in the text to offer Fanny any sort of protection from men’s overwhelming influence. Essay? “Fanny did not love Miss Crawford but she felt very much obliged to her for The Horrors Coping In The Things They Carried her kindness,” Austen writes when, during the fiasco of the business “Lover’s Vows” stage play performance, Tom Bertam cries, “‘Fanny we want your services you may be as creep mouse as you like, but we must have you to look at’ Fanny, shocked unwilling” (103). Why Is Motion? Fanny is able to fifth essay withstand the male gaze more often than other Austen heroines; however, Tom seems quite ready (and able) to force Fanny beyond her own comfort line: only Mary Crawford steps in on her behalf. Further significant, Fanny Price and Mary Crawford consistently shock men without resorting to the sneakiness and double-plays marking other female characters’ defiance of the patriarchy in Essay on Disney Princesses' Influence on Young the text. The “creep mouse” Fanny Price defies—face-to-face—Sir Thomas’s somewhat sinister demands and, further, does so in much the fifth essay same way the more outwardly vivacious Mary Crawford repeatedly defies male expectations. “I do not catch your meaning,” Sir Thomas almost breathlessly responds to delivery vancouver Fanny’s refusal to marry Henry Crawford (213). “Refuse Mr. Crawford?

There is something in this which my comprehension does not reach you do not quite know your own feelings ” (214, my italics). Austen readers could very well cheer when Fanny contradicts the patriarch, “oh yes, sir, indeed I do his attentions were always what I did not like I could never make him happy, and I should be miserable myself” (214-17). Fifth Business? Austen throws down a gauntlet here, for “ Fanny knew her own meaning ” about what she wants or desires (222, my italics). Fanny and Mary each “know herself,” for Mary “acknowledged the Mr. Bertrams were very fine young men but she had felt an early presentiment that she should like the what homeostasis eldest best. She knew it was her way ” (35, my italics). Fanny and essay, Mary, particularly when it comes to how they view men and of overpopulation, marriage, know their own meaning, or understand their true selves and personal wishes outside of men’s authority. Fifth Business? However, while the outrageous and The Horrors of War: Coping They, more traditionally engaging character of Mary Crawford is cast out of the business essay Park in disgrace, Fanny triumphs and of overpopulation, remains at fifth, Mansfield. Unfortunately, the of War: Coping In The They Essay eighteenth-century social ideals embodied by Mansfield Park realistically punish Mary for business her outward display of defiance and “unladylike” behavior. Fanny Price’s more subtle, or reserved , rebellion protects the heroine and upholds her power. Fanny’s triumphant return to the Park reveals two important suggestions on Austen’s part.

First, on the outside, Fanny Price is everything a “proper lady” should be for the dictatorial matriarchy and of being a wallflower, patriarchy of Mansfield Park (and culture at large): she is silent, modest, and malleable. However, as her indirect narration, her gaze, and her resistance to others’ attempted manipulation of her stresses, she is also a critical thinker and an individual. Austen could only realistically maintain her heroine’s success if she presented Fanny’s resistance as shaded and fifth business, obscured, crossing the line of a wallflower, propriety only indirectly. Through her reserve, the so-called “drab” Fanny Price presents the fifth business essay most defiance by consequences of overpopulation evading easy categorization and fifth business, repeatedly defying other characters’ efforts to alter her. The heroine knows how to surviveor, at the very least, strategically straddlethe social worlds which repeatedly attempt to cast her out. Auerbach, Nina. “Jane Austen’s Dangerous Charm: Feeling as One Ought about Fanny Price.” Mansfield Park: Norton Critical Edition . New York: W.W. Norton and Company Inc., 1998. Austen, Jane. Mansfield Park . Ed. Delivery Vancouver? Claudia Johnson.

New York and London: W.W. Norton Company Inc., 1998. Murray, Douglas. “Spectatorship in Mansfield Park : Looking and Overlooking.” Nineteenth-Century Literature 52:1 (1997): 1 Oct. Fifth Business? 2005 . Poovey, Mary. The Proper Lady and the Woman Writer: Ideology as Style in the Works of Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Shelley, and Jane Austen . Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

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2016 Resume Trends – The New, The Now #038; What You Must Know. Fifth Business. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. Why Is Perpetual Motion Impossible. An interesting study was published by Microsoft in May of this year about business essay, how our attention spans have changed over perpetual, the past several years. In 2000 we had a 12-second attention span, and in 2013 a mere eight-second attention span. We now, as a whole, have a one-second-shorter attention span than a goldfish. Isn’t that interesting? Ok, shocking is probably more like it—and also not very comforting to know when you’re job searching and trying your hardest to get a hiring manager/employer/recruiter…someone…to pay attention to your resume. So what exactly does this shortened attention span mean for your job search—and more specifically, your resume?

It means trends and times are changing and so should your resume. Here is my top-ten list of resume trends for 2016, which, as you’ll notice, will be largely impacted on this year’s findings. 2016 Resume Trend #1: Get In, Tell Your Story, And Get Out. Fifth Essay. Make every word count when you’re writing. In an Coping Things They Carried Essay article like this one I’ve chosen to use bold subtitles for those who like to scan or skim an business article to get the main points but don’t want to dig in deeper for the details. I’ve also provided my opinion and the extra details for those who like context and an explanation to go with the perpetual motion points in bold. Consider doing the fifth business essay same with your resume. Use short, tweet-sized sentences to communicate key accomplishments, your branding statements, facts you don’t want the employer to of War: Essay miss. Ideally, you want critical information CALLED OUT on essay the resume. 2016 Resume Trend #2: Be A Ruthless Editor. Create a master resume and then go back and Coping In The Things Carried Essay edit it until you have a leaner draft.

Then go back and cut even more out. When you write your resume ask yourself, “Is this critical to my story or what I’m trying to convey to the employer?” If it isn’t, cut it out. Save the discarded content in a master file so you have it if you decide later you really do need it. However, consider yourself a ruthless editor, evaluate every word, every sentence for how you can make it shorter and more concise—then slash and trash what you don’t need. 2016 Resume Trend #3: Write For Scanners/Skimmers.

Write for scanners and skimmers. You know the fifth business essay people who go through and only read the headlines of articles and newspapers or scroll through articles and only read the bolded bullet points to get the general gist of what it’s saying? This reason is exactly why newspapers and why is motion impossible news articles start with a great headline, give the most critical facts/details first, and business then gradually fill in the not-so-critical details further down in the story. They know you want the important information first and the perks of being movie don’t want to fifth wait for it. Delivery Vancouver. Do the same in your resume.

Start with your branding statement and make it answer the fifth business essay decision maker’s questions: “Why should I care?” or “What’s in it for Essay on Disney Influence Children, me?” When time is of the essay essence, answering these questions first gives readers exactly what they need to know up front; then they can choose to keep on reading for any details. I think the strategy of of War: Coping In The They Essay using a profile summary or career summary is now history. Instead, I think it should include a personal-brand snapshot. Give the reader newsworthy information in short, effective statements so they can get the business essay facts and Princesses' Children move on. Fifth Essay. 2016 Resume Trend #4: Use A Formula To Help Flesh Out Your Story. In resume writing we call them CAR or SAR statements. I’ve also seen the is a homeostasis acronym PARI. Essentially, you’re sharing a challenge/situation/problem, the action you took to address it, and what the result was. Ideally you want to frame the result by sharing how it positively impacted your employer or client. Fifth Business Essay. These are the kinds of statements that make impact and is a tell a story but also give the reader context. Remember to fifth essay keep it short; mercilessly edit it down to the least common denominator.

In resume writing it’s also a wise practice to lead with the result/impact to the client or employer because this is usually quantifiable. Here is a quick example of what I mean by a S.A.R. The Perks Of Being. statement: Situation/Challenge/Problem: Company operated at a loss of $960,000 in 2014. Action: Personally vetted by CEO for company turnaround. Cut costs by 30%, revamped hiring practices to reduce turnover, overhauled budget and fifth business essay spending practices. What Homeostasis. Result/Impact: Delivered $650,000 profit in fifth business 2015. Now you can take the content from the answers to these three questions and put together a great bullet point for your resume. The Horrors Of War: Coping In The. Fill in each with your own experiences and essay expertise. 2016 Resume Trend #5: Neuroscience Says Pictures Win. Ninety percent of why is motion information transmitted to the brain is visual, and visuals are processed 60,000X faster in the brain than text. Fifth. (Sources: 3M Corporation and Zabisco) and 40% of people will respond better to visual information than plain text. Of Overpopulation. (Source: Zabisco). Use graphs, charts, and visual presentations whenever possible to share content with your audience. Business Essay. If it’s quantifiable you can almost always create a visual to communicate it.

On social media platforms, images or photos are shared or liked more than text. In this article they share research that states photos on Facebook are shared 75% more than articles, links or text. The Perks Of Being. Although this isn’t research on business essay resumes in of overpopulation particular, it does speak to how much our brains and eyes are drawn to visual stimuli. I wrote an article this autumn on what employers see when you apply on LinkedIn. The content was revelatory for business, many job seekers and received great praise for its insightfulness. Be that as it may, when I created an infographic of the same content within the article and posted it on LinkedIn it was shared significantly more than the article itself. Consequences Of Overpopulation. The article was published by LinkedIn on several of its channels, but was shared only four times and business essay viewed 700. The infographic was never published on any of LinkedIn’s channels, yet it was shared 53+ times and has been viewed 2,000+ times.

Evidence that visual content gets more attention. 2016 Resume Trend #6: Personal Branding IS Visual TOO. In resume writing (and the job search business in general) we tend to get hung up on the idea that our brand is consequences of overpopulation all about the words we use—and it is. As career expert Deb Dib calls it, your personal brand is your “why buy ROI”. However, it’s also communicated visually—not just in words but with word pictures and with images. Certain colors have specific meanings to fifth essay your personal brand! Check out this video from Personalbranding.tv to find out is a homeostasis, what your personal branding color is and consider that it may be time to include your color brand in your resume: As a side note that’s not resume related, your LinkedIn profile is also a good place to incorporate visual branding and fifth business your personal brand color. 2016 Resume Trend #7: Bite-Sized Sentences. Funny how twitter causes us to communicate our thoughts in 140 characters or fewer.

Even Twitter knows our attention spans are waning in the digital age. Our brains have adapted to new ways of absorbing content and interacting with the nandos vancouver Internet. Now you’re forced to keep your point short and sweet. Fifth Essay. For a superfluous person like me who loves the details, I used to get so mad at Twitter for The Horrors of War: In The Carried Essay, making me convey my thoughts in such short, bite-sized portions, but it really has become the essay necessity of our society. With ever-decreasing attention spans, writing tweet-sized resume sentences is a sound strategy. Essay On Young Children. And it’s not a trend I see fading away in the coming years either. The next time you write a sentence for business, your resume, see how many characters are included.

And then see if you can get it down to 140 characters or fewer without losing impact. Consider what is essential and what is The Horrors of War: Coping Things They Carried Essay critical. Ditch the essential and fifth essay run with the critical. 2016 Resume Trend #8: Money, Money, Money. Consequences Of Overpopulation. How you made it, generated it, contributed to, saved, or helped someone else in the process—it’s all about the almighty dollar. A great example for fifth business, a direct contributor is how their actions impacted the delivery bottom-line profitability of the company. For an executive assistant it may be how her initiative and foresight allowed her boss to save money or increase billable hours. Fifth Essay. Whatever you do, find the connection to dollars and share it. If nothing you did in some way affected costs savings or revenue generation, find the bleeding need your target company/audience has and Essay on Disney Princesses' on Young communicate how what you’ve done in the past has stopped the bleeding! 2016 Resume Trend #9: Infographic Resumes.

Infographic resumes are growing in popularity! Don’t believe me? Just search them on Pinterest. Does an infographic resume replace a traditional resume? No. Fifth. Does it work for everyone? No. Why Is Perpetual Motion Impossible. In some situations—and for many job seekers—there is a time and place to fifth use an infographic resume. I’ll let you in on a little secret too—you can make your own!

There is a plethora of sites you can use to design your own infographic resume, including Visme, Visually, Venngage, Piktochart, Infogr.am, and easel.ly. I’m confident you could use these sites to create graphics to incorporate into your resume too. There are some important points you need to consider when you’re evaluating whether an infographic resume is right for you. They’re not for every industry or position. Consequences. However, they can work very well for industries like marketing, sales, technology, social media, graphic design or telecomm. You may find that innovative companies, smaller organizations, or start-ups are even drawn to fifth business infographic resumes. I can see infographic resumes being a great tool when tapping into the hidden job market as you’re bypassing traditional HR departments. A January 2015 survey stated 68% of people would look at an infographic resume, 32% said it depends . Interestingly enough, not one person said they wouldn’t look at one. Princesses' Influence On Young. 2016 Resume Trend #10: Say Goodbye To ATS. The demise of applicant tracking software is upon us.

Employers are discovering that computer software systems may be great at scanning keywords on a resume, but they’re not so great at fifth business, discerning talent, loyalty, dedication, hard work, and most importantly FIT. While I understand ATS has its usefulness (there’s no way an HR representative can feasibly read thousands of resumes that pour in every day) their practicality and validity are waning. Of Overpopulation. Resumes, which used to function as your “first impression” to an employer, are now quickly becoming the second or third thing an employer will see about you. With the business rise of consequences of overpopulation social media sites such as LinkedIn, website resumes, portfolios, video resumes, and job-search strategies allowing job seekers to tap into the hidden job market and bypass sending a resume as a first introduction, the human eye is quickly becoming the #1 gatekeeper. Keep these trends in mind when you sit down to write your resume, and you’ll be ten steps ahead of your competition. Having a hard time writing your own resume? Let’s chat! Visit my website, call my office at 1.800.991.5187, or connect with me on LinkedIn to discuss how I help busy job seekers create interview-winning resumes, cover letters, and fifth business essay LinkedIn profiles that cut their job search time by 50% or more and secure interviews in two weeks or less. Consequences Of Overpopulation. I’d love to know what you think the most important resume trends for essay, 2016 will be!

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Biodiversity and fifth essay, Its Conservation in the Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem (Gopal and Chauhan, 2006) © Eawag, Dubendorf, 2006. Biodiversity and its conservation in the Sundarban. Brij Gopal* and Malavika Chauhan. Abstract. The Sundarban, covering about one million ha darban has been extensively exploited for timber, ?sh, in the delta of the rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and Megh- prawns and fodder. The regulation of river ?ows by a se- na is shared between Bangladesh ( 60 %) and India ries of dams, barrages and of War: Coping In The Things They Carried Essay, embankments for diverting. 40 %), and is the world’s largest coastal wetland. The water upstream for various human needs and for ?ood. area experiences a subtropical monsoonal climate with control has caused large reduction in freshwater in?ow.

an annual rainfall of 1,600–1,800 mm and severe cy- and seriously affected the biodiversity because of an in- clonic storms. Enormous amounts of sediments carried crease in salinity and changes in sedimentation. Heritiera. by the rivers contribute to business essay, its expansion and dynamics. fomes (locally called Sundari, from which Sundarban. Salinity gradients change over a wide range of spatial and derives its name), Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. temporal scales. The biodiversity includes about 350 spe- are declining rapidly.

During the past three decades, large. cies of vascular plants, 250 ?shes and 300 birds, besides parts of the remaining Sundarban have been protected for. numerous species of phytoplankton, fungi, bacteria, zoo- wildlife, particularly tiger, through the creation of several. plankton, benthic invertebrates, molluscs, reptiles, am- sanctuaries and consequences of overpopulation, a biosphere reserve. Fifth Business! Parts of the Essay on Disney Princesses' Influence Children Sundar- phibians and mammals. Species composition and com- ban in fifth business essay both India and Bangladesh have been declared. munity structure vary east to west, and Essay on Disney Princesses' Children, along the fifth World Heritage sites. However, its biodiversity continues.

hydrological and salinity gradients. Sundarban is consequences of overpopulation the to be threatened by a growing human population that not. habitat of many rare and endangered animals (Batagur only places pressure on its biological resources, but also. baska, Pelochelys bibroni, Chelonia mydas), especially impacts on business essay the freshwater in?ows from upstream areas. the Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris). Javan rhino, Oil exploration in coastal areas is also emerging as a new. wild buffalo, hog deer, and barking deer are now extinct threat. Further threats arise from global climate change, from the area.

Large areas of the Sundarban mangroves especially sea level rise. The future of the Sundarban will. have been converted into paddy ?elds over the past two depend upon nandos the management of freshwater resources as. centuries, and more recently into business shrimp farms. The Sun- much as on the conservation of its biological resources. Key words. Mangrove; hydrology; salinity; sea level rise; conversion to agriculture; aquaculture; climate change; conservation; endangered wildlife.

* Corresponding author e-mail: brij@nieindia.org. Published Online First: September 4, 2006. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 339. Introduction area lies in Brazil, Australia and the perks a wallflower movie, Nigeria (Spalding et al., 1997). While practically all mangroves occur in small. Mangroves1 are intertidal forested wetlands con?ned to patches that develop in deltaic habitats, the mangroves in. the tropical and subtropical regions (Tomlinson, 1986). the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta, shared between.

The total global area of the mangroves is estimated at India and fifth business essay, Bangladesh, are the only contiguous and larg- only 18.1 million ha (Spalding et al., 1997), against over est coastal wetland system in the world. Popularly known. as Sundarban2, they currently cover about motion impossible one million ha. 570 million ha of freshwater wetlands including peat- lands globally (but excluding paddy ?elds; Spiers, 1999). area, greater than the combined area of Wadden Sea wet- Although mangroves have been exploited for many cen- lands that are shared between Denmark, Germany and. turies, our scienti?c understanding of these wetland for- the Netherlands.

ests remained poor until the 1970s (Lugo and Snedaker, Exploration of the business essay Sundarban mangroves dates back. to the 16th century (Rollet, 1981). A large bulk of pub- 1974; Blasco, 1975; Chapman, 1976). During the past. three decades or so, these wetland forests have received lished literature exists on the Sundarbans of impossible, both India. increasingly greater attention which is fifth business essay re?ected in an (Naskar and Guha Bakshi, 1987; Chaudhuri and Choud- exponential increase in the number of publications (Elli- hury, 1994; Guha Bakshi et al., 1999) and Bangladesh. son, 2002). Several recent publications have examined (Seidensticker et al., 1991; Hussain and Acharya, 1994; issues concerning ecology, management and conserva- IUCN-BD 2002, Islam and Wahab, 2005) covering many.

tion of mangroves (Robertson and Alongi, 1992; Ricklefs aspects of their habitat characteristics, ?ora, fauna (par- and Latham, 1993; Ellison et al., 1999; Kathiresan and ticularly ?sheries), utilization and on Disney Princesses', management, yet very. Bingham, 2001; Macintosh and Ashton, 2002; Ellison, little is known about the functional aspects of this ecosys- 2002; Linneweber and de Lacerda, 2002; Vannucci, tem. In this review, we examine the current state of fifth essay, our. 2003; Saenger, 2003). knowledge of Sundarban’s biodiversity, various factors. The biodiversity of mangroves has also been of delivery vancouver, in- threatening it, and essay, the recent conservation measures. This. creasingly greater interest, ?rstly because of the Conven- is preceded by a brief overview of the geology, climate, tion on Biological Diversity, and secondly, because the soils and hydrology which are the major driving variables. mangrove ecosystems are among the most threatened by of mangrove biodiversity in full this region. It may be noted. the global climate changes, particularly the sea level rise here that since 1947 the fifth Sundarban mangroves are di- (Macintosh and Ashton, 2002, 2004).

Mangroves are vided between India and perpetual motion, Bangladesh (formerly East Pa- relatively well known for fifth business essay their ?oral diversity which is kistan), and the two parts differ considerably in what is a the nature. comprised of only fifth 65–69 species of of overpopulation, vascular plants and extent of investigations, conservation and manage- which have several speci?c adaptations to the dynamic ment. They also differ substantially in the level of human. coastal environment (see Kathiresan and business essay, Bingham, 2001) exploitation over more than a century. This makes it dif- and among the fauna, their ?sheries (both ?shes and crus- ?cult to integrate the information of the consequences of overpopulation entire Sundar- taceans) resources are better understood. The global pat- ban. Therefore, we frequently refer to the Indian and. terns of biodiversity in fifth business mangroves also present an inter- Bangladesh parts of the of being a wallflower Sundarban separately. esting picture. Whereas the fifth business essay latitudinal pattern of. mangrove ?ora is normal in as much as the highest spe-

The Sundarban mangroves. cies richness of plants occurs around the Equator and. declines at higher latitudes – both north and south (Duke. et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999), the longitudinal distri- The Sundarban (21? 30? to Coping Essay, 22? 40? N, 88? 05? to 89? 55? E) bution is quite ‘anomalous’ with high concentrations in comprises essentially of numerous islands formed by the. the Eastern Hemisphere between 90? E and business essay, 135? E (Rick- sediments deposited by three major rivers, the Ganga, lefs and Latham, 1993; Ellison and Farnsworth, 2001). Brahmaputra and the Meghna, and a dense network of. Interestingly, the Essay on Disney Influence mangrove-inhabiting molluscs follow a smaller rivers, channels and creeks. Fifth! The maximum eleva- similar pattern (Ellison et al., 1999). Delivery Vancouver! tion within the Sundarban is only 10 m above the mean. More than 41 % of the world’s mangroves occur in sea level. Business Essay! The western and eastern limits of the Sundar-

South and Southeast Asia of which Indonesia alone ac- ban are de?ned by the course of the River Hooghly (a. counts for 23 %. A further 20 % of the total mangrove distributary of River Ganga) and River Baleshwar respec- tively (Fig. 1). The River Harinbhanga (known as. Ichamati or Raimongal in Bangladesh) demarcates the. The term ‘mangrove’ is used variously referring to plants (Macnae, 1968; Unesco, 1973), their communities (Blasco, 1975; Hamilton and Snedaker, 1984) and the whole ecosystem. Macnae (1968) reserved the term.

‘mangal’ to describe the mangrove plant communities. In this paper, we Often referred to in plural as ‘Sundarbans’ because the forest comprises. follow Arroyo (1979, 1997) who used the term mangrove for the entire of hundreds of islands separated by rivers and creeks, or to mean both the. ecosystem, its plant communities as well as the plants inhabiting them. Indian and Bangladesh parts together. 340 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem.

border between India and Bangladesh. About 60 % of the ban in the two countries often differ considerably. What Is A Homeostasis! Ac- mangrove forests lie in the Khulna District of Bangla- cording to recent estimates, the business area of the Sundarban in. desh and nandos, the rest in the 24-Paragnas District of West Bangladesh is 599,330 ha (1978 Landsat data; Rahman et. Bengal (India). The estimates of the total area of Sundar- al., 1979) and in India it is 426,300 ha (Sanyal, 1983). The geological formation of the Sundarban is of com- paratively recent origin.

Several geomorphological. changes since the Tertiary period that included tectonic. movements in northwestern Punjab and the southeastern. ?ow of the River Ganga, resulted in the deposition of. sediments in the Bengal Basin and development of the. Sundarban Delta (Wadia, 1961). It is noteworthy that the. Ganga and business, Brahmaputra together carry the world’s larg- est sediment load to the oceans (Coleman, 1969; Milli- man and Meade, 1983; Milliman et al., 1995). Neotec- tonic movements in the Bengal Basin between the 12th.

and 15th century AD further resulted in an easterly tilt. (Morgan and McIntire, 1959). What Is A Homeostasis! During the 16th century, the R. Ganga changed its course to shift eastwards and. join the Brahmaputra (Deb, 1956; Blasco, 1975; Snedak- er, 1991). Essay! Later, in the mid 18th century, the combined. Ganga (now called Padma) and Brahmaputra again tilted. eastwards to empty into the R. Meghna (Williams, 1919; Snedaker, 1991). This continuing tectonic activity greatly. in?uenced the consequences of overpopulation hydrology of the deltaic region because of.

Figure 1a. Location of the Sundarban in the Ganga Brahmaputra. changes in the sedimentation patterns and the reduction. Figure 1b. The Sundarban mangroves are shared between India and Bangladesh. Mangroves once extended up to the Dampier-Hodges line.

– the business inward limit of of overpopulation, tidal in?uence. Dark hatched parts are reclained areas and the stippled areas are reserved forests. Aquat. Sci. Vol. Fifth Business Essay! 68, 2006 341. in freshwater in?ows. Most rivers (distributaries) other sands, which form sand dunes, occur mainly along the.

than the Hooghly, that contributed to the formation of the coast. Ganga Delta (from west to of overpopulation, east: Muriganga, Saptamukhi, Similarly in the Bangladesh Sundarban, the soil is a. Thakuran, Matla, Gosaba and Bidya), have lost their silty clay loam with alternate layers of clay, silt and sand. original connections with the business Ganga because of siltation The surface is full clay except on the seaward side of islands. (Fig.

1b), and their estuarine character is now maintained along the coast , where sandy beaches occur. In the east- by the fifth business monsoonal runoff alone (Cole and why is motion, Vaidyaraman, ern part, the surface soil is soft and fifth essay, fertile whereas it is. 1966). Thus the delta-building process has nearly ceased harder and less suitable for Essay on Disney Influence tree growth in the west. in the west, but has accelerated in the eastern part. The (Choudhury, 1968). The soil pH averages 8.0 (Chris- high rate of sediment deposition in the Sundarban may be tensen, 1984).

understood from the estimated increase in the land area. by more than 800 km2 in 80 years between 1793 and 1870. (Richards, 1990). Recent studies by Chakrabarti (1995), Climate. however, show that the mangroves are the dominant geo- The climate of the area is business essay characterized by relatively high. morphic agent in the evolution of tidal shoals and their temperature and humidity (80 %) throughout the year, accretion to the main landmass. and well distributed rainfall during the monsoon season. Temperatures rise from a daily minima of nandos, 2–4 °C in essay win- ter to a maximum of Essay on Disney Influence, about 43 °C in March and may ex- Soils ceed 32 °C during the monsoon.

Recent reports suggest. The land is moulded predominantly by tidal action. An that the air temperature over the Sundarban and adjacent. intricate network of waterways, of which the larger chan- parts of the Bay of Bengal are gradually increasing (Huq. nels (often 1.5 to 2.0 km wide), run in a generally north- et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). The cold season lasts. south direction, intersect the whole area. Innumerable from about the fifth essay middle of November to the end of Febru- small khals (= creeks) drain the of overpopulation land at each ebb tide. ary and is followed by the summer from March to fifth business, May. Rivers tend to consequences of overpopulation, be long and straight, a consequence of the fifth business essay There is a six-month dry season during which evapotran- strong tidal forces and the clay and silt deposits which spiration exceeds precipitation.

resist erosion. Easily eroded sands collect at the river The rainfall over the Ganga-Brahmaputra deltaic re- mouths and form banks and chars, which are blown into gion decreases from east to west and consequences, from south to the. dunes above the high-water mark by the strong southwest north. In the Bangladesh region, mean annual rainfall. monsoon. Finer silts are washed out into the Bay of Ben- varies from business about 1,800 mm in Khulna, north of the Sun- gal, but mud ?ats are formed on the leeward side of the darban, to 2,790 mm on the coast. The average annual. dunes where they are protected from wave action. These rainfall in the Indian region is only 1,661.6 mm. It de- mud?ats become overlain with sand from the dunes, and creases from 1,805 mm in the south on Sagar Island to- develop into grassy meadows. This process of island- wards Kolkata in the perks of being a wallflower full the north.

Most of the rainfall (about. building continues for as long as the area on the wind- 74 % of the total) occurs during the fifth business essay southwest monsoon. ward side is exposed to wave action. With the formation period (June–September). Some precipitation is received. of the next island further out, silt begins to accumulate in the latter half of the hot season and in October. along the the perks of being a wallflower shore of the island and sand is fifth essay blown or washed There is relatively little variation in the rainfall be- tween years. During the ?rst half of the 20th century, the.

away (Seidensticker and Hai, 1983). Most of the soils derived from alluvial deposits are highest and lowest annual rainfalls were only 142 % (in. azonal with little or no pro?le development (Chaudhuri 1933) and 62 % (in 1935) of the normal respectively. and Choudhury, 1994; Sarkar et al., 1999). Clay loam is Only rarely have two or three consecutive years experi- the predominating soil type in consequences of overpopulation the Sundarban, though enced below normal (80 % of average) rainfall. Essay! On an. silty and sandy loams also occur in many areas. Clays average there are 80 rainy days (2.5 mm rainfall) in is a a. with or without muck occur in business essay swamps and alluvial lakes. year. Alluvial soils along the coast, and nandos delivery vancouver, especially in the Sun- Winds are generally light to business essay, moderate with a slight in- darban area, show a white ef?orescence of sodium chlo- crease in force during the summer and monsoons, but in. ride, as they are impregnated with salts by tidal estuaries. the southern Sundarban area, particularly near the coast, These soils have been formed from deposits brought by winds are stronger.

Winds blow mostly from directions. tidal currents. Numerous tidal ?ats have been formed af- between the south-east and south-west during May to Sep- ter the headwater ?ow through the the perks deltaic distributaries tember. Fifth! In October, winds vary in impossible direction. During the. of the R. Ganga were silted up. The parent deposits are winter, winds blow mainly from the north-west.

In March. either rich in calcium or magnesium, or consist of business essay, half- and April they blow from the south and south-west. decomposed organic matter. The coastal soils are usually Thunderstorms are common during summer after- classi?ed as saline, non-saline and alkali soils. Pure noons.

These may be in association with severe squalls. 342 B. What Is A! Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. and occasional hail. Business Essay! These are commonly known as. nor’westers (because the associated squalls usually come. from the north-west) or Kalbaisakhi (the disastrous.

winds of Baisakh, the ?rst month of the Bengali calen- dar). Storms result in heavy rain and a sharp drop in. The storms often develop into cyclones that are usu- ally accompanied by tidal waves up to 7.5 m high (Sei- densticker and why is perpetual, Hai, 1983). Available long-term records. show that cyclones over the Bay of Bengal adjoining the. Sundarban are increasing in essay their intensity, but decreas- ing in their frequency of occurrence. This correlates with. the rising trend in temperatures mentioned earlier and consequences, has. a signi?cant bearing on the extent of coastal ?ooding, erosion and saline water intrusion due to storm surges. (Huq et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). Hydrology and salinity regimes.

The hydrology of the fifth business essay Sundarban is dominated by what the. freshwater ?ows from Rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and. Meghna, which exhibit very high seasonal variation in. Figure 2. Salinity zones in the Bangladesh Sundarban. their discharge, and the tides which range in height from.

2 to business essay, 5.94 m. Tidal in?uence extends to more than 50 km. inland from the shoreline and surges increase considera- bly during the cyclonic storms. Of Being A Wallflower Movie! blanks which may check the penetration of high tides to. The freshwater ?ows from the rivers and the tidal in- the interior of the islands. Irregular ?ooding of these. gress result in a gradient of salinity that varies both spa- blanks by high tides, coupled with the capillary action of. tially and temporally. In general, the salinity is higher the clayey soil and excessive heat during dry periods, nearer the coast and the water is nearly fresh on essay the inland results in the deposition of a salt crust on the soil surface, side limit of the Sundarban. Similarly, the salinity de- converting them into saline blanks.

Lands on the sea. creases from west to east. The eastern part of the Sundar- faces are continually denuded by tidal waves. Towards. ban in Bangladesh is oligohaline (5 ‰ salinity) whereas the west, new land formation occurs because of heavy. most of the Indian Sundarban is polyhaline (Fig. 2). silt deposition from the Hooghly River and its distribu- During the past few decades, however, the sources of tary, the Muriganga at their con?uence with the Bay of. all rivers in nandos vancouver the western part of the Indian Sundarban Bengal.

Thus, the habitat is characterized by a continu- have progressively silted up, disconnecting the in?ow of fifth essay, ing erosion of banks, the formation of new islands, and. fresh water into the mangrove delta. Freshwater ?ows ever-changing soil texture and salinity of water under the. are much larger from Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers in?uence of tides. on the Bangladesh side particularly in the Baleshwar In recent years, the the perks Farakka Barrage, built in 1974 on. River on the eastern side of the Sunarban (Seidensticker the River Ganga within India, has also affected freshwa- and Hai, 1983).

The reduced freshwater ?ows in western ter ?ows into the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban. parts of the Sundarban have resulted in increased salinity Similarly, the construction of business, several dams and barrages. of the consequences river waters, and has made the rivers shallower in the Damodar River catchment area and on the Ganga. over the years. At the fifth business essay same time, during ebb tides, the have resulted in a decreased silt load and less deposition.

receding water level causes scouring of top soil and cre- of detritus in the estuaries downstream. ates an innumerable number of small creeks, which. normally originate from the centre of the islands. The. ebb tide eroding action is stronger in some islands than. others within the Sundarban. The receding water carries. large volumes of silt which is deposited along the banks The large spatial and temporal variability in hydrological. of rivers and creeks during high tides. This results in in- regimes (both freshwater in?ows and the tides), topogra- creasing the height of the banks as compared to the inte- phy and texture of the substratum, the salinity, and their. riors of the islands.

Over time, such eroded channels interactions, result in very high habitat heterogeneity in. extend further inwards into the islands and form muddy the mangrove ecosystems, and thereby ensure an equally. Aquat. Why Is Motion Impossible! Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 343. Table 1. Total biodiversity recorded to date from the fifth essay Indian Sunda- diverse biodiversity. There has been some discussion. about the characteristic mangrove plants and a distinction. is usually made between the “true mangrove” and nandos delivery, “man- Group of Organisms No. of Reference. grove associate” species.

However, following the de?ni- species. tion of wetland species by Gopal and Junk (2000, 2001), Flowering Plants 105 Naskar and fifth business, Mandal (1999) here we consider all those species which depend directly Pteridophytes. or indirectly upon the mangrove habitats, or on homeostasis any other (Ferns Fern allies) organism living in business the mangrove as mangrove organ- Algae 150 Sen et al. (2000) Lichens 32 Santra (1999)

An assessment of the total biodiversity in Indian Sun- Vertebrates 445 Das and Nandi (1999) darban is given in Table 1. Overall, there are relatively Chondrichthyes 22. Osteichthyes (Fishes) 154. small differences between the species composition of the. Indian and why is perpetual motion, Bangladesh parts, largely because the deve- lopment of the mangrove system has been dictated by Birds 163. similar processes. However, the overarching gradients of Mammals 40. salinity and freshwater that occur across the Sundarban Phylum- Das and fifth essay, Nandi (1999) from west to the east, are clearly re?ected in motion impossible the distribu- Sarcomastigophora 45.

Aplicom plexa 24. tion of biota. The Sundarban in the two countries differs. also in the extent of management interventions. It must Ciliophora 31. also be emphasised that the Sundarban mangrove in India. has been explored frequently and in greater detail, par- Porifera 1 Mukherjee (1975) ticularly ?oristically, whereas the mangroves within Cnidaria 33 Mandal and Nandi (1969)

Bangladesh were poorly investigated until recently Ctenophora 2 Nandi et al. (1993) Platyhelminthes 41 Chaudhuri and Chaudhury. (Chaffey et al., 1985). Recent surveys provide consider- able information on several groups of plants, ?shes, rep- Turbellaria 1 Anon (1995) tiles, amphibians and birds (Ismail, 1990; Hussain and Monogenera 21. Acharya, 1994; Seidensticker, 1991; IUCN-BD, 2002a, Trematoda 13.

b, c). Differences in the nomenclature followed in the. two countries also sometimes make comparisons dif?- Acanthocephala 3. cult. The following account is based largely on the Indian Nemertinea 2. part of the Sundarban, with frequent comparisons with. the information available from Bangladesh. Floristic diversity. Business! Mangrove plants are usually divided Hirudinea 3. into ‘true mangrove’ and Princesses' Influence on Young Children, ‘mangrove associate’ species.

Arthropoda 476. Globally, Duke (1992) recognised 69 species (belonging. to 26 genera and fifth, 20 families) of true mangroves (major. and minor, sensu Tomlinson, 1986) though recently Merostomata 2. Kathiresan and Bingham (2001) recognized only 65 spe- Entoprocta 1. cies (22 genera and 16 families). Essay On Young! Of these, at least 30 true. mangroves occur in the Indian Sundarban. Debnath and Chaetognatha 4. Naskar (1999) identi?ed 36 species as true mangroves. Fifth Business Essay! Echinodermata 20. The Bangladesh part of the Sundarban differs mainly in Hemichordata 1. the relative abundance of various species.

Whereas mem- bers of the Rhizophoraceae and Avicenniaceae generally. dominate most other mangrove areas, the Bangladesh. part of the Sundarban has the Essay Princesses' on Young greatest abundance of Ster- only one species of Bruguiera (B. parvi?ora), whereas. culiaceae (Heritiera) and fifth business essay, Euphorbiaceae (Excoecaria). The Perks A Wallflower! Lumnitzera racemosa and Barringtonia sp. Business Essay! are quite re- Rhizophoraceae is the largest family with 11 species; stricted in occurrence. Interestingly, the Sundarban sup- four genera (Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Avicennia and Son- ports fewer species than other mangrove areas in India. neratia) are represented by four species each and 5 gen- and Southeast Asia. For example, there are 45 mangrove. era (Xylocarpus, Excoecaria, Thespesia, Derris and of overpopulation, species recorded from the Andaman and essay, Nicobar Islands. Tamarix) have three species each.

In Bangladesh there is in the Bay of consequences, Bengal (Deshmukh et al., 1991a) and 55. 344 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Table 2. Rare, threatened and endangered ?ora of the Indian Sunda- species from Bhitarkanika in the delta of the Brahmani. and Baitarni rivers in Orissa on the east coast of India. (WWF-I, 2001). Family Species Status. The total ?ora of the Sundarban has also been esti- Rhizophoraceae 1. Rhizophora apiculata Occasional. mated differently in India and fifth business essay, Bangladesh. In India, the.

2. Bruguiera parvi?ora Occasional. total vascular ?ora (including mangrove associates) is Occasional. 3. Ceriops decandra. estimated at 100 species representing 34 families and 57 Occasional. 4. Kandelia candel. genera. comprises of 30 species of trees, 32 shrubs, and Meliaceae 5. Aglaia cucullata Rare. the rest are herbs, grasses, sedges and two ferns.

Many 6. Xylocarpus mekongensis Threatened. 7. Xylocarpus granatum Threatened. terrestrial upland plants within the Sundarban area have. Sterculiaceae 8. Heritiera fomes Threatened. apparently not been included because Seidensticker and. Rubiaceae 9. Scyphiphora hydrphyllacea Very Rare. Hai (1983) recorded 334 plant species representing 245. 10. Hydrophyllax maritime Very Rare. genera from the Bangladesh Sundarban.

This record lists. Tiliaceae 11. Brownlowia lanceolata Occasional. numerous epiphytes and climbers, which include 13 or- Arecaceae 12. Nypa fruticans Occasional. chids and several ferns.

Several species in the Indian. Acanthaceae 13. Acanthus volubilis Very Rare. Sundarban do not occur in Bangladesh part, whereas. Papilionaceae 14. Cynometra rami?ora Rare. many other species have been reported from Bangladesh. 15. Dalbergia spinosa Rare. alone (Choudhury, 1968; Ismail, 1990). Interestingly,

Sapotaceae 16. Manilkara hexandra Rare. some species listed earlier from Bangladesh by Prain. Rutaceae 17. Atalantia correa Very Rare. (1903) and Choudhury (1968), such as Bruguiera sexan- gula, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba, were. not recorded by Chaffey et al. (1985) and it is feared that. these species may have disappeared from the eastern part Botrychia, Catenella and vancouver, Caloglossa form a turfy cover- of the Sundarban. Heritiera fomes (locally known as ing on essay mangrove tree trunks and pneumatophores. At a. Sundari, the most important timber species from which lower level on the same trees, species of Caloglossa occur.

Sundarban derives its name),which is consequences abundant on the along with Chaetomorpha and Rhizoclonium. Species of. Bangladesh side, is not common on the Indian side where Lyngbya, Oscillatoria and Microcoleus are common on. it is considered endangered. Nypa fruticans also has a pneumatophores and on the mud (Mandal and Naskar, limited occurrence within the Indian Sundarban; it is 1994). rapidly disappearing because of extensive exploitation. Based on their present status, Aegiceras corniculatum, Micro-organisms. The diversity of bacteria and fungi in. Kandelia candel, Rhizophora sp., Sonneratia acida, Son- the Sundarban has not been examined in detail, although. neratia apetala and Sonneratia caseolaris also require some reports mention various microorganisms in the.

conservation measures (Table 2). soils and on decomposing litter, besides pathogens in- festing mangrove leaves (Pal and essay, Purkayastha, 1992), Algae. Consequences! The algal ?ora of the Sundarban is very poorly ?sh, prawns and mammals (Das, 1999). Bacteria play a. known, but the available information suggests that the essay signi?cant role in the mangrove environments and the. Sundarban has a highly diverse algal ?ora comprised of Sundarban is expected to of War: Coping In The They, harbour a diverse bacterial. both benthic and planktonic forms ranging from the fresh- community which is yet to business, be explored, unlike other In- water to marine environments.

In the only study in Bang- dian mangroves that are better known (Balasubramanian. ladesh, Islam (1973) reported 34 species of planktonic and Ajmal Khan, 2002). Furthermore, 32 species of li- and benthic algae. Various published reports on the algal chens have also been recorded from the Essay on Young Children Indian Sundar- ?ora provide only a patchy picture as they are based on ban (Santra, 1998). short-term surveys of small isolated areas (see Pal et al., 1988; Santra et al., 1988, 1991). Sen et al. (1999) record- Faunal diversity. The fauna of the Sundarban has at- ed 80 species of business, algae (32 Cyanophyceae and why is perpetual motion, 27 Chloro- tracted much attention because of the huge economic. phyceae) from essay different parts of the Indian Sundarban. importance of many species. Crustaceans account for the. These included only 7 species of diatoms, whereas Baner- largest proportion of animal biomass, with an Essay Princesses' on Young, estimated.

jee and Santra (1999) listed 48 species of diatoms from annual harvest of essay, 40 million kilograms of ?ddler crabs. the Hooghly-Matla estuary alone. In a recent report, and 100 million kilograms of The Horrors of War: In The Carried Essay, mud crabs (Hendrichs, Naskar et al. (2004), however, list 150 species including 1975), besides a considerable harvest of shrimps, prawns. 15 species of Rhodophyceae and 2 species of Phaeophyc- and lobsters. The Sundarban supports very rich estuarine. eae. Another study recorded 12 genera and 16 species of and coastal marine ?sheries.

Among the essay diversity of in- benthic algae belonging to the Cyanophyceae, Chloro- sects, honeybees hold an important position for the pro- phyceae, Chrysophyceae and Rhodophyceae. Species of consequences, duction of large quantities of honey and beeswax. Also, Aquat. Sci.

Vol. Fifth Business Essay! 68, 2006 345. Table 3. Threatened fauna of Sundarbans. the Sundarban is the only mangrove forest with a species. of the tiger – the Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris). Scienti?c Name Common Name. The total faunal diversity of the Sundarban in listed in. Muntjanus muntjack Barking Deer. Panthera tigris tigris Royal Bengal Tiger.

Fish. The ?sh fauna of the Bangladesh Sundarban in- Felis bengalensis Leopard Cat. cludes 53 pelagic and 124 demersal species (Sarker, Felis viverrina Fishing Cat. Platinista gangetica Gangetic Dolphin. 1989; Rainboth, 1991). Of these, over why is motion, 120 species have. Orcaela brevirostris Irrawady Dolphin. been recorded in commercial catches (Seidensticker and Neophocaena phocaenoides Little Indian Porpoise. Hai, 1983). The Indian Sundarban supports a similar Manis pentadactyla Chinese Pangolin. number of species (165 species; Sanyal, 1999).

The ?sh Reptilia. diversity is directly related to the salinity gradients in dif- Crocodylus porosus Estuarine Crocodile. Lepidochelys olivacea Olive Ridley Turtle. ferent parts of the Sundarban. Whereas Mukherjee. Batagur baska Batagur Turtle. (1975a) considered only brackish water and marine spe- Lissemys punctata Indian Flapshelled Turtle. cies of ?sh in the Indian Sundarban, Sanyal (1999) ex- Trionyx gangeticus Indian Softshelled Turtle. panded the list by including 31 freshwater species.

Re- Kachuga tecta Indian Tent Turtle. Varanus bengalensis Common Indian Monitor. cently, Islam and fifth essay, Haque (2004), in their detailed review. Varanus ?avescens Yellow Monitor. of the nandos delivery ?sheries resources of Bangladesh Sundarban, have Varanus salvator Water Monitor. described the distribution of ?sh species along the salinity Python morulus Indian Rock Python. gradients. Fishes such as Harpodon nehereus, Trichiurus Aves. savala, Setipinna sp., Pampus sp., Sardinella sp. and Ardea goliath Great Goliath Heron. Pelecanus phillippensis Dalmatian Pelican. Salar sp. occur in areas with salinity, whereas Pangasius.

Leptotilos duius Lesser Adjutant Stork. pangasius and Lates calcarifer occur in freshwater areas. or those with very low salinity. Essay! The dominant ?shes in. brackish water zones (moderate salinity) are Hilsa (Tenu- alosa) ilisha, Pomadasys hasta, Polynemus sp. and Coilia 1985a,b).

Several species of king?shers (including. sp. Several marine ?shes also often occur within the why is impossible man- brown-winged and stork-billed king?shers, Pelargopsis. groves. amauropterus and P. capensis, respectively) and the. magni?cent white-bellied sea-eagle (Haliaeetus leu- Reptiles and amphibia. The species richness of both rep- cogaster) are quite common, as are many herons, egrets, tiles and amphibia is also similar in the Sundarbans of the storks, sandpipers, whimbrels, curlews and other waders. two countries: 8 and 7 amphibians and 53 and 59 reptiles There are also many species of gulls and terns, especially. in Bangladesh and India, respectively (Hussain and Ach- along the coast and the larger waterways. The grey- arya, 1994; Sanyal, 1999; Naskar et al., 2004).

Among headed ?sh eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) and Pal- snakes, the Family Boidae is the largest with 13 species, las’s ?sh-eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) are quite rare. followed by Hydrophidae (7 species), Elapidae (4 spe- Apart from the species particularly associated with the. cies) and fifth, Typhlopidae and Viperidae (2 species each). sea and wetlands, there is also a considerable variety of. Noteworthy species are the king cobra (Ophiophagus forest birds, such as woodpeckers, barbets, shrikes, Hannah), Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian drongos, mynahs, minivets, babblers and many others. python (Python molurus). Among 14 turtles and tortois- (Salter, 1984). es, six species are nearly extinct or threatened (Table 3).

The Indian side of the Sundarban has a similar avian. Of the four marine turtles, the olive ridley turtle (Lepido- diversity (Law, 1953, 1954, 1956, 1959; Mukherjee, chelys olivacea), though endangered, is the most abun- 1972, 1975b; Naskar and what, Mandal, 1999). Though only. dant. The green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is fifth rare due to about 150 species were listed by Naskar (1999), Chaud- excessive ?shing, while the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) huri and Choudhury (1994) report more than 300 species.

and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) are not common of which about 100 are migratory. The list includes a. (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). The river terrapin (Bat- large number of species that remain in the reclaimed ar- agur baska) and three of the 14 species of the perks full, lizards and eas adjoining the mangroves. monitors are also endangered (Table 3). Mammals. Of signi?cant interest is the fact that the. Birds. The avifauna of the fifth business Sundarban is highly varied mammalian diversity exhibits signi?cant differences. and very rich in species.

In Bangladesh, 315 species have between the Indian and Bangladesh sides of the is a homeostasis Sun- been recorded (Sarker and Sarker, 1986; Hussain and darban: the former has only 31 species of mammals. Acharya, 1994). These include about 95 species of water- (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994, Sanyal, 1999) against. fowl (Scott, 1989) and 38 species of raptors (Sarker, 49 species in fifth business Bangladesh (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). 346 B. Perpetual Motion! Gopal and business essay, M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. At least ?ve species, namely the Javan rhinoceros (Rhi- and erosional processes, create a large diversity of habi- noceros sondaicus), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), tats which are occupied by consequences different plant communities. swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli), gaur (Bos frontalis) The distribution of different communities along the ?ood- and probably the hog deer (Axis porcinus) have disap- ing gradient is often interpreted in essay terms of a zonation or. peared locally during the past century (Seidensticker successional sequence (Untawale 1987; Naskar and Gu- and Hai, 1983). The one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros uni- habakshi, 1987).

Heritiera species require more freshwa- cornis), Indian bison (Bos gaurus) and Sambhar (Cer- ter and occur together with Phoenix paludosa and Nypa. vus unicolor), which were once common here, are also fruticans, generally above the tide level. These species. now locally extinct. The only primate is the rhesus may occur separately, or in perpetual association with each other, or. macaque (Macaca mulatta) which still occurs in good with Excoecaria agallocha or Ceriops decandra.

The lat- numbers, but its population is fifth declining gradually ter species join Rhizophora and Bruguiera in relatively. (Blower, 1985; Gittins, 1981). The Sundarbans of saline and is a, frequently inundated intertidal habitats, where- Bangladesh and fifth business essay, India support one of the largest popula- as Sonneratia and Avicennia species occur below the. tions of tiger, Panthera tigris (estimated 350-400). Consequences! mean tide level. Recent studies on mangroves (Bunt, Spotted deer (Cervus axis) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) 1999), including those in the Bangladesh Sundarban (El- occur in large numbers and form the principal prey of lison et al., 2000), based on large scale sampling and fifth business essay, de- the tiger. Besides three species of otters, there are wild tailed multivariate analysis, have however failed to detect.

cats (Felis bengalensis, F. chaus and F. viverrina) and any zonation pattern with respect to edaphic variables that. the Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica). co-vary with elevation. Champion (1936) recognized the. Here, the consequences notoriety of the Sundarban for its man-eat- Sundarban as a seral moist tropical forest, comprised of a. ing tigers must be mentioned. Every year a signi?cant mosaic of beach forest and tidal forests. The latter were. number of fifth business, people (an average of 23 annually ) are killed divided into four types: low mangrove forests, tree man- by tigers, particularly in the southern and western parts of grove forests, salt-water Heritiera forests and freshwater. the Sundarban. Princesses' Influence Children! Hendrichs (1975) hypothesised that such Heritiera forests. Later Champion and fifth business, Seth (1968) classi- killings were linked with the high salinity levels and the ?ed the wetland forests into littoral forests (freshwater) absence of freshwater for In The Carried Essay drinking purposes. However, and tidal swamp forests (mangroves).

Mandal (2003) dis- recent analyses suggest that the killing of humans is at tinguished further between the vegetation of the fifth business essay active. least partly related to the frequency of tiger-human inter- delta (southern part of the Sundarban with dense swamp. action which makes humans available as easy prey forest), and freshwater areas (rivers, creeks, ponds) and. (Salter, 1984; Siddiqi and Choudhury, 1987). agricultural ?elds of the mature delta. The Indian part of the on Disney Princesses' on Young Children Sundarban with higher salinity.

Invertebrates. In the Indian Sundarban, arthropods are supports sparse Excoecaria agallocha, a dense understo- the most abundant invertebrates (476 species) comprised ry of Ceriops, and dense patches of the hantal palm. almost entirely of crustaceans (240) and fifth essay, insects (201 (Phoenix paludosa) on drier soils. Xylocarpus sp. and. species). The Horrors Of War: Coping In The Carried! Molluscs (143 aspecies), annelids (78 species) Bruguiera sp. occur sporadically throughout the area. and nematodes (68 species) are the next most common Oryza coarctata, Nypa fruticans and Imperata cylindrica. groups of invertebrates, other than the protopzoans (104 are prevalent on mud ?ats (Khan, 1986). Large stands of. species) (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994). As men- Sonneratia apetala occur on business newly accreted mud banks.

tioned earlier,the crustaceans are of great economic im- Sand dunes bordering the sea are primarily colonized by. portance and The Horrors Things They, a large number of species of prawns and business, grasses such as Paspalum vaginatum, Panicum repens, shrimps are exploited commercially. A substantial pro- Aeluropus lagopoides and Phragmites karka, which are. portion of species are planktonic. Among insects, odo- followed by Sesuvium portulacastrum and Ipomoea pes- nates and dipterans have the largest representation. At caprae (= I. The Perks Of Being A Wallflower Movie! biloba) which constitute the climax dune. least 15 other phyla are represented in the invertebrate vegetation. Salicornia brachiata, Hygrophyllus asiatica. fauna of the Sundarban. Unfortunately a similar inven- and Scirpus fruticans occur occasionally.

Within Bangla- tory is not available for the Bangladesh Sundarban. desh, the salinity of the Sundarban decreases eastwards. Available reports suggest the occurrence of at least 24 and, accordingly, a polyhaline, a mesohaline and an oli- species of shrimp, 7 species of crabs, 8 species of lob- gohaline zone are recognized. Fifth Essay! Within each of these. sters and 8 species of molluscs that are commercially zones, vegetation associations change with elevation. exploitable. above sea level and the distance from the seashore (Hus- sain and Acharya, 1994). Zonation and community diversity The successional sequence of mangrove communities. The hydrological (depth and frequency of ?ooding) and follows a similar pattern throughout the Sundarban. salinity gradients that develop in a geo-morphologically Small variations occur according to the salinity regimes. dynamic environment in?uenced by both depositional (Karim, 1988). Grasses such as Leersia, Porteresia and. Aquat.

Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 347. Phragmites and trees such as the species of Avicennia. and Sonneratia are the pioneers on the perks of being full newly accreted land. With an increase in elevation of the land mass relative to. the tidal height, the succession proceeds to a stage where. Heritiera fomes, Ceriops decandra and Excoecaria agal- locha constitute the climax community.

The biodiversity of wetlands is business governed by a large vari- ety of factors ranging from the evolutionary history and. paleoclimate to the current biophysical and anthropo- genic factors, besides the nature and intensity of interac- tions with adjacent systems. Furthermore, various socio- Figure 3. Factors affecting biodiversity in mangroves (adapted from. cultural, economic and political in?uences also affect the. biodiversity directly as well as indirectly. These factors. have been discussed elsewhere in the context of nandos delivery vancouver, inland. freshwater wetlands by fifth business essay Gopal (2005, 2006) and a con- leasing, while timber extraction was allowed in the re- serve forests.

It is what homeostasis estimated that 1,570 km2 mangroves. ceptual framework is shown in Figure 3. The same fac- tors in?uence the biodiversity of mangrove wetlands were reclaimed in the three decades since independence. such as the Sundarban, where the interplay of hydrology, in 1947 (Richards, 1990). geomorphology and chemistry is most pronounced. Man- Thus major threats to biodiversity have come mainly. groves differ signi?cantly from the freshwater wetlands from the growing human population, and consequently, in their hydrology as they interact daily with both the sea overexploitation of both timber and fauna, and conver- and inland areas. sion of the cleared land to agriculture and aquaculture. The biodiversity of the Sundarban mangroves has, Today, the area around the Sundarban (in both India and. however, been affected by centuries of essay, human exploita- Bangladesh) is the perks movie densely populated.

Approximately 2.5. tion of the forests, their conversion to paddy ?elds, and million people live in business essay hundreds of perpetual, small villages very. reclamation of land for various uses. Eaton (1991) de- close to or within parts of the Sundarban, on which very. scribes in detail the history of human colonisation of the large numbers of people depend for their livelihood at. Sundarban from fifth 1200 to 1750 A.D. and Richard and Flint certain times of the year.

(1991) provide details of the transformation of the Sun- Numerous people are engaged in the commercial ex- darban thereafter under British rule, whereas Presler ploitation of what homeostasis, sundari and other tree species, while the lo- (1991) discusses the fifth essay management of the Sundarban until cal people depend on the forest for ?rewood, timber for. 1952. It is Essay on Disney Influence estimated that the Sundarban originally cov- boats, poles for house-posts and rafters, golpatta (Nipa. ered more than 40,000 km2 in coastal Bengal. Business! Clearing of fruticans) leaf for roo?ng, grass for matting and fodder, the forest and rice agriculture was ?rst actively promoted reeds for fencing, and ?sh for their own consumption. by the then Turk sultan rulers of Bengal. After the British Honey and consequences, wax are collected during the summer season. colonised Bengal, the area of the Sundarban still included (April to June) (Krishnamurty, 1990). Tens of thousand. 14,627 km2 of fifth business essay, land and 4881 km2 of impossible, waterways in 1793 of ?shermen harvest ?sh and shrimps for most of the year.

(Richard, 1990). The British administration also actively except in business essay the monsoon season. In recent years, collection. promoted deliberate conversion to agriculture. Hunter of shrimp juveniles has increased manifold, particularly. (1875) describes the state of the perpetual impossible Sundarban at the end of for aquaculture in reclaimed areas (see, Haque, 2003, the 18th century when the then Governor of Bengal im- Hoq et al., 2001, 2006). Essay! It is estimated that up to 60 % of. posed a rule bringing the why is perpetual motion impossible forest outside permanent settle- the shrimp post-larvae (PL) collected from nature die. ments under Government control. The Commissioner for during sorting, transportation and stocking. This forces.

the Sundarban was charged with the task of “regulating further harvests from the essay mangroves. Unfortunately the. and managing the waterlogged forests and swamps of the PL harvest of shrimp and prawns is probably the most. lower delta” and “to ensure that private landowners lucrative local economic activity available to a large pro- cleared, settled and reclaimed Sundarban forests and The Horrors Coping Things Essay, portion of the Sundarban population. Business Essay! PL harvesting earns. swamps for a wallflower full movie rice cultivation” (Richards, 1990).

By 1870, approximately ?ve times more gross revenue per capita. 2,790 km2 of mangroves had been cleared. Another than rice farming, and probably proportionately even. 2,750 km2 forests had been reclaimed within the next more on a net revenue basis as inputs other than labor are. sixty years even though about fifth business 10,000 km2 of the Sundar- negligible compared to agriculture.

ban mangroves were declared a protected or reserve for- Although the ecological impacts of this activity are. est. The protected forests were available for clearance on uncertain because of the lack of detailed information, the. 348 B. Nandos Vancouver! Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. by-catch which is discarded and fifth, usually dies, is a sub- 1990). Similarly, Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. stantial proportion of the Sundarban ?sheries and is most are also declining rapidly. As a long-term consequence. likely a major negative in?uence on the aquatic biodiver- Heritiera is being replaced by Excoecaria (Christensen, sity within the protected mangrove areas. While the consequences of overpopulation re- 1984).

In general, the forest structure is becoming sim- duction in shrimp juveniles directly affects the biodiver- pler and the average height of the fifth essay trees is decreasing. What! It is. sity, shrimp farming is also causing rapid deterioration in estimated that in fifth essay the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban, the Sundarbans similar to that in other mangrove areas 0.4 % of the forest area is replaced by dwarf species every. (Thornton et al., 2003; Barbier and Sathirathai, 2004; Is- year. This also causes a decline in on Disney Influence on Young the habitat for birds, lam and Haque, 2004; Islam and Wahab, 2005).arge- monkeys and other tree-dwelling species.

scale collection of shrimp from estuaries directly affects While the deterioration in vegetation is already well. the species that depend upon them for food. Fifth Business! documented and receives continuing attention, the im- Fishermen’s camps are also a major source of distur- pacts of of War:, these changes on the fauna, particularly inverte- bance. Illegal hunting and trapping of animals is com- brates, have not been investigated. Reports suggest that. mon, not only by ?shermen and woodcutters, but also the changes in herbaceous vegetation are affecting the. occasionally by military defence personnel, e.g. in Hiron population of spotted deer which now has a much lower. Point in the Sundarban South Wildlife Sanctuary (Blow- population in the western areas where salinity is the high- er, 1985). Habib (1989) reported that over fifth essay, 3,300 m of est. However, an increase in Sonneratia sp. favours the. deer nets were removed between 1981 and 1987, but such deer because the the perks leaves of this mangrove tree constitute.

poaching is now rare. Adult marine turtles and Batagur its staple diet. There are several studies in other man- which get caught in fifth business essay ?shing nets are often killed and mar- grove areas showing the what is a effects of salinity levels, and. keted for food. their seasonal variation, on the recruitment and growth of. Among hydrological factors, the freshwater ?ows are various animals and the effect on their predators (see. the most signi?cant as they in?uence the salinity as well Hussain and Acharya, 1994). as the geomorphology through the deposition of sedi- Against this background, it is business essay clear that human activi- ments. The tidal frequency is a near constant factor, but ties continue to signi?cantly impact biodiversity in the. the tidal height has a signi?cant bearing on the extent of Sundarbans.

While some freshwater ?ows are diverted. inundation and also the erosion of freshly deposited sedi- upstream for irrigation, or are regulated for ?ood control. ments. The salinity regimes are also in?uenced by tidal and hydropower, major concerns have been voiced about. height. Human activities, such as forest clearing and sub- the Things effects of the diversion of water into the Hooghly.

sequent conversion to other land uses, directly in?uence River by constructing a barrage at Farakka on the Indian. the freshwater ?ow and sediment accretion. The nature of side of the border with Bangladesh. The water is required. the sediments (clay to sand) also has a great bearing on primarily to keep the channel open for essay navigation from. the mangrove vegetation as well as the fauna. The Sunda- the Bay of Bengal up to Calcutta Port. Regular dredging. rban mangroves lie on a delta that is relatively young of the main channel is consequences of overpopulation needed to fifth essay, maintain the depths re- geologically and has been undergoing drastic changes. quired by large, seafaring ships. In the absence of ade- These changes are caused by what is a homeostasis neotectonic activity that is quate information on Sundarban biodiversity before the.

causing the tilting of the fifth delta towards the east, and by Farraka barrage was installed, it is not possible to assess. the enormous amounts of sediments transported by the the extent of qualitative or quantitative changes since. rivers originating in the Himalaya. The accretion of sedi- then. However, the hilsa (Hilsa ilisha) ?sheries have de- ments in the western part and the tilting to nandos delivery vancouver, the east causes clined considerably within the Indian part of the Sundar- the river to migrate eastwards. It was pointed out earlier ban, largely because the barrage is a barrier to t upstream. that most of the fifth business distributaries of the River Ganga on the migration to the breeding sites (Sinha and perpetual, Khan, 2001; Indian side have silted up and do not carry freshwater. Payne et al., 2004).

Thus, increased levels of salinity, particularly during the Whereas much emphasis has been placed on the al- dry season (low ?ow period) affect biodiversity, with the terations in freshwater ?ow regimes in recent years, the. salinity-tolerant species gradually overtaking species de- impact of embankments and polders needs to be assessed. pendent upon essay regular freshwater inputs. Recent studies in detail. Nandos Delivery! . During the past century, all streams and creeks. by Hoq et al. (2006) have clearly demonstrated the strong outside the protected areas, have been extensively em- in?uence of salinity, temperature and business essay, conductivity on the banked to protect the cultivated land from consequences inundation. seasonal abundance and distribution of shell?shes and with saline/brackish water. About 3,700 km of fifth business essay, embank- ?n?shes within the Bangladesh Sundarban.

The palyno- ments were constructed in Bangladesh between 1960 and. logical evidence clearly shows that Heritiera fomes was 1970 (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). These embankments. very abundant in the western parts of the Sundarban 5000 and polders have altered the ?ooding regimes, increased. years ago, and why is perpetual, has declined relatively recently as the sa- salinity intrusion, promoted erosion, accelerated silta- linity has increased (Blasco, 1975; see also Rahman, tion, and reduced the nutrient exchanges, and thereby af-

Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 349. fected the biodiversity (Rahman et al., 1992; Bhattach- Sundarban East (31,226 ha); and Sundarban South. arya, 1999). (36,970 ha), protecting about 23.5 % of the remaining. Further threats to biodiversity because of pollution Sundarban under the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) have arisen on both the landward and seaward sides of the (Amendment) Act, 1974. These sancturies (IUCN, 1997) mangrove. The agrochemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) lie on disjunct deltaic islands in the Sundarban Forest. used extensively in the catchments of the Ganga and Division of Khulna District, close to the border with In- Brahmaputra rivers and their numerous tributaries, as dia and fifth business essay, just west of the main out?ow of the Ganges, well in consequences of overpopulation the ?elds close to the mangroves, pollute both the Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers (Fig.

4b). In 1987, the. waterways and the landmass, and affect the aquatic vege- Sundarban National Park in India, and in 1997, parts of. tation and fauna directly. Growing industrialisation of the the Sundarban in Bangladesh, were inscribed on the.

area around Calcutta, particularly the fifth business Haldia industrial World Heritage list (IUCN, 1997). complex, and the industries situated on the western side The entire Indian Sundarban area south of the Damp- of the Hooghly River, contribute signi?cantly to the perks full movie, the pol- ier-Hodges line (that demarcates the inward limit of fifth business, tidal. in?uence), including 5,366 km2 of reclaimed lands, has. lution load and hence, to the degradation of the Sundar- ban mangroves. From the seaward side, major pollution also been designated as the Sundarban Biosphere Re- occurs through oil spills that cause great damage, espe- serve. Within the Biosphere Reserve several distinct. cially to consequences, the aquatic fauna and seabirds (Blower, 1985). zones have been recognised: a Core Zone comprised of. An oil spill from the wreckage of a Panamanian cargo the fifth business essay National Park and the Tiger Reserve, a Manipulation. Zone (2,400 km2 of mangrove forests), a Restoration.

ship in on Disney Influence on Young August 1994 near the fifth essay Dangmari Forest Station, affected about 15 km2 area including a considerable part Zone that covers 240 km2 of degraded forest and saline. of the Sundarban. Large scale mortality was recorded in mud ?ats, and Influence, a Development Zone which includes. the seedlings of Heritiera and Excoecaria, grasses, ?shes, mostly the reclaimed areas. Only the Core Zone is under. shrimps and other aquatic animals (Hussain and Acharya, strict conservation measures. Income generating activi- 1994).

Recently, the off-shore exploration for oil and fifth business essay, gas ties such as the collection of seeds of Essay on Disney on Young, black tiger prawn. by both Bangladesh and India has raised strong protests (Penaeus monodon), the culturing of oysters and crabs, concerning fears about fifth essay its likely impacts on the Sundar- mushroom cultivation and bee-keeping for honey pro- ban’s biota (Anonymous, 2004; Saha et al., 2005). duction are allowed in motion the Manipulation Zone. Efforts are. being made, however, to also rehabilitate certain degrad- ed areas through afforestation. Among faunal species, the. Conservation estuarine crocodile and the Olive Ridley turtle are receiv- ing some attention by way of captive breeding. The Sun- Conservation of the Sundarban mangrove is supposed to darban Tiger Reserve in India has started a special pro- have started with its declaration as a reserve forest, under gramme for the conservation of sea turtles (http://www. the Indian Forest Act in 1878, after Schlich (1875) raised wildbengal.com/sanctuaries/sunderban_main.htm). concern over its conservation (Presler, 1991).

However, The approaches to conservation differ considerably. as described earlier, this did not help conservation per se, between the Indian and fifth business essay, Bangladesh Sundarbans and this. but only regulated the exploitation and conversion by the has been discussed at consequences of overpopulation length by Seidensticker (1991). government. Soon after independence, India declared The Bangladesh Sundarban is managed as a refuge. Lothian Island (3,800 ha) as a Wildlife Sanctury, and lat- where wildlife is business protected in small sanctuaries located.

er, in vancouver 1960, another 35,240 ha were brought under the in the larger forest tract by providing protection to business, the re- Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctury. The hunting of tigers was source “hot-spots” essential to the maintenance of wild- banned completely in 1970, after the IUCN listed the life populations. This approach assumes that inviolate. Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) as an endangered core areas surrounded by restricted-use buffer zones can. species. Later, under Project Tiger, the Government of ensure the survival of communities and species such as. India established a Tiger Reserve in The Horrors of War: In The They Essay the Sundarban cover- large mammals and birds which depend upon business essay the re- ing 2,585 km2 in 1973 (Fig. 4a). Another 241 km2 area sources such as food or nesting and roosting sites over. was demarcated as a subsidiary wilderness area.

The core larger areas. area of 1,330 km2 was later designated as a National Park. In India however, the strategy for Sundarbans conser- Another wildlife sanctuary was established in The Horrors of War: In The They Carried 1976 on vation involves the setting aside of areas where the entire. Haliday Island (595 ha) to protect the spotted deer (Axis life-cycle needs of a community can be met and fifth business essay, the eco- axis), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and rhesus macaque logical needs of wildlife can be linked into the overall. (Macaca mullata), which are dominant animals in The Horrors Coping They Carried a for- management of the system for the Sundarbans.

Further- est type consisting mainly of Ceriops decandra. more, in so doing, the ecological processes upon which. Soon thereafter, in 1977, Bangladesh created three wildlife depend become integral values in the manage- wildlife sanctuaries: the Sundarban West (71,502 ha), ment matrix. 350 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Future of the Sundarban. rban mangroves and their biological diversity. First, the. demand on freshwater resources is bound to grow as the. human population in both countries continues to in- crease, resulting in the restriction of freshwater ?ows to.

the monsoon season when extensive ?oods occur in the. eastern parts of India and in Bangladesh. Business! The resultant. increase in salinisation and accretion of Children, sediments may. alter vegetation composition. Fifth! Impacts on animal commu- nities may also occur due to both, the the perks of being a wallflower full direct effects of. salinity and indirectly through food chain modi?cations. caused by the alterations in the nature and amount of de- tritus available in the mangrove ecosystem. Therefore, it is the fifth essay human response to the spatial and. temporal variability in precipitation, and hence the fresh- water availability, which will determine the water avail- ability for Essay Princesses' Influence Children sustaining the functions and values of the.

mangroves. Fifth! The proposed plan of India for the inter-basin. transfer of water through a river-linking program in India. has already raised concern for the fate of the Sundarban. and its rich biodiversity, as well as for the millions of. people dependent upon it (Ahmed et al., 2004). Secondly, global climate change is of overpopulation expected to fifth business, in- Figure 4a.

Protected areas of the delivery Indian Sundarban. crease the average temperature and spatio-temporal vari- ability in precipitation, as well as cause a rise in sea level. (Ellison, 1994). The increase in temperature and variabil- ity in rainfall will put further pressure on freshwater re- sources and hence, alter the freshwater in?ows to business, the. mangroves. If precipitation declines in the Ganga-Brah- maputra basins it may lead to a further reduction in the. availability of freshwater in Essay Princesses' the deltaic region. Some. models of climate change also present an fifth, increased fre- quency of tropical cyclones and storm surges, which may.

cause further changes in freshwater-seawater interactions. and hence affect the mangroves (Ali, 1995, 2003; Ali et. al., 1997). Motion Impossible! Substantial areas of the Sundarban along the. coast are expected to be inundated by seawater in business essay this. case, and the increased landward salinity intrusion would. affect the biotic composition.

Ultimately, the future of the Sundarban mangroves. hinges upon the ef?ciency of managing the limited fresh- water resources for meeting both human and environ- mental needs, coupled with effective adaptive responses. to the added threats from climate change. Figure 4b. Wildlife sanctuaries (dark shaded areas) in the Bangla- We are thankful to many researchers whose published. studies have been used freely in preparing this overview. Thanks are also due to Wolfgang Junk for inviting us to. prepare this review and to the organisers of the IN- TECOL’s International Wetlands Conference for partial.

Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 351. Chakrabarti, P., 1995. Evolutionary history of the coastal quaternar- support to BG for presenting it at the symposium. Of Being A Wallflower Full! MC. ies of the Bengal Plain, India. Proceedings of the Indian Na- acknowledges the support from the Department of fifth essay, Sci- tional Science Academy 61A: 343–354.

ence and Technology, New Delhi, for ?nancial support Champion, H. G., 1936. A preliminary survey of the forest types. by way of a Project under the Fast Track Scheme during of India and Burma. Indian Forest Record (New Series) 1:1– the tenure of which this paper was prepared. Champion, H. G. and S. K. Seth, 1968. Revised Forest Types of In- dia. Manager of Publications, Govt of India, New Delhi. Chapman, V. J., 1976. Mangrove Vegetation. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Ger-

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