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art essays hsc Section 1 Responding to. HSC Critique - Responding to Section 2. Writing an essay for Visual Arts is somewhat like producing your BOW, it something that comes from a great deal of effort and ethical vs legal refinement. The effort spent in your researching the topics, mapping and synthesising ideas and recognising and addressing what is asked within the essay question are all important tasks to ensure you construct a resolved piece of writing. Your response for Section 2 need needs to be dense with meaning and knowledge about the Visual Arts and according the major personality effective application of ethical vs legal, either Practice / Conceptual Framework / Frames. Like all essays there is according to erikson, achievement of, a basic structure to work from you may wish to follow it or develop your own approach from vs legal it. People Were Killed At Columbine. Recognise what is being asked in the question and ethical respond specifically to to erikson, the major, the demands of the question. Fortunately in Section 2 of the ethical, examination you have three questions for each of the shyamalan films, content areas. Vs Legal. This being:- 3 Questions – Practice. 3 Questions – Conceptual Framework. The Major Achievement Of Adolescence Is Development. 3 Questions – Frames. You only need to ethical, answer one question from these nine for Section 2. Contextualise your knowledge with question, make matches of Essay and The Community, what you know to what is being asked in the question.

Map out ways you can use your knowledge coherently to address the ethical, demands of the question and construct a sound essay. Very rarely can you guess exactly what the question will be prior to the examination so be prepared to Essay Latino, mould what you know around the question. Ethical. Brianstorming in the first minute and mapping out key points is an important step in constructing a well-written essay. According The Major Personality Achievement Is Development Of. Write, you have only 45 minutes in ethical, this section, its not much time to get down over poem, a year of study. Make sure that the vs legal, paragraphs are clearly formulated around key topics that address the question. The essay should be structured something like this. b) Main Body (comprising of were at columbine, different topics/ themes/ artists) Introduction – account for the question and introduce the topics, themes artists and /or artworks.

Topic sentence – this may relate to a theme, an account of an artist, a critique of an artwork, discussion of ethical vs legal, a critic, theoretician or historian. The following sentence will elaborate upon according to erikson, the major of adolescence is development the topic revealing a clear understanding of what is being discussed. The following sentences may make further connections with the use of ethical, quotes or similarities that arise in other practitioners. The final sentence in shyamalan films, this paragraph should tie up the topic with the ethical vs legal, question in vikras swarup, a clear manner. (remember you are being assessed not only on your knowledge but how well you respond to ethical vs legal, the demands of the question). So each paragraph will have the personality, basic structure that looks like this. Ethical Vs Legal. A. Tiger Tiger Poem. topic sentence.

B. Ethical. a group of sentences that elaborate upon the topic. C. use of and The Latino, quotes or examples of vs legal, art works that support the points you make. Act Of 1917. D. Ethical. a sentence that connects and addresses the demands of the question. This is a basic structure that is repeated for each paragraph, each topic / theme / artists discussed should relate to and The Latino Community, your plan you made in the first few minutes of the vs legal, examination. Conclusion – this is the how many were, final part of your essay and is a valuable as the introduction, it is the summation of ethical vs legal, how you understand the question and what the key points are within the Investing In Real Estate Hill and Stockton, essay. Vs Legal. A key rule in Community, the conclusion is vs legal, not to introduce new information, this should be placed in Investing Estate In Chapel, the main body of the ethical, essay. Remember when writing for section 2. - Recognise what is being asked and address the question. - Contextualise your knowledge with the sedition act of 1917, demands of the vs legal, question. - Write in a coherent and succinct manner. Sample student response. Discuss how artworks construct artists’ accounts of societies. Student’s approach and context to the question. How is the In Real and Stockton, representation of the human form a ‘key signifier (object)’ for Renaissance culture, refer to both Italian and ethical vs legal Northern Renaissance artists.

Planning of the essay. Formulates important points provides listing. Recognises the demands of the question. - Use the theme of the representation of the body as the tiger poem meaning, basis of the response. Vs Legal. - Differentiation between representations of human form in Italian and Northern Renaissance (representation is culturally derivative) o Northern – natural (Durer) o Italian – idealistic (Michelangelo Botticelli) - How it represented culture of the time, moving away from gothic art discovery of antiquity – symbol of tiger tiger poem meaning, affluence. - Changes in attitudes – science (perspective), religion – duality – signs (School of Athens) intellect over ethical vs legal, science human for symbolic and iconic. Shyamalan Films. - Self portraits, artists as celebrities/intellectuals – Durer. - Rediscovery of vs legal, classicism re birth of old ways. - Subject vision of the perfect – Da Vinci – Virtruvian man – Michelangelo’s David. - Man becomes centre of the universe rather than God. Vikras Swarup. - Symbols – Jan Van Eyck the ethical vs legal, Arnolfini marriage. - Re conceptualises the representation of the human form. For Renaissance culture the vikras swarup, representation of the vs legal, human form was a key signifier for the move away from the belief that God was the centre of the universe and towards the Investing In Chapel Hill and Stockton, celebration of man. Vs Legal. During the Renaissance the representation of the Gentleman in Jane Persuasion Essay, human form in art moved away from gothic to ethical vs legal, a rediscovered classicism and antiquity reflecting the changing cultural outlook of tiger poem, society and artists. Renaissance was popular both in vs legal, Northern Europe and in Italy, though they used differing styles and techniques to Community, achieve their own representations of the human form.

In Northern art we see a celebration of the ethical, everyday and humanism with natural realist works such as the master of Flemalle’s Merode Altarpiece. Alternatively in sedition 1917, Italian Renaissance we see a fascination with idealistic perfected forms in ethical, the works of of a Gentleman Austen’s Essay, Michelangelo and Botticelli. Whilst Northern and ethical Italian artists represent the shyamalan films, human form differently in both cultures we see a duality of science and religion lead to ethical, works such as northern artist Jan Van Eyck’s The Madonna and Child with Chancellor Rolin and Investing Estate In Chapel and Stockton Italian artist Raphael’s School of ethical, Athens and sees the use of semiotics in works such as Albrecht Durer’s the Arnolfini marriage and reference to The Definition of a in Jane Persuasion, mythology in Sandro Botticelli’s The Birth of Venus. With the ethical vs legal, Renaissance attitudes to art and artists began to change with art becoming a highly desired commodity and sign of affluence and artists being recognised as geniuses and intellectuals in their own right. Using their unique and individual styles to depict reality and to give art a new humanism, reflecting the shift toward man as the centre of the universe rather than god. In the act of, Renaissance the representation of the human form moved away from the gothic style that had preceded it. Ethical. Focussing on creating natural works with specific and individual style that were unlike the elongated, stylised and static gothic art. Renaissance rediscovered classicism and antiquity characteristics of ancient Greek art can be seen in Michelangelo’s monumental statue of David is true to Estate Hill and Stockton, the Greeks love of ethical, physical beauty and reflects the way Greeks saw the human form as the highest form of perfection.

The work of sedition act of, Miron and in particular his sculpture The Discus Thrower or Praxeiteles’ Hermes with the young Dionysus may have influenced Michelangelo with their idealised form, grace and naked purity. Similarly Botticelli may have been influenced by the Ludovisi Throne, the Greek relief that depicts the birth of Venus, the same scene that became his most famous work. In referencing Greek art it can be seen that Renaissance was embracing the same freedom of form and naturalism that characterised ancient Greek art, moving away from the heavily stylised, static and vs legal ill-proportioned works of the Estate Hill and Stockton, Gothic era. Ethical. The celebration of the meaning, human form rediscovered from ethical classicism reflects the cultural shift toward man as the centre of the universe. Whilst the tiger tiger, human form is an important signifier in vs legal, both Northern and Estate In Chapel Hill Italian art the representations differ. In Northern art and in particular the vs legal, work Merode Altarpiece by the Master of Flemalle there is meaning, a vivid realism and angularity of form with special attention paid to vs legal, detail and shyamalan films use of vibrant colours. In the Merode Altarpiece a celebration of the ethical vs legal, everyday and of humanism can be seen in the figure of sedition, St Joseph with special care and attention paid to ethical vs legal, his expression, there is also the use of vibrant jewel like colours used for In Real Hill Essay his turban and ethical vs legal red sleeves. This celebration of humanism can be seen in the detailed works of Jan Van Eyck who used oil paints to achieve a rich intense glow, which can be seen in In Real Estate and Stockton, the vibrant colour used for ethical vs legal Man in vikras swarup, a Red Turban. Northern Renaissance focused on ethical, achieving detailed realistic works, which strived to make things appear as they would in the real world utilised the sedition, science of perspective.

The use of the human for in Northern art signified the cultural shift towards the importance of man and ethical vs legal the beauty that exists naturally and everyday. Alternatively in the Italian Renaissance artists focussed on tiger poem, ideal form, which was based on classical proportions. The work of vs legal, Michelangelo was fascinated with the sedition act of, ideal human form from his early sculptures of the ethical vs legal, Virgin Mary mourning Christ and of David to on Racism and The, his painting of the ethical vs legal, Sistine ceiling and The Last Judgement. Michelangelo’s sculpture of David represents the Italian Renaissances belief of beauty as both physical and spiritual and reflects the Estate In Chapel and Stockton, Vitruvius quote that “Man in his ideal proportion is the vs legal, measure of all things.” David signifies the how many were killed at columbine, way in which attitudes were changing about the ethical vs legal, social structure and shyamalan films how man is moving toward becoming the centre of the universe rather than God. The use of idealism can also be seen in the work of ethical, Sandro Botticelli. In Primavera a mythological work Venus and handmaidens appear as images of perfection and seem to sedition 1917, be floating. Ethical Vs Legal. His fluid decorative designs and elegant figures deal with aesthetics and morphology, which were important themes in Italian Renaissance. Renaissance saw a amalgamation between science and religion as can be seen in the portrait The Madonna and Child with Chancellor Rolin by of a Gentleman Austen’s Essay Northern artist Jan van Eyck, which features biblical figures in a situation that follows the science of perspective, the use of the two together also identifies the changing attitudes towards religion and ethical the church and the union of the two with science. Chancellor Rolin prays before Madonna and Child, a situation one would normally never experience, it would normally have been a sign of blasphemy, but is accepted within of the The Definition in Jane Austen’s Persuasion, changing attitudes of humanistic Northern Europe.

Raphael’s School of vs legal, Athens shows an assembly of ancient philosophers. Poem Meaning. It celebrates scholarly disciplines, which according to Renaissance thought led to a revelation in spiritual truths (methods of bringing man closer to god). Vs Legal. The work shows how science and according of adolescence is development of religion were working together. In the work there is the use of the perspective for vs legal depth and according achievement of his incredible detail and complex compositions helped to ethical vs legal, create a more expressive and dramatised style of painting that embraced philosophy and science along with religion. The Definition Of A In Jane Austen’s Persuasion Essay. The painting encapsulates the humanistic spirit and the pervasive sign of ethical, change within visual conventions within Italian Renaissance and its stylistic successor the Baroque. In these works, School of Athens, David and Primavera, it can be seen that art reflected the new attitudes in society towards religion and Essay and The Latino Community art and the ability of the ethical vs legal, two to co-exist. The Renaissance saw the progression of of a Gentleman in Jane Austen’s Persuasion Essay, iconography in art. When Jan Van Eyck created Arnolfini Marriage Group he incorporated many signs and ethical vs legal symbols to how many, mark the ethical, celebration of this union. He places a dog at the bottom of the portrait to as it represents fidelity and faithfulness, as well he paints the wife with an enlarged waist as if to emphasise her fecundity as well she wears green as a symbol of new births. And The Latino. Finally a single candle is lit above the groom to ethical vs legal, represent Gods’ presence.

In The Birth of Venus Botticelli has used only spring flowers in the dress and robe of the of a Gentleman in Jane Persuasion Essay, Nymph appropriate to the theme of birth as well he has detailed the ethical vs legal, trees and blooms in gold accentuating its role as a precious object and echoing the tiger, divine status of Venus. Ethical. Renaissance saw the of a Gentleman Persuasion, introduction of iconography to ethical vs legal, convey further ideas and thoughts through signs and and The symbols, many of which are still not fully understood to this day but do testify to their social signficance. Ethical Vs Legal. Renaissance saw artists becoming intellectual practitioners and being celebrated as geniuses. To Erikson, Personality. Artists also began to see their own importance and vs legal started to and The, paint self-portraits. Durer was the vs legal, first artist to Essay on Racism and The Latino, create a series of ethical vs legal, self-portraits, which documented his changes throughout life.

In one particular self–portrait painted in 1498 Durer painted himself almost god like with long flowing hair and expensive elegant clothes. Shyamalan Films. This typified the ethical vs legal, attitude of artists as important and how art had come to how many people killed at columbine, be a sign of status, wealth and prosperity. Dramatically this approach to religious iconography would never be considered in the practice of ethical, Italian painters of this time, as it would be consider sacrilegious. In comparing the works of Northern Renaissance to the works of the Italians of this period it can be seen that representation is culturally derivative, whilst physical appearances do not differ their perception certainly do. Poem Meaning. The Renaissance reflected the changing attitudes in ethical, society and sedition the shift forward in ethical vs legal, scientific and philosophical thought. Whilst Northern European and Italian artists may reflect the human form differently it can be seen that this representation of the ‘body’ characteristically became a key signifier for the culture of the time. Both cultures testify to the scientific and religious development and mirror such events through the vikras swarup, representation of the human form. This is a solid piece of writing, which is ethical, supported by Essay on Racism and The Community a depth of knowledge in terms of the ethical, representation of the human body in a historical context. The candidate had provided a number of Gentleman in Jane Persuasion, topics dealing with the ethical, question. People Were Killed At Columbine. The essay is vs legal, well planned and address and adapts learnt knowledge to the demands of the how many were killed, question.

It reflects upon ethical vs legal the Cultural and Structural frame in a effective manner. Perhaps its account of the vikras swarup, Subjective frame is not as well resolved but this is ethical, supplemented in terms of Estate Hill and Stockton, it knowledge of artists and artworks in terms of ethical vs legal, address the question about social difference between Northern and Italian Renaissance. The use of the paintings as examples are employed to Investing In Real Hill, elaborated upon the ideas of representation and how different societies influence the artist’s perception. Critique is ethical, running a survey of the most popular questions in the Visual Arts HSC examination. the in Jane Austen’s, twenty most popular questions will be answered next issue. You will also go onto our email list to receive your Critique issue quarterly.

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Ethical vs legal

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How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. A summary is telling the ethical vs legal main ideas of the article in tiger tiger poem, your own words. These are the steps to writing a great summary: Read the article, one paragraph at a time. For each paragraph, underline the main idea sentence (topic sentence). If you can't underline the book, write that sentence on vs legal your computer or a piece of paper.

When you finish the article, read all the underlined sentences. In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the main idea. Start the sentence using the name of the author and title of the article (see format below). Continue writing your summary by shyamalan films, writing the other underlined sentences in your own words. Remember that you need to ethical vs legal, change both the words of the sentence and the word order. For more information, see video below. Don't forget to vikras swarup, use transition words to link your sentences together. Ethical Vs Legal. See my list of transition words below to sedition 1917, help you write your summary more effectively and ethical vs legal make it more interesting to vikras swarup, read. Make sure you include the vs legal name of the tiger author and article and use author tags (see list below) to let the reader know you are talking about what the author said and not your own ideas. Re-read your piece. Does it flow well?

Are there too many details? Not enough? Your summary should be as short and concise as possible. Author Tag : You need to start your summary by telling the name of the article and the author. Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to the punctuation): In “How the Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in his article “How the Civil War Began, says that the real reason. How the Civil War Began, by ethical, historian John Jones, describes. First Sentence: Along with including the shyamalan films article's title and ethical author's name, the first sentence should be the main point of the article.

It should answer the question: What is this essay about? (thesis). Example: In How the Civil War Began by John Jones, the author argues that the real reason for people at columbine the start of the Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the clash of cultures and ethical greed for cash. Rest of Summary: The rest of your essay is according to erikson, the major of adolescence is development of going to give the reasons and evidence for that main statement. Ethical. In other words, what is the main point the writer is trying to make and to erikson, the major personality achievement what are the supporting ideas he or she uses to prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and if so, what does he or she do to refute them? Here is a sample sort of sentence: ___________ is the issue addressed in vs legal, “( article's title) ” by ( author's name) . The thesis of shyamalan films this essay is ___________ . The author’s main claim is ___________ and his/her sub claim is ___________ . The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . The author refutes these ideas by vs legal, saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author?

While you don't have to use an author tag in every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the article, and when you are saying your own ideas. In general, you want to be sure that you always use the author's name and the article title when you start summarizing, and that you use the author's last name in the last sentence as well to tiger meaning, make it clear you are still talking about the vs legal author's ideas. In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the reader you are finished using that source. Men and according the major personality of Women in Conversation: Example response essay to ethical, Deborah Tannen's article about how divorce can be prevented if people learn the communication signals of the opposite gender. Investing Estate Hill Essay. Response Essay about vs legal Getting a Tattoo: Responds to a personal experience article from the New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo. The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by In Real Estate In Chapel and Stockton, a college English class about an article by ethical vs legal, Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of 1948 had a great impact on history. How is this written? Who is the audience?

Is it effectively written for tiger tiger meaning that audience? If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about analyzing literature to ethical vs legal, analyzing other texts. Sedition Act Of 1917. You will want to consider what is ethical effective and ineffective. You will analyze what the author does that works and sedition 1917 what doesn't work to ethical vs legal, support the author's point and persuade the audience to sedition 1917, agree. Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the task of fitting a huge topic into ethical vs legal, an essay may feel daunting and how many people killed you may not know where to start. It may help you to use a thing called TRACE when talking about the rhetorical situation. TRACE stands for Text, Reader, Author, Context, and Exigence: Text , Reader , and Author are easy to understand. When writing the analysis, you need to think about what kind of text it is and vs legal what the author wanted to have the audience think, do, or believe. The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at convincing that particular audience? Context means several things: how the article fits into the history of discussion of that issue, the historical moment in time when the article is written, and the moment in time when a person reads the article.

In this context, Exigence is synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview. Breaking the large idea down into these five parts may help you get started and organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to address from three to all five of these elements. Each of the tiger poem meaning following elements can be one paragraph of your analysis. You can answer the questions to help you generate ideas for each paragraph. To make it easier, I've included the last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of Author and Reader.

How is the essay organized? What is ethical effective or ineffective about the 1917 organization of the essay? How does the author try to interest the reader? How well does the author explain the main claims? Are these arguments logical? Do the support and evidence seem adequate? Is the support convincing to the reader? Does the evidence actually prove the ethical vs legal point the author is trying to make? Who is the author?

What does he or she know about this subject? What is the author's bias? Is the bias openly admitted? Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the tiger meaning author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for this audience? How does the author try to relate to the audience and establish common ground? Is it effective?

How does the author interest the audience? Does she or he make the reader want to ethical vs legal, know more? Does the author explain enough about the history of this argument? Is anything left out? Who is the reader? How would they react to these arguments? How is tiger tiger this essay effective or ineffective for this audience? What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to ethical vs legal, hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the Investing Estate Hill and Stockton exigence (events in this moment in time which affect the ethical vs legal need for this conversation) that makes the audience interested in this issue? Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and fear.

See my Sample Reading Response to act of, this essay and also check out ethical vs legal, Lisa Rayner and Don Fraizier's response. Text : Analyzing the text is very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. Use all of your tools of literary analysis, including looking at how many the metaphors, rhythm of vs legal sentences, construction of shyamalan films arguments, tone, style, and use of vs legal language. Example: The organization of shyamalan films essay title is effective/ineffective because ___________ . The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is ___________ and the tone is shown by ___________ . The language used is___________ . The essay's argument is constructed logically/illogically by ethical vs legal, ___________. The essay is organized by ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the description of the problem is, where claims are made, and where support is located—in which paragraphs—and why this is effective or ineffective in proving the tiger tiger meaning point ). Author: You’ve probably also analyzed how the author’s life affects his or her writing.

You can do the same for this sort of analysis. For example, in my sample reading the response about Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the author of doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. If you don't know anything about the ethical vs legal author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out. Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by ___________ . The author's bias is shown in ___________ . The author assumes an audience who ___________ . Tiger Tiger Meaning. He/She establishes common ground with the audience by ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the viewpoint of other sorts of readers.

For example, Readers are interested in ethical, this issue because of the exigence of ___________. Sedition 1917. Constraints on the reader's reaction are ___________. I think the reader would react to vs legal, this argument by ___________. I think that the author's ___________ is vikras swarup effective. ___________ is less effective because ___________ includes ___________.

The support is adequate/inadequate and is relevant/irrelevant to the author’s claim. What do you think? Does this article persuade you? Generally, your response will be the end of your essay, but you may include your response throughout the paper as you select what to summarize and analyze. Your response will also be evident to the reader by the tone that you use and the words you select to talk about the article and writer. However, your response in the conclusion will be more direct and specific. It will use the vs legal information you have already provided in In Real In Chapel and Stockton, your summary and analysis to explain how you feel about this article. Most of the time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and back your agreement up with logic or personal experience. You will disagree with the ethical vs legal author because of people were killed at columbine your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the vs legal author's position). You will agree with part of the author's points and disagree with others.

You will agree or disagree with the author but feel that there is a more important or different point which needs to be discussed in addition to what is in the article. How will this article fit into your own paper? How will you be able to use it? Here are some questions you can answer to help you think about sedition act of 1917 your response: What is ethical vs legal your personal reaction to the essay?

What common ground do you have with the author? How are your experiences the same or different from the author's and how has your experience influenced your view? What in the essay is new to you? Do you know of any information the article left out vikras swarup, that is relevant to the topic? What in this essay made you re-think your own view? What does this essay make you think about?

What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about this article? What do you like or dislike about the essay and/or the ideas in the essay? How much of vs legal your response is related to your personal experience? How much is related to your own worldview? How is this feeling related to shyamalan films, the information you know? How will this information be useful for vs legal you in writing your own essay? What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in your essay? You can use your answers to the questions above to how many people at columbine, help you formulate your response. Here is a sample of how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the vs legal links above):

Before reading this article, my understanding of killed this topic was ___________. In my own experience, I have found ___________ and because of this, my reaction to this essay is ___________. Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . What was new to me is vs legal ___________. This essay makes me think ___________. Tiger Tiger Poem Meaning. I like/dislike ___________ in the essay. I will use this article in my research essay for ___________. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays.

by Virginia Kearney 42. Summary Analysis Response to Men and ethical vs legal Women in Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays.

by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for tiger poem your guide. Is it necessary to include the author's examples in an analytical argumentative essay?

Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you. Vs Legal. I hope you will continue to use my other guides and killed at columbine sample papers to complete your other projects. Rodsy Karim Taseen 6 weeks ago. Thank you so much for making it easy. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on different research papers, based on ethical the filed of International Business. Thank you so much! I really appreciate the effort put into your work. :) this will really help me now and in future. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Chloe!

It would depend in part what sort of assignment you've been given. Generally, in doing a summary, you do not need to shyamalan films, put the information exactly in the same order as the original paper. The important thing in summarizing is that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into your own words. I'm guessing that with the title, the ethical vs legal article has a number of reasons why we should allow the drugs. If the reasons can be grouped, into 3-4 types of reasons, that would be your best organization technique. For example, I can image that the vikras swarup reasons to allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from getting around the vs legal rules. We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs. We don't have the right to tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies. I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the reasons around a few themes and organize your summary that way. hi there, i am doing a science report on Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to according to erikson, achievement, summarize all of them.

What structure would i put the paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the subsections, and i have an actual format to follow? Thank you :) Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from ethical United States. Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an argumentative essay. When you do an argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to persuade your audience to believe. The analysis part of that sort of essay means that you evaluate the tiger pros and cons of other ideas about that claim.

I don't use the term analytical argumentative essay in my class but I do teach this same idea. Vs Legal. I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and In Real and Stockton I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of essay. Look at the links to the side or search for them on vs legal Letterpile using my name. Would this be considered an vikras swarup outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and response, then you do it the same as we've described here except that you would summarize the story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response. If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about ethical something that happened to you, you need to see my article on How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays.

Search for it on Letterpile or on my profile page. cletusoe12 5 months ago. How can I write a story of a personal encounter in an accident. In narrative essay. Please can you give me example? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from Investing Estate In Chapel Hill Essay United States. Hi Mimi--In the response section, you can explain how you are going to use that article in your research paper. Ethical. You might want to see my article on How to do an Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample.

Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Glad this is helpful to Estate, you Flor. Ethical Vs Legal. I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is killed interesting for you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. what a great way to explain you have used here. Are you interested in doing tutoring online? I would love to have the opportunity to be tutor by you.

Hello, I am actually working on vs legal three articles and my supervisor asked to make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to know how can I show that these three articles are related to my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the way this website gives steps and examples. I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on understanding. All of this explaining is a great source for anything. You have to love everything about this site. This is the best. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from act of 1917 United States. Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an ethical article, then I would do that first. If you are not responding to a particular article, then you should give a summary of the In Real In Chapel Hill and Stockton situation around this law and the different sides of the argument. Then pose a question which is interesting to you. Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of whether this is good or bad.

Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to use? Does just raising the issue of burial change the conversation about abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about burying their baby? How can I come up with a theme for my response paper. I am responding to the Texas new law that requires burial for aborted fetuses. Any ideas? Virginia Kearney 10 months ago from United States.

Thanks for letting me know Seza! This type of essay is vs legal not very well explained in many textbooks and killed at columbine that is what led me to write these instructions and ask my students to ethical, post examples. Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at writing these kinds of essays, which is important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is what prepares you for doing good research. This post has been of In Real In Chapel Hill and Stockton Essay great help for me and my friends. Ethical. Thank you very much. Excellent lesson. According Is Development Of. It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of my students who were still having difficulty. Ethical. I especially liked the chart. Shyamalan Films. However, please change adjective to ethical, adverbs.

Thanks for Estate In Chapel the information. Very good insight on analysis description. I want to ethical, thank you for your time and vikras swarup effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the great work. Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from vs legal United States. Thanks Singapore! I love the shyamalan films fact that what I write and use to ethical, teach has helped people all over the world. I'm approaching 8 million views now! Thanks from Singapore! It's for literature :) Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from sedition United States.

Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of writing over the years and I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the vs legal style of your post writing. It's very rare to find something like this. This my second semester in the university and I have to write. In Real In Chapel Essay. Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for ethical vs legal me. Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States. Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in 2008, I've been amazed to see people from people killed at columbine all over the world reading my work and being helped by the information I've developed for my students at ethical vs legal college here in vikras swarup, the United States.

Having had students from many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers. Ethical. I am glad to be able to provide help for free to improve student's written English. Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago. Thanks so much from turkey. My first time to write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to school. Shyamalan Films. This is the right place. It's helping me in my English composition 2 class.thank you. Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from United States.

Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by ethical vs legal, writing with authority. They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources. In speech, we show authority by using declarative sentences which tell people what to shyamalan films, do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs. I suggest you ask your instructor for some examples of what they want you to do. Hello Professor Lynne. Ethical Vs Legal. I have to write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of words I can use to show my point? By the way the topic is Investing In Real Estate In Chapel Hill Essay dealing Information Technology. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Thanks yakul for your comment.

As a writer, I know I am always learning and improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from Passaic, NJ. I have to turn in a summary page for Critical Thinking. You've helped me lots! Please follow me.

Christy Maria 2 years ago. I am a student in ethical vs legal, University right now and I have to how many people were, write response papers so often. This article is vs legal extremely useful for me so im going to make sure to save it and look back on it when I have my next paper due! Thankyou. Najat 2 years ago from Rottherdam - NL. i like your hub, great sharing, i love the instructions. greeting from sedition Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Aesta--glad to know this helped you. My class is structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and then get feedback from peers before re-writing. Many of ethical vs legal them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in shyamalan films, one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for ethical vs legal a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly.

In the end, it takes less time! Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and very substantial. I need to digest this information and start applying this in my work. I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and I organize this after. Armed with these questions to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into my random thoughts. Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago. This was great information, it will help me in my English class this semester.

Organization is key in writing a good summary and response. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Organised Kaos--do you really live in Tasmania? That seems like a fairy tale place to me. Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to people in other parts of the world! Good luck on your college career. I went back to graduate school after 10 years of working and found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger. I actually enjoyed the how many were at columbine chance to vs legal, learn things. As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting. Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for sedition 1917 several years before coming to ethical vs legal, the U.S. to go to act of, college and ethical vs legal play American football. The whole class enjoyed all of tiger tiger meaning his experiences and I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too.

Anne 3 years ago from Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the bottom of AUS) Thanks for a great hub. Just about to go back to college after 20 years and am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff. Will be following you too as I want to be able to refer at a later date, back to your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is ethical vs legal a scientist and I love doing technology and science papers with my class in shyamalan films, the second semester.

I will have to think about doing some more topic ideas for science classes. I'm doing this for ethical vs legal science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago. “Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything. Investing In Real In Chapel And Stockton Essay. You read and you’re pierced.” This page is a great method to vs legal, connect to others. Congratulations on a job well achieved.

I am anticipating your next. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from personality of adolescence is development United States. B. Ethical. Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to shyamalan films, be to texts. Anything that provides us something to think about vs legal can be put into Investing Estate Hill and Stockton Essay, a responsive reading. You've reminded me that I need to add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on the effect of going to 4th of vs legal July celebrations to my links. Brian Leekley 5 years ago from vikras swarup Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for this interesting and ethical helpful hub. I have bookmarked it.

I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. I'm glad! I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and Response essays and In Real Essay I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to do this paper. I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. We did two days of peer editing, which I think helped. This paper is similar to the Reading Response paper, and both of these Hubs are are the ethical very top in number of hits, so I think that many people have trouble on these essays and act of the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks made things a lot simpler for vs legal me!

Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. johnsdfd--good question. Yes--I should add that to the hub. You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at the top, then the summary/analysis/response is below. htodd 5 years ago from United States. Great post virginialynne..Thanks. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad I helped you nico! My class is sedition act of 1917 just starting on this essay now and so I was looking at my Hubviews and very surprised to find this one had over 3,000! I really published it for ethical my own classes, but the class I'm teaching now is the first one that will use it.

Guess there are a lot of other people out there needing help! Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from United States. Thanks! I think that a lot of the instructions given for how many were at columbine essays really don't help you know how to organize them. I've actually learned a lot about writing by trying to figure out how to teach other people! Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from ethical vs legal Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Well written. In Real In Chapel Hill. I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and ethical vs legal Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and tiger others.

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affair dreyfus essay The Dreyfus Affair. A Summary History of the Dreyfus Affair. Source : Thodore Reinach, Histoire Sommaire de l#8217;Affaire Dreyfus . Paris, Ligue des Droits de l#8217;Homme, 1924; Translated : for by Mitchell Abidor; CopyLeft : Creative Commons (Attribute ShareAlike) 2007. There are no fait divers in history. If every event has immediate causes, it also has profound causes which alone truly explain their genesis and development. The Dreyfus Affair is no exception to this rule. In order to understand the proportions and the turn it took, as well as the role it played for several years in French public life, we must on vs legal, one hand go back to the origins of the nationalist movement, heir of Boulangisme, and on vikras swarup, the other hand to those of the anti-Semitic movement. Vs Legal. This latter began to become visible in France around 1880, its steps marked off by the catastrophe of the #8220; Union Generale #8221; in 1882, #8220; La France Juive #8221; of Drumont in 1886, and shyamalan films, the founding of La Libre Parole in 1892. Without attempting to ethical write the history of these two movements it must be recalled that it is they and they alone that created in poem meaning the country, and vs legal, especially in vikras swarup the army, the vs legal mood necessary for the blossoming and the exasperation of an affair which, left on its own, would have aborted while still in seed or remained restricted to the strictly judicial order.

From the beginning of the anti-Semitic awakening the efforts of its most persevering promoters were directed against according achievement is development of the situations occupied by Israelite officers in the French army and who, for many intransigent Catholics, were a subject for scandal. One of the first campaigns of La Libre Parole was directed against them. It resulted in the successive duels of vs legal, Captain Crmieu Foa with Drumont and according achievement of adolescence of, Lamase, and in that of Captain Mayer with the Marquis de Mors, a duel that ended in the death of the vs legal Jewish officer (June 23, 1892). The Crmieu Foa -Mayer Affair is the according to erikson, the major personality achievement of adolescence is development prelude to the Dreyfus Affair. The perspicacious observer could have found sketched out there the prejudices, the passions, the procedures that we were to see in all their vigor two years later. Already there figured there certain actors in vs legal the drama: Captain Esterhazy was one of Crmieu Foa#8217;s witnesses.

Among the military services of the Ministry of War reorganized after the war of 187 that of #8220;intelligence,#8221; i.e., espionage and counter-espionage took, under the impetus of In Real In Chapel, zealous chiefs a considerable, even excessive development. The leadership of this service was centralized in a section of the General Staff officially designated under the name of #8220;Section of Statistics#8221; and formally attached to the Deuxieme Bureau . One of this service#8217;s preoccupations was the surveillance of the ethical vs legal German Embassy. In truth the shyamalan films Ambassador, the Count von Munster, following the Boutonnet Affair, where his military attach was caught in flagrante delicto , had promised that German military attachs would henceforth abstain from paying off French officers or employees. But they knew in the Intelligence Office that that promise had not been kept, if not by ethical, the ambassador, at least by the new attach, Colonel von Schwarzkoppen. Vikras Swarup. Unbeknownst to his chief, the latter continued to be involved with espionage, corresponding directly with the Prussian General Staff in vs legal Berlin. According to vikras swarup information furnished by various agents, notable by an honorary Spanish military attach, Val Carlos, who received a salary from the ministry, M. Ethical. von Schwarzkoppen had ties with the Italian military attach, Colonel Panizzardi. The two agents communicated their discoveries to each other and, when the case was urgent, informed each other in writing. Estate And Stockton Essay. In order to track down this little game the Intelligence Bureau did not content itself with the resources offered by the cabinet noir and the intercepted dispatches. Vs Legal. It had succeeded in assuring itself of the assistance of a cleaning lady at according the major achievement of adolescence the German Embassy, a certain Bastian. The latter carefully gathered up what was found in the garbage pails and in the fireplaces, fragments of the papers torn up by Schwarzkoppen. She wrapped them in a cone and once or twice a month brought them or had them brought to the #8220;Section of Statisitcs.#8221; There they were separated and carefully glued together.

Most of the documents thus reconstituted were insignificant, even frivolous. Some, though, aroused attention. Starting in 1892 they were thus able to note certain leaks of intelligence secrets concerning national defense. Plans for the fortress of Nice had been delivered by an individual who a letter from Schwarzkoppen designated under the ethical name of #8220;this canaille D. #8221; [1] Fragments of a memo from Schwarzkoppen [2] allowed it to be understood that the German attach had found an according, informant who claimed to bring him documents that came directly from the Ministry of ethical vs legal, War. Estate In Chapel Hill Essay. There was thus a fox in the sheepfold, and Val Carlos attested to ethical this. These revelations, however incomplete, caused a real unease in the General Staff. No one was any longer sure of his neighbor, and all were afraid of being suspected themselves. They were stumbling in meaning the shadows. During the summer of 1894 there arrived at the Intelligence Bureau a document much more alarming than all the preceding ones and which certainly came from the German Embassy.

It was the anonymous letter that became famous under the name of #8220;bordereau.#8221; This letter, written on a nearly transparent graph paper of onion skin was traversed by ethical, two perpendicular tears, but was otherwise intact. The text was written on both sides of the Investing Estate In Chapel Hill first page. According to the version that was later officially accredited it had arrived through #8220;normal channels,#8221; that is via Mme Bastian#8217;s cone. But the document#8217;s appearance, barely torn, sufficed to put the ethical lie to this version. From other sources it appears that letter was taken intact from the loge of the Embassy concierge in Colonel von Schwarzkoppen#8217;s mail slot and brought to the bureau by an agent named Brucker. This man, who had once served as intermediary between Mme Bastian and the Intelligence Service, had momentarily been cast aside and sought to find grace in the service#8217;s eyes by a coup d#8217;clat . How Many Were Killed At Columbine. The documents whose dispatch the letter announced do not appear to vs legal have reached the German General Staff, and the envelope of the achievement is development letter was not presented. We thus don#8217;t know if the letter was sent through the ethical mails or in another way, nor do we know if the documents were in the same envelope or were sent separately. [3] Here is the text of the famous document: #8220;Without any news indicating that you want to see me, I nevertheless send you some interesting information: 1: A note on the hydraulic brake of the 120 and the way that piece performed; [4] 2: A note on the covering troops (a few modifications will be made in the new plan); [5] 3: A note on a modification to the artillery formations; [6] 4: A note relating to Madagascar [7] ; 5: The project for the firing manual of the to erikson, the major personality is development field artillery (March 14, 1894) This last document is ethical difficult to obtain and sedition act of 1917, I can only keep it in my possession for a few days. The Ministry of War sent a fixed number to the corps, and the corps are responsible for them. Each officer having one must return it after maneuvers [8] If you want to ethical take from it whatever interests you, and put it at my disposal afterwards, I will take it.

Unless you want me to make a copy of it in extenso and send you the copy. I am leaving on maneuvers.#8221; However poorly written this missive we don#8217;t even know if the author has sent the firing manual or he is simply offering to procure it for according to erikson, achievement of adolescence him it is clear from the text that it was written at the very latest in August 1894. Ethical. In fact, it is question here of the #8220;firing manual#8221; as well as a regulation recently sent to the corps (of troops) for maneuvers and that the officers in possession of the manual must return it after the maneuvers. The firing manual is a collection of methods meant to to erikson, the major personality is development regulate the real fire of field pieces. Ethical Vs Legal. This real fire never takes place during the #8220;grand maneuvers#8221; of September, but only during the firing schools that begin in May and vikras swarup, end in ethical vs legal August. It is these firing schools that the writer, in his incorrect language, designates under the name of maneuvers. It is thus obvious that the bordereau dates at the very latest from August. [9] Whatever the vikras swarup exact date, it seems clear that the bordereau was given to Commandant Henry who was then, along with Commandant Cordier, the principal collaborator of Colonel Sandherr, chief of the Intelligence Service. According to the declarations of General Roget the piece arrived at the ministry with other documents whose dates were spread out vs legal, between August 4 September 2. [10] We can nonetheless suppose that Henry kept it for a few days, or perhaps a few weeks. But it is tiger meaning even more surprising that he did not recognize the handwriting of one of ethical, his former office mates, Commandant Esterhazy. September 24 [11] . He communicated his discovery to his comrades and his chief, Colonel Sandherr, who immediately advised the Chief of the General Staff, General de Boisdeffre, and the Minister of War, Mercier.

The emotion was profound. There was no longer any doubt: the German military attach had an informant who was a French officer. Even more, it was concluded from the tone of the letter that it was an officer of the General Staff. Nothing justified this last hypothesis. To the Investing In Real Estate In Chapel and Stockton contrary, grammatically and ethical vs legal, technically the incorrect writing of the bordereau, the according to erikson, the major of adolescence difficulty he spoke of in procuring the firing manual (which freely circulated at the General Staff), his inability to himself extract interesting new pieces of information, the little importance his correspondent seemed to ethical attach to his information, which left him #8220;without news,#8221; all of to erikson, achievement of adolescence is development of, this should have, to unprejudiced spirits, excluded the attribution of the bordereau to an officer of the General Staff. Nevertheless, this ide fixe , this proton pseudos, suggested by the preceding notices of Val Carlos, were accepted without discussion. From the first hour the ethical search was set off on the wrong path. On the order of the minister the General Renouard, in his function as Chief of the General Staff, an inquiry was begun in the offices of the ministry.

It was focused solely on the identification of the according to erikson, the major of adolescence handwriting and produced no results. But on October 6 Lieutenant-Colonel d#8217;Abboville, Sub-Chief of the Quatrime Bureau of the General Staff and who was returning from leave, having been brought up to date by his chief, Colonel Fabre, had the idea that the bordereau, which dealt with issues in different bureaus, must have been the work of an officer in training; these officers were the ethical only ones to successively pass through the various bureaus in order to perfect their military instruction. What is more, since of the five documents mentioned three concerned the artillery, it was probable that the training officer was from that branch. With the circle thus circumscribed all that was left was to consult the list of training officers of the General Staff who came from the artillery service. While going over it the two colonels fell upon the name of an Israelite officer, Captain Dreyfus. Fabre, who had had him in his bureau during the vikras swarup second quarter of 1893, remembered that he gave him poor grades suggested, incidentally, by Lieutenant-Colonel Roget and Commandant Bertin-Mourot. Based on superficial elements he had impressed them as a pretentious officer, neglecting his current service in order to busy himself with secret questions.

They immediately sought out pieces written by vs legal, Dreyfus. By a strange quirk his handwriting had undeniable family resemblance to that of the bordereau. These officers, inexperienced and prejudiced, took a vague resemblance for identity, and it is thus that the fate of the unfortunate was sealed. The date of April 16, 1894 currently written on that piece was added much later. Shyamalan Films. The actual date of his entering into service is ethical earlier: 1892 according to Colonel Cordier, 1893 according to sedition act of Commandant Lauth. The individual designated by ethical, the initial #8220;D. #8221; was an insignificant subaltern agent named Dubois or who had taken the name in his communications with foreign attachs. This fact and the derisory nature of his salary are today beyond any shadow of a doubt.

1. Translated as follows; #8220;Doubt. Achievement Of Adolescence Of. Proof. Vs Legal. Service letter. Dangerous situation for me with a French officer. Not personally carry out negotiations. Bring what he has. Absolute.

Intelligence Bureau. No relations corps of how many people killed at columbine, troops. Only importance of ministry. Already somewhere else.#8221; This memo doubtless prepared the vs legal response to vikras swarup a telegram from Berlin as follows: #8220;Things no sign General Staff.#8221; 2. The extraction of a bordereau from an envelope while at the same time allowing the pieces themselves arrive at their destination is a trick that is not unexampled. At the Chamber on February 3, 1898 M. Delcass told of a similar happening of which he was the victim. Ethical Vs Legal. 3. Probably meaning the hydropneumatic brake of the 120 short cannon. Killed At Columbine. It was a heavy field piece recently put in service. The brake#8217;s mechanism, which prevented a back kick, was kept secret. 4. It is thus that are called the troops thrown onto the frontier from the first hours of vs legal, mobilization and intended to #8220;cover#8221; the concentration of the rest of the army. 5. Vikras Swarup. The new mobilization plan. (no.

XIII which was to be put in practice in vs legal 1895) 6. It#8217;s a question either of formations of maneuver modified by the new regulations of hose drawn batteries or, and shyamalan films, less probably, mobilization formations modified by the recent transfer to the Engineering service of the ship bridge service. 7. The Ministry of War was then preparing the expedition intended for the conquest of the island. 8. This is not correct, or only applies to reserve officers. 9. In the final phrase: #8220;I am leaving on ethical, maneuvers#8221; this word could designate either brigade maneuvers, or firing school, or any kind of maneuvers including the departure of a garrison. But if the bordereau#8217;s author, Commandant Esterhazy, went at his request to the firing school of Chalons at the beginning of August 1894 he didn#8217;t go to the grand maneuvers of September, to which majors are never sent. 10. Understand by shyamalan films, this that Commandant Henry fictitiously attached it to vs legal a cone of Mme Bastian#8217;s containing pieces included between these dates.

11. Date indicated by Commandant Lauth. The Renouard Inquest began the vikras swarup 26.

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EMail Privacy Rights In Business Essay Research. Papparizzi Rights Essay Research Paper Does the 4 . Rights Of Privacy In The Private Sector 16 . Ethical Vs Legal? Computer Privacy Essay Research Paper Computer Privacy 8 . Sedition 1917? Technology Vs Privacy Essay Research Paper 5 . Privacy Essay Essay Research Paper Privacy 4 . Privacy Essay Research Paper Privacy is something 12 . The Right To Privacy Essay Research Paper 2 . E-Mail Privacy Rights In Business Essay, Research Paper. E-Mail Privacy Rights In Business. E-Mail Privacy Rights in Business. How far we have come in such a small time. When you think that the personal computer was invented in the early 1980’s and by the end of the millennium, several households have two PC’s, it is an astonishing growth rate. And, when you consider business, I can look around the office and see that a lot of the cubicles contain more than one PC. It is ethical vs legal, astonishing to me that such an item has taken control over sedition 1917 the information technology arena like personal computers. Ethical Vs Legal? Consider, however, the items that go along with personal computers: printers; modems; telephone lines for your modem; scanners; the software; online access; and tiger lets not forget, e-mail addresses. E-mail, or electronic messaging, has taken over the communications world as the preferred method of exchanging information. From the simple, “let’s do lunch” messages, to the ability to send a business associate anywhere in the world an e-mail with an attached document that contains 150 megabytes of information, e-mail is quickly replacing the telephone, the U.S. post-office, and ethical vs legal even overnight delivery services as primary method of were killed at columbine, exchanging important data.

With the ability to create and vs legal send this instant information, the technology has far outpaced the sedition act of 1917, education of how to use this phenomena, the affects of ethical, this technology on society, and vikras swarup how to prevent this method of communication from growing itself out of existence. Consider the following numbers: ? There were about 23 million e-mail users in 1994. ? There will be approximately 74 millions e-mail users in ethical, the year 2000. ? Employees sent approximately 263 billion e-mail messages in 1994. ? Employees will send approximately 4 trillion e-mail message in the year 2000. ? A 1993 study by tiger poem MacWorld magazine found that 22% of employers have engaged in searches of employer computer files, voice mail, electronic mail, or other network communications. ? The number of people subject to electronic surveillance at work has increased from approximately 8 million in 1990 to more than 20 million in 1996. ? Nearly 60% of companies that monitor e-mail or other employee communications conceal doing so. ? Less than 20% of companies have a written policy on ethical vs legal, electronic monitoring. One of the major areas affected by this new technology is vikras swarup, corporate America.

Not only is ethical, it struggling with how to keep pace with the growing need for fast and efficient e-mail, but also the dangers associated with it. Among these dangers is to erikson, the major personality achievement is development of, privacy, in particular, what legal rights corporations and employees have in keeping their communications private. This paper will introduce the current legislation in ethical vs legal, this area, the expectation of were at columbine, privacy an employee should have, any court decisions that provide additional ruling, and what a corporation can do to prevent litigation in these matters. II. Employees Expectation of Privacy in e-mail. As an e-mail systems manager, I was under the impression that since the company owns the ethical, electronic messaging system, the company could view the contents of any employees e-mail account at any time.

I was only partially right. The explanation of the shyamalan films, current law will describe this in detail, but, the ethical, employee does have a certain right to privacy where e-mail is concerned. Arguably, a company’s most valuable asset is it’s data. Vikras Swarup? In the age of technological marvels, it is easier to create more valuable data and, on the other hand, that data is more easily retrievable, especially by persons not authorized to vs legal, obtain the data. Employees of companies can expect a certain right of privacy granted by three main sources: (1) The United States Constitution; (2) Federal Statutes (The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986); and (3) State Statutes (many of which have not addressed the issue). The United States Constitution provides a limited group of vikras swarup, employees with privacy safeguards. The safeguards are based on guarantees in the United States Constitution’s Fourth amendment and ethical similar state constitutions. Courts have upheld that the Fourth Amendment’s protection against “unreasonable search and seizures” applies to workplace invasions of privacy. However, this Constitutional protection is limited to sedition, governmental intrusions.

Hence, it does not apply to private employers, unless an employee successfully shows “state action.” In Schowengerdt v. General Dynamics Corporation [823 F.2d 1328, 1332 n.3 (9th Cir. 1987).] Schowengerdt held that the employee had a reasonable expectation to privacy in work areas of exclusive use to the employee, such as the ethical, employee’s office, unless the employer had previously notified the employee that the employee’s office was subject to a work-related search on a regular basis. The court concluded that despite the employee’s reasonable expectation to privacy in his office that a warrantless search of the office was permissible when it was work-related and reasonable under the circumstances. As the wording of the tiger tiger poem meaning, 4th amendment suggests. Vs Legal? it does not protect against all searches, only unreasonable searches. Courts have defined unreasonable searches as those against a person who has an expectation of privacy which must be protected. This can be shown in sedition 1917, United States v. Perkins. Ethical? [383 F. Supp. 922, 927 (N.D. Ohio 1974)] Employees who lack this reasonable expectation of privacy such as through awareness of publicized monitoring policies, will generally be denied any constitutional protection.

The policy, to be effective, should warn employees that e-mail messages may be audited despite certain system features that give the appearance of privacy, such as personal passwords and tiger meaning the employee’s ability to delete messages. III. Current Law Pertaining to ethical, E-mail Communication. The technology revolution of the sedition 1917, e-mail address enabled businesses and private individuals to communicate in ways never before imagined. As with anything, the easier it is, the easier it becomes to do something wrong. With e-mail, this is very evident. In order to prevent wrongdoing and to protect the e-mail user, Congress enacted the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 (EPCA). [Pub. L. No. Ethical? 99-508, 100 Stat. 1848 (1986)(codified at 18 U.S.C. ?? 2510-2521, 2701-2710, 3117, 3121-3126 (1988)).] The ECPA amended Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, [18 U.S.C. ?? 2510-2520 (1994).]. The ECPA was passed in response to Congress’ perception that the privacy protection of the 1968 Act was limited to narrowly defined “wire” and “oral” communications.

This bill indicated the realization that advancing technology posed potential threats to citizen’s civil liberties and that changes were needed to update the older wiretapping laws. Shyamalan Films? The amendment expanded the scope of Title III to ethical, include the interception of “electronic communication” and unauthorized access of Investing In Real Hill and Stockton Essay, stored electronic communications. [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(1), (4), (12), (17) (1994).] E-mail was not specifically mentioned in the ECPA’s definition of “electronic communication”, but, was originally intended to be included. Ethical Vs Legal? “Electronic communication” is sedition, defined as in the ECPA as the “transfer of signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligence of vs legal, any nature transmitted in whole or in part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic, photoelectronic or photooptical system that affects interstate or foreign commerce. [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(12)(1994). While this does not directly mention e-mail, the history of legislative statutes indicates the term includes electronic mail, digitized transmissions, and video conferences. [S. Rep. No. 99-541, at 14 (1986)]. The ECPA also outlaws the interception of electronic communications. How Many People Were Killed At Columbine? [18 U.S.C. ?? 2511(1)(a), 2520 (1994).] The ECPA amended the Federal Wiretap Act’s definition of “intercept” as “the aural or other aquisition of the vs legal, contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(4) (1994).] The key to this is including “or other” in the definition, since electronic communications cannot be acquired aurally.

Even though electronic communications are now included within the ECPA’s interception clause, the range of people, protection afforded by the prohibition against vs legal interception has been narrowly interpreted by one of the few courts to address the issue. An example of shyamalan films, this lies in the decision of the 5th Circuit Court in the case of Steve Jackson Games, Inc. v. United States Secret Service, [36 F.3d 457 (5th Cir. 1994).] In this case, the court decided whether or not the Secret Service’s seizure of a computer that was used to operate an electronic bulletin board system, constituted an “intercept” of the vs legal, stored but unread e-mail contained on the system. Even though the how many people were, court decided that e-mail can be intercepted, the court decided that the Secret Service’s seizure of the unread e-mail did not constitute an interception. The main reason for this was a distinction between e-mail in “transfer” and ethical e-mail in electronic storage. The use of the word “transfer” in the definition of “electronic communication,” and its omission in that definition of the phrase “any electronic storage of such communication” says that Congress did not intend for “intercept” to apply to “electronic communications” when those communications are in “electronic storage.” This means that there is only a very narrow window of time during which an vikras swarup e-mail interception may occur. This would be the time between the time an e-mail message is ethical, sent and the time it is shyamalan films, saved to any location designated as storage. So, for all intents-and-purposes, interception of ethical, e-mail within the prohibition of the ECPA is vikras swarup, virtually impossible. The next condition of the ECPA which concerns most employers is ethical, its protection against the unauthorized access of Investing In Real In Chapel Hill and Stockton, electronic communications is electronic storage. [18 U.S.C. ? 2701 (1994).] E-mail in ethical, electronic storage includes e-mail which has been temporarily stored following transmission, as well as e-mail which has been stored for backup protection. [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(17) (1994).] This definition would include most e-mail as existing in Investing In Real Estate Hill, electronic storage.

So, any protection of employee privacy found in the ECPA will be based upon the unauthorized access provision. The ECPA has built-in exemptions that will protect most employers and protect them against suit. These exemptions are: prior consent, business use, and system provider. 1. Prior Consent. The best protection against liability under the ECPA is when prior consent has been given for any interception or access of ethical vs legal, e-mail in electronic storage. Interception of people killed, electronic communication is expressly allowed by the ECPA when “one of the parties to the communication has given prior consent.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2511(2)(d) (1994).] Also, access to stored electronic communication is allowed without liability when authorization has been given “by a user of that service with respect to a communication of or intended for that user.” [18 U.S.C. Ethical? ? 2701(c)(2) (1994).] An easy case to understand here is American Computer Trust Leasing v. Jack Farrell Implement Co. [763 F. Supp. 1473, 1495 (D. In Real Estate? Minn.

1991)]. Summary judgement was granted in this case stating that when the party consented to the access of its computer system, it “cannot now claim that such access was unauthorized.” The key to prior consent is setting policies for ethical vs legal corporate e-mail use and notifying employees that they will be monitored. This policy should be corporate-wide and employees that use the system will be judged as giving implied consent upon reviewing the policies and agreeing to the fact that they have read and reviewed the policies. Employers should also be aware that a provision in an e-mail policy which only suggests that monitoring will be done, such as one which reads, “ABC, Inc. reserves the right to monitor all e-mail communication,” may not operate to create implied consent. 2. Business Use Exemption. Employers may use the business use exemption for interceptions made within the ordinary course of business. The business use exemption is more commonly applied in Investing In Real Hill Essay, telephone monitoring cases where improper use of a business telephone is in ethical vs legal, question.

Therefore, the provision upon which it is based is unlikely to apply in the e-mail arena. The definition of “intercept” in the ECPA excludes interceptions captured by “telephone or telegraph instrument, equipment, or facility, or any component thereof, (i) furnished to the subscriber or user by a provider of wire or electronic communication services…being used by the subscriber or user in the ordinary course of business.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(5)(a)(i) (1994).] Based on this definition, it indicates that telephone or telegraph equipment is necessary for the exclusion to apply. It is tiger, even doubtful that the courts will consider a modem to be telephone equipment. There is another clause within the ECPA that allows employers to apply the business use exemption. Section 2511(2)(a)(i) states: It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an operator of a switchboard, or an officer, employee, or agent of ethical vs legal, a provider of wire of electronic communication service, whose facilities are used in the transmission of a wire of electronic communication, to intercept, disclose, or use that communication in the normal course of employment while engaged in any activity which is meaning, a necessary incident to the rendition of his service or to the protection of the rights or property of the provider of that service. [18 U.S.C. Ethical? ? 2511(2)(a)(i) (1994).]

For this exemption to apply, the employer would have to be classified as a system provider or an agent of a system provider. Several commentators on according the major personality achievement of, the subject have speculated that employers do qualify as system providers. The term provider would likely include public email networks, such as Prodigy and vs legal Compuserve, and the term agent may or may not be defined to include employers who subscribe to or use their e-mail service. Companies with their own e-mail systems on tiger, their own networks could also fall under this exception as electronic communication service providers. Assuming that an employer does qualify as a system provider, any interception would still need to be made within the ethical, ordinary course of business. Investing In Real In Chapel Hill And Stockton? [18 U.S.C. ? 2511(2)(a)(i) (1994).] Previous case law in telephone call monitoring provides some “stare decisis” for monitoring of employee e-mail in the ordinary course of vs legal, business. In both Watkins v. L.M. Berry #038; Co. To Erikson, Achievement? [704 F.2d 577 (11th Cir. 1983).] and Briggs v. American Filter Co. [630 F.2d 414 (5th Cir.

1980).], the courts decided that if the vs legal, employer had difficulty controlling personal use of business equipment, then a personal call could be intercepted in the ordinary course of business to determine its nature, but not its contents. The employer should be cautious with the business use exception, as the definition of “within the ordinary course of business” is still undefined. 3. System Providers. Where employers provide their own company e-mail system there are two additional thoughts to support the non-relevance of the ECPA to them. The first theory is only available for employers with a system whose messages remain entirely intrastate, and vikras swarup is based on the ECPA’s applicability being limited to vs legal, interstate communications. Under this theory, an intracompany e-mail system, whose messages do not cross state lines and which is not connected to an interstate network, fails to fall under the definition of “electronic communications service,” [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(15) (1994).] and In Real Estate and Stockton Essay falls outside the protection of the ECPA.

The definition of electronic communications under the law only pertains to such communication that affects interstate or foreign commerce. Vs Legal? However, the shyamalan films, action could fall under the ethical vs legal, Interstate Commerce Clause if it is determined that the activity affects interstate commerce. In Perez v. United States [402 U.S. 146, 152 (1971)] the court stated “that a class of activities can be properly regulated by Congress without proof that the particular intrastate activity against which a sanction was laid had an effect on commerce.” Also, in Wickard v. Filburn [317 U.S. 111, 125 (1942)], the according achievement of adolescence is development of, observation was made that “local activity may be reached by Congress if it exerts a “substantial economic effect on interstate commerce, irrespective of whether such effect is indirect.” Because the Interstate Commerce Clause could pre-empt this theory, the theory appears to have no basis and would be a shaky defense in ethical, a court of law. The second theory for exclusion rests upon the ECPA’s clear exemption of system providers from according personality achievement is development of, its prohibition against access and ethical disclosure of stored electronic communications. Tiger Meaning? [18 U.S.C. ? 2701(c)(1) (1994)] The exception states “Subsection (a) of vs legal, this section does not apply with respect to conduct authorized (1) by the person or entity providing a wire or electronic communications service.” Although speculation provides that employers should qualify as system providers, there is little legislative history that provides clarity on whether or not Congress intended to exempt private companies who provided their own e-mail system as system providers from the ECPA. Senate Reports on the ECPA acknowledged the according personality is development of, existence of internal e-mail, but did not address the law’s affect on vs legal, those systems. In addition, testimony during the Senate hearings reflected an overriding concern for a company’s rather than an individual’s privacy. Some testimony during the Senate hearings even argued that the proposed legislation should cover all electronic communications. Philip Walker, Vice-Chair of the Electronic Mail Association (EMA), stated that, “electronic mail users deserve privacy regardless of what type of entity runs their system.” [S.

Rep. No. 99-541 (1986) Hearing on according to erikson, personality of adolescence is development, S. 1667 Before the ethical, Subcommittee on according to erikson, the major personality is development, Patents, Copyrights and Trademarks of the vs legal, Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 99th Congress 42 (1986)(statement of Senator Patrick Leahy (D-Vermont)).] This uncertainty of Congress has left the door open has left the door open for courts to create a narrow definition of system providers, which could only include public, commercial providers such as America On-line, Prodigy, and Compuserve. Employers should again not depend on the system provider exception, but rather use the business-use or consent exceptions. IV. Case Discussion. In examining case law concerning e-mail privacy, there are a few standard benchmark cases. Poem? Most of these cases come from California and it is ethical vs legal, no coincidence that this law should develop in what is were killed, considered a technological center of the United States. Vs Legal? In California, which has some of the strongest laws protecting individual privacy rights, the courts have been unwilling to act of 1917, enforce promises made by employers to employees that their e-mail messages would be kept confidential. In fact, the California Supreme Court refused to review the case of Alana Shoars v. Epson America Incorporated. In that case Ms.

Shoars, who was the e-mail administrator, told Epson’s employees that their e-mail was confidential. A supervisor subsequently set up a gateway that allowed him to monitor all the employees’ e-mail. When Ms. Shoars learned of this practice she immediately complained to her supervisors, and then was fired for “gross insubordination”. Ethical Vs Legal? The judges in Ms. Shoars case concluded that California privacy laws did not encompass the workplace or e-mail and act of 1917 basically left it in ethical vs legal, the hands of the legislature. The same result was found in Flanagan v. Shyamalan Films? Epson. [Sup. Ct.

Cal., Jan. 4, 1991] In this case, an employee brought a class action lawsuit alleging that Epson invaded the employee’s privacy by circumventing their passwords and reading their e-mail messages while advertising a feeling which led the employees to believe their messages were private. The final case interpreting California’s Constitutional right to privacy was Bourke v. Nissan Motor Company. [California Superior Court, Los Angeles County (1991)] In determining whether the vs legal, right to privacy has been violated, the court said you must first determine whether the individual had a personal and objectively reasonable expectation of privacy. How Many People At Columbine? Nissan argued that there was no reasonable expectation because the employees had signed a Computer User Registration Form, which stated, “it is company policy that employees and contractors restrict their use of ethical vs legal, company-owned computer hardware and software to company business. In Real Hill And Stockton Essay? Bourke and Hall countered that they had a privacy expectation because they were given passwords to access the computer system and were told to safeguard these passwords. The court realized that a subjective expectation of privacy existed, however this was not objectively reasonable. As a result, since there was no reasonable expectation of privacy, there was no violation of the right to privacy. The federal courts seem to have taken the same position. Ethical? In Smyth v. Pillsbury Corporation, [914 F. Shyamalan Films? Supp. Vs Legal? 97 (E.D. Pa.

1996).] a federal court in Pennsylvania ruled this year that Pillsbury Corporation was entitled to fire a manager who had sent e-mail critical of a supervisor, even though the sedition act of 1917, company had explicitly promised it would not monitor e-mail messages. The court reasoned that an employer may not be prevented from firing an employee based upon a promise, even when reliance is demonstrated. The court also quickly dismissed plaintiff’s claims of a tortious invasion of ethical, privacy under common and vikras swarup statutory law. On the other hand, cases involving intrusion are found to not be an invasion of ethical vs legal, privacy when a legitimate business reason exists for an intrusion. In Vernars v. Young [539 F.2d 966 (3d Cir.

1976).] an shyamalan films employee’s e-mail was opened and read by a fellow employee. A cause of action for invasion of privacy was found in this case. This was because there was no legitimate business reason for the intrusion. V. Preventive Policy Measures. The ECPA signals that the most favorable method for ethical vs legal employers to protect against liability is to gain prior consent from employees before monitoring or accessing their business e-mail accounts. What this does is provides a reasonable expectation of privacy (or lack thereof) for employees regarding e-mail. Shyamalan Films? The following issues should be considered when creating policies concerning e-mail practices: ? Consult a lawyer or other employment specialist with expertise in employment and vs legal privacy issues in how many killed, your state. ? Prepare a written policy.

? Include a clear description of the permissible uses of e-mail. ? Receive verification that the employees have reviewed and agree to vs legal, the policies. ? Update the policies to change with technology. ? Emphasize and impermissible content for e-mails. ? Clearly state that the e-mail administrators may unintentionally view e-mail during troubleshooting practices. ? Inform employees and independent contractors of any intent to monitor e-mails. ? State the consequences of vikras swarup, misuse of the e-mail system. ? Show flexibility by ethical allowing limited personal use of the e-mail system but clearly define acceptable personal uses. ? Be clear if different standards apply to different classifications of employees/managers.

? Remind employees of any confidential nature of act of, your projects that should not be disclosed in e-mails. ? Clearly describe the times that the monitoring of e-mail will take place. ? Create policies regarding the retention time of e-mails and backups of e-mail systems. ? Do not bury the policy in pages and pages of policies in vs legal, a company handbook. ? Distribute and re-distribute the policy from tiger poem, time-to-time so employees remember it. ? Be consistent and non-discriminatory in your enforcement of the policies. Most companies are flexible and vs legal allow for employee’s limited personal use of the e-mail system. They simply trust their employees to use good judgement and get their jobs done.

Others either have written policies in place or are planning them. Whether or not you decide to have a policy for your company, let the employees and independent contractors know if you do or do not have a policy. 1917? Clear communication is the ethical, best way to vikras swarup, avoid disputes. Ethical? It also provides for a more positive working environment. VI. Future Privacy Legislation. Several attempts have been made to make the current laws regarding privacy in e-mail more clear and more in line with the technological advances of the how many at columbine, late 20th century. Ethical Vs Legal? In 1993, a bill was introduced by Senator Paul Simon (D-Ill.) to Estate In Chapel, restrict employer monitoring of e-mail. The bill never came up for a vote.

The Privacy for Consumers and Workers Act has not been voted on ethical vs legal, either. This legislation was introduced by Representative Pat Williams (D-Mont.). The PCWA addresses from of adolescence, two perspectives the issue of employer monitoring of employees: electronic monitoring and telephone call accounting. In addressing the ethical vs legal, issue of electronic monitoring, PCWA can be analyzed in five parts: permitted monitoring, notice of monitoring, prohibited monitoring, data obtained from vikras swarup, monitoring, and ethical vs legal penalties. Thought has been given to allow technological organizations, such as the Electronic Messaging Association, to In Chapel, govern the use of e-mail and the privacy that users can expect. Vs Legal? The organization has already adopted rules for the use of e-mail as well as assisted in creating the Estate, “ten commandments for e-mail.” Those commandments (there are actually only 7) are: ? Don’t use anonymous remailers. ? Don’t look at other’s messages. ? Don’t misrepresent or lie. ? Follow EMA guidelines.

? Consider presentation of a message. In today’s technologically advanced world, new ideas and inventions are around us on a daily basis. A lot of these advances create opportunities for play or even danger. To prevent this action in the workplace, employers are using technology to monitor and keep track of employees and their actions. The level of surveillance being practiced by employers is unprecedented. On both sides, employer and employee, their must be efforts made to prevent over-abuse by either side. There are both ethical and social responsibilities that need to ethical, be shared to keep the technology from overwhelming us. I hope that I have shown that the current law in this area is inadequate and needs to be reviewed.

The current law in this area, the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986, does not satisfactorily address the many problems in connection with abuse of people were killed, e-mail systems by employees or abuse of privacy issues by ethical employers. The Federal Court of vikras swarup, Appeals for the Fifth Circuit has commented that the ECPA is simply not clear and is too broad to be effective. One of the main reasons for vs legal this is vikras swarup, that the ECPA is simply an amended version of the vs legal, 1968 federal wiretap law which was originally adopted to deal with telephone eavesdropping. Those laws do not significantly address the changes in technology that provide the wonder of e-mail. With the current legislation being ambiguous, and no new legislation yet passed, the next best solution is encouraging employers to implement a clear e-mail policy. The Major Personality Achievement Is Development Of? All employees should receive a copy and be required to sign a form which acknowledges the fact they have read the details of the company’s policy. This should not be considered a permanent solution to the problem of e-mail privacy. It is only a temporary solution that will keep employees and employers on the same page regarding the expectation of corporate behavior as far as e-mail is involved.

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Available: Cavanaugh, M. Ethical Vs Legal? Workplace Privacy in sedition, an Era of New Technologies. [On-Line]. Ethical? Available: Electronic Communications Privacy Act (1986). [On-Line]. Available: Entwisle, S.M. Vikras Swarup? E-mail and Privacy in ethical, the Workplace. [On-Line] Available: Freibrun, E. (1994). E-mail Privacy in the Workplace – To What Extent?. [On-Line].

Available: Gan, M. (1996). Employee Rights #038; Email. [On-Line]. Available: Lee, L. Watch Your E-Mail! Employee E-Mail Monitoring and Privacy Law in the Age of the “Electronic Sweatshop.

Morris, F. E-Mail Communications: The Next Employment Law Nightmare. HR Advisor (July-August 1995). Oppedahl, C. Investing In Chapel Hill And Stockton? (July 3, 1995). Security, Privacy, Discovery Issues Stem From E-Mail Communications. Ethical? [On-Line].